Studies dealing with budgetary, staffing and administrative activities of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1946-1978

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Title:
Studies dealing with budgetary, staffing and administrative activities of the U.S. House of Representatives, 1946-1978
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v, 81 p. : ; 24 cm.
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English
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Library of Congress -- Congressional Research Service
United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on House Administration
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U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
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Washington
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federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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prepared for the Committee on House Administration ; Congressional Research Service.
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Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.
General Note:
Nov. 1978.
General Note:
At head of title: 95th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.
General Note:
CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 78 H422-6

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 024734161
oclc - 05679409
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lcc - KF49
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AA00024795:00001

Full Text


(42

95th Congress COMMITTEE PRINT
2d Session








STUDIES DEALING WITH BUDGETARY,

STAFFING AND ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES

OF THE

U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 1946-1978






PREPARED FOR TIME COMMITTEE ON HOUSE ADMINIST














NOVEMBER 1978








U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
32-983 WASHINGTON: 1978


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402































COMMITTEE ON HOUSE ADMINISTRATION

Ninety-fifth Congress FRANK THOMPSON, JR., New Jersey, Chairman JOHN H. DENT, Pennsylvania WILLIAM L. DICKINSON, Alabama
LUCIEN N. NEDZI, Michigan SAMUEL L. DEVINE, Ohio
JOHN BRADEMAS, Indiana JAMES C. CLEVELAND, New Hampshire
AUGUSTUS F. HAWKINS, California CHARLES E. WIGGINS, California
FRANK ANNUNZIO, Illinois J. HERBERT BURKE, Florida
JOSEPH M. GAYDOS, Pennsylvania BILL FRENZEL, Minnesota
ED JONES, Tennessee DAVE STOCKMAN, Michigan
ROBERT H. MOLLOHAN, West Virginia ROBERT E. BADHAM, California
LIONEL VAN DEERLIN, California JOSEPH G. MINISH, New Jersey MENDEL J. DAVIS, South Carolina CHARLES ROSE, North Carolina JOHN L. BURTON, California EDWARD W. PATTISON, New York LEON E. PANETTA, California JOSEPH S. AMMERMAN, Pennsylvania WILLIAM G. PHILLIPS, Staff Director ROBERT E. Moss, General Counsel MARY MCINNIS, Study Editor (Ill












LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL


CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, HOUSE OF REPREENTATIVES,
Washington, D.C., Aagast 17, 1978.
Hon. FRANK THOMPSON, Jr.,
Chairman, House Administration Committee, H326, The Capitol,
Washington, D.C.
DEAR MR. CHAIRMTAN: The Congressional Research Service, at my request, has prepared several studies dealing with budgetary, staffing, and related administrative aspects of the House of Representatives. The extensive body of data included in these studies has never been assembled in one place before. Because it represents a comprehensive and valuable resource, tracking and documenting the growth of the House chiefly during the post-World War II period, this collection of studies should be made available to a wider audience.
Our colleagues, in particular, will find this information useful, both as a source of greater understanding of recent rates of growth and as a management resource enabling us to exercise needed control and direction over the development of this situation. Many of us have become increasingly concerned at the expansion of Congressionai staffs and facilities, aware that such rapid growth may soon exceed Members' ability to organize, manage and utilize our resources effectively. My experience with the Committee on House Administration and the Select Committee on Congressional Operations has convinced me that effective management requires the kinds of information these studies provide and the will and wisdom to use that information constructively.
Sincerely yours,
JAMES C. CLEVELAND,
Member of Congress.
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES,
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
COMMITTEE ON HOUSE ADMINISTRATION, Washington, D.C., August 21, 1978.
Hon. JAMES C. CLEVELAND,
U.S. House of Representatives,
Washington, D.C.
DEAR Jim: Thank you for bringing to my attention the collection of papers by Paul Dwyer, Paul Rundquist, Bob Keith and Art Stevens on aspects of legislative budgeting and administration of the House of Representatives. I agree that the information contained in these reports should be useful to our colleagues and others interested in the Congressional process and am happy to authorize publication of the material as a special print of the Committee on House Administration.
(1i [)






IV

I would like to take this opportunity to commend Messrs. Dwyer, Rundquist, Keith and Stevens on their indefatigable labor in gathering these statistics and on their scholarly efforts to present with the tables the kind of cogent explanations that enhance the usefulness of the data.
With kind regards,
Cordially,
FRANK THOMPSON, Jr.












CONTEiNTS


1. A Brief Guide to Understanding the Legislative Branch Budget, by page
Robert A. Keith, July 7, 1
2. Legislative Branch Appropriations, Fiscal Year 1946 to Fiscal Year
1978, by Paul E. Dwyer, June 15, 1978 -------------------------- 15
3. Annual Appropriations for Member Clerk Hire, U.S. House of Representatives, Fiscal Years 1947-77, by Paul E. Dwyer, July 26, 1978-- 19
4. House Committee Staffing and Investigations Funding, 1947-77, by
Paul S. Rundquist, June 8, 20
5. Congressional Allowances, U.S. House of Representatives, 1946 to
Present, by Paul E. Dwyer, April, 4 34
6. Indicators of Congressional Workload and Activity, by Arthur G.
Stevens, March 31, 66
7. Disposition of the Unused Portion ofa Member's, Clerk Hire Allowance
and Its Impact on the Federal Budget and Fiscal Policy, by Robert A. Keith, September 20, 78
(V)






















Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013
















http://archive.org/details/studiesdealingwiOOlibr










A BRIEF GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH BUDGET
The purpose of this report is to make the legislative branch budget more comprehensible to the uninitiated, by explaining the budgetmaking processes, pointing out the special significance for the legislative branch of certain budget concepts and mechanisms, and discussing budget format, terminology, and documentation. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive analysis of budgetmaking for the legislative branch; rather, it is merely a guide which sets forth the fundamentals and directs the reader to other sources for more detailed information.'
FUNDING OF THE BUDGET
Funds for the legislative branch budget are provided by Congress in the form of budget authority Budget authority comes from several sources: current appropriations, which are determined on a yearly basis by Congress in regular and supplemental appropriation bills; "backdoor" spending devices which include, among others, permanent appropriations and contract authority ; 3 and nonappropriated funds. More than 99 percent of the present legislative branch budget comes from current appropriations.
"Backdoor" spending efers to budget authority taken out of the Treasury's back door by circumventing the annual appropriations process. Permanent appropriations, for example, become available automatically as a result of previously enacted legislation and require no current action by Congress. There are eight permanent appropriations in the legislative branch budget, accounting f or less than $6 million .4 Six Of the permanent appropriations are administered by the Library of Congress. The other two, recently created, f all under the Architect of the Capitol (for the U.S. Capitol Historical Society) and the Office of Technology Assessment. Although Congress exercises no discretion over the amount of funds permanently appropriated (unless it changes the previous legislation), they are recorded in the annual Legislative Branch Appropriations Act along with the current appropriations.
The other form of "backdoor" spending which applies to. the legislative branch is contract authority. A contract authorization p rmits an agency to enter into a contract bef ore funds are appropriated.
I All of the sources cited in this report are available for the use of congressional offices from the Congressional Research Service. Congressional offices may also obtain most of these sources from the House and Senate libraries and document rooms.
2 Budget authority permits agencies to enter into obligations which require immediate or future payment. This is discussed in more detail in a later section.
3 The two other major types of backdoor spending are borrowing authority and mandatory entitlement authority, neither of which applies to the legislative branch budget. Backdoor spending is discussed in: U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Government Operations. Subcommittee on Budgeting, Management, and Expenditures. Improving congressional control over the budget: a compendium of materials. Committee gointU; Washington US. Government Printing Office, March 27, 1973 (see pp. 293-902); U.S. Congress.
e. Committee on the Budget. Congressional control of expenditures. Committee print. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office., 1977 (see pp. 63-66 and 101-110).
4 Permanent appropriations are identified in: U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Statements: Appropriations budget estimates, etc. Senate document no. 94-281. Washington, V .S. Government Printing Office, 1977 (see Part 11, p. 1521, and Part III, p. 1533). Two of the permanent appropriations were recently established and were not recorded in this volume.





2

Thus, it requires a subsequent appropriation to liquidate the contract authority. Prior to enactment of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-344; 88 Stat. 297), contract authority was provided for in substantive legislation. The Appropriations Committees had no control over the amount they would subsequently have to appropriate to liquidate the authority. With the passage of the Act, however, stringent controls were imposed on new contract authority, making it available only to the extent it is provided for in appropriation acts. The sole existing contract authorization for the legislative branch is $7.4 million to the Architect of the Capitol for the acquisition of property and equipment and construction of the Rayburn House Office Building. This authority was first provided for in the Additional House Office Building Act of 1955 (69 Stat. 41, 42; 40 U.S.C. 175 note) and is not subject to a fiscal year limitation.
There is one nonal))ppropriate(d funds account in the legislative branch budget. In 1912, Gertrude M. Hubbard established a $20,000 trust fund for the purpose of enabling the Library of Congress to purchase engravings and etchings to be added to the "Gardiner Greene Hubbard Collection." The Library is permanently appropriated( from this fund interest at the rate of 4 percent per annum. Thus the income from this account is also recor(led in the regular appropriations act as one of the eight permanent appropriations.6
In summary, all budget authority for the legislative branch budget is provided for in the annual Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, in any supplemental appropriations which become necessary, and in previous substantive legislation providing contract authority.
COMPONENTS OF THE BUDGET
Twelve general headings comprise the legislative branch budget: the House of Representatives, the Senate, the joint activities of the House and Senate, the Architect of the Capitol, the Library of Congress, the General Accounting Office, the Congressional Budget Office, the Office of Technology Assessment, the Government Printing Office, the Botanic Garden, the Copyright Royalty Tribunal, and the Cost Accounting Standards Board.
Three other entities are classified by the Office of Management and Budget, on the basis of their authorizing legislation, as belonging to the legislative branch: the United States Tax Court (26 U.S.C. 7441), the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (22 U.S.C. 3002), and the Temporary Commission on Financial Oversight of the District of Columbia (Public Law 94-399; 90 Stat. 1205). They are included und(ler the legislative branch section of the President's budget, but the House and( Senate Appropriations Conmmittees have chosen to uhind them in other appropriations acts (the Trieasury-Postal Service-General Government, State-Justice-Cormmerce-Judiciary, and District of Columbia Appropriations Acts,
SAccording to a staff assistant in the Office of the Architect of the Capitol, the authorization has carried over for a number of years because of litigation involving the contractor. Contract authority is identified in: U.S. Department of the Treasury. Combined statement of receipts,expenditures, and balances of the United States Government, fiscal year 1977. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977 (see Table 6, p. 553). C The nonappropriated funds account is identified in the "Combined Statement", ibid., Table 5, p. 551 Annual interest income from the fund is recorded in "Appropriations, Budget Estimates, Etc.,"op. cit., under the permanent appropriation, "Payment of Interest on Bequest of Gertrude M. Hubbard" (see Part IIl, p. 1533).






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respectively) Thus, in this report the latter three entities are not considered to be part of the legislative branch budget.

PROCESSES WHICH SHAPE THE BUDGET
Cono-ressional consideration of the lecrislative, branch budget begins each year with the submission of the President's budget on the fifteenth day after Congress convenes, or later if the President so requests. In recent years this has been about the third week in January. Although the President's budget contains his recommendations for the budget of all executive branch departments and agencies, lie is prohibited by law from revising or altering the budget figures for the legislative and judicial branches. The Office of Management and Budg-et merely compiles budget estimates -from the House, Senate and each of the legislative branch agencies and presents them as the legislative branch bud(yet.1 Con(yress is therefore the sole bu(]().etmaker for the legislative branch.
Authorizations process.-The rules of each House stipulate that before funds can be appropriated for a program, an authorization of appropriations must first be enacted (see House Rule XXI, Clause 2, and Senate Rule XVI, Paragraph 2). An authorization bill generally contains the broad policy statements which govern the operations of particular federal agencies and also includes one or more clauses specifically authorizing the enactment of appropriations for those a(rencies. Thus there exists a two-step process, in which authorizations are first reported by the many different legislative committees and then appropriations are reported by the Appropriations Committees. This division of labor, which is further strengthened by rules in each House which prohibit legislation on appropriation bills, ensures that programmatic and policy decisions are made independently of
8
financial decisions. Both Houses have traditionally resorted to certain informal practices which in some cases circumvent the authorization requirement.
Authorizations of appropriations can be characterized by their ,duration and the amounts they authorize. Annual authorizations last for 1 year, multi-year authorizations generally last from 2 to 5 years, but may last longer, and permanent authorizations last indefinitely. When an authorization imposes specific dollar limits,, it is termed a definite authorization; authorizations which do not impose a dollar limit are referred to as indefinite or open-ended authorizations. When a specific dollar amount appears in an authorization ', it serves as a ceiling for that agency or program. The Appropriations Committees use their discretion in determining how much to appropriate, up to the level stated in the authorization. As previously mentioned, funds are sometimes provided for directly in authorizations (in the case of the legislative branch, contract authority of $7.4 million).
7 This budgeting system was set up by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 (Public Law 67-13; 42 Stat. 20). According to the Act, each legislative branch agency, as well as the Clerk of the House and the Secretary of the Senate, must submit budget estimates to the Office of Management and Budget by October 15 for inclusion in the President's January budget.
8 The authorizations process is analyzed in: "Congressiogal Control of Expenditures," op. cit., pp. 19-30. The delineation between authorizations and appropriations is not always as clear as the rules would suggest. Incorporated into the rules are provisions which allow exceptions to this procedure (such as the "Holman Rule" in the House which permits legislation on an appropriation bill if its purpose is to retrench expenditures). Of course, the rules only come into play if a point of order is raised against a violation. Appropriation bills are often debated -under special "rules" from the House Rules Committee which waive certain points of order.
32-983-78-2






4

Programs and agencies of the legislative branch are subject to the jurisdiction of several different legislative committees in each House." For example, funds allocated to the Architect of the Capitol for the Library of Congress' new James Madison Building are authorized by the House Public Works and Transportation Committee and by the Senate Rules and Administration Committee. The House Administration Committee and the Senate Rules and Administration Committee authorize appropriations for the Library's American Folklife Center.
With regard to most legislative branch activities, Congress either takes no current authorization action (and relies instead on multiyear authorizations, such as the fiscal year 1979-1981 authorization for the American Folklife Center, or permanent authorizations) or else circumvents the normal authorizations process altogether. In the latter case, the appropriations language itself serves as the statutory authority. This is especially true for the housekeeping functions of the House and Senate.'0 The effect of these two practices is that the role of the Appropriations Committees, with regard to the legislative branch budget, is significantly enhanced.
Appropriations process.-According to Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution, "No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law." Both Houses of Congress have established Appropriations Committees which annually report a series of appropriation bills to fund the operation of the federal government." Each committee has a Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee which deals exclusively with the legislative branch budget.
Legislative branch appropriations can be provided for in three different types of appropriation acts. The initial series of 13 separate appropriation bills which fund the bulk of federal operations are termed regular appropriations. If a subsequent need for funds develops, and the need is too urgent to be postponed until the next budget, then a supplemental appropriation may be enacted. Finally, if Congress fails to complete action on a regular appropriations bill before the beginning of the new fiscal year, then a continuing appropriation providing stop-gap funding may be enacted.
In recent years, the legislative branch has regularly received supplemental appropriations. Most of this has been necessary to cover the increased salary costs resulting from October cost-of-living increases. For fiscal year 1977, the legislative branch received a supplemental appropriation of nearly $34 million (Public Law 95-26) .12 Of this
amount, all but about $4 million were for increased pay costs. Fiscal year 1977 supplemental appropriations for increased program and pay
A listing of those legislative branch authorizations enacted in 1976 appears in "Appropriations, Budget Estimates, Etc.," op. cit., Part VII, p. 1589. See also: U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations. Table of federal programs. Committee print. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office. 1977. See pp. 85, 114, and 165-67 (note: some of the functional categories listed in this source were revised for the fiscal year 1979 budget). 10 Detailed information ot budgeting in the House and Senate, respectively, is presented in: U.S. Congress. house. Commission on Administrative Review. First report of the Commission on Administrative Review. House document no. 95-272, vol. 1, Washington, U.S. Government Printing Oflice, 1977. See pp. 16-187; U.S. Congress. Senate. Commission on the Operation of 1 he Senate. Budgeting in the United States Senate. Committee print. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977, 99 pp.
1 The appropriations process is extensively discussed in "Congression fal Control of Expenditures," op. cit., pp 31-48.
12 See louse Report 95-8 (1977), Senate Report 95-44 (1977), and the conference report, House Report 95-166 (1977). The "Combined Statement," op. cit., records just over $15 million in supplemental appro priations in Public Law 94-26, (see p. 523). The difference-slightly more than $1.5 million-is due to several factors, including appropriations of $1.5 million to the Temporary Commission on Financial Oversight of the D)istrict of Columbia and $32,00U to the U.S. Tax Court, neither of which are funded in the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act.








costs, amounting to more than $20 million, were also provided for in the regular appropriations bill for fiscal year 1978 (Public Law 95-94).~13 The total amount of supplemental appropriations for fiscal year 1977, more than $54 million, represents about 5 percent of the legislative branch budget for that year.
Appropriated funds generally remain available for obligation for a period of one year. If the funds are not obligated by the end of the fiscal year, and Congress chooses to restore the availability of those funds, it does so by reappropriating them. Generally, reappropriat ions in the legislative branch budget are confined to programs under the Architect of the Capitol. Reappropriated funds in the regular fiscal year 1977 appropriation bill, all of which were for programs of the Architect of the Capitol, amounted to $345,922.1"
Appropriations can remain available for a specific number of years or even indefinitely. In the latter case, the remaining funds lapse when the purpose or object of the program is accomplished. The amount of funds appropriated may be definite (either as an explicitly stated amount or an amount "not to exceed" a certain level) or indefinite (usually stated, "such sums as may be necessary").
Congressional bud get process.-In 1974, Congress enacted the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act. The Act created new Budget Committees in each House, established the Congressional Budget Office, and provided for the formulation of a congressional budget through the passage each year of two or more concurrent resolutions on the budget."
The first concurrent resolution on the budget, which must be reported by the Budget Committees by April 15 and adopted by May 15, forms the framework for Congress' subsequent budgetary decisions during the year. lIt contains figures on the recommended levels of spending, revenues, deficit, and debt. These figures serve only as guidelines for congressional action. A second concurrent resolution on the budget, which must be adopted by September 15, sets a binding floor on revenues and a binding ceiling on spending. Any measure which would violate the levels in the second concurrent resolution would be subject to a point of order. The Act provides for a reconciliation process in the event that adjustments need to be made in spending or revenue legislation. Also; Congress can adopt additional concurrent resolutions on the budget should changing circumstances so require.
In addition to the concurrent resolutions, the Act requires that other congressional actions adhere to a specific timetable. All authorizing measures are to be reported by May 15, but emergency prIocedures are available for the waiver of this deadline. Appropriation measures cannot be considered prior to the adoption of the first concurrent resolution; action on all appropriation measures must be completed by the seventh day after Labor Day.
13 See the conference report, Hlouse Report 95-5C6 (1977), p. 11. The "Combined Statement," op. cit., lists the amount of supplemental appropriations in Public Law 95-94 asS 69.4 million, or $48.9 million more than the congressional figure (see p. 523). This is accounted for by the fact that the Treasury Department decided to count the fiscal year 1978 appropriation of $48.9 million for Official Mail Costs as a supplemental appropriation for fiscal year 1977 because the Act made the funds available upon enactment rather than at te start of fiscal year 1978.
14 "Combined Statement," op. cit., table 1, p. 522.
16 For a legislative history and analysis of the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, see: U.S. Library of Congress. Congrsinal Research Service. Senior Specialists Division. The Congressional Budget and Impoundment (Control) Act (Public Law 93-344): a summary of its provisions (by) Allen Schick. September 24, 1976, 33 p. Multilithed report 75-33 S (revised edition).





6

Documents of the Budget Cycle: Timing, Format, and Terminology 16
The first major document of the budget cycle is the President's budget, entitled the Budget of the United States Government. Several other documents support the Budget, including the Budget in Brief, the Special Analyses, and the Budget Appendix. Pursuant to the Congressional Budget Act, the President's budget has been preceded by a Current Services Budget, submitted on November 10. This document provides estimates of what programs would cost in the upcoming fiscal year when adjustments are made for inflation (but permitting no policy changes). It is intended to form a baseline for subsequent decisions. By informal agreement between the Office of Management and Budget and the Appropriations, Budget, and Joint Economic Committees, however, the Current Services Budget for fiscal year 1979 was submitted on an experimental basis in January along with the President's budget (see Special Analysis A, pp. 7-44, in the Special Analyses for fiscal year 1979).
The President's budget, as well as the other federal budget documents, are prepared on the basis of a yearly accounting period, the fiscal year. Prior to the implementation of the Congressional Budget Act., the federal fiscal year ran from July 1 through June 30. The Act changed the fiscal year to an October 1-September 30 cycle. A fiscal year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends (e.g., fiscal year 1979 ends September 30, 1979).
Budgetary information in the President's budget is presented on an agency-by-agency basis, with all legislative branch agencies and activities grouped together, and further arranged according to functional categories. Each of the 17 functional categories represents a major area or purpose of government activity, such as national defense, energy, agriculture, or health, and is further divided into subfunctional categories. A separate three-digit number is assigned to each functional and subfunctional category. The use of functional categories enables officials and legislators to budget on the basis of broad purposes of government, as well as on the basis of administrative organization.
All legislative branch activities fall under the following three functional categories:'7
Commerce and Housing Credit (functional category 370):
Other advancement and regulation of commerce (subfunctional
category 376)
Education, Training, Employment, and Social Services (functional category 500): Research and general education aids
(subfunctional category 503)
General Government (functional category 800): Legislative
functions (subfunctional category 801); Other general government (subfunctional category 806)
Legislative branch activities in subfunctional category 376 include the Library of Congress' Copyright Office, the National Commission on New technological Usage of Copyrighted Works, and the Copyright Royalty Tribunal. Subfunctional category 503 includes the
6 For more elaborate explanations of the terns referred to in this sect ion, see: U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Government I)ivision. Budget concepts and terminology: the appropratioms phase (by) Louis Fisher. November 21 1974, GO p. (Multilithed report 74-210 G' R); U.S. General Accounting office. Budgetary definitions. November 1975, 24 p. Publication no. OPA-76-8; and, U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Budget of the United States Government, fiscal year 1979. January 20, 1978. See pp. 272-287 on "The Budget System and Concepts." 17 The functional and subfunctional categories were revised for fiscal year 1979. Prior to this time, legislative branch activities in functional category 370 fell under functional category 400.






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remaining activities of the Library of Congress (except tle Congressional Research Service). Certain activities of the Government Printing Office are contained in subfunctional category 806. All other legislative branch activities, which constitute about 80 percent of the legislative branch budget, are concentrated in subfunctional category 801.
The federal budget consists of hundreds of separate accounts. Funds are specifically allocated to individual accounts and can be spent only on the purposes for which the account was established."' The main section of the President's budget, the "Budget Accounts Listing" (see pp. 291-424 of the Budget for fiscal year 1979), breaks the budgeted amounts for each agency down into sel)arate accounts. For example, under the budget of the Architect of the Capitol there are many individual accounts, such as: contingent expenses, Capitol buildings, Capitol grounds, Capitol powerplant, Senate garage, Senate office buildings, and House office buildings.
An account usually comprises several programs and activities which are similar in nature, although an account may identify only a single program. Each account is assigned its own 13-digit number (these are shown in the more detailed Budget Appendix rather than in the Budget itself). As an illustration, the "salaries and expenses" account of the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress is 01-25-0127-0-1-801. The first two digits indicate the agency (in this case, 01 refers to the legislative branch). The next two digits identify the bureau (Congressional Research Service). A four-digit grouping then follows, indicating the account ("salaries and expenses"). The timing of congressional action, such as regular or supplemental appropriation, is shown by the next two digits. Finally, the last three digits are the subfunctional category. When the program(s) in the account fall under more than one subfunctional category, the designation 999 is used.
Two different budget figures are presented for each account in the President's budget: budget authority (BA) and outlays (0). Budget authority permits agencies to incur obligations requiring immediate or future payment. An obligation is any form of commitment by an agency which will require an outlay, such as:
The currently accruing liabilities for salaries and wages, certain contrac tua services, and interest; entering into contracts for the purchase of supplies and equipment, construction, and the acquisition of land; entering into contracts to make loans; and other contractual arrangements requiring the payment of money.19
Outlays occur when the obligation is liquidated or paid off, generally through the disbursement of cash or the issuance of checks.
The amount of budget authority available for an account is determined by congTessional action. It is generally provided for in appropriations, but can also be funded in "backdoor" devices (as noted earlier, more than 99 percent of the budget authority for the legislative branch is provided for in the normal appropriations process).2O Budget authority does not include contingent liabilities, such
18 Reprograming and transfer authority provide a certain amount of flexibility. Reprograming occurs when funds are shifted from one purpose to another within the same account. This action is usually based on informal agreements between congresisonal committees and agencies. Transfers occur when funds are shifted from one account to another. This requires statutory authority. Appropriation acts often provide transfer authority for particular accounts. An analysis of reprograming and transfer authority is presented in : Fisher. Louis. Presidential spending power. Princeton, Princton University Press (1975) see pp. 75-122.
"I U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Budget of the United States Government, fiscal year 1979. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1978, p. 281.
20 Certain budget authority provided prior to or outside the normal appropriations process Is termed "spending authority" and is defined in Section 401(c) (2) of the Congressional Budget Act.






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as guaranteed loans (where an obligation is incurred only if there is a default).
Although the bulk of the budget authority remains available for obligation only for the duration of the fiscal year, a considerable amount remains available for a multi-year or indefinite period. For any given year, therefore, the total amount of budget authority available for obligation equals the funds appropriated for that year plus carryover balances of previously enacted budget authority. These carryover amounts of budget authority are referred to as unobligated balances.21 The Department of the Treasury calculated the unobligated balances of the legislative branch budget at $244.5 million at the end of fiscal year 1975.22 This figure may be misleading, however. Unlike the agencies of the executive branch, legislative branch agencies are not subject to the financial reporting requirements which enable the Department to accurately calculate these balances. The $244.5 million figure is based on incomplete data and therefore is not reliable. Unobligated balances for the legislative branch, according to the Department of the Treasury, are probably much higher than this amount.23
Certain legislative branch agencies generate revenues in the form of collections.24 Budget authority and outlay figures are adjusted to reflect these collections. Whether the adjustments are made to aggregate figures for the legislative branch or to figures for individual accounts depends on the type of collection which is involved. One type of collection, offsetting receipts, is deposited into receipt accounts and can be used only with appropriation action by Congress. Such receipts are subtracted from (or "offset" against) total budget authority and outlay figures for the legislative branch and for each functional and subfunctional category. The two kinds of offsetting receipts are proprietary receipts from the public, which arise from business-type activities, and intragovernmental transactions, in which payments are made from one federal agency to another. In fiscal year 1977, offsetting receipts for the legislative branch amounted to $17.7 million, including $17.3 million in proprietary receipts and $0.4 million in intragovernmental transactions.25
The other type of collection, collections credited to appropriation or fund accounts, are offset against spending to determine the outlays for individual accounts. These collections, which also arise mainly from business-type activities, are available to legislative branch agencies without appropriation action. The President's budget does not identify these collections, but lists instead the netted outlay figures. Such collections can be identified in large part, however, by examining the more detailed Budget Appendix. Although a total figure for collections of this kind has not been determined, the amount is many times larger than offsetting receipts. One of the largest of these collections is the Government Printing Office Revolving .Fund, which earns revenues from the sale of publications to the public and the execution of publishing orders from other federal agencies. The collections of this fund exceeded $500 million in fiscal year 1977.26
21 This concept is illustrated in a chart on p. 241 of the Budget, Fiscal Year 1979, op. cit. 22 Combined Statement, op. cit., Table 1, p. 482.
23 This assessment was made by a staff assistant in the office of the Department of the Treasury which prepares the Combined Stat ement.
2' A discussion of the concept of collections is presented in: Budget, Fiscal Year 1979, op. cit., pp. 282-284.
2 budget, Fiscal Year 1979, ibid., p. 298.
2G U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Budget appendix, fiscal year 1979. January 20, 1978, p. 39.





9

Budget authority and outlay figures are given for three fiscal years, the past fiscal year, the current fiscal year, and the upcoming fiscal year. Figures for the past fiscal year are actual, whereas figures for the other two years are estimates. Thus, figures for fiscal year 1979 are estimates in the fiscal year 1979 budget, will be revised estimates in the fiscal year 1980 budget, and will be actual figures in the fiscal year 1981 budget.
The President's budget categorizes budget amounts according to two major types of funds: federal funds and trust funds. There are four kinds of federal funds, including (1) general funds, in which receipts are not earmarked by law for a specific purpose, (2) special funds, in which receipts are earmarked for a specific purpose, (;3) public enterprise (revolving) funds, which finance a cycle of businesstype operations in which outlays generate collections, and (4) intragovernmental revolving and management funds, which facilitate operations within and between government agencies.27
Trust funds are established to collect funds for carrying out specific purposes and programs according to the terms of a trust agreement or statute. They are not available for the general purposes of the government. Surplus trust fund receipts are generally invested in government securities and earn interest for the fund.
There are seven legislative branch trust funds, accounting for less than $6 million. All of them are )ermanent appropriations (see footnote four). The remainder of the legislative branch budget-more than 99 percent-is composed of federal funds.
The Budget Appendix is a rich source of detailed budget information. In addition to special and summary tables, it provides information on each agency in the Program and Financing ("P and F") schedule, the Object Classification table, and the Personnel Summary. The Object Classification table is a hold-over from the time when budgets were prepared on a line-item basis. Budget amounts are broken down in the table by such entries as travel, communications, printing, supplies, and personnel compensation. Such figures as the total number of permanent positions and the average grade and salary for an agency are presented in the Personnel Summary.
Once the President's budget has been submitted, the authorizing committees commence hearings on any items which will require authorization for the upcoming fiscal year. If the hearings are extensive, they may be published by the committee. In most instances, however, the report which accompanies the authorizing legislation is the only account of committee action which is published.28 The Congressional Budget Act requires that all authorizing legislation be reported from committees by May 15, although a waiver of this deadline is possible in emergency situations. The current status of particular authorization bills (as well as appropriations bills later in the session) can be ascertained by checking the legislative calendars published by the House, the Senate, and most individual committees.
Authorizing committees, as well as the Appropriations Committees, are required to submit a report to the Budget Committees by March 15, stating their views on the budgetary requirements of the programs
27 Budget, Fiscal Year 1979, op. cit., p. 279.
2 For examples of two recent autho ization reports, see the reports of the House Public Works and Transportation Committee (H. Rept. 95-1168) and the Senate Rules and Administration Comiittee (S. Rept. 95-906) on the authorization of additional appropriations for the Library of Congress' James Madison Building.






10

within their jurisdiction. These reports are meant to assist the Budget Committees in developing the First Concurrent Resolution on the Budget. For fiscal years 1978 and 1979, the House Budget Committee published a compendium of these reports.29 The March 15 reports of the Senate committees are published as separate committee prints.
Although the March 15 reports contain only recommended figures, they form the first important benchmark of congressional action. Also, they often explain the factors behind certain budgetary decisions. For example, in its report for fiscal year 1979, the House Appropriations Committee identified a contingency of $553,000 for a special study on economic change by the Joint Economic Committee and recommended that the Budget Committee examine it carefully while drafting the First Concurrent Resolution.3
In addition to these reports, the Budget Committees also receive expert testimony during hearings. The Budget Committee hearings on the First Concurrent Resolution generally have been extensive and have been published as multi-volume sets. When the hearings and markup sessions are completed, the Budget Committees report the budget resolution. The accompanying reports set down tentative congressional budget figures according to functional and subfunctional categories, but the Committees generally refrain from discussing programmatic detail.3 During floor debate on the budget resolution (which is summarized in the Journal of the House and Senate and recorded verbatim in the Congressional Record), however, Members often refer to budget details. During House floor debate on the First Concurrent Resolution for fiscal year 1978, for example, Representative Otis Pike submitted an amendment reducing the budget authority and outlay figures for functional category 800 (General
Government) by $7 million. Although the figures in the budget resolution are aggregate amounts for a functional area which cover numerous programs, and thus do not apply to specific programs, Representative Pike stated that his intention was to remove the $7 million from the budget needed to finance the recently approved 29 percent pay raise for Members of Congress. The ensuing debate runs for more than six pages in the Congressional Record.32
Upon adoption of the conference report on the budget resolution, bu(lget authority is allocated to the authorizing and Appropriations Committee as indicated in the managers' joint explanatory statement.3 Each committee then determines how it is going to subdivide its allocation among its subcommittees and programs and reports its decision.34
Due to the time constraints imposed by the Congressional Budget Act (which requires action on all appropriations bills to be completed seven (lays after Labor Day), the Appropriations Committees begin hearings as early in the session as possible. Both committees publish
25 For example, see: U.S. Congress, house. Committee on the Budget. Views and estimates of the committees of the House and the Joint Economic Committee on the congressional budget for fiscal year 1979. Committee print. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, March 15, 1978, 910 p. "Views and Estimates," ibid., p. 46.
3 See the report of the louse Budget Committee (RI. Rept. 95-1055), the Senate Budget Committee (S. Rept. 95 739), and the conference committee (S. Rept. 95866) on the First Concurrent Resolution for fiscal year 1979.
12: Congressional Record (daily edit ion) April 26, 1977, pp. 113576-113583.
lSenale Report 95 866i (1978), pp. 10-13.
The I louse Appropriation Committee reported its allocation to the Legislative Ilianch Suicovnlittee for fiscal year 1979 oil page 1 of blouse Re port 95- 1224 (1978). 'lhe Senate Rules and Administration Cornmitlee reported its allocations, including several for the legislative branch programs, in Senate Report 95 929 (1978).






11

a volume of hearings on the annual Legislative Branch Appropriations Act. The House volume incorporates the justification books (the reports submitted by each legislative branch agency in support of its budget requests), but the Senate publishes them as a separate volume.
Since the Appropriations Committees consider budget requests wh ich were initially submitted in October of the previous year, some revisions are naturally expected. These are transmitted to the Office of Management and Budget by the requesting agency (or, in the case of Congress, by the Clerk of the House or the secretary of the Senate) and then sent to Congress as a p residential communication. All presidential communications proposing budget amendments are referred to the Appropriations Committees and published as House and Senate documents.','
The Congressional Budget Act requires the House Appropriations Committee to complete subcommittee markup and full committee action on all regular appropriation bills for the upcoming fiscal year, to the extent practicable, before the first bill is reported (generally the first or second week in June). Furthermore, the Committee must submit at this time a report to the House comparing committee recommendations with the levels set in the First Concurrent Resolution on the'Budget. The report for fiscal year 1979 shows that the Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee recommended $922.5 million in budg et authority or $239.3 million less than the amount allocated to the Subcommittee pursuant to the First Con36
current Resolution.
Each of the appropriations bills reported. by the House and Senate Appropriations Committees is accompanied by a written report summarizing the 'actions taken by the Committee. At the end of each report is a summary table, the "Comparative Statement of New Budge Obligational) Authority," which compares for each account the oricrinal estimates of budget authority for the upcoming fiscal year with the recommendations of the committee, as well as with the budget authority figures for the current fiscal year.
Several other items of information are mandated by House rules and statute for inclusion in committee reports. These include an inflationary impact statement, comparisons of committee recommendations with levels established in the budget resolution, a 5year projection of outlays associated with budget authority provided in the bill, a description of'transfers of funds recommended in the bill, and a listing of proposed changes in the application of existing law."
In fiscal year 1978, the House and Senate Appropriations Committees changed the format of the Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill.18 All activities which directly support the operations of Congress were grouped together under Title I. This encompassed 'House, Senate, and joint items, the Office of Technology Assessment, the Congressional Budget Office, the Architect of the Capitol, the Congressional Research Service, and the congressional printing and
35 Budget amendments to the legislative branch budget for fiscal year 1979, totalling more than $8 million, are presented in Senate document 95-106 (1978) and House document 95-331 (1978). The presidential communication proposing these amendments also proposed supplemental funds for the prior fiscal year. 36 See House Report 95-1239 (197 p. 2. Much of this difference is accounted for by the fact that the House oes -not include in its recomme 8)i
nda ion funds for the Senate.
37 See the report of the House Appropriations Committee on legislative branch appropriations for fiscal year 1979 (House Report 95-1254, pp. 30-39).
38 See House Report 95-450 (1977), p. 10 and Senate Report 95-338 (1977), pp. 5 and 6.
32-983-78-3






12

binding items of the Government Printing Office. All remaining legislative branch activities were grouped under Title II. Accordmg to the report of the House Appropriations Committee, the purpose of the change was to restructure the bill "to more adequately reflect actual costs of operating the U.S. Congress than has been true in past years." The Committee report noted that of the total legislative branch budget for that fiscal year, only about 60 percent was actually for congressional operations. The remaining amount covered such activities as the sale of govermnent documents to the public by the Government Printing Office and the development of materials for the blind and handicapped by the Library of Congress. The fiscal year 1979 Legislative Branch Appropriations Bill adheres to this revised structure.
Once an appropriations bill has been reported, it is placed on the calendars of the House and Senate (the Union Calendar in the House and the Calendar of General Orders in the Senate) and called up for consideration at the discretion of the leadership. Under recent practice, the House has deliberated most appropriations bills pursuant to the terms of a resolution reported by the House Rules Committee. This resolution, or "rule" as it is more commonly called, may restrict debate, determine whether amendments will be in order, or waive certain points of order. Generally, the resolution is debated and adopted (or sometimes defeated) just prior to consideration of the appropriations bill."
In the Senate, most appropriations bills in recent years have been debated according to the terms of unanimous consent agreements. These are informal arrangements worked out between the leadership and interested Senators which restrict debate, determine who will control the debate, and require germaneness of amendments.40
Floor debate on an appropriations bill is summarized in the Journal of the House and Senate and recorded verbatim in the Congressional Record.
During the period of congressional action on spending and revenue measures, the Congressional Budget Office issues periodic Scorekeeping Reports. These reports provide current estimates of how the cumulative spending and revenue decisions compare to the levels set in the most recent budget resolution.
After Congress has passed an appropriations measure, it is sent to the President for his signature. Whether the President chooses to sign the measure, thus enacting it into law, or to veto it, he will often issue a statement explaining his action. Such statements can be found in the Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents published by the General Services Administration's Office of the Federal Register.4 Once enacted the law is recorded in the order of its enactment in the Statutes at Large, which is published annually. The United States
3 The Lvgislative Branch Appropriations Bill for fiscal year 1979 was not debated pursuant to a rule. See 124 Congressional Recozd (daily edition) June 14, 1978, p. 11)07 for a dircu.sion on this point. 40 Prior to consideration of the Legisiali'e BIanch AjIqropiiations I;ill for fiscal year I978,Majority Leader Byrd and Nm inoi Iy Leader Baker lotli ariioumd i hi it iniention to sek a unannious cornsnt agreement on the bill (ee 12: ( oIigresioil IIecoid (daily tdiiion) July 14, 1977, p. S11H!2). '1 he leadership as unable to nego Iiate lhe ('o ) c ] IIl(h sive Ion i of agrvI c Ient which usually governs debate on appropriations bills; however, a partil agreement was concluded (see 123 ( jngicsional hi coid (daily edition) July IS, 1977, pp. Sl20(. and S12012.)
4 lPvsidezit Ford, for example, made a statement M hen he signed the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act for fiscal yeva 1977 (Se Weekly Coiniilation, iol. 12, no. 40, 1976, p. 1428).






13

Code contains only the legislative provisions of appropriations acts, and splits them among many different titles. T1he Coe is not published annually, but annual supplements are issued.
At the end of each session of Congrress, the House and Senate Appropriations Committees jointly publish a compendium of regular and supplemental appropriations acts, major authorizingr acts, and summary budget tables. This annual volume, entitled Statemnents: Appropriations, Budget Estimates, Etc., is issued as a Senate (locihment4 Also, the Senate Majority Leader releases at the end of ec session the Summary of Legislative Achievements, which p~rovidIes detailed information on the President's budget requests and subsequent appropriation actions .43 Congressional budgeting actions are also summarized and highlighted in such private publications as Congressional Quarterly Weekcly Reports and the National Jourval.
The last comprehensive and detailed assessment of federal budget figures is provided by the Department of the Treasury's Combined Statement of Receipts, Expenditures, and Balances of the Un ited States Government. The Combined Statement is published on a yearly basis as required by Article 1, Section 9 of the Constitution, which states that "ia regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time."
Although the Combined Statement is the final source for complete federal budget figures, it is not the last document of the budget cycle. Pursuant to various statutory authorities, the General Accounting Office is required to conduct audits of -different legislative 'branch activities. These audits, which regularly focus on such activities as revolving funds for barber and beauty shops and restaurants in the House and Senate, are identified in the Mopthly Listing of GA-1 Re ports. The listing is regularly reprinted in the Gon gressio-nal Re.,cord.
Audits and financial reports are published by other legislative branch entities as well. The Clerk of the House and the Secretary of the Senate issue detailed reports on expenditures, on a quarterly and semi-annual basis, respectively.44 A semi-annual -report on financing is published by the Architect of the Capitol.4 Most of the legislative branch agencies issue some form of annual report which includes summary budget data.
Problems in the Analysis of Budgetary Data
Initial perusal of budget figures in the various documents listed in this report may sometimes lead to the conclusion that different sources present differing figures and that one or more of them must therefore be in error. While the possibility of error is always present in any human endeavor, the apparent contradictions of budget sources are often explained by several simple facts. z
1. The various participants in the budgetary process often use different definitions. For example, the Office of Management and Budget and the Department of the Treasury define the legislative
42 The most recent volume for the Second Session of the 94th Congress (1976)., is Senate document 94-281. 43 In the report for the First Session of the 95th Congress. Senate document number 95-92, appropriations actions for fiscal years 1977 and 1978 w~e sunixnarizd on pp. XXVII-xxX. 44The current Report of the Clerk of the House (House document number 95-344) covers the period from January 1, 1978 to March 31, 1978. The current Report of the Secretary of the Senate document number 95-102) applies t o the period from October 1, 1977 through March 31, 1978. 15 See Senate document number 95-98 for the Report oi the Architect of the Capitol covering the period October 1, 1977 through March 31, 1978.






14

branch as including the U.S. Tax Court, the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and the Temporary Commission on Financial Oversighit of the District of Columbia. The House and Senate Appropriations Committees, on the other hand, exclude these three entities from the legislative branch appropriation bill. Thus, 0M.\B and Treasury figures for the legislative branch budget must always be adjusted before comparing them to Appropriations Committee figures.
2. The various participants use different methods of calculating and
accounting for budgeted amounts. Whereas Congress appropriated j ust. over $20 million in supplemental appropriations for fiscal year 1977 in the regular appropriations bill for fiscal year 1978, the Department of the Treasury calculated the amount to be nearly $70 million. This is because thle Department chose to account for about $50 million in official mail costs for fiscal year 1978 as a supplemental for fiscal yea r 1977 (since it became available several months prior to the start of fiscal year 1978). Although the total amount of funds available to the legislative branch is not changed by variances in calculating and accounting techniques, these variances can occasionally result in significant changes among accounts or between fiscal years.
3. Budget documents are published at different points in the cycle. The budget cycle formally begins with the submission of the President 's budget in the January preceding the fiscal year. This cycle is not completed until nearly 2 years later when the Treastry's Cornbined Statement is released. Congrress, in the interim, acts on a series of budget-related matters, from first and second concurrent resolutions on the budget to regular and supplemental appropriations bills. Thus, at every stage in the budget process, data are constantly being revised to reflect changing decisions and to provide more accurate estimates.
(ROBERT A. KEITH, CRS, July 7, 1978)















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19


ANNUAL APPROPRIATIONS FOR MEMBER CLERK ITRE,
U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

FISCAL YEARS 1947-77

TotTl approTotal appro- puiations ini
Fiscal Year Regular annual appropriations t Supplemental appropriations I priations 1977 dollars

1947 --------$4,161,000 (Public Law 79-479)-. $52,720 (Public Law 79-521) ...... $4, 213, 720 $11,979, 004
1948--- .----- $5,915,000 (Public Law 80-197) ----------------------------- 5, 91, 000 15, 729, 914
1949 ---------$5,915,000 (Public Law 80-641) ---------------------------------- 5, 915,000 15, 891, 439
1950 ---------$6,401,000 (Public Law 81-118).. $2,022,000 (Public Law 81-343)--- 8,423, 00 22, 185, 533
1951 ---------$8,844,150 (Public Law 81-759) ------------------------------- 8, 844, 150 21, 219, 276
1952 ---------- $8,844,150 (Public Law 82-168) ---------------------------------- 8, 844, 150 21, 541, 654
1953 ---------$9,678,565 (Public Law 82-471) ---------------------------------- 9, 678, 565 23, 224, 939
1954 ---------$9,653,565 (Public Law 82-178) ---------------------------------- 9, 653, 55 2;, 850, 598
1955 ---------$11,500,000 (Public Law 83-470) --------------------------------- 11, 500, 000 26, 645, 375
1956 --------$11,500,000 (Public Law 84-242) ---------------------------11,500, 000 25, 832, 034
1957 --------$14,600,000 (Public Law 84-624) ---------------------------14, 600, 000 31,726, 145
1958 --------$14,600,000 (Public Law 85-75) ----------------------------14, 600, 000 31,226, 672
1959 --------- $15,000,000 (Public Law 85-570) ---------------------------15, 000, 000 31,388,477
1960 --------- $16,300,000 (Pub c Law 86-176) ---------------------------16, 300, 000 33, 537,600
1961 --------$16,300,000 (Public Law 86-628) ---------------------------IG, 300, 000 33,242,306
1962 --------$20,400,000 (Public Law 87-130) ---------------------------20, 400, 000 40, 854, 939
1963 --------$20,400,000 (Public Law 87-730) --------------------------------- 20, 400, 000 40, 261,433
1964 --------- $21,300,000 (Public Law 88-248)-21, 300, 000 41, 390, 138
1965-$21,500,000 (Public Law 88-454) ---------------------------21,500, 000 40, 873, 721
1966 --------$28,500,000 (Public Law 89-90) ----------------------------28, 500, 000 52, 459, 158
1967 --------$35,000,000 (Public Law 89-545)- 35, 000, 000 62, 580, 992
1968-----_ $35,500,000 (Public Law 90-57)-35, 500, 000 60, 745, 973
1969 --------$38,142,500 (Public Law 90-417)--38, 142,500 62, 144, 301
1970 --------$47,000,000 (Public Law 91-145 ----------------------------47, 000, 000 72, 686, 405
1971 --------$48,200,000 (Public Law 91-382)---------------------------48, 200, 000 70, 924, 578
1972 --------$55,320,000 (Public Law 92-51) --- $1,000,000 (Public Law 92-184)..- 56, 320, 000 79 574, 528
1973-------- $61,000,000 (Public Law 92-342)--61, 000, 000 81 462, 098
1974 --------$63,262,000 (Public Law 93-145)-_ $6, 800,000 (Public Law 93-245)-__ 70, 062,000 85, 322, 013
1975 --------- $80,000,000 (Public Law 93-371) --------------------------- 80,000,000 88,875,609
1976 --------- $85,000,000 (Public Law 94-59). __ $5,621,000 (Public Law 94-157) -_ 90, 621,000 95, 636, 697
Transition $21,250,000 (Public Law 94-59) --- $1,405,250 (Public Law 94-157)-..- 22,655, 250 23,909, 174
period.8
1977 --------$96,566,000 (Public Law 94-440) ---------------------------96, 566, 000 96, 566, 000

1 Source was annual Senate document titled "Appropriations, Budget Estimates, Etc.," section titled "Comparison of Budget Estimates and Appropriations," providing funds appropriated in regular annual appropriations acts and supplementals. Statistics were compiled by Mary Mclnnis of the Committee on House Administration.
2 The constant dollar concept provides a more accurate picture of real budget growth. It adjusts for inflation by calculating all budget figures on the basis of 1977 dollars. The calculations used in the table are based on the 1977 gross national product implicit price deflator. See the 1978 Economic Report of the President, table B-4, p. 262 (as revised), based upon information provided by the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.
3 From fiscal year 1947 through fiscal year 197f, the fiscal year began on July 1 and terminated on June 30. Effective fiscal year 1977, the fiscal year begins on Oct. 1 and ends on Sept. 31. During the transition period from the old fiscal year cycle to the new one (July, August, and September of 1976), the amount appropriated for Member clerk hire was $22,655,250.

(Paul E. Dwyer, CRS, July 26, 1978)
























32-983-78-4











HOUSE COMMITTEE STAFFING AND INVESTIGATIONS FUNDING, 1947-77
This report, with enclosed tables, portrays the growth in numbers of House committee staff employees and the concurrent increase in funds authorized for House committees to conduct inquiries and investigations.
A variety of factors has contributed to increasing the size of committee staffs and the associated costs of committee operations. The responsibilities of Congress and its committees have expanded as the magnitude of federal government programs and expenditures has grown. Federal expenditures have increased from $36.9 billion for fiscal year 1947 to an anticipated level of more than $500 billion for fiscal year 1979, a fifteenfold increase. During the same period, the staffs of House committees which, among other duties, are charged with overseeing the administration of the laws and with approving federal expenditures, have grown from 181 in 1947 to 2014 in 1977. House committee work has become increasingly complex. Congressional committees have been directed to expand their activities in the field of legislative oversight-investigations into the administration and effectiveness of existing laws. As a means of limiting executive discretion, the Congress has enacted more than 200 laws since World War II, requiring congressional approval over a wide variety of presidential and federal agency proposals.
The House has also moved to enhance the subject specialization of its committees. House standing committees of more than 20 members are now required to establish a minimum of four subcommittees so that these smaller units can assist the full committee in processing legislation, conducting oversight hearings, and examining the qualifications of federal appointees, among other activities. As the complexity of federal programs, as well as the required congressional scrutiny over these programs, has grown, the need for more staff assistance generally, and for more highly qualified congressional staff in particular, has grown accordingly.
The costs of House committee operations have also been affected by inflation, of course. During the three decades covered by tables in this report, the Consumer Price Index for all goods and services has more than tripled. Since 1967, the costs of goods and services have increased, on average, more than 80 percent. Thus, this impact of inflation on congressional committee operations must also be taken into consideration.
The tables which follow document the House standing committee employment levels and investIgations funding authorizations from 1947-77. The tables are preceded by methodological notes detailing the research proce(Iures uised to obtain the figures; the notes also contain caveats as to the interpretation of the data where some questions exist. Footnotes contain additional data, as well as descriptions of symabols used in the tables.
(20)






-21

COMMITTEE STAFF EMPLOYMENT LEVELS, 1947-77
The following tables (tables 1-3) show committee staff levels at annual intervals from 1947-77.
Congressional committee staffs are divided into two categories: statutory and investigative. All but two House standing committees are authorized to employ up to 30 permanent statutory staff (18~ professional and 12 clerical staff members). Statutory employees are to be hired without regard to political affiliation, solely on the basis of their fitness to perform required duties, and are prohibited from performing work other than committee business during their hours of congressional employment. Committee staffs are augmented via personnel hired, pursuant to annual studies and investigations resolutions-hence the' generic title "investigative staff." Investigative staff are not covered by the protections and prohibitions directed toward statutory staff.
The House Appropriations and Budget Commiittees are permitted by the Rudes of the House to determine for themselves the appropriate level of staff support they require. Both committees employ statutory staff in excess of the 30 positions currently authorized for other standing committees; and neither committee is required to submit a funding resolution fo r employment of investigative staff .
The 1946 Legislative Reorganization Act which, established the statutory committee staff positions also required se miannual reports from House committees showing the number of employees of each committee, the (lates of their employment, their titles and salaries. Beginning in 1971, the semiannual Report of the Clerk of the House published in- one source data on names, titles, dates, of employment, and salaries of House committee staff.
The co mmitte staff employee report formats have-not always been uniform. Thfesel variances occasionally make it difficult to determine the status of a committee's employees. For example', until 1957, the semiannual committee employee reports did not consistently distinguish between. statutory and investigative staff. Thus, Tables 1 and 2 showing the number of committee statutory and investigative staff annually do. not begin until 1957, the first year for which one can be relatively 'confident in- dividing staff into either category. Occasional irregularity and uncertainty in categorizing staff for subsequent years is noted in both tables.
In table 3 are combined totals for statutory and investigative staffs for all years from 1947 to 1977.
The staff levels in all tables are those as of June 30 of each year, except for 1977. In that year, the publication date of the Report of the Clerk of the Ho-use was changed to conform to the new fiscal year. The staff levels shown for 1977 are those as of September 30, 1977.











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26,

COMMITTEE INQUIRES AND INVESTIGATIONS FUNDS SINCE 1947
Tables 4 and 5 show, by Congress and by session, the amounts of funds authorized by the House for each standing committee for inquiries and investigations. Each standing committee by law is entitled to a certain number of permanent professional and clerical employees. If the committees anticipate a need for additional staff or support facilities and equipment to conduct their activities, appropriate funds must be sought. These moneys, commonly referred to as "inquiries and investigations funds," or "studies and investigations funds," are granted pursuant to resolutions approved by the House.
During the 30 years covered by the tables, House procedures regulating the use of investigations funds have varied. For most of the period, funds were authorized to the requesting committees for the duration of the Congress in which the funding resolutions were adopted. Thus, a committee could request and receive inquiries and investigations funds in the first session of a Congress and, if a sufficient balance remained at the end of the first session, it would not be necessary for the committee to request additional funds for the second session. The table showing by year each standing committee's funding resolution amounts frequently will shl:ow either no funds authorized during the second session, or an amount significantly smaller than that authorized during the first session. In such instances, the committees generally used the unexpended balance of funds authorized during the first session.
For the 85th-88th Congresses (1957-1964), the House included in its funding resolutions language authorizing committee funds either for a 1-year or 2-year period. The chart notes whether the funds (or a part of the committee's total funds) were authorized for a 1or 2-year period.
In the 94th and 95th Congresses, the House Administration Commit tee has acted to limit inquiries and investigations authorizations to 1 year of a Congress if a committee anticipated the need of inquiries funds.
The different forms that authorizations for committee inquiries and investigations have taken make comparisons of committee funding over a 30-year period extremely difficult. To account for the different authorization procedures, two tablcs have been prepared showing inquiries and investigations authorizations. The first table (table 4) shows by year the funds authorized for House standing commit tees, although for most of the period committees could utilize fun(s aithorizcd in the first session during the second session as well. The second table (table 5) shows the total funds authorized for each I ouse staniling committee for every Congress from the 8oth through the 95th congresss Again, it must be noted that, at least in the two Iost recent 11Congresses, committees were not permitted to carry over ulIexpelld e(d first session au thoriza tionlls to the second ses1011sion.
The tables are organized alphabetically according to each committee's current, or most recent name. Ihus, authorizations for the Foreign Affairs (ommittee appear under the Committee on International Relaions. Similarly,H funds for the Iouse Collllmmittee on U11nAmeiican Activities are shown under thle (CommIlittee on Internall Security, the nam 11 e by which it was known from 1971 until 1975.





27

Two House standing committees are exempt from the needI to obtain inquiries and investigat* 'ons funds. The House Appropriations Comnmittee and the House Budget Committee are permitted to deteiimine for themselves the amount of funds and the number of staff they require in discharging their responsibilities. Tihus, the House Administration Committee and the House of Representatives (10 not consider funding resolutions for these committees. Staff funds for the Appropriations and Budget Committees .appear as separate line items in annual Legislative Branch Appropriations Acts.









































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This report and the accompanying tables present (lata on the number and growth of House committee staffs over the past 30 years, and the concurrent increase in committee investigations funding. Some factors are suggested which have contributed to the expanded size and costs of committee staffs, and some potential problems in the use of the data are noted. The report carries no further implications.
(Paul S. Rundquist, CRS, June 8, 1978)














CONGRESSIONAL ALLOWANCES, U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 1946 TO PRESENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Member compensation and related benefits: Page
A. Compensation ------------------------------------------35
B. Retirement---35 C. Health insurance--36 D. Life insurance ------------------------------------------ 36
E. Illness or injury compensation--------------------------- 36
F. Living expense deduction---36 II. Official allowances:
A. New allowance provisions-95th Cong., 2d sess 36
B. House allowance system prior to 95th Cong., 2d sess-........-39
C. Allowances prior to the 95th Cong., 2d sess- 40
1. Clerk hire--40 2. Computer -------------------------------------- 43
3. Office equipment-lease------------------------- 43
4. District office space ------------------------------44
5. District office furnishings and equipment- 45
6. Office equipment-purchase---------------------- 46
7. Stationery --------------------------------------47
8. Postage----------- ---48
9. Newsletter (constituent communication) ------------ 49
10. Telephone and telegraph---- 49
11. Travel to and from District-......-51 12. Travel-organizational meetings -------------------52
13. Official expenses allowance-53 III. Franking privilege-- -54
IV. Foreign travel--54 V. Other -------------------------------------------------------- 55
A. Chargeable services:
1. Barber shop services-- --55
2. Beauty shop services ------------------------------56
3. Flags ------------------------------------------- 56
4. Photographers (Democratic and Republican) --------- 56 5. Plant service (Botanic Garden) ------------------ 56
6. Recording studio----------------------------- 56
B. Miscellaneous:
1. Credit Union, congressional employees------------ 56
2. Document Room (House)--56 3. File storage (National Records Center)------------ 56
4. Filing system assistance (General Services Administration) -------------------------------------56
5. Filing system assistance (Library of Congress)------ 57 6. Gymnasium facilities-.- ------ 57
7. 1\onuments to deceased Members of Congress ------- 57 8. Office furnishings, Washington, D.C__-57 9. Office of Attending Physician-....- 57
10. Painting reproductions (National Gallery of Art)___ 57 11. Parking spaces ----------------------------------57
12. Picture framing --------------------------------- 58
13. Publications Distribution Service (Folding Room)--- 58 14. Funeral expenses-58 15. Gratuity payment upon death- 58
VI. Publications -------------------------------------------------- 58
Appendix--59
(34)

















I. Member Compensation and Rela ted Benefits

A. COMPENSATION


Amount (per annum) Effective date Authority

$10,000 -------------------------------- Apr. 4, 1935 49 Stat. 24 (February 13, 1935).
$12,500 --------------------------------------------- Jan. 3, 1947 60 Stat. 850 (August 2, 1946).
$22,500 ------------------------------------- Mar. 1,1955 69 Stat. 11 (March 2, 1955).
$30,000 ---------------------------------- Jan. 3, 1965 78 Stat. 415 (Augtist 14, 1964).
$42,500 ------------------------------------- Mar. 1,1969 81 Stat. 642 (December 16, 1967).'
$44,600 --------------------------------------------- Oct. 1,1975 89 Stat. 421 (August9, 1975).2
$46,800 --- ----------------------------------- Oct. 1, 1975 89 Stat. 421 (August 9, 1975).
$57,500 ----------------------------------- Mar. 1,1977 81 Stat. 642 (December 16, 1967).1

NOTE-From 1/3/45 (59 Stat. 318) to 3/1/55 (69 Stat. 11), Members of Congress were authorized an expense allowance of $2,500 per annum which was considered as compensation for retirement purposes. I The Commission on Executive, Legislative and Judicial Salaries, established by Public Law 90-206 (81 Stat. 642) recommended a salary to the President who under authority of the Act, recommended in his Budget Message this amount which became effective March 1.
2 Public Law 94-82 (89 Stat. 419) provided for annual comparability adjustments in the salaries of Members of Congress as provided for Federal employees in the General Schedule under 5 U.S.C. 5305. in the President's Message to Congress of Sept. 3, 1975, an increase of 5.0 pct was recommended. Under provisions of Public Law 91-656 (84 Stat. 1946), as amended by Public Law 94-82, Congress has thirty days in which to disapprove the President's recommendations before such recommendations become effective.
3 Under the provisions of Public Law 94-82 (see footnote two) Members of Congress would have been granted a 4.83 pct pay adjustment, effective Oct. 1, 1976, as directed by Executive Order 11941 of Oct. 1, 1976. However, pursuant to Public Law 94-440 (Legislative Branch Appropriations Act ,fiscal year 1977), approved Oct. 1, 1976, funds were not made available to pay a salary at a rate which exceeded the rate in effect on Sept. 30, 1976 ($44,600 per annum).

B. RETIREMENT

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided retirement benefits to Members of Congress upon application Jan. 3, 1947 60 Stat. 812 (Aug. 2, 1946).
under the Civil Service Retirement Act.
Participation is voluntary with Members making payments of 8 pct As amended most recently by 83
of their salaries into the system. To draw benefits, a Member must Stat. 136 (Oct. 20, 1969).
have been in Congress a minimum of 5 years and have paid into the
retirement fund for at least the last 5 years.
Annuities are computed under a special modification of the standard
annuity formula as follows:
A Member retiring with at least 5 years of service as Member, congressional employee or both, and with his or her last 5 years' civilian service covered by deductions or deposit, is afforded basic annuity
computed as follows:
A. Take: 2Y pct of "high-3" average salary and multiply by years
of
a. Memberservice;
b. Military service (for which not receiving retired pay) performed
while on leave of absence as Member during war or national
emergency;
c. Other military service (for which not receiving retired pay) up to
5 years; and
d. Congressional employee service.
B. Add: 134 pct (1Y pct does not operate) of "high-3" average salary
multiplied by years of other service which, when added to years of 2Y2 pct service, do not exceed a total of 10 years (if 2Y2 pct service
totals 10 years or more, 1% pct does not operate).
C. Add: 2 pctof "high-3" average salary multiplied by years of other
service not used for 14 pct.

The basic annuity may not exceed 80 percent of final M-dember
salary. For Members who have served 32 years or more, the option is
available to apply the retirement formula to their present salary
rather than the average of the "higrh-" years.

(35)

2-98 3 78 -6





36

C. HEALTH INSURANCE
\ members are eligible to participate in the Federal Employees Health program with more than 60 health benefits plans. Participation is on a voluntary, contributory basis with the same provisions as are applicable to all Federal employees.

D. LIFE INSURANCE
Members are eligible to participate in the Federal Employee Life Insurance Program with the amount of coverage for personal insurance computed by a formula as follows: gross annual salary, rounded to next higher thousand, plus an additional $2,000. The monthly premium is an automatic payroll deduction upon voluntary enrollment. Group life insurance is automatic for Members of Congress effective from (late of taking office under the Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance Act, if not (Ieclined(l under previous employment. Additional insurance coverage (optional) of $10,000 is also available if not declined un(ler previous employment. Additional premium is
determined by age of Member. Such costs are paidl in full by Member. Coverage may be (leclined at anytime.

E. ILLNESS AND INJURY COMPENSATION
Benefits are provi(led to Members who become ill, acquire disease, or are injured(l as a result of employment responsibilities. Such benefits include medical care and monetary payments and are available to families of Members when illness or injury is fatal.

F. LIVING EXPENSE DEDUCTION
Amount Effective date Authority
Provided that during calendar years 1953 and 1954 the place of resi- Jan. 1, 1953 66 Stat. 467 (July 9,1952). dence of a Member within the district represented be considered his or her home for purposes of income tax, but that up to $3,000 expended for living expenses outside the district be deductible for income tax purposes.
Provided that on Dec. 31, 1953, and thereafter up to $3,000 expended Jan. 1, 1954 67 Stat. 332 (Aug. 1, 1953). for living expenses outside the district represented be deductible for income tax purposes.

II. Official Allowances 1

A. NEW ALLOWANCE PROVISIONS-95TH CONGRESS, 2D SESSION
Effective January 3, 1978, two allowances are available to Representatives, the 1)elegates, and the Resident Commissioner in discharging official and representational duties. The two allowances are
(1) the O()flicial Expenses Allowance, and (2) the Clerk Hire Allowance. Previous individual allowances for travel, office equipment lease, district office lease, stationery, telecommunications, mass mailings, postage, computer services and other official expenses are consolidated mn a single allowance category, the Official Expenses Allowance.
SUnlh-ss othrwis, indicated, from January 1, 1946 to Septemlwr 22, 1970, the word "Member" includes a RVprese Itativ 1( and the lIIsidenI CoImI issioiter fromI Peito Tico. From Septe mbIIr 22, 1970 to January 3, 1 I73, the word "AMem ewr" additionally includes the Delegate from the District of Columbia. From January 3, 197 1, the \tod"Aleihr" 1 1o includes he Delgates foin (G ain and the Virgin Islands.






37

Both the Clerk Hire Allowance and. the Official E~xp~enses A ,lto~ance are available from noon on January 3 of one year 111161 11idi d y prior to noon on January 3 of the following year. Alltlowne are to be used. for expenses incurred. in the Uitedl States, its teritories andl~ its po0ssessions.
1. Official expenses allowance
A base allowance of $32,91.1 is authorized each Memiber for official and representational duties oil his or her office. run's basic allowance is available in addition to:
(1) the equivalent of 64 multiplied b~y the rate, per mile mullti1)liedI by the mileage between the District oil Columbia and. the furthest point in the Member's district, according to the Rand McNally Standard Highway Mileage Guidle, plus 1(0 percent.
This account is in no case to be less than $2,250. The following
rates per mile apply:
Under 500 mie----------------------$0. 15
At least 500 but under 750 mls----------------. 14
Atleast 750 but under 1,000 mie----------------.13
At least 1,000 but under 1,750 mie---------------.12
At least 1,750 but under 2,250 ml----------------11,
At least 2,250 but under 2,500 mie---------------- o1
At least 2,500 but under 3,000 mie---------------.09
3,000 miles or over--------------------------------------------.08
(2) the equivalent to 1.5,000 times the highest long-distance
telephone rate per minute from the District of Columbia to the Member's district. In no case is the equivalent, amount specified, to be less than $6,000. If the Member has elected- to utilize WATS or similar service in his or her office, the 1 5,000 minute multiplier w\7ill be reduced by one-half. In no case is the equivalent amount
in such case to be less than $3,000.
(3) the equivalent- to 2,500 square feet multiplied by the highest
applicable rate per square feet charged to F~ederal agencies in the district for rental of office space. Rates are those established by regulations issued by the Administrator of General Services.
Thle Official Expenses Allowvance may be used. for expenses of travel, office equipment lease, district office lease, stationery, telecommunications, mass mailings, postage, computer services, -and other official expenses. Tuhe following items or classes of items are excluded from those that may be paid from the allowance:
(1) expenses relating to the hiring and employment of individuals, including, but not limited to, employment service fees, transportation of interviewees to and from employment interviews and cost of relocation upon acceptance or termination of
employment;
(2) items purchased from other than the Honse stationery
store which have a useful life in excess of the current term of the Member, and which would have a residual value of more than $25 upon the expiration of the current term of the Member;
(:3) holiday greeting cards, flowers, and trophies;
(4) personal advertisements (other than meeting or appearance
notices) ;
(5) donations of any type, except flags of the United States
flown over the Capitol;







(6) dues or assessments other th.an to legislative support
organizations as app-oved by the Committee on House Administration;
(7) educational (,- pen ';es for courses of study, information or
iraitmv-r pro, ranis, winless the bente-flt accrues primarily to t1le
H0111- e zind tLe klll or knoxOed ,e is not commonly available;
(8) purcliases of radio and 'Leievision tinie;
(9) Parkinir for -Meaiboran(l employees at, offices, except
when includ,-, I !is an pai t of the leas
o-,, o-oupancy agreement for flio (11*S U'XL Ofrl"O SIMCC.
2. Clerk hl.rc altowa;ice
Each Mernber is eittitled to an annual cl trk filre ffflowance of S288,156 for not to exceed IS eniployces. Employees' salaries are set al annual rates of not less than '--,1,200 or in excess of $471500. The total of salary payment,-, to einpic)-yees in a Xleinber's office, for each month is -not to exceed one-twellth of the per "Innum gross rate, or $24,013.
The Clerk Illre Allowance N ai'tthorized for the employment of permanent, full-time employco-; and may not be used for employment of teirnporary or contract evvice personnel. The House 1)roldbits I)ayM",:14, from clerk hire furid.- to an employee if such person does not I)(, rl'o r-fn tli e ,ervices for wliieli fi e or sl, e receives sti ch compensation in the, of1j(-(,-, of the in Wa, ldno'ton, D.C., or in the state or
districtt, which sitch Member represent<.
In a(Wition, e,Icll "I'dember may ernploy for tily two months 'n any one yezir one additional employee( LO i)e knov-n a--, a "Lyndon Baines Jobrisoli Cono-re,..,- .onal Tri-c-rn" -,t a (ri-o--' salary ol'$l 360 for flie two
nionth period p, y.,ibie at t rate not to exceed $6SO per n-ionth. No niore th- 111 011,1 intern riav be crnployed at any tinie, aild iio more thail. two mav be the two month period of time. The
employinent of aii 11-itern witl not k,kfl c,(-,,t the clerk bire allowance or 111-e niiminurn number of employees authorized each 'Member (18).
111tern nl1j 3. for '/00ih'/o/s 1wler the official erpcasrs allowance
The otid ol, p)S1,11 jmt j"')!l ]ININ, not OxCeed the
COIIIV" Ile!lt ()f six (11,1 rict 1 Il'- I ht and 11,.,)v lloi he Sent U11(ter the
-'M 0 0 d; I.\ 1), 1 () t' t 1 1) 1, 1 F V U"'111(11:11 CIect ion in w ich "lle"111wr wim kdme for any
'% Is 'l (' Ah 1,
of"'we otj (\i- I 11;t!1 reclcctl ln Im i J)"rm itted to send a imi,- s m adill", jlndf r III(, to) "IrelI hY th'it office NvIlIc"i Is Out"Ide
Ifie
he cllt hY the 1!1()., t (-cwtoillic'11 hll"illl '111(l ,I Irjlrle of a113' slich 111ailIII- llm 'l I)e '!+ 11111tcd !(I tho OH Co"I oil ;I I M "111111", o"), All production
1. im oo to nizil 1 -1
e-\jwwv.--; or 8 111ai'111(v I I litt-4 be pal(t fruin
)p 1-i r t w 1-z' I I k I h le.
4. Afl'lc(" p (Illwi eloct. for Ir(w(l, (ImIJI-wIt tvch of Coagl'C88
Finch MwIll"wr i- ojit lo -m wiotmt, equiv.dent. to 20 ceiik per 111*1c I'm. 0) "Irld frmn ("Ich of Cotu'.1-ess. Stich







mileage is to be estimated by ihe neaest route ,ltraly traveled l ini going to alnd returning from eichi regular session. The estimate of 1he nearest route is bsed on the Rtand McNally 1Iidio' y Mileage (indle plus 10 percent. Payment is cedited upon receipt o a Membhers account by the Se-eant at Arms at the beginning of each sesion.
B. HOUSE ALLOWANCE SYSTEM PRIOR TO 95THf CONGRESS, 21) SESSION
Prior to the 95th Congress, the Committee on House Administration was authorized and directed under H. Res. 457 approvedd by the House in the 92d Congress) to review and make appropriate adjustments in various allowances for Members, the Resident Commissioner froi Puerto Rico and the Delegates from the District of Columbia, Guam and the Virgin Islands without requirement of House approval or disapproval. The provisions of 11. Res. 457 applied to allowances for clerk hire, postage, stationery, telephone and other communications, official office space and office exI)penses in the congressional district represented, official telephone services in the congressional district, and travel and mileage to and from the congressional district. The contingent fund of the House was made available to carry out the purpose of this resolution. Any action which the Committee took under authority of the resolution was to be published in the Congressional Record in the first issue following committee action [2 U.S.C. 57; H. Res. 457, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. (Congressional Record, v. 117, July 21, 1971, 26446-26451), enacted into permanent law by Public Law 92-184, 85 Stat. 636, December 15, 1971].
During the 94th Congress, the House adopted H. Res. 1372 revising the authority of the Committee on House Administration to adjust allowances under H. Res. 457. The resolution requires adoption of resolutions by the House for adjustments in allowances and limits the authority of the Committee to make any adjustment in an allowance only when such adjustment is made necessary by (1) any change in the price of materials, services, or office space; (2) any technological change or other improvement in electrical or mechanical equipment; or (3) any increase in the cost of living which results in action under the Federal Pay Comparability Act of 1971, Public Law 91-656, providing for annual comparability pay increases for Federal employees [H. Res. 1372 was approved by the House on July 1, 1976 (Congressional Record [daily edition], July 1, 1976, H7120-7137) and enacted into permanent law by Public Law 94-440, 90 Stat. 1448, October, 1, 1976].
Transferability of House allowances
Prior to adoption of House Resolution 1372 by the House on July 1, 1976, the Committee on House Administration issued committee Order No. 30 on June 28 providing for the transferability of certain allowances. Under the Order, which had the full force of law, Members were permitted to transfer the authorization to expend funds among the following allowances: constituent communication; stationery; equipment lease; postage; travel; telephone and telegraph; district office rental; and computer service.
The maximum amount of transferable travel allowance for Members and designated employees was limited to an amount computed as




40

follows: 64 times the rate per mile between the District of Columbia and the furthest point in the Member's District, according to the Rand McNally Standard Highway Mileage Guide, plus 10 percent. In no case was this amount to be less than $2,250. The following rates per mile appj)lied:
Under 500 miles_ $0. 15
At least 500 but under 750 miles .... 14 At least 750 but under 1,000 miles ---------------------------------. 13
At least 1,000 but under 1,750 miles .12
At least 1,750 but under 2,250 miles 11
At least 2,250 but under 2,500 miles .10
At least 2,500 but under 3,000 miles .09
3,000 miles or over -------------------------------------------- .08
The maximum amount of transferable telephone and telegraph allowance was limited to an amount computed as follows: 15,000 minutes times the highest long-distance telephone rate from the
District of Columbia to the Member's district. If a Member elected to use the WATS or similar service in his or her office in the District of Columbia, the amount was reduced by one-half'. In no case was this amount to be less than $6,000, or $3,000 if WATS or similar service was used.
The maximum amount of districtt office rental allowance transferable was computed as follows: 1,500 square feet times the highest allowable General Service Administration rental cost per square foot for office space in the Member's district.
In a(ldition. a Member was authorized to transfer a maximum of
$12,000 per regular session of Congress for computer services and a maximum of $3,000 per regular session for office equipment leasing from his or her clerk-hire allowance.
All transfers made under Order No. 30 were limited to the abovenoted categories and for official expenses only. The amount available for transfer was that amount of allowance as noted above less any amounts expended from that allowance.
[Order No. 80, 94th Cong., 2(d Sess., of the Committee on House Administration (Congressional Record [daily edition], June 30, 1976, H117020), issued pursuant to II. Res. 457, 92(1 Cong., 1st Session enacted into permanent law by Public Law 92-184, 85 Stat. 636, December 15, 1971].

C. ALLOWANCES PRIOR TO THE 95TH CONGRESS, 2D1) SESSION
1. Clerk lITre
Prior to January 3, 1971, the House employed a base pay system 11which, for purposes of salary 1)ayment, was convertedl to a gross rate of pay. Hence, the figures )rovide(d from 1946 to 1971 are base pay rates. and (do not reflect the actual dollar value of clerk hire allowance nor are they (lireetly comparable with gross rates of pay from 1971 to the present.2
In some cas(s, authorities for increases in the clerk hire allowance provide only the amount of actual adjustment and do not provide the
While conversion tables are not available for the years 194i to 1971, thi following table represents an approximate conversion for the year 1fi wheOn M11m hers with district populationsof fewer than 510,000) p; rnOsm were entilld to a base rate of $:4,500 per aninn, aid Memb1ers with district populations of 500,(KO
*1r mo1 e persons were ntit led to a base rate of $37,M)O. Uder the conversion met hod, ihe gross anni al salaries for a M-lr's ollice staf could cumulatively have ranged between $132 81.0l 2 (for 12 employees) to $141,-





41


new. aggregate allowance figure. For purposes of tilts report, th
aggregate clerk hire figure is provi(ld for .wii (iljustinet,.

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided a basic rate of $9,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 5 ema- Jan. 1, 1945 58 Stat. 831 (Dec. 20, 1914).
ployees. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any employee to be a basic rate of $5,000 per annum. (Number of employees set
by Committee on Accounts.)
Provided a basic rate of $12,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 6 em- July 1, 1949 63 Stat. 265 (June 23, 1949).
ployees. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any 1 employee to be a basic rate of $5,000 per annum. (Number of employees
set by Committee on House Administration.)
Provided a basic rate of $15,000 per annum for (not to exceed) 7 em- July 1, 1954 68 Stat. 401 (July 2, 1954).
ployees. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any 1 employee to be a basic rate of $6,000 per annum. (Number of employees
set by Committee on Appropriations.)
Provided a basic rate of $17,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 8 em- Aug. 1, 1955 69 Stat. 509 (Aug. 5, 1951).
ployees. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any 1 employee to be a basic rate of $7,000 per annum.
Provided a basic rate of $17,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 8 em- Aug. 3, 1956 70 Stat. 990 (Aug. 3, 1956).
ployees for a Member representing a district of fewer than 500,000 persons and a basic rate of $20,000 per annum for (not to exceed) 9 employees for a Member representing a district with population of 500,000 or more persons. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any 1 employee to be a basic rate of $7,000 per annum.
Provided a basic rate of $20,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 9 em- Apr. 1, 1961 75 Stat. 334 (Aug. 10, 1961)
ployees for a Member representing a district of fewer than 500,000 [H. Res. 219, Mar. 15, 1961. 87th.
persons and a basic rate of $23,000 per annum for (not to exceed) Cong., 1st Sess.]
10 employees for a Member representing a district with population of 500,000 or more persons. Authorized the maximum salary payable
to any 1 employee to be a basic rate of $7,000 per annum.
Provided a basic rate of $25,000 per annum for (not to exceed) 10 em- Aug. 14, 1964 H. Res. 294, Aug. 14, 1964, 88th
ployees for a Member representing a district of fewer than 500,000 Cong., 2d Sess. [Note: H. Res.
persons and a basic rate of $27,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 294 was effective for the Second
11 employees for a Member representing a district with a population Session of 88th Congress only.
of 500,000 or more persons. Authorized a maximum salary payable Its provisions however were
to any 1 employee at a basic rate of $7,500 per annum. adopted in the 89th Congress
in H. Res. 7 and made public
law (see following).]
[Same provisions as immediately above of H. Res. 294, 88th Cong., Jan. 3, 1965 79 Stat. 281 (July 27, 1965)
2d Sess.] [H. Res. 7, Jan. 4, 1965, 89th
Cong., 1st Sess.]
Provided a basic rate of $32,000 per annum for (not to exceed) 11 June 1, 1966 80 Stat. 369 (Aug. 27, 1966).
employees for a Member representing a district with fewer than [H. Res. 855, May 26, 1966.
500,000 persons and a basic rate of $34,500 per annum for (not 89th Cong., 2d Sess.)
to exceed) 12 employees for a Member representing a district of 500,000 or more. Authorized a maximum salary payable to any
one employee at a basic rate of $7,500 per annum.
See note at end of table.

733.27 (for 13 employees). Following is a theoretical allocation of allowances for employees that Menmbers were permitted to hire in effect on December 29, 1969:
Number of employees at various salary levels Base salary G ross salary
Districts at $141.733.27:
1 --------------------------------------------------------- $,500 $27,343.27
1__----7,005 25,780.84
---------------------.-------------------------------------- 6,505 23, 888. 27
1----------------------------------------------------------4, 005 14, 619. 47
1-3,305 12, 033. 59
1-2,500 9, 212. 18
1----------------------------------------------------- ----- 2,005 7,611.25
1 --------------------------------------------------------- 2,005 7,611.25
1 ----------------------------------------------------------- 1,005 4, 639. 15
1 ---------------------------------------------------------- 1,005 4,639.15
1 ----------------------------------------------------------- 105 1,627.13
1------------------------------------------------------- 0 1,440. 26
1-5 1,287.09
Total (13 employees) --------------------------------------- 37,000 141,733. 27
Total salaries, 128 districts at $141,733.27- 141,733.27 18, 141, 858. 27
Total employees, 128 districts at 13 employees -------------------------------- 1, 64
Districts at $132,521.08:
1 ----------------------------------------------------------- 7,500 27, 313.27
1----------------------------------------------------------- 7,)005 25, 780. 84
1.--6,505 "13, 88,I. 27
---------------------------------------------------------- 4,005 14, 619.47
1---------------------------------------------------------3.305 12. 033. 5,9
1--------------------------------------------------------- 2,005 7. 611.25
1----------------------------------------------------------- 2,005 7, 611.25
1---------------------------------------------------------1,005 4, 639. 15
1---------------------------------------------------------1,005 4, 639. 15
1----------------------------------------------------------105 1, 627.43
1 ------------------------------------------------------------ 50 1, 400. 26
1--5 1. 287.09
Total (12 employees) ------------------------------------- 34,500 132- 81. 02
Total salaries, 308 districts at $132,481.02--------------------132, 181.02 40, 801, 15, 16
Total employees, 308 districts at 12 employees ..3, 6913







42


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided a basic rate of $34,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 12 July 1, 1969 83 Stat. 359 (Dec. 12, 1969),
employees for a Member representing a district of fewer than 1H. Res. 357, June 25, 1969;
500,000 persons and a basic rate of -37,000 per annum for (not 91st Cong., 1st Sess.]
to exceed) 13 employees for a Member representing a district with population of 500,000 or more persons. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any one employee to be a basic rate of $7,500
per annum.
Provided a basic rate of $36,570 per annum for (not to exceed) 12 Dec. 27, 1969 84 Stat. 195 (Apr. 15, 1970).
employees for a Member representing a district with fewer than [Increase of 6c]
500,000 persons and a basic rate of $39,220 per annum for (not to exceed) 13 employees for a Member representing a district of 500,000 or more persons. Authorized the maximum salary payable
to any one employee to be a basic rate of $7,950 per annum.
Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be entitled to Sept. 22, 1970 84 Stat. 852 (Sept. 22, 1970).
the same clerk hire allowance as Members.
Provided for the conversion from a basic salary system to a gross Jan. 2, 1971 84 Stat. 1193 (Oct. 26, 1970).
salary system.
Provided a gross rate of $133,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 12
employees for a Member representing a district with fewer than 500,000 persons and a gross rate of $140,500 for (not to exceed) 13 employees for a Member representing a district of 500,000 Or
more.
Authorized the minimum salary payable to an employee to be a gross
rate of $1,203 per annum ani the maximum salary payable to any one
employee to be at a 'ross rate of $27,343.27 per annum.
Provided that the maximum amount of clerk hire allowance expendable
in any one month not to exceed 2 of the annual allowance.
Authorized 15 employees for a Member representinR a district of Jan. 21, 1971 84 Stat. 1946 (Jan. 8, 1971). [H.
fewer than 500,000 persons and 16 employees for a Member repre- Res. 1264, Dec. 7, 1970, 91st
senting a district of 500,000 or more. Cong., 2d Sess.l
Authorized the minimum salary payable to an employee to be gross
rate of $2,000 per annum.
Provided a gross rate of $141,500 per annum for (not to exceed) 15 Feb. 1, 1971 Increase of 6.0 percent by the
employees for a Member representing a district fewer than 500,000 Clerk of the House as authorpersons and a gross rate of $148,900 per annum for (not to exceed) ized by 2 U.S.C. 60(a)(2).
16 employees for a Member representing a district with 500,000 or more persons. Authorized the minimum salary payable to an emp!oyee at a gross rate of $1,200 per annum and the maximum salary payable to any one employee at a gross rate of $29,000 per
annum.
Authorized the minimum salary payable to an employee to be a gross Mar. 1, 1971 85 Stat. 132 (July 9, 1971)
rate of $1,200 per annum. [H. Res. 189, Feb. 3, 1971, 92d
Cong., 1st Sess.I
Provided for a gross rate of $149,292 for (not to exceed) 15 employees Jan. 1, 1972 85 Stat. 144 (July 9, 1971) [H. Res.
for a Member representing a district under 500,000 persons and a 282, Apr. 27, 1971, 82d Cong.,
gross rate of $157,092 fo (not to exceed) 16 employees for a member 1st Sess. providing for a 6.0
representing a district with 500,000 or more. percent increase.)
Authorized the minimum salary payable to an employee to be a gross
rate of $1,200 per annum and the maximum salary payable to any
one employee to be a gross rate of $30,600 per annum.
Provided a gross rate of $157,092 per annum for (not to exceed) 16 Mar. 1, 1972 Order No. 3, 92d Cong., 2nd Sess.
employees for all Members, thereby equalizing the annual clerk hire (Cong. Record, Feb. 29, 1972).
allowance and number of employees for all Members, the Resident
Commissioner, and the Delecate from the District of Columbia.
Provided a gross rate of $165,168 per annum for (not to exceed) 16 Jan. 1,1973 Increase of 5.14 pct. by the Clerk
employees. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any one of the House as authorized by
employee to be a gross rate of $32,175 per annum. 2 U.S.C. 60(a)(2).
Provided for the Delegates from Guam and the Virgin Islands a clerk Jan. 3, 1973 84 Stat. 119 (Apr. 10, 1972).
hire allowance at 60 pct. the clerk hire allowance provided to Members, the Resident Commissioner, and the D.C. Delegate.
Provided that upon request a Member, the Resident Commissioner or May 1, 1973 Order No. 5, 93d Cong., 1st Sess.
any Delegate could employ in lieu of one of the 16 employees a re- (Cong. Record, Apr. 18, 1973)
search assistant at such salary as Member designated. Authorized the Member's clerk hire to be increased at the gross rate of $20,000 per annum with employment of a research assistant, increasing the total clerk hire allowance to 1185,1(8 per annum. Provided a gross rate of $173,052 per annum for (not to exceed) 16 Oct. 1,1973 Increase of 4.77 pet. by the Clerk
employees. With election to employ research assistant, a Member's of the House as authorized by
clerk hire was increased by 120,952 to $194,004 per annum. Au- 2 U.S.C. 60(a)(2).
thorized the maximum salary payable to any one employee to be a
gross rate of $33,710.
Provided a gross rate of $182,616 per annum for (not to exceed) 16 Oct. 1, 1974 Increase of 5.52 pct. by the Clerk
employees. Increased allowance for research assistant from 20,952 of the House as authorized by
to $22,104 per annum making possible clerk hire allowance $204,720 2 U.S.C. 60(a)(2).
per annum. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any one employee to be a gross rate of $35,575 per annum.
Increased from 16 to 18 the maximum number of employees authorized Mar. 6, 1975 Order No. 16, 94th Cong., 1st
for the offices of a Member, the Resident Commissioner and the Sess. (Cong. Record, Mar. 6,
D.C. Delegate. Provided 11 employees for Delegates flom Guam and 1975).
the Virgin Islands.
Provided that the clerk hire allowance for the Delegp.ates from Guam May 27, 1975 89 Stat. 94 (May 27, 1975).
and the Virgin Islands be the same as that for Members, Resident
Commissioner and D.C. Delegate.
Provided a gross rate of $205,116 per annum for (not to exceed) 18 June 1, 1975 Order No. 20, 94th Cong., Ist
employees. With election to employ research assistant, a Member's Sess. (Cong. Record, May 20,
clerk hire was increased by $22,081 to 227,200 per annum. 1975).
See footnote at end of table.







43


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided a gross rate of $215,372 per annum for (not to exceed) 18 Oct. 1, 1975 Increase of 5.08 percent by the
employees. With election to employ research assistant, a Member's Clerk of the House as authorclerk hire was increased by $23,208 to $238,584 per annum. Author- ized by 2 U.S.C. 60(a)(2).
ized the maximum salary payable to any one employee at a gross
rate of $37,335 per annum.
Provided a gross rate of $255,144 per annum for (not to exceed) 18 Oct. 1, 1976 Sliding sacle increase of 4.83
employees. Authorized the maximum salary payable to any one percent to 11.83 percent 6.94
employee to be at a gross rate of $39,600 per annum. percent average) by the Irk
of the House as authorized by
2 U.S.C. 60(a)(2).
Authorized the maximum salary payable to any one employee to be at Mar. 1, 1977 Increased by the Clerk of the
a gross rate of $40,735 per annum. House as authorized by 2
U.S.C. 60(a)(2).
Authorized the maximum salary payable to any one employee (not to Apr. 1, 1977 Order No. 31, 95th Cong., lst
exceed) the rate of pay for level V of the Executive Schedule, as in Sess. (Cong. Record, Mar. 21,
effectfrom timetotime. Level V rate is presently $47,500 per annum. 1977).
Provided a gross rate of $273,132 per annum for (not to exceed) 18 Oct. 1, 1977 Increase of 7.05 percent by the
employees. Clerk of the House as authoriz eq by 2 U.S.C. 60(a)(2).
Authorized Members to reduce the Clerk Hire Allowance by up to Jan. 3,1978 Decision of the Committee on
$15,000 per regular session of Congress and increase the Official House Administration, Nov. 2,
Expenses Allowance by a like amount. Authorized the election to 1977.
be made on a monthly, quarterly, semiannual, or annual basis.
Provided a gross rate of $288,156 per annum for (not to exceed) 18 Oct. 1, 1978 Increase of 5.0 percent by the
employees. Clerk of the House as authorized by 2 U.S.C. 60(aX2).

NOTE.-Basic rates and gross rates are not directly comparable. See footnote 2 of text.

2. Computer
In 1973 Members were first authorized to allocate unused clerk hire
funds, with specified limits, for the lease of additional office equipment for official use only. In 1975, such allocation was made effective
for not only office equipment, but additionally for the lease of computer
services, in effect, establishing the first allowance for computers.

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided basic authorization for allocation of unused clerk hire funds May 1, 1973 Order No. 6, 93d Cong., 2d Sess. for lease of equipment necessary for conduct of office. Authorized (Cong. Record, Apr. 18, 1973).
that upon written request a Member could allocate up to $250 per month of any unused portion of his or herclerk hire allowance forte lease of office equipment. Effect: Provided office equipment allocation that pursuant to order No. 17 could be used for computer lease in addition.
Provided that upon written request a Member could allocate up to $250 Mar. 1, 1975 Order No. 17, 94th Cong., lst
per month of any unused portion of his or her clerk hire allowance Sess. (Cong. Record, Mar. 20,
for the lease of office equipment or for the first time, lease of com- 1975).
puter services. Effect: Established an allowance category for computers.
Provided $650 per month allowance for the lease of office equipment Apr. 23, 1975 Order No. 18, 94th Cong., lst
and continued provision allowing the allocation of up to $250 per Sess. (Cong. Record, Apr. 23,
month of unused clerk hire for the leasing of equipment or computer 1975).
services.
Provided that upon written request a Member could allocate up to July 29,1975 Order No. 23, 94th Cong., Ist
$1,000 per month of any unused portion of his or her clerk hire allow- Sess. (Gong. Record, July 29,
ance for lease of computer and related services. Provided that allow- 1975).
ance not cumulative from month to month.
Provided that allocation of unused clerk hire funds for computer and Jan. 3,1977 Decision of Commiftee on House
related services be changed from a monthly basis ($1,000 per month) Administration. June 30, 1977.
to an annual basis ($12,000 per annum) without increasing the per
annum rate of the clerk hire allowance.
Provided for an Official Expenses Allowance, eliminating individually Jan. 3,1978 Decision of the Committee on
set allowances including the computer services allowance. Author- House Administration, Nov. 2,
ized reimbursement for computer services expenses under the Of- 1977.
ficial Expenses Allowance.


3. Office equipment-lease
In 1971, the Committee on House Administration established a
lease program for electrical and mechanical equipment for official use
in a Member's Washington, D.C. office. Subsequently, in 1973, the

3 Equipment furnished for lease is limited to those types and categories prescribed by the Committee on House Administration. In order to transfer unused clerk hire funds for equipment lease, a Member is required to request such transfer in writing from the Committee on House Administration. The allowance is not cumulative from month to month.







44


Committee authorized the allocation of unused clerk hire funds, with
a specified limit, for the lease of office equipment in addition to the
regular lease allowance. In 1975, the lease was revised to include the
lease of computer -,7nd related services.

Amount Effective date Authority

Authorized the lease of electrical and mechanical equipment for use in June 1, 1971 Directive of Committee on House
Washington, D.C., offices at a. value not to exceed $350 per month. Administration, May 29, 1972.
Authorized the following equipment to be leased: automatic typewriters, photocopying equipment, facsimile units, and signature
machines.
Provided that the Delegates from Guam and Virgin Islands be entitled Jan. 3, 1973 86 Stat. 119 (Apr. 10, 1972). to same lease allowance as Members, the Resident Commissioner, and D.C. Delegate.
Provided that upon written request a Member could allocate up to $250 May 1, 1973 Order No. 6, 93d Cong., 2d sess.
per month of any unused portion of his or her clerk hire allowance (Cong. Record, Apr. 18, 1973).
for the lease of office equipment.
Authorized the lease of electrical and mechanical equipment for use in July 1, 1974 Directive of Committee on House
Washington, D.C., offices at a value of $650 per month. (Provision Administration, July 31, 1974.
contained in subsequent Committee Order 18, Apr. 23, 1975).
Provided that upon written request a Member could allocate up to $250 Mar. 1, 1975 Order No. 17, 94th Cong., 1st
per month of any unused portion of his or her clerk hire allowance for Sess. (Con5. Record, Mar. 20,
the lease of office equipment or lease of computer and related 1975).
services.
Provided $650 per month for lease of office equipment, and upon Apr. 23, 1975 Order No. 18, 94th Cong., 1st written request, that Member could allocate up to $250 per month Sess. (Cong. Record, Apr. 23,
of any unused portion of his or her clerk hire allowance for lease of 1975).
office equipment or lease of computer and related services.
Provided that upon written request a Member could allocate up to July 29, 1975 Order No. 23, 94th Cong., 1st
$1,000 per month of any unused portion of his or her clerk hire Sess. (Cong. Record, July 29.
allowance for lease of computer and related services. 1975).
Provided $750 per month for lease of office equipment, and upon writ- Oct. 1, 1975 Oder No. 24, 94th Cong., 1st ten request, that Member could allocate $250 per month of any un- Sess. (Cong. Record, Oct. 30,
used portion of his or her clerk hire allowance for lease of office 1975).
equipment.
Provided for the transferability of certain allowances including the Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 30, 94th Cong., 1st equipment lease allowance. Sess. (Cong. Record, J uae 30,
1976).
Provided that the allocation of unused clerk hire funds for equipment Jan. 3,1977 Decision of Committee on House
lease be changed from a monthly basis $(250 pir month) to a per Administration, June 29. 1976.
annum basis ($3,000 per annum) without increasrig the per annum rate. Provided that the allocation of unLsed clerk hire funds for computer and related services be changed from a monthly basis ($1,000 per month) to an annual basis ($12,000 per annum) without
increasing the per annum rate.
Provided for an Official Expenses Allowance, eliminating individually Jan. 3, 1978 Decision of the Committee on
set allowances including the office equipment lease allowance. House Administration, Nov. 2,
Authorized reimbursement for office equipment lease expenses 1977.
under the Official Expenses Allowance.


4.District office space
Prior to August 1, 1952, Members were provided office space in
Federal building-s, as available, by the General Services Administration. ~ Reerhidicates that provisions previously did not exist for
reimbursement to a Member securing his or her own office space in a
non-Federal building.

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided that each Member be entitled to office space in district in July 1, 1952 66 Stat. 470 (July 9, 1952).
Federal buildings. Provided that Member securing own office space
be reimbursed an amount not to exceed $900 per annum.
Provided that each Member be entitled to no more than two office July 2, 1964 68 Stat. 403 (July 2, 1964).
spaces in district. Provided that Member securing own office space
be reimbursed an amount not to exceed $900 per annum.
Provided that Member securing own district office space be reim- Aug. 1, 1957 71 Stat. 622 (Sept. 7, 1957).
bursed an amount not to exceed $1,200 per annum.
Provided that Member securing own district office space be reim- Oct. 1, 1965 79 Stat. 857 (Sept. 29, 1965).
bursed an amount not to exceed $2,400 per annum.
Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be entitled Sept. 22, 1970 84 Stat. 852 (Sept. 22, 1970).
to the same district office space allowance as Members.
Provided that each Member be entitled to no more than 3 office spaces Aug. 1, 1974 Order No. 1, 92d Cong., 1st Sess.
in district. Provided that Member securing own office space be (Cone. Record, Aug. 4, 1971).
reimbursed an amount not to exceed $200 per month (uo to $2,400 per annum), and that if unable to obtain suitable spare for $200
per month, be authorized an amount up to $35U. per month.







45


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided that the Delegates from Guam and the Virgin Islands be Jan. 3, 1973 86 Stat. 119 (Apr. 10, 1972).
entitled to same office space as Members, the lResident Comm issioner, and D.C. Delegate.
Provided t hat Member securing own district office space be reimbursed Mar. 1, 1974 Order No. 12, 93d Cong., 2d Sess.
an amount not to exceed $500 per month (up to $6,000 per annum). (Cong. Record, Mar. 5. 1974).
Provided that if unable to obtain suitable space for $500 per month, member authorized space not exceeding approximately 1,500 square feet at rates not to exceed the highest rate charged to Federal
agencies in the district by General Services Administration.
Provided for the transferability of certain allowances including the Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 30, 94th Cong., 2d
district office space allowance. Provided that the maximum amount Sess. (Cong. Record, June 30,
transferable be computed as follows: 1,500 times the highest allow- 1976).
ble General Services Administration rental cost per square foot for
office space in a Member's district.
Provided that maximum amount transferable be computed as follows: Jan. 3, 1978 [H. Res. 687, Sept. 30, 1977, 94th
2,500 times the highest allowable General Services Administration Cong., lst Sess.]
rental cost per square foot for office space in a Member's district.
Provided for an Official Expenses Allowance, eliminating individual Jan. 3, 1978 Decision of the Committee on
allowances, including district office space allowance. Authorized House Administration, Nov. 2.
reimbursement for district office space expenses under the Official 1977.
Expenses Allowance.


5. District office f urn ishings and eqipment
Prior to August 11, 1967, furnishings for districtt offices were provided
by the General Services Administration (GSA) on an informal basis
from a limited supply list. Formal guidelines were established for the
furnishing of district offices by GSA directive ADM 7800.5, dated
August 11, 1967.1


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided allowance for office equipment at $4,000 per office and allow- Aug. 11, 1967 Order ADM 7800.5 of the General
ance for carpeting and draperies, including installation costs, located Services Administration, Aug.
in General Services Administration-operated buildings, at $1,000 11. 1967.
per office. Defined office equipment to include all items of furniture and two, four, or five drawer filing cabinets (including security cabinets) and the following office machines only: typewriters (manual and electric), adding machines, calculators, and dictating-transcribing equipment.
Required that all office equipment and furnishings be purchased by
GSA from established Government supply sources. Prohibited reimbursement for purchases made by congressional staff, and the
rental by GSA of equipment or furnishings.
Prohibited the furnishing of non-government space. Provided that no more than two offices be outfitted per Member at GSA
expense.
Defined furnishings to include: carpeting, lamps, ash trays, smoking Aug. 23, 1967 Order ADM 7800.5A of the Genstands, indoor display flags, wastebaskets, desk trays, typing stands, eral Services Administration,
and coat and hat racks. Oct. 30, 1967.
Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be entitled to Sept. 22, 1970 84 Stat. 852 (Sept. 22, 1970), the same district office equipment and furnishings allowance as Members.
Provided allowance for office equipment at $5,000 per office and allow- July 1, 1971 Order ADM 7800.513 of the
ance for carpeting and draperies, including installation costs, located General Services Administrain Federal buildings (including for first time U.S. Postal Service tion, Apr. 27 1971.
buildings), at $1,500 per office. Redefined office equipment to include: lateral rollout and shelf files, and telephone recorderrelproducers. Reclassified certain low-cost items as office equipment making them available for use in congressional offices located in non -Governmental space, such items to include (under $50): U.S.
flags for indoor display, lamps, smoking stands, ashtrays, wastebaskets, desk trays, floornmats, card files, display racks, bookracks,
dictionary stands, folding chairs, transfer cases and shelving.
Authorized two office spaces to be outfitted with office equipment, Aug. 4, 1971 Order No. 1, 92d Cong., 1st Sess.
carpeting and draperies by General Services Administration. (Cong. Record, Aug. 4, 1971).
Authorized three office spaces to be outfillted with office equipment, Jan. 25, 1972 Order No. 1, revised, 92d Co ng.,
carpeting and draperies by General Services Administration. 2d Sess. (Cong. Record,
Feb. 29, 1972).
Provided that the Delegates from Guam, and the Virgin Islands be en- Jan. 3, 1973 86 Stat. 119 (Apr. 10, 1972).
titled to same furnishings and equipment allowance as Members, the
Rpsident Commissioner, and D.C. Delegate.

4 Since 1967, GSA has (1) required that all items of office equipment, carpeting, and draperies for use in a congressional office-be supplied or purchased by the appropriate regional office from established government supply sources; (2) prohibited reimbursement to congressional personnel for purchases; (3) maintained a replacement policy of six years of useful life for all furnishings; (4) charged against the allowance of useful transportation costs; (5) prohibited the rental of any equipment; (6) and required inventory and accountability records.







46


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided that up to three offices could be outfitted per Member at GSA Jan. 3, 1973 Order ADM 7800.5D of the Genexpense in Federal or nongovernment space. eral Services Administration,
Jan. 3, 1973.
Provided for a combination of the per office allowance ($5,000), but in
no instance to exceed $15,000 for total office equipment and/or $4,500 for carpeting and draperies. [Actual allowance was not
increased.]
Authorized the purchase by a Member of any item of office equipment Oct. 20, 1974 88 Stat. 1338 (Oct. 20, 1974).
or office furnishing provided by General Services Administration and located and in use in Member's district office(s). Authorized purchase only upon leaving office or otherwise ceasing to be a
Member (except by expulsion).
Provided that purchase be in accordance with regulations prescribed
by Committee on House Administration and at a price equal to the acquisition cost to the Federal Government less an allowance for depreciation (as determined by the Committee) but in no instance
less than the fair market value.
Provided for a total, combined limitation of $27,000 for equipment, Jan. 3,1977 Directive of the Committee on
furnishings, carpeting, and draperies in district offices. House Administration, Sept. 14,
1976.
Redefined guidelines for administration by GSA of equipment and Oct. 4, 1977 ADM 7800.5F of the General
furnishings for Members of House and Senate, including request Services Administration,
procedures, parking provisions, purchase procedures, accounting Oct. 4, 1977.
system, procedures for sale of used equipment, and procedures for office space determination.


6. Office equipment-purchase
Prior to 1951, office equipment was provided to Members from
available supplies with no specific limitation on the value of such
equipment in an office at any one time. In 1951, the House established
a limitation on equipment value in use in a Member's office, and, in
1953, specified the types of equipment to which a Member was entitled.
In 1971, the Committee on House Administration was authorized to
prescribe the types and categories of equipment, to issue regulations
governing their use, and to establish the total value of equipment,
including the depreciation allowance.'


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided that the value of equipment in use in the office of a Member Sept. 8, 1951 66 Stat. 470 (July 9, 1952). 1H.
not exceed $1,500. Res. 318, Sept. 7, 1951, 82d
Cong., 1st Sess.1
Provided that the value of equipment in use in the office of a Member Mar. 25, 1953 67 Stat. 7 (Mar. 25, 1953).
not exceed $2,500. Placed a limitation on the types and amounts of equipment at not more than two each of the following 5 general types: addressing machines, automatic typewriters, electric typewriters, dictating and transcribing machine, and duplicating machines.
Prescribed method for determining value of equipment requiring Feb. 25, 1956 70 Stat. 30 (Feb. 25, 1956). (H.
that such value be based on the cost less depreciation computed Res. 526, Feb. 9, 1956, 84th
over an estimated ten-year useful life, at ten percent per annum of Cong., 2d Sess.]
book value. Authorized the Clerk to furnish two electric typewriters
without charge against Member's equipment allowance.
Provided that the value of equipment in use in the office of a Member July 26, 1961 75 Stat. 221 (July 26, 1961).
not exceed $2,500, except that in the case of a Member with a district population of 500,000 or more, the value not exceed $3,000.
Authorized to Members with district populations under 500,000 three electric typewriters without charge against equipment allowance and four electric typewriters to Members with district populations of 500,000 or more.
Provided for purchase of automatic letter opening machine and auto- Aug. 13, 1965 79 Stat. 517 (Aug. 13, 1965). matic letter sealer machine for each Member. Authorized four electric typewriters, one of which could be an auto- Oct. 9, 1965 79 Stat. 968 (Oct. 9, 1965).
matic typewriter, for Members representing districts fewer than 500,000 persons, and five electric typewriters, one of which could be an automatic typewriter, for Members representing districts of
500, 000 or more.

6 Since 1953, the following provisions have been applicable to purchase of equipment for Washington D.C., offlchs: (1) the Clerk of the I louse has been authorized to furiiish such equipment for use in ollices of Members, with approval of the Committee on Ilouse Administration; (2) Members have been required to register all equpipent,in the (1ice of the Clerk; (3) all equipment has been required to remain property of the House of Representative es; and (4) the Committee on louse Administration has been authorized to prescribe regulations as considered necessary, including limits on value of equipment and allowances for depreciation.







47


Amount Effective date Authority

Authorized five electric typewriters for Members representing districts Oct. 24, 1967 81 Stat. 337 (Oct. 24, 1967).
fewer than 500,000 persons, and six electric typewriters for Members
representing districts of 500, 000 persons or more.
Repealed 67 Stat. 7 (March 25, 1953) which established i n statute types Jan. 1, 1970 83 Stat. 291 (Dec. 5, 1969).
and categories of equipment. Authorized the Committee on House
Administration to prescribe types and categories of equipment, to issue regulations governing their use, and to establish total value of
equipment, including allowance for depreciation.
Provided that value of equipment in use in the office of a Member not June 20, 1969 Directive of the Committee on
exceed $5,500. Prescribed that value of each item be initial cost less House Administration, June 20,
amount of allowance for depreciation, determined on ten-year 1969.
straight line basis. Provided that the Clerk of the House furnish upon request, equipment the cost of which exceeded limitations established by regulations of the Committee on House Administration, provided that (1) Member pay costs in excess of limitation, (2) Member agree in writing that title to such equipment remain with House.
Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be entitled to Sept. 22, 1970 84 Stat. 852 (Sept. 22, 1970).
the same equipment allowance as Members.
Provided that the Delegates from Guam and the Virgin Islands be en- Jan. 3, 1973 86 Stat. 119 (April 10, 1972).
titled to the same equipment allowance as Members, the Resident
Commissioner, and D.C. Delegate.
Increased equipment purchase allowance by $600, from $5,500 to Sepc. 20, 1977 Directive of Committee on House
$6,100, for purposes of a WATS line extender available upon request Administration, Sept. 28, 1977.
by Member.

7. Stationery
The stationery allowance is limited to purchase of office supplies
for official purposes from the Office Supply Service of the House of
Representatives. In 1964, the House authorized the stationery allowance to be withdrawn, upon request, in cash by a Member, or remain
in the Member's credit. Upon cash withdrawal, the funds were
considered for tax purposes as income by the Internal Revenue
Service. In 1977, the maximum amount authorized to be withdrawn was reduced to $1 per session of Congress.


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided $700 for the 2d sess. of the 79th Cong------------------ Jan. 3,1946 59 Stat. 633 (Dec. 28, 1945).
Provided an additional $250 for the 2d sess. of the 70th Cong., for a July 23, 1946 60 Stat. 602 (July 23, 1946). total of $950 for the session.
Provided $500 for the 1st sess. of the 80th Congress -------------- Jan. 3,1947 61 Stat. 59 (May 1, 1947).
Provided $500 for the 2d sess. of the 80th Cong------------------ Jan. 3,1948 61 Stat. 366 (July 17, 1947).
Provided $500 for the 1st sess. of the 81st Cong ----------------- Jan. 3,1949 62 Stat. 428 (June 14, 1948).
Provided an additional $300 for the 2d sess. of the 80th Cong., for a June 25, 1948 62 Stat. 1028 (June 25, 1948). total of $800 for the session.
Provided an additional $200 for the 1st sess. of the 81st Cong., for a Oct. 10, 1949 63 Stat. 738 (Oct. 10, 1949). total of $700 for the session.
Provided $500 for the 2d sess. of the 81st Cong------------------ Jan. 3,1950 63 Stat. 221 (June 22, 1949).
Provided $500 for the 1st sess. of the 82d Cong------------------ Jan. 3,1951 64 Stat. 600 (Sept. 6, 1950).
Provided an additional $300 for the 1st sess. of the 82d Cong., for a Nov. 1, 1951 65 Stat. 737 (Nov. 1, 1951). total of $800 for the session.
Provided $800 for the 2d sess. of the 82d Cong------------------ Jan. 3, 1952 65 Stat. 394 (Oct. 11, 1951).
Provided an additional $300 for the 2d sess. of the 82d Cong., for a July 15, 1952 66 Stat. 639 (July 15, 1952). total of $1,100 for the session.
Provided $800 for the 1st sess. of the 83d Cn- -------Jan. 3,1953 66 Stat. 469 (July 9, 1952).
Provided $800 for the 2d sess. of the 83d Cong------------------ Aug. 1, 1953 67 Stat. 324 (Aug. 1, 1953).
Provided $1,200 for each session of Congress ------------------- July 1,1954 68 Stat. 402 (July 2, 1954).
Provided an additional $600 forthe 2d sess. of the 85th Cong., for atotal Aug. 7,1958 72 Stat. 879 (Aug. 7, 1968) [H. of $1,800 for the session. Res. 628, July 10, 1958, 85th
Cong., 2d Sess.l
Provided $1,800 for the 1st sess. of the 87th Cong. Jan. 7, 1959 74 Stat. 460 (July 12, 1960) [H.
Res. 314, July 27, 1959, 86th
Cong., 1st Sess.J
Provided $1,800 for the Second Session of the 87th Congress and $1,800 Jan. 3,1962 75 Stat. 326 (Aug. 10, 1961). for the 1st sess. of the 88th Congress.
Provided $1,800 for the 2d sess. of the 88th Congress ------------- Jan. 3, 1964 77 Stat. 808 (Dec. 30, 1963).
Provided $2,400 for each session of Congress. Authorized the allowance, Aug. 20, 1964 78 Stat. 550 (Aug. 20, 1964).
upon request, to be withdrawn in cash or remain in the Member's credit for purchase of stationery and other supplies.







48


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided $3,000 for each session of Congress ------------------ Oct. 5, 1966 H. Res. 1029, Oct. 5, 1966, 89th
Cong., 2d Sess. [H. Res. 1029
was applicable for the 89th
Cong., 2d Sess. only. Its provisions were reintroduced as
H. Res. 112 in the 90th Congress and made into permanent
law.]
Provided $3,000 for each session of Congress ----------------- Jan. 3,1967 81 Stat. 38 (May 29, 1967). [H.
Res. 112, Mar. 8, 1967, 90th
Cong., 1st Sess.]
Provided $3,500 for each session of Congress ------------------Dec. 2, 1970 84 Stat. 1990 (Jan. 8, 1971). [H.
Res. 1276, Dec. 2, 1970, 91st
Cong. 2d Sess.]
Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be entitled Sept. 22, 1970 84 Stat. 852 (Sept. 22, 1970).
to the same stationery allowance as Members.
Provided that the Delegates from Guam and the Virgin Islands be Jan. 3, 1973 86 Stat. 119 (Apr. 10, 1972).
entitled to the same stationery allowance as Members, the Resident
Commissioner, and D.C. Delegate.
Provided $4,250 for each session of Congress -----------------Jan. 3, 1973 Order No. 4, 92d Cong., 2d Sess,
(Cong. Record, Oct. 6, 1972).
Provided $5,250 for each session of Congress ---------------------- Jan. 3, 1974 Order No. 10, 93d Cong., 1st
Sess. (Cong. Record, Nov. 28,
1973).
Provided $6,500 for each session of Congress -----------------Aug 20, 1974 Order No. 14, 93d Cong., 2d Sess.
(Cong. Record, Aug. 20, 1974).
Provided $1.00 as the maximum amount authorized to be withdrawn Jan. 3,1977 Order No. 29, 94th Cong., 2d
in cash. Sess. (Cong. Record, June 30,
1976).
Provided for the transferability of certain allowances including the Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 30, 94th Cong., 2d
stationery allowance. Sess. (Cong. Record, June 30,
1976).
Provided for an official Expenses Aliowance, eliminating individually Jan. 3,1978 Decision of the Committee on set allowances including the stationery allowance. Authorized reim- House Administration, Nov. 2,
bursement for stationery expenses under the Official Expenses 1977.
Allowance.
Authorized the withdrawal by a Member of a sum not to exceed $1.00
in cash from the stationery account each regular session of
Congress.


8. Postage
Although the postage allowance was increased incrementally since
1946, the allowance was reduced to $211 per session of Congress,
effective January 3, 1977. Subsequently, the allowance was eliminated
and reimbursements for postage expenses were authorized under the
Office Expenses Allowance, effective January 3, 1978.

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided $90 for fiscal year 1946 and thereafter for airmail and special July 1,1945 59 Stat. 249 (May 13, 1945). delivery stamps.
Provided $125 per annum for airmail and special delivery stamps- July 1,1952 66 Stat.469 (July 9, 1952). Provided $200 per fiscal year for airmail and special delivery stamps_- July 1, 1954 68 Stat. 402 (July 2, 1954). Provided $300 per fiscal year for airmail and special delivery stamps-- July 1, 1957 72 Stat. 445 (July 31, 1958) [H.
Res. 399, Aug. 22, 1957, 85th
Cong., 1st Sess.j
Provided $400 per session for airmail and special delivery stamps----- Jan. 3,1959 72 Stat. 934 (Aug. 27, 1958). Provided $500 per annum for airmail and special delivery stamps--.. Oct. 2,1963 78 Stat. 550 (Aug. 20, 1964) [H. Res. 532, Oct. 2, 1963, 88th
Cong., 1st Sess.l
Provided $700 per annum for airmail and special delivery stamps- Jan. 3,1968 82 Stat. 318 (July 9, 1968) [H. Res. 1003, Dec. 14, 1967,
90th Cong., 1st Sess.|
Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be entitled to Sept. 22, 1970 84 Stat. 852 (Sept. 22, 1970). the same postage allowance as Members. Provided $910 per annum for air mail and special delivery stamps. May 18,1971 85 Stat. 636 (Dec. 15, 1971).
[H. Res. 420, May 18, 1971, 92d
Cong., lstSess.]
Provided that the Delegates from Guam and the Virgin Islands be Jan. 3,1973 86Stat. 119 (Apr. 10,1972). entitled to the san e postage allowance as Members, the Resident Commissioner, and D.C. Delegate.
Provided $1,140 per annum for air mail and special delivery stamps. Aug. 20, 1974 Order No. 13, 93d Cong., 2d Sess. Cong. Record, Aug. 20,
1974).
Reduced the allowance provided under 2 U.S.C. 42(c) and (d) for air Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 25, 94th Cong., 1st
mail and special delivery stamps to $1.00 per annum, but did not re- Sess. (Cong. Record, June 30,
duce the allowance under 2 U.S.C. 42 for postage stamps ($210). 1976).
Postage ajlowance thereby provided was $211 per session.
Provided for an Official [xpenses Allowance, eliminating individually set Jan. 3,1978 Decision of the Committee on,
allowances including the postage allowance. Authorized reimburse- House Administration, Nov. 2,
ment for postage expenses under the Official Ixpenses Allowance. 1977.







49


9. Newsletter ("constituent commu nicat ions")
Prior to 1975, expenses incurred in production of newsletter andl
other communications to residents of congrressional (districts Nvore pId
from various sources, such as unofficial office accounts, stationery
funds, and personal funds. In 1975, for the first time, an individual
allowance was authorized for use in the printing and production of
newsletters, questionnaires, and similar correspondence, eligible to be
mailed under the frank. The allowance was eliminated, effective
January 3, 1978, with expenses for communications to be reimbursed
from the Official Expenses Allowance.

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided $5,000 per session for use in printing and production of news- June 1, 1975 Order No. 21, 94th Cong., 1st
letters, questionnaries and similar correspondence eligible to be Sess. (Cong. Record, May 20
mailed under the frank. 1975).
Provided for the transferability of certain allowances including the Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 30, 94th Cong., 2d
Newsletter allowance. Sess. (Cong. Record, June 30,
1976).
Provided for an Official Expenses Allowance, eliminating the newsletter Jan. 3,1978 Decision of the Committee on
("constituent communications") allowance. See regulations regard- House Administration, Nov. 2,
ing mass mailings. 1977.


10. Telephone and telegraph 6
Allowances previous to July 1, 1949 were made in total dollar
amounts in the Legislative Branch Appropriations Acts. Individual
allowances were not specified.

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided $500 per fiscal year for calls and telegrams------------ July 1, 1949 63 Stat. 265 (June 23, 1949).
Provided an aggregate of 150 min. per month for calls, to be used at any July 1, 1951 65 Stat. 47 (May 29, 1951).
time during the fiscal yer.
Provided an aggregate of 1,000 words per month for telegrams, to be
used at any time during fiscal year.
Provided for use of accumulated minutes and words at any time during July 1,1951 66 Stat. 443 (July 8, 1952).
the Congress in which they accumulated.
Provided for removal of monthly limitations on calls and telegrams Jan. 3,1953 67 Stat. 5 (March 10, 1953).
without affecting annual limitations, hence, entitling Member to 1,800 min. per annum and 12,000 words per annum for calls and
telegrams, respectively.
Provided an aggregate of 2,700 min. per annum for calls---------- July 1, 1954 68 Stat. 402 (July 2, 1954).
Provided an aggregate of 3,000 min. per annum for calls----------- Jan. 3,1956 70 Stat. 32 (Feb. 27, 1956).
Provided an aggregate of 20,000 words per annum of which not more
than 2,000 could be sent to or from a point outside the United States,
its territories, or possessions.
Provided an aggregate of 6,000 min. per Congress for calls---------- Jan. 3,1957 71 Stat. 614 (Sept. 14, 1957).
Provided an aggregate of 40,000 words of which not more than 4,000
could be sent to or from point outside the United States, its territories, or possessions.
Provided an aggregate of 80,000 units for telephone and telegram Jan. 3, 1959 73 Stat. 605 (Sept. 21, 1959).
allowance per Congress. Specified that one minute of a call equal five units and one word of F_ telegram equal one unit. [Provided that same allowance as for Members apply to the resident commissioner
from Puerto Rico.]
Provided an aggregate of 90,000 units for telephone and telegram July 25, 1962 77 Stat. 817 (Dec. 30, 1963).
allowance per Congress. [H. Res. 735, July 25, 1962, 87th
Cong., 2d Sess.I.
Provided an aggregate of 100,000 units for telephone and telegram Oct. 2,1963 78 Stat. 550 (Aug. 20, 1964).
allowance per Congress. [H. Res. 531, Oct. 2, 1963, 88th
Cong., lstSess.J.
Provided that one minute of a call equal four units, thereby increasing Jan. 3, 1965 79 Stat. 544 (Aug. 21, 1964).
the value of the unit.
Provided an aggregate of 70,000 units for telephone and telegram Jan. 3,1967 80 Stat. 1064 (Oct. 27, 1966).
allowance per session of Congress. [H. Res. 901, June 29, 1966
89th Cong., 2d Sess.I.
See note at end of table.

6 Since July 1, 1949, the following provisions have been applicable to the telephone and telegraph allowance:
(1) the Committee on House Administration is authorized to prescribe any regulations regarding use and administration of allowances; (2) allowance provides for reimbursement for toll charges on strictly official long-distance telephone calls; and (3) telegraph allowance includes official telegrams, cablegrams, and radiograms made by or sent on behalf of Member.







50


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided that up to 140,000 units could be carried from session to session and from Congress to Congress (if sessions and Congresses
consecutive).
Specified that one word of a night letter equal one-half unit. Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be entitled Sept. 22, 1970 84 Stat 852 (Sept. 22, 1970).
the same telephone and telegraph allowance as Members.
Provided an aggregate of 80,000 units for telephone and telegram Dec. 2, 1970 84 Stat. 1990 (Jan. 8, 1971).
allowance per annum. [H. Res. 1270, Dec. 2, 1970,
Provided that up to 160,000 units could be carried from session to91tCn.2dSs]
session and from Congress to Congress (if sessions and Congresses
consecutive).
Provided that the Delegates from Guam and the Virgin Islands be en- Jan. 3, 1973 86 Stat. 119 (Apr. 10, 1972).
titled to the same telephone and telegraph allowance as Members,
the Resident Commissioner, and D.C. Delegate.
Provided an aggregate of 100,000 units for telephone and telegraph al- Oct. 1, 1973 Order No. 9, 93d Cong., 1st
lowance per session. Sess. (Cong. Record, Oct 4,
Provided that up to 200,000 units could be carried from session to 17)
session and from Congress to Congress (if sessions and Congresses
consecutive).
Specified that one word of a telegram equal two units, except that one Jan. 1, 1974 Order No. 11, 93d Cong., 1st
word of a night letter equal one unit. Provided that twelve units be Sess. (Cong. Record, Nov. 28,
charged for physical delivery of a telegram, cablegram, or radiogram. 1973).
Provided an aggregate of 125,000 units for telephone and telegraph al- Jan. 3, 1975 Order No. 22, 94th Cong., 1st
lowance per session and for transferability among Washington, D.C. Sess. (Cong., Record May 20,
and district offices. (See end of this section for legislative history of 1975).
telephone and telegraph allowance outside Washington, D.C. prior to
1975.1
Provided that up to 250,000 units could be carried from session to
session and from Congress to Congress (if sessions and Congresses
consecutive).
Authorized payment for use of WATS line with provision that charges
for WATS line be calculated and deducted at a rate of 11 cents per
unit.
Provided that 125,000 units per session be in addition to basic installation and service charges of three telephone lines at up to each of
three district offices.
Provided for the transferability of certain allowances including the tele- Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 30, 94th Cong., 2d
phone and telegraph allowance. Limited maximum amount to an SeS. (Cong. Record, June 30,
amount computed as follows: 15,000 minutes times the highest long 1976).
distance rate from Washington, D.C. to the Member's district.
Provided that if Member elected to use WATS line, or similar service,
the amount be reduced by one-half.
Provided that in no case would allowance be less than $6,000 per
session, or $3,000 per session if WATS or similar service used by
Member.
Provided for an FTS line, without charge, for limited use on official
business, upon written request to Committee on House Administration.
Provided for an Official Expenses Allowance, eliminating individual Jan. 3, 1978 Decision of the Committee on
allowances including the telephone and telegraph allowance. Au- House Administration, Nov. 2,
thorized reimbursement for telecommunications expenses under 1977.
the Official Expenses Allowance.
Provided for inclusion of the charge for telephone installation in
Washington, D.C. under the Official Expenses Allowance. Authorized the Clerk of the House, without charge to a Member's allowance, to piay from the contingent fund the FTS mileage charges associated with providing FTS service for district offices. Provided that in no case is the allowance to be used to purchase telecommunications equipment. Member is financially responsible for all telecommunications charges incurred in his or her office(s) in
excess of the allowance.

NOTE-From Jan. 3, 1967, to Jan. 3, 1975, an allowance was provided for official telephone expenses outside the District of Columbia. A separate allowance was provided for telephone and telegraph expenses incurred in Washington, D.C. offices. On Jan. 3, 1975, the unit system for telephone and telegraph use was made transferable among the Washington, D.C. and district offices, thereby eliminating the separate telephone allowance outside the District of Columbia.

Following is a legislative history of the telephone allowance outside
the District of Columbia from 1967 to 1975:

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided an aggregate of $300 per quarter for telephone service in- Jan. 3, 1967 82 Stat. 318 (July 9, 1968) IH.
cluding FTS, incurred outside the District of Columbia. Required any Res. 161, May 11, 1967, 90t
unused portion of the quarterly allowance to lapse at the end of Cong., 1st Sess.j
quarter..
Provided an aggregate of $450 per quarter for telephone services in- Apr. 1, 1971 85 Stat. 636 (Dec. 15, 1971) fH.
curred outside the District of Columbia. Res, 418, May 18, 1971, 92d
Cong., 1st Sess.]











Amount Effective date Authority

Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be, entitled to Sept. 22, 1970 84 Stat. 852 (Sept. 22, 1970).
the same telephone allowance as Members and the Resident
Commissioner.
Provided that the Delegates from Guam and the Virgin Islands be enti- Ja n. 3, 1973 86 Stat. 119 (Apr. 10, 1972).
tled to the same telephone allowance as Members, the Resident
Commissioner, and D.C. Delegate.
Provided an aggregate of $600 per quarter for telephone service, in- Oct. 10, 1973 Order No. 7, 93d Cong., 1st Sess.
cluding ETS, incurred outside the District of Columbia. (Cong. Record, Oct. 4, 1973).
Provided an aggregate of 125,000 units per session of Congress for calls Jan. 3,1975 Order No. 22, 94th Cong., 1st
and telegrams and that such units be transferable among Washing- Sess. (Conga. Record, May 20,
ton, D.C., and district offices. Authorized such units to accumulate 1975).
and be available for use until the close of each session and at not
more than 250,000 units.

11. Travel to and from District
Prior to 1963, expenses for travel to andl from congressional districtss
were funded in the Legislative Branch Appropriations Acts. Tfhe first
specific allowance for travel to and from districts was made Augrust 1,
1963, for up to two round trips per annum. Allowances listed below
are in addition to reimbursement for transportation to and from each
regular session of Congress as provided in 14 Stat. 323 (July 28,
1866), effective July 1, 1867. Trhe Act provided for reimbursement at
the rate of 20 cents per mile.

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided that no appropriated funds be made available to pay the July 1, 1960 74 Stat. 461 (July 12, 1960).
expenses of travel or subsistence for any trip made by a Member between Washington, D.C., and a Member's district other than (1) trips specifically authorized by law for mileage or transporlation expenses; (2) official participation in funeral services of deceased Members; or (3) official trips originating in the Member's district
during periods when Congress is not in session.
Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses for not to exceed July 1, 1963 77 Stat. 82 (July 19, 1963).
2 round trips per annum between Washington, D.C., and any point in district represented.
Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses for not to exceed Aug. 29, 1965 79 Stat. 583 (Aug. 28, 1965).
4 round trips per annum, or a lump sum payment in lieu of transportation expenses of $300 per annum.
Provided reimbursement of transportation expenses for not more than 2 employees in the office of a Member for 1 round trip each, or 1 employee for 2 round trips in any calendar year between Washington, D.C., and place of residence of Member in district. Provided reiiiibursement for transportation expenses for not to exceed Jan. 3, 1967 81 Stat. 226 (Sept. 17, 1967). a number of round trips equal to the number of mor.ths Congress is in session each year, or a lump sum payment in lieu of transportation expenses of $750 per annum.
Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses for not to exceed Jan. 3, 1971 Order No. 2, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. 24 round trips during each Congress, or a lump sum payment in lieu (Cong. Record, Dec. 8, 1971).
of reimbursement for travel of $2,500 per Congress. Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses for employees for not more than 4 round trips during any Congress between Washington, D.C., and any point in district represented. Authorized for the first time a Member to carry over from session to
session any unused portion of his or her transportation allowance.
Authorized 'for the Delegates from Guam and the Virgin Islands a travel Jan. 3, 1973 89 Stat. 119 (Apr. 10, 1 972).
allowance of 4 round trips per session of Congress.
Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses for not to exceed Jan. 3, 1973 Order No. 2, revised, 92d Cong.,
36 round trips during each Congress, or a lumnp sum payment in lieu 2d Sess. (Cong. Record, Oct. 6,
of transportation expenses of $2,250 per Congress. 1972).
Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses for employees for
not to exceed 6 round trips during any Congress.
Provided that the travel allowance for the Delegates from Guam and the May 27, 1975 89 Stat. 94 (May 27, 1975).
Virgin Islands and their employees be the same as that for Members,
the Resident Commissioner, D.C. Delegate, and their employees.
Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses for not to exceed May 20, 1975 Order No. 19, 94th Cong., 1st
26 round trips per session of Congress, or a lump sum payment in Sess. (Cong. Record, May 20,
lieu of reimbursement for transportation of $2,250 per session. 1975).
Provided that not more than 6 of the 26 round trips be allocated to employees at the discretion of Member, Resident Commissioner, or a Delegate. In addition, provided for reimbursement of travel expenses for employees of not more than 6 round trips during each
session.
See note at end of table.







52


Amount Effective date Authority

Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses not to exceed June 1, 1975 Directive of the Committee on cost of transportation if by common carrier, or 20 cents per mile if House Administration, June 3,
by private auto. 1975.
Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses not to exceed July 1, 1976 Directive of the Committee on
cost of trasnportation if by common carrier, or 15 cents per mile if House Administrtion, July 29,
by private auto. 1976.
Provided for a lump sum payment in lieu of transportation expenses Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 29, 94th Cong., 2d Sess.
of $1 per session. (Cong. Record, June 30, 1976).
Provided for transferability of certain allowances including the travel Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 30, 94th Cong., 2d
allowance for Members, the Resident Commissioner, and Delegates Sess. (Cong. Record June 30,
and their employees. Limited the maximum amount that could be 1976).
transferred to an amount computed as follows: 64 times the rate per mile between the District of Columbia and the furtherest point in a
Member's district.
Provided rates per mile ranging from 15 cents per mile for under
500 miles to 8 cents per mile for 3,000 miles or over. Specified minim um value of allowance at $2,250 per session.
Provided reimbursement for actual mileage for official travel by Jan. 3, 1977 91 Stat. 668 (Aug. 5, 1977) IH.
privately owned conveyance. Res. 287, Mar. 2, 1977, 95th
Cong., 1st Sess.l.
Provided reimbursement for transportation expenses not to exceed cost Oct. 1, 1977 Order No. 32, 95th Cong., 1st
of transportation if by common carrier, or 12 cents per mile if by Sess. (Cong. Record Oct 13,
private auto. 1977).
Provided for an Official Expenses Allowance, eliminating individual Jan. 3, 1978 Decision of the Committee on
allowances including the travel allowance. Authorized reimburse- House Administration, Nov. 2,
ment for expenses under the Official Expenses Allowance. 1977.

NOTE: Travel is authorized for any place in the United States on official business. Payment for travel will be for the actual cost of transportation if travel is by common cardier, chartered, or rented aircraft or automobile. Payment from the travel allowance is made at the following rates per mile for private vehicles:
Automobile -------------------------------------------------------------------------$0. 17
Motorcycle--------------------------------------------------------------------------- .1
Airplane ----------------------------------------------------------------------------.36
12. Travel-Organ i.zational meetings
A travel and per diem allowance for Members and staff to attend
organizational caucuses or conferences after each November election
for the following Congress was first authorized in 1974. The effective
date of the law was October 8, 1974, for organizational caucuses and
conferences of the 94th Congress.

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided that each Member-elect who attends an organizational Oct 8,1974 88 Stat. 1777 (Dec. 27, 1974)
caucus or conference after each November election and each (H. Res. 988, Oct. 8, 1974, 93d
incumbent Member reelected to the ensuing Cong. ess who attends Cong., 2d Sess.I.
any such meeting convening after the adjournment sine die of the Congress in the year involved, is to be paid for 1 round trip between his or her place of residence in the district for the purpose of attending such meeting.
Provided that each Member-elect (other than an incumbent Member
reelected to the ensuing Congress) who attends such caucus or conference is, in addition, to be reimbursed on a per diem or other basis for expenses incurred in connection with his or her attendance at such meeting for a period not to exceed the shorter of the following: (1) the period beginning with the day before the designated date upon which such meeting is to convene and ending with the day after the date of final adjournment of such meeting; or (2) 14 days.
Provided that each Member-elect who attends an organizational Jan. 14, 1975 89 Stat. 282 (July 25, 1975)
caucus or conference after each November election and each IH. Res. 10, Jan. 14, 1975# 94th
incumbent Member reelected to the ensuing Congress who attends Cong., 1st Sess.!.
such meeting convening after adjournment sine die of the Congress in the year involved, is entitled to designate I staff person to be paid for 1 round trip between that person's place of residence, provided such place is in district reprEsented, and the District of Columbia, for purposes of accompanying Memrber-elect or incumbent
Member to any such meeting.
Provided that each Member-elect (other than an incumbent Member)
who attends such meeting is entitled to designate one staff person who, in addition, is to be reimbursed on a per diem or other basis for expenses incurred in accompanying Member to such meeting for a ,Period not to exceed the shorter of the following: (1) the period begirngn with the day before the designated date upon which such meeting is to convene and ending with the day after the date of the
final adjournment of such meeting; or (2) 14 days.
Provided that additional funds, if any, for staff allowances and office
space for use by Member-elect (other than incumbent reelected to ensuing Congress) may be authorized by the Committee on House
Administration.







53


13. Official expenses allowance I
-.On March 2, 1977, an Official Expenses Allowance of $7,000 per .session was authorized for official expenses incurred in district and Washington, D.C. offices, to be effective January 3, 1978. The allowance was authorized by House Resolution 287 (March 2, 1977, 9.5th
-Cong., 1st Sess.) enacted into permanent law by 91 Stat. 668 (August 5, 1977).
From July 1, 1954 to January 3, 1978, an allowance was lprovidedl to Members for expenses incurred only outside the District of Columbia. The new Official Expenses Allowances, approved March 2, 1977, provided that funds be available for expenses of not only district offices but also Washington, D.C. offices. Previously, Washington, D.C. office expenses not met by official individual allowances were paid from such sources as unofficial office accounts and Member's personal funds.
The Official Expenses Allowance approved March 2, 1977, and to have become effective January 3, 1978, however, was superseded by a Decision of the Committee on House Administration on November 2, 1977, effective January 3, 1978. The Official Expenses Allowance, presently in effect, is for Member use for payment of expenses of travel, office equipment lease, distiict office lease, stationery, telecommunications, mass mailings, postage, computer services and other official expenses (as defined under section 11, A of this report).

A mount Effe--tive date Authority

Provided for an Official Expenses Allcwance, eliminating individually Jan. 3, 1978 Decision of the Committee on set allowances including the former Official Expenses Allowance. House Administration, Nov. 2,
Authorized reimbursement for official office expenses under the 1977.
new Official Expenses Allowance.

NOTE: From July 1, 1954, to Jan. 3, 1978, an allowance was provided -to Members, the Resident Commissioner, and Delegates for expenses incurred outside the District of Columbia. Effective Jan. 3, 1978, the Official Expenses Allowance provides for reimbursement of expenses incurred outside the District of Columbia and in District of Columbia offices.

Following is a legislative history of the allowance for expenses incurred outside the District of Columbia from 1954 to 1978:

Amount Effective date Authority

Provided $150 per quarter ($600 per annum) for expenses in a Mem- July 1, 1954 68 Stat. 403 (July 2, 1954).
ber's congressional district
Redefined the authorization for reimbursement of a Member's office June 13, 1957 71 Stat. 82 (June 13, 1957).
expenses, formerly restricted to expenses incurred in his or her congressional district, to expenses incurred outside the District of
Columbia.
Provided $300 per quarter ($1,200 per annum) for expenses outside the July 1, 1965 79 Stat. 281 (July 27, 1965)
District of Columbia. [H. Res. 831, Aug. 4, 1964,
88th Cong., 2d Sess.J.
Provided that the Delegate from the District of Columbia be entitled to Apr. 1, 1971 85 Stat. 636 (Dec. 15, 1971)
$300 per quarter for official expenses incurred in the District of H. Res. 418, May 18, 1971,
Columbia. 92d Cong., 1st Sess.I.
Provided that the Delegates from Guam and-the-Virgin Islands be Jan. 3,1973 86 Stat 119 (Apr. 10, 1972).
entitled to the same expense allowance as Members, the Resident
Commissioner, and D.C. Delegate.
Provided $500 per quarter ($2,000 per annum) for expenses outside Oct. 1, 1973 Order No. 8, 93d Cong., 1st Sess
the District of Columbia. (Cong. Record, Oct. 4 1973).
Provided that Members, the Resident Commissioner, and Delegates Jan. 3, 1977 Order No. 29, 94th Cong., 2d sess.
receive an amount not to exceed $1 per session for office expenses (Cong. Record, June 30, 1976).
outside the District of Columbia, unless each submitted an itemization of expenses for which reimbursement was requested.

7 Official expenses are those that are incurred by or for the Member, a Member's congressional office, or an employee of the office and that would qualify as ordinary and necessary business expenses in support of Member's official and representational duties. Nonexpendable equipment must be purchased under the provisions of the equipment purchase allowance or provided by GSA.






54

Amount Effective date Authority
Provided for the transferability of certain allowances, including the Jan. 3,1977 Order No. 30, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. allowance for expenses incurred outside the District of Columbia. (Cong. Record, June 30, 1976). Provided for the incorporation of allowances for expenses incurred Jan. 3,1978 91 Stat. 668 (Aug. 5, 1977). outside the District of Columbia into the "Official Expenses Allowances."

III. Franking Privilege
In addition to the regular postage allowance provided for Represenatives, the Resident Commissioner, and Delegates, Members also have the right to mail certain matter under the frank which permits mailings free of postage. The mailing cost for franked mail is paid from annual appropriations for the Legislative Branch. The amount of the cost for carrying franked mailed is then paid to the Postal Service as postal revenue.
The provisions of Federal law regulating the use of the frank are set forth in Title 39 of the United States Code. Title 39 describes the types of matter which may and may not be mailed under the frank and contains those provisions which prohibit a Member from permitting anyone else to use his or her frank. Under the provisions of law the following types of matter may be sent under the frank: official correspondence relating to matters of the legislative process and representative functions generally; material sent upon official or departmental business to a government official; public documents printed by order of Congress; the Congressional Record; and seeds and reports from the Department of Agriculture.
Current authority and regulations for use of the frank, as revised in 87 Stat. 737, December 18, 1973, Public Law 93-191, specifies certain guidelines and examples of frankable and non-frankable material. Public Law 93-191 provides a mechanism to allow Members to receive advance notice of whether mail matter meets the test of frankability by requesting advice and consultation from the House Commission on Mailing Standards. The Commission, additionally, has jurisdiction over all questions concerning abuse of the frank and its decisions are subject to limited judicial review. The 1973 Act makes a distinction between "official business" and "personal or political" materials by providing a general intent to allow only that mail matter to be sent under the frank which concerns the "official business, activities, and duties of the Congress."
IV. Foreign Travel
M'\ost foreign travel by Members and their employees is authorized by committees of the JIouse. Committees are empowered to inicur foreign travel expenses di lring the course of inquiries and investigzn tions relating to official committee business under the authority contiUed in section 136 of the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 (60 Star. 832), as amended. All such travel must be approved by the chairman, or (dIesignate(d official, of the committee for which travel is )erformed. Usulyv prior to the incurrence of expenses by a Member or employee, the chairman approves an administrative voucher that Spciftis travel to be performed( as definitely as possible.





55

Most Member and employee foreign travel ex'elss are fiunled through use of counterpart fun(is, which are foreign e'11ren(ies owne by the United States. Such currencies represent repayments fli for(foigIt assistance loans or for sales of surplus materials andl h i by Ameia embassies. Reimbursement for foreign travel throiIh ise 1(of con terpart funds was made available in 1954 by Public Law 8:-685, sect ion 502(b), 22 U.S.C. 1754(b). In instances in which counterlpart funds are det)leted, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to luIr(lhase local currencies as may be necessary, using any fin(1s in the Treasui-y not otherwise ap)rol)riated. Travel is also undertaken at the directionn of the House lea(lershi) with expenses for such travel paid from the
contingent fund of the House through vouchers.
The chairman of each committee, and each Member or emi)loyee or group which receives travel authorization from the Speaker, is required to submit to the Clerk of the House a consolidated report which
(1) itemizes amounts and dollar equivalent values of foreign currency expended and amounts of dollar expenditures from appropriated funds, stating the purposes of expenditures including per (liem (lodging and meals), transportation, and other purposes, and (2) shows the total itemized expenditures by the committee or group and by each Member and employee of such committee or group. The reports are to be consoli(lated by the Clerk of the House, be open to public inspection, and be published in the Congressional Record within 10 days after receipt by the Clerk. Each committee chairman is required to report on a quarterly basis. Each Member or employee or group receiving authorization by the Speaker is required to submit a report within 30 days after completion of travel [22 U.S.C. 1754(b), as amended most recently by Public Law 95-384, 92 Stat. 742-743, Sept. 26, 1978.]

V. Other

A. CHARGEAbLE SERVICES
1. Barber shop services
Members may avail themselves of the services of the Representatives' Barber Shop for a variety of services at set fees to Members. A haircut, for example, would cost a Member $3 at current prices.
8 In addition, each chairman or senior member of a House group or delegation to an international or interparliamentary group of which the United States is a member or participates, to whom local currencies are available or for which funds are appropriated by Congress, is required by law to file reports on expenditures with the chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Relations. Each report must itemize all expenditures made bv Members and employees together with purpose of expenditures, including per diem (lodging and meals), transportation, and any other purposes. Within sixty days after the beginning of a regular session of Congress, the chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations is required to prepare a consolidated report showing with respect to each group, the total amount expended, purposes of expenditures, amount expended for such purpose, names of Members and employees by or on behalf of whom expenditures were made, and the amounts expended. The consolidated reports are to be filed with the Committee on House Administration and be open to public inspection [22 U.S.C. 276(c-1), as amended most recently by Public Law 94-39, 89 Stat. 299, July 25, 1975].






56

2. Beauty shop services
Members may use the services of the House Beauty Shop. A variety of services are provided at set fees. A complete cut and/or shampoofor example, would cost from $12.
3. Flags
Flags may be purchased to be flown over the Capital and are paid for from a Member's personal funds, or by individual requesting flag, or from the Member's Official Expenses Allowance. Wrapping and mailing are provided by the House Publications Distribution Service.
4. Photographers (Democratic and Republican photographers)
Services with set fees include news photography for national publications and television release, graphic layout and design for brochures, and billboards and production of 16-millimeter film.
5. Plant service (Botanic Garden)
Plants are available at a set fee per plant from the Botanical Garden for official office or committee use.
6. Recording studio
Facilities are available, to record radio, film and television programs with charges for services of the Studio billed monthly to Member. Charges are paid personally by Member and can not be paid through any other official office account. Only Members of the House are entitled to use of the Studio for official activities. Audio and video tape can be purchased from the Office Supply Service through Member's stationery account.

B. MISCELLANEOUS
1. Credit union, congressional employees
Services to shareholders, which includes Members of Congress, inelude savings accounts, loan counseling, and purchase of money orders. Savings account life insurance is provided without charge for an amount equal to that deposited in a savings account up to $1,000. Automatic loan protection insurance up to $10,000 is provided.
2. Document room (House)
Provides upon request, copies -of bills and resolutions, House documents, committee reports, public laws, and compilations of laws arranged by subject categories.
3. File storage (National Records Center)
A courtesy storage program, authorized by the General Services Administration, is provided to Members during tenure of office. District office records, in addition, may be filed with the Records Center or with a regional Federal Records Center. Upon retirement from office, Members are requested to notify Records Center on procedure for disposition of stored office records. Shipping costs must e paid by the M4embcrs.
4. Filing system assistance (G7eneral Services Administration)
Staff personnel 8re available to Members for assistance as are handbooks on records ma nagement systems. Such handbooks include correspondence management, files operations, form and guide letters, plain letters, and subject filing.






57

5. Filing system assistance (Library of Congress)
Staff personnel are available upon request for assistance. The Library also provides "A Guide for the Organization and Maintenance of Records in Congressional Offices."
6. Gymnasium facilities
The use of a gymnasium facility, reserved for Members only, is provided without charge.
7. Monuments to deceased Members of Congress
Whenever a Member is interred in the Congressional Cemetery, the Sergeant at Arms is authorized to have a monument erected of granite the cost of which is charged to the Contingent Fund of the House.
8. Office furnishings, Washington, D.C.
Furnishings are provided on loan to Members for Washington, D.C offices without charge to Member. Limitations on types of furnishings are established by the Clerk of the House. Basic f umishings provided include: executive desks,, secretary desks, executive chairs, secretary typing chairs, lounge chairs, couches, occasional chairs, conference tables, table lamps, floor lamps, metal file cabinets, draperies for Member's private office only, bookcase, coat trees, refrigerator, work table, venetian blinds, moveable safes, and safe files. All office furnishings are registered with the Clerk of the House and remain property of the House of Representatives.
9. Office of attending physician
Facilities available to Members include maintenance of medical records and preventive health programs through annual physical examinations without cost to Member. Medical information of Members and results from examinations conducted by the Attending Physician are offered to Member's private physician upon request. In addition, the Office provides a 24-hour answering service, emergency resuscitation equipment, ambulance service, laboratory, X-r.ay, pharmacy, and physiotherapy services, electrocardiographic service, and immunization and allergy programs. The Office will also arrange with Walter Reed Army Hospital or Bethesda Naval Hospital for hospitalization and treatment at Office of Management and Budget (OMB) established rates. Rates include costs of room, surgery, medicine, physician fees, and other services normally associated with patient hospital care. Outpatient rates are $20 per day. Should the Member be faced with a medical emergency outside the District of Columbia, he or she could elect to enter any one of the uniformed services hospitals at the same OMB rates. However, should the Member elect to enter a private hospital, OMB rates would not be applicable.
10. Painting reproductions (National Gallery of Art)
Framed reproductions of paintings and prints are available on a loan basis with a quota of tw 0 repro' auctions for each Member at any one time.
11. Parking spaces
One garage space is provided for each Member and four garage spaces and one outside parking permit for staff.





r a

12. Pichirefraining
The Carpentry Shop, under authority of the Superintendent of House Office Buildings, will frame without charge a "reasonable" number.of pictures each year for use in a Member's personal and committee offices.
13. Publications distribution service (folding room)
Production services for bulk mailings include: newsletters, speeches, other printed materials, sealing envelopes and mailing bulk correspondence. Costs of services and supplies are paid from appropriations for the Service. A publications banking service is provided for various publications allotted to Members by the Publications Ledger Section which includes: Agriculture Yearbooks, Bureau publications, Session Laws, U.S. Code, District of Columbia Code, Congressional Directories, Congressional Record (bound copies), and other books and documents allotted to Members. Book wrapping service is available for publications for which official wrappers are provided by the Government Printinz Office.
In addition, wrapping and mailing of official documents, books and stationery are provided with limitations. Franked mail must be furnished for packages. Limitations are established by the Service on supplies available to Members (such as paper, tape, cardboard, and mailing tubes).
16. Funeral Expenses
The Sergeant at Arms is authorized to make arrangements for a committee of Members to attend the funeral of a deceased Member with expenses to be paid from the Contingent Fund of the House. 17. Gratuity payment upon death
Payment may be made to the next of kin of a deceased Member as authorized by law. Gratuity is usually the equivalent of 1 year's salary. V1. Publications

The Federal Government annually publishes a number of reports, documents, manuals, catalogs, and other publications, most of which are available to Members of Congress. Availability may be based upon specific statutory authority or at the discretion of particular organizations (for example, the Joint Committee on Printing), executive departments and independent agencies, or the Superintendent of Documents. While certain congressional publications are indefinitely authorized by provisions of the United States Code, others are )eriodically authorized by simple, concurrent or joint resolutions of gress. Others are published by congressional support agencies.






59

The Appendix contains listings of publications available to Mlembers of Congress including congressional publications authorize(I by law and a selected list of congressional publications authorize(l by reoltition during the 94th Congress. A third list provides executive anid
independent agency publications distributed to Congress as requir-ed by the United States Code.
APPENDIX
(Publications Available to Members of Congress As of June 1, 1977)
[SOURCES. Hearings on Legislative Branch Appropriations, Fiscal Year 1978, Iouse Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Legislative Branch Appropriations, pages 441-453, as compiled by the Congressional Research Service and Government Printing Office.]











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INDICATORS OF CONGRESSIONAL WORKLOAD AND ACTIVITY
One difficulty in assessing Congress' legislative performance is finding reliable and meaningful indicators of workload and activity. Frequently, evaluaters turn to quantitative data-e.g., number of bills introduced, number of committee meetings held, number of recorded votes, number of bills enacted, etc.-in an effort to measure Congress' performance. Generally these numbers are measures of some aspect of congressional workload or activity during a standard period of time, such as a congressional session. The use of such statistics is not without hazard-particularly if one wishes to use quantitative measures for making inferences about the quality of congressional work-but with proper precautions they can be helpful in illustrating "life in the Congress."
Some persons seeking data describing Congress' performance are interested only in one Congress or in one session. Others wish to measure change in some aspect of the legislative process, such as in the complexity of legislation or the amount of time spent in session. To meet both types of need, we have compiled data over time for selected indicators-those which are most often objects of inquiry and for which data are readily available. To assist in the analysis of these data, we address herein two problems which frequently confront those who would use such data. First, we assess the difficulties involved in making across-time comparisons. Next, we discuss the validity of the indicators. For instance, to what extent does a measure such as the number of bills introduced during a Congress provide an accurate portrayal of the congressional workload?
The data, presented in Tables 1-9, encompass the period from 1947 (80th Congress, 1st session) through 1977 (95th Congress, 1st session).1 The tables are organized so as to simplify the tasks of locating the desired figures and making relevant comparisons between measures and across time. For instance, certain measures-such as the number of public bills enacted and the number of vetoes overridden-pertain to the Congress as a whole rather than to either of its Houses separately. Other measures-such as time in session, number of bills introduced, and number of committee meetings-apply to both the House and the Senate. Executive nominations submitted and executive nominations confirmed are measures which are relevant only to the Senate.
These distinctions are reflected in the data presentation. Information about the Congress as a whole, the Senate, and the House is presented in Tables 1-3, 4-6, and 7-9 respectively.' Within each of these sets of tables, (lata are displayed for the first session, the second session, an(l then the entire Congress. Tables 1-9 appear on pages 67-73 of this paper.
I The major reason for beginning the time series Nith data for 1947 is that the 80th Congress was the first Congress su sequent to t he Legislative Rvo gali7aiion Act of 1946, which significantly altered congressional procedure and structure. Also, while extension of the time series backward from 1947 is possible for some of I hT measures, iw general such an extension encounters problems of data availability an comparability. The separate ion by chamber reflects the fact that interest is more often displayed in comparisons across Ii 'e periods within one chamber than in comparisons between chambers. The latter type of comparisons ako can be made with ease, however, by the simultaneous use of tables.







67

TABLE I.-U.S. CONGRESS, LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITY: 80TH THRU 95TH CONGS., IST SESS.

Number of Pages of Number of Pages of Number of vetoes 3 Number of
public bills public bills private bills private bills vetoes overCongress enacted I enacted 2 enacted I enacted 2 Regular Pocket ridden 3

80th ------------------- 395 946 131 55 13 19 1
81st ------------------- 440 1,059 353 140 30 2 1
82d -------------------- 255 767 411 149 9 4 2
83d ------------------- 288 625 227 77 4 6 0
84th ------------------- 390 724 490 164 3 8 0
85th ------------------- 316 642 341 132 3 9 0
86th ------------------- 383 723 236 101 10 10 1
87th ------------------- 401 831 284 105 6 2 0
88th ------------------- 258 864 165 63 1 2 0
89th ------------------- 349 1,311 214 88 7 0 0
90th ------------------- 249 942 204 64 2 1 0
91st ------------------- 190 853 75 27 0 0 0
92d ------------------- 224 813 63 25 2 1 0
93d -------------------- 245 1,083 50 19 9 1 1
94th ------------------- 205 1,160 27 17 0 4
95th ------------------- 223 27 2 0 0

1 Source: Congressional Record, Daily Digest.
2 Sources: U.S. Statutes at Large; American Law Library, Library of Congress.
3 Sources: U.S. Congress. Senate. Secretary of the Senate. Presidential vetoes. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969; also selected Congressional Research Service compilations by Ronald C. Moe, senior analyst.
4 This information is not readily available.

TABLE 2.-U.S. CONGRESS, LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITY: 80TH THRU 94TH CONGS., 21) SESS.

Number of Pages of Number of Pages of Number of vetoes 3 Number of
public bills public bills private bills private bills vetoes overCongress enacted I enacted 2 enacted I enacted 2 Regular Pocket ridden 3

80th ------------------- 511 1,290 327 127 29 14 5
81st ------------------- 481 1,255 750 277 40 7 2
82d -------------------- 339 818 612 211 5 4 1
83d -------------------- 493 1,274 775 288 17 25 0
84th ------------------- 638 1,124 403 200 9 14 0
85th ------------------- 620 1,793 443 217 15 24 0
86th ------------------- 417 1,051 256 100 12 12 1
87th ------------------- 484 1,247 400 150 5 7 0
86th ------------------- 408 1, ill 195 81 4 2 0
89th ------------------- 461 1,601 259 100 3 4 0
90th ------------------- 391 1,362 158 64 0 5 0
91st ------------------- 505 2,074 171 79 7 4 2
92d -------------------- 383 1,517 98 42 4 13 2
93d -------------------- 404 1,278 73 29 18 11 4
94th ------------------- 383 1,803 114 15 5 4

'Source: Congressional Record, Daily Digest.
2 Sources: U.S. Statutes at Large; American Law Library, Library of Congress.
3 Sources: U.S. Congress. Senate. Secretary of the Senate. Presidential vetoes. Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969; also selected Congressional Research Service compilations by Ronald C. Moe, senior analyst.
4 This information is not readily available.

TABLE 3.-U.S. CONGRESS, LEGISLATIVE ACTIVITY: 80TH THRU 94TH CONGS.

Number of Pages of Number of Pages of Number of vetoes 3 Number of
public bills public bills private bills private bills vetoes overCongress enacted I enacted 2 enacted I enacted 2 Regular Pocket ridden 3

80th ------------------- 906 2,236 458 182 42 33 1
81st ------------------- 921 2,314 1,103 417 70 9 3
82d -------------------- 594 1,585 1,023 360 14 8 3
83d -------------------- 781 1,899 1,002 365 21 31 0
84th ------------------- 1,028 1,848 893 364 12 22 0
85th ------------------- 936 2,435 784 349 18 33 0
86th ------------------- 800 1,774 492 201 22 22 2
87th ------------------- 885 2,078 684 255 11 9 0
88th ------------------- 666 1 1 975 360 144 5 4 0
89th ------------------- 810 2,912 473 188 10 4 0
90th ------------------- 640 2,304 362 128 2 6 0
91st ------------------- 695 2,927 246 104 7 4 2
92d -------------------- 607 2,330 161 67 6 14 2
93d -------------------- 649 2,361 123 48 27 12 5
94th ------------------- 588 2,963 141 (4) 32 5 8

'Source: Congressional Record, Daily Digest.
2 Sources: U.S. Statutes at Large; American Law Library, Library of Congress.
3 Sources: U.S. Congress. Senate. Secretary of the Senate. Presidential vetoes. Washington,. U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969; also selected Congressional Research Service compilations by Ronald C. Moesenior analyst.
4 This information is not readily available.











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74

COMPARISONS ACROSS TIME
The identification of changes across time, such as trends, is more complex than is immediately apparent. This complexity is due to the existence of several conceptually distinct components in most acrosstime data. These components can be identified as: (1) random fluctuations; (2) cyclical effects; (3) systemic changes; and (4) trends. Changes in the values of a measure across a number of years reflect each of these components to some degree. Random flutctuations
For any of the measures in Tables 1-9, it is apparent that some of the short-term change in values is without pattern.3 This kind of change is due to "chance" factors-events whose occurence is unsystematic and unpredictable.
In some data, the amount of random fluctuation is sufficient to obscure kinds of change in which one is really interested, such as longterm trends. The figures for the number of Senate days in session, in Table 6, provide an example. These figures show a great deal of unsystematic year-to-year variations; this probably is the most visible aspect of the data. Coexisting with, and partially masked by, these random fluctuations, is a long-term increase in the average number of days in session; this may be the most important aspect of the data.
The presence of random fluctuations makes it dangerous to draw conclusions about "meaningful" change on the basis of only a few measurements. If one were to rely upon data from only the 81st and 94th Congresses to make an inference about trends in the number of Senate (lays in session, for instance, the judgment that time in session declined during that period would be inescapable. Clearly, though, the number of days in session during the 81st Congress was unusually high for Congresses during that era; since it is an unrepresentative figure, any conclusion about trends which is based upon it will be in error. Only by examining figures for the entire time period can one realistically estimate the direction and amount of change beyond that attributable to random forces.4
Cyclical effects
Some of the variation in data over time reflects regularities of the political process. For instance, the number of bills introduced normally is greater in the first than in the second session of Congress. Conversely, the number of bills passed generally is greater in the second session than in the first. And the congressional process is structured in a manner which encourages a higher incidence of committee meetings in the first session than in the second.
These and other cycles of the congressional process should be recognized by persons who are interested in indicators of "life in the Congress." They have much to do with how Members allocate their time and with the flow of legislative outputs. And they pose a hazard to persons who wish to measure change: inferences should not be based on measures taken during different parts of a cycle. Inferences
3 Random fluctuiat ions, as well as the other components of change, may be visualized more easily when the numbers are plotted as graphs rather than presented in tables. We rely upon the latter approach for this palwr in order to enhance the conciseness of presentation. 4The effects of random forces should tend to cancel out in data collected over an extended time period. That is, in the long run, random forces can be expected to inflate and deflate data values about equally.






75

about long-term changes in workloadl, for inst ance, s1houl1d not rely on comparisons of first-session with secondI-session, data. Systemic factors
Some changes in across-time data values may 1)e sudden and not predictable on the basis of past patterns, and yet not 1)e the result of random forces. In the context of legislative dat a, suich c-hang es generally reflect alterations in the political or congressional system. Changes in chamber rules and in party control of the legislative and executive branches, for instance, can disturb congressional workload, levels and activity p~atternis, and this disturbance will be evident inl workload and activity indicators for the duration of the changes.
Several kinds of political and legislative events can cause sudden and sustained surges or declines in the values taken by congressional workload and activity indicators, One such systemic event is a change in party control of Congress and the Presidency. When the President and a majority in both Houses of Congress are of the same political party, the legislative program of the President generally encounters less congressional opposition than would otherwise be the case. Similarly, the President is less likely to oppose measures approved by the Congress. Thus, the effects of changes in the pattern of party control should be evident in measures such as the number of public bills enacted, the numbers of Presidential vetoes cast and overriden, and the number of executive nominations unconfirmed-other factors aside.
Another systemic event is a change in the legislative philosophy of the executive branch. For instance, one President might priopose to the Congress little in the way of a legislative program; his successor might offer a crowded legislative agenda. Other influences-such as the partisan control of Congress-aside, Presidential philosophy in this regard could lead to increases or decreases in various measures, of congressional workload and activity. Among such measures would be days and hours in session and the number of pages of public bills enacted.
Changes in the rules governing Sena te and House procedures also are reflected by workload and activity indicators. For instance, effects of the 1970 House decision authorizing the recording of teller votes are evident in the "recorded votes" column in Tables 7-9. In the 90th Congress, House rules are amended to permit joint .sponsorship of' public bills by as many as 25 Members; prior to that, joint sponsorship. had not been allowed. Subsequent data on the number of bills introduced appear to reflect this change. The rules adopted by the House, in the 95th Congress contained a limitation on use of quorum calls; the unusually small number of quorum calls in the 1st session of the 95th Congress appears to be a result.
It is important for persons interested in trends in congressional workload and activity to recognize that systemic events interfere with the normal rate, and sometimes even with the direction, of* change.
Trends
Most people who use across-time data are concerned with trends.They want to know how much the "normal" value of a measure-that. which -it would have in the absence of short-term forces-has changed over time. In order to discover and measure a trend, then, it is es-





76

sential to be aware of the confounding effects which random forces and cyclical factors have on the data. Systemic events must be rec-ognized also, but if they are of long duration-as often is the case with changes in chamber rule-one may wish to consider their effects as part oCa trend rather than as an aberration.
Statistical techniques are available to aid in the identification and measurement of trends; some of these techniques also measure the impact of random factors and of systematic events which are separable from any trend-e.g., cyclical and systemic factors.5
It is dangerous to draw conclusions about trends from data reflecting only the beginning and the end of a time period. There is always a. possibility that one or both of the sessions of Congresses chosen was marked by abnormally strong short-term forces and, hence, is not a reasonable benchmark against which to measure change. Returning to the example of Senate days in session, anyone wishing to measure long-term change would do well not to select the 81st Congress as the sole source of data about earlier Congresses; it is clearly unrepresentative of other Congresses within the same time frame. In general, it is greatly preferable to base conclusions about change on all available data or a scientific sample thereof. But if, for some reason, one wishes to make inferences about an extended time period from only two observations (time Roints) much care should be taken in selecting those observations, using the criterion of representativeness.
The presence of random, cyclical, and systemic components in across-time data serves to emphasize the importance of suspending judgment about trends until one has a thorough understanding pf the congressional process. For instance, the marked increases in numbers of committee meetings in both Houses could be.interpreted as a straightforward indication of an expanding congressional workload. While the fact may not lead to a serious questioning of that interpretation, it should be noted that new committees and sub-committees have been created in recent years and that some automatic increase in meetings m ould be expected as a result. Awareness of this systemic change aids in understanding the trend toward more
-committee meetings.
VALIDITY OF THE INDICATORS
Each of the indicators for which data are provided in Tables 1-9 is a measure of congressional workload and/or activity. Workload and activity are very broad concepts, however, to which each indicator bears a distinctive relationship. While "number of bills introduced" and "number of committee meetings" both are measures of workload, for example, they refer to different aspects of workload. When one is contemplating the use of any of these indicators, it is important to be clear aboiit ju-st what one wants to know and about the usefulness and limitations of the indicators, severally and together, in providing that information.
Common sense and familiarity with the congressional process are sufficient, to resolve most questions about the appropriateness of indicators for particular purposes. Nevertheless, there axe some caveats
5,Ree references to running, averages, regression, factor analysis, and analysis of variance, for Instances, la most, statistics texts.






77

which need to be pointed out about the use of measures of workload and activity.
First, generalizations about specific aspects of workload or activity should be based on concomitant use of all appropriate 1nd1(,-.1t0rs, rather than on any one indicator thought to be "best," or most al)I)ropriate. Limiting one's focus to one or two indicators when there are ,others which are relevant can lead to fallacious or incomplete concli-isions. For instance, a description of changes in the volume of t1te ,congressional workload, based solely upon numbers of bills and resolutions introduced, would give the impression of a significant increase in volume during the 1947-1976 period. During the same period, however, the number of measures reported has declined significantly. There have been increases in numbers of committee meetinLys and in the number of votes taken. Clearly, a realistic assessment of workload trends must involve the simultaneous use of these and other indicators.
Second, there are few readily available indicators of qualitative aspects of congressional workload and activity. Such measures could help a, great deal in providing a fuller picture of the legislative process. Occasionally they might be useful in resolving seeming paradoxes discovered through the standard indicators. For instance, what can be concluded about trends in congressional workload from data indicating that committee meetings have been increasing in frequency but that committees have been reporting fewer bills in recent years? This paradox might be better understood if committee meetings were categorized according to their purposes. Perhaps much of the increase in meetings has been for purposes of oversight and investigation as distinguished from the drafting of legislation. The paradox might be further illumined by measures of the complexity of legislation. Perhaps bills and resolutions have been becoming more complex, as a reflection of societal problems, with committees therefore spending more time on each piece of legislation receiving consideration.
Third, for a full understanding of the data, there often is a need to ask questions which are not readily apparent. For instance, it would be useful to know the extent to which congressional workload data have been affected by practices such as reauthorization on an annual basis and authorization on a continuing (multiyear) basis.
The fourth caveat is that it is not always easy to identify the relationship between standard measures of workload or activity and factors affecting the political/legislative process. Because so many factors affect congressional behavior, simple one-to-one relationships between political forces and the indicators of workload and activity are seldom found. Each relationship suggested in this paper is subject to this caveat.
CONCLUDING COMMENTS
We have presented data on selected measures of congressional workload and activity. In addition, we have suggested some problems in the usage of such data and have recommended only careful and appropriate analysis of the data. This report carries no further implications.
(Arthur G. Stevens, CRS, March 31, 1978)











DISPOSITION OF THE UNUSED PORTION OF A MEMBER'S
CLERK HIRE ALLOWANCE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE
FEDERAL BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY
This report responds to the questions: (1) what happens to the unused portion of a Member's Clerk Hire Allowance, and (2) what impact does that unused portion have on the Federal budget and fiscal policy? In order to answer these questions, it is necessary to examine the clerk hire funding system in some detail.

THE CLERK HIRE FUNDING SYSTEM
Funding for the Clerk Hire Allowance is provided in the annual Legislative Branch Appropriations Act under the single appropriation account, "Members' Clerk Hire." The appropriation entitles each Member to hire staff for the "discharge of his official and representative duties."
An initial estimate of the amount needed for the clerk hire appropriation is made by the Office of Finance, operating under the Clerk of the House. Pursuant to the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 (42 Stat. 20), the estimate is submitted to the Office of Management and Budget by October 15 as part of the total budget for the House and included in the President's January budget. The President has no authority to alter any of the legislative branch appropriation estimates; they are included in his budget merely for informational purposes.
Several factors enter into the computation of the initial estimate. First, limitations are placed by House resolution and regulation of the Committee on House Administration on the number of staff persons a Member may hire under this allowance and the maximum annual salary they may be paid. Currently, Members may hire no more than 18 persons at a total annual salary cost of not to exceed $288,156.' Thus, the total salary limitation ($288,156) multiplied by the number of Members (439) equals the maximum amount of funds which could be appropriated in conformance with the allowance limitations ($126,500,484). Once this figure is established, however, it is then adjusted to reflect the fact that Members historically do not spend the full amount of Clerk Hire Allowance they are entitled to spend (either by employing less than 18 persons or by paying staff persons lower salaries than those legally allowed), and the fact that Members are permitte(l to transfer up to $15,000 of their Clerk Hire Allowance to their Official Expenses Allowances. According to the Clerk of the House, the Office of Finance evaluates past spending and allowance
I For a more detailed discussion of the procedures and limitations which govern the use of this allowance. see: U.S. Congress. House. Committee on House Administration. Regulations and Accounting Procedures for Allowances and Expenses of Committees, Members, and Employeesof the U.S. House of Representatives. Washington, U.S. (fovt. Print. 01., January 1977 (especially pp. 59A(;), and U.S. Congress. House. Com1m itlee on Appropriations. Legislative Branch Appropriations for 1979. Hearings. Washington, U.S. (iovt. Pruit. 0f., 1978, p. 137 (for an updated figure on the total salary limitation).

(78)






79

transfer practices of Members and adIjusts the appropriation ,Ist iuat e downward. Although the appropriation estimate for fiscal year 1979 'could have been as high as $126.5 million (based on current inaxinm11 salary limitations), the Office of Finance recommended nn alppropriation of only $112.6 million. This represents an underl'und ing of nearly 11 percent.2
The House Appropriations Committee uses the estin)ate pub ishe I in the President's budget as a basis for its consideration of the appropriation. Mark-up sessions and floor debate afford the Committee and the full House, respectively, an opportunity to review an(l revise, if necessary, the estimate. Since the appropriate level of fun(ling for the "Members' Clerk Hire" account rests primarily on calculations (lerive(l from a fixed formula, the original estimate is seldom revised in the ,course of committee and full House action. An additional amount is routinely provided in supplemental appropriations to accommodate .cost-of-living increases.
Upon enactment of the Legislative Branch Appropriations bill for a given fiscal year, the specified level of budget authority is established by the Treasury Department in the "Members' Clerk Hire" account.' The Treasury Department, in conjunction with the Office of Management and Budget, issues to the House Office of Finance a document, referred to as a warrant, certiym the amount of budget authority
-available for the fiscal year.
Budget authority permits offices to enter into obligations which will result in future outlays. In the case of the "Members' Clerk Hire" account, an obligation occurs when a Member places someone on his
*Qr her staff (such employment must be periodically certified to the
-Office of Finance). An outlay occurs when the obligation is paid off (in the form of a monthly payroll check to the employee).
Budget authority made available for the "Members' Clerk Hire" account can be obligated only during the fiscal year for which it is provided. Section 402 of Public Law 95-94, the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act for fiscal year 1978, contains language which is repeated from year to year:
No part of any appropriation contained in this Act shall
remain available for obligation beyond the current fiscal year
unless expressly so provided herein.
Language in the section dealing with the "Members' Clerk Hire" account provides no exception to this requirement.
UNOBLIGATED AND UNEXPENDED BALANCES OF BUDGET AUTHORITY
The regulations governing the Clerk Hire Allowance stipulate that a Member may spend no more than X12 of the full allotment each month. If a Member fails to spend the full /2 allotment in a given month, then the unused portion of that allotment becomes an unobligated balance. If a Member consistently fails to use his or her full allotment, the unobligated balance accumulates. Unobligated balances of individual allotments are aggregated and reported to the Treasury Department as a total figure for the appropriation account.
2 House Appropriations Committee hearings, ibid, p. 138.
3 Each Treasury Department appropriation account is identified by its own number. The number of the "Members' Clerk Hire" account is 0415.






s0

At the close of the fiscal year, Members are barred from further obligating clerk hire funds. However, the Office of Finance will continue to liquidate during a grace period those obligations which are reported late so that all bills are paid. After the expiration of this grace period, when further obligations and outlays are not expected, any remaining balance of budget authority is regarded as an unexpended balance and is cancelled by the Treasury Department. For fiscal year1977 (the latest year for which figures are available), the unexpended balance for tho, "Members' Clerk Hire" account was $2.9 million out of an appropriation of $103.3, or about 2.85 percent of the total.4 If a Member discovers an unpaid obligation which applies to the fiscal year just ended, and the Member ended the fiscal year with sufficient. unused funds to pay the obligation, then he or she could request the Treasury Department to restore the necessary amount of budget, authority and pay the bill. Z

PACT OF UNEXPENDED CLERK HIRE BALANCE ON THE FEDERAL.BUDGET
Budget authority provided for Members' Clerk Hire may be spent on staff salaries, transferred to Official Expenses Allowances (as previously stated, such transfers are taken into consideration duringthe development of the appropriation estimate), and used to pay late obligations after the close of the fiscal year if it is properly restored. All remaining budget authority is regarded as unexpended and is cancelled by the Treasury Department. Cancellation of budget authority is the natural consequence of two factors: (1) language in the appropriation act which prohibits the obligation of budget authority after the fiscal year has expired, and (2) a statutory restriction against spending the budget authority for other purposes.' At this point in the budget. cycle, the unused budget authority is simply erased from the Treasury's books.
The fact that a portion of the budget authority allotted to the, "Members' Clerk Hire" account might remain unspent would have one direct consequence on the Federal budget; namely, total budget, outlays would be lower than the amount initially estimated. Whenever a Member spends less than the full amount he or she is authorized, total Federal spending is reduced by that unused amount. Such individual decisions, when aggregated, may exert some influence on the future fiscal policy adopted by the Federal Government (e.g.,raising or lowering' taxes and spending to meet certain economic needIs). However, in the case of the "Members' Clerk Hire" approlration, the impact of unexp~ended budget authority on the total budget has been extremely small. The unexpended amount for fiscal year 1977, about $2.9 million, amounted to 0.0007 percent of total Federal outlays for that year. According to figures presented to the House Appropriations Committee, as shown in Table 1, this was the, largest unexpended balance in recent years.
4 House Appropriationsq Committee hearings, op. cit., p. 139. 5An act of Yvibruary 12, 1868R (15 Stat. 36), stales in part, -1no money appropriated for one purpose shall thereafter be ised for any other purpose than tha for which it is appropriated."






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TABLE 1.-Unexpended balance in the "Members' clerk hire" account: fiscal years 1970-77
bala U('t
Fiscal year; ( u11 l1 d s)
1977---$2, 4 S 1976--,127 1975--, 341 1 9 7 4 _-1 9 7
1973 14
1972 _-- 2 19
1 9 7 1 2---- 1 (
1970 -23
Source: House Appropriations Committee annual hearings on the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act.

Given the enormous size of the Federal budget, and the relatively small amount of budget authority involved in Members' clerk hire, it is impossible to determine what effect a Member leaving a portion of his or her Clerk Hire Allowance unused would have on future fiscal policy. It is apparent, however, that some Members regard such an action as having value other than for purely economic reasons.

(Robert A. Keith, CRS, September 20, 1978)

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