Alachua .G142 61 1970
LAND USE PLAN
Planning Division, Department of Community Development Gainesville, Florida
Prepared by the City of Gainesville under Contract with the Florida Development Commission. The preparation of this report was financed in part through an urban planning grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development, under the provisions of Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, as amended
Perry C. McGriff, Jr., Mayor-Commissioner Neil Butler, Mayor Pro-Tern Courtland Collier Ted Williams Richard T. Jones
Dr. Clayton Curtis, Chairman Harold Bedell Thomas Coward Dr. Clark Hodge Sam Holloway Jack Rutledge Harold Walker
B. Harold Farmer
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
Norman J. Bowman, Director Audrey Willingham, Secretary
Richard Kilby Assistant Director
Thomas Greenwood Planner II
William Neron Planner I
V. Miles Patterson Planning Aide I Gary E. Woiford Planning Aide I
Jan Weaver Planning Aide I
Louie Wilson Planning Aide I
Mary Jo Hancock Clerk Typist
TITLE: Land Use Plan
AUTHOR: Planning Division.. Department of Community
Development, Gainesville, Florida
SUBJECT A Policies Plan and Land Use Plan for
Future Development of the Gainesville Urban Area.
DATE: May, 1970
LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY: Gainesville City Plan Board
SOURCE OF COPIES: Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and
Technical Information, Washington, D. C.
Department of Community Development, Municipal Building, Gainesville, Florida 32601
HUD Regional Office Library, Region III, 645 Peachtree Seventh Building, Atlanta, Georgia 30323
HUD PROJECT NUMBER: Florida P-54
NLffiABER OF PAGES: 121
ABSTRACT: Two major elements of the comprehensive
plan are presented in this report: The land use plan map and supporting text, and a policies plan setting forth major goals for the community, along with principles to govern urban development, particularly with regard to areas wherein the land use plan could not be specific in detail. Each major land use element i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, and public are reviewed and analyzed individually in both policies and land use plan sections. Growth factors influencing the plan's formation, to wit: physical and geographic setting, the economy and population factors are reviewed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . I
BASIC FRAMEWORK OF THE PLAN . . . . . . . . 3
THE NEED FOR A VIABLE PLAN . . . ... . 3
ECONOMY AND THE PLAN . . . . . . 3
ORDER AND HARMONY . . . . . . . 4
PLANNING FOR THE URBAN AREA . . . . . 5
GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA GROWTH FACTORS . . . . . 6
PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC SETTING . . . . 6
ECONOMY . . . . . . . . . . 9
Early Development . . . . . . . 9
Employment: Growth and Composition . . . 9
Income . . . . . . . . . . 12
POPULATION . . . . . . . . . . 19
Post G rowth . . . . . . . . . 19
Population Characteristics . . . . . . 20
Future Population Projections . . . . . 22
PO LICIES PLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . 25
Goals for Residential Development . . . . 25 Principles for Residential Development . . . 27
COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . 30
Goals for Commercial Development . . . 31
Principles for Commercial Development . . . 32
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . 35
Goals for Industrial Development . . . . 36 Principles for Industrial Development . . . 37
TRANSPORTATION . . . . . . . . 38
Goals for Transportation . . . . . . 39
Principles of Transportation . . . . . 39
TABLE OF CONTENTS
RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE . . . . . . . 41
Goals for Recreation and Open Space . . . . 41
Principles of Recreation and Open Space . . . . 42
COMMUNITY FACILITIES . a . . . . . . 43
Goals for Community Facilities . . . . . 43
Principles for Community Facilities . . . . . 44
Schools . . . . . . . . 44
Public Utilities . . . . . . 45
Police Services . . . . . . 46
Fire Services . . . . . . . 47
Library Services . . . . . . 47
LAND USE PLAN . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
COMMERCIAL . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Existing Commercial Land Use . . . . . . .. 51
Central Business District . . . . . . . 52
Strip Commercial . . . . . . . . . 53
Shopping Centers . . . . . . . . . 53
Commercial Zoning . . . . . . . . 54
Future Commercial Land Use . . . . . . 55
RESIDENTIAL . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Summary of Existing Characteristics . . . . . 57
Dwelling Units . . . . . . . . . 58
Housing Conditions . . . . . . . . 59
Plan Recommendations . . . . . . . 60
INDUSTRIAL . . . . . . . . . . . 63
RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE . . . . . . . 67
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 67
Neighborhood Parks . . . . . . . . 67
Neighborhood Playgrounds . . . . . . . 74
Community Parks . . . . . . . . . 75
Special Use Facilities . . . . . . . . 79
Semi-Public Recreational Facilifies . . . . . 79
Regional Parks and Open Space . . . . . 80
Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . 82
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES . . . . . Page
. 0 86
Fire Protection . . . . . . : . . 86
Fire Department Standards . . . . 86
Responses to Alarms . . . . . 86
Future Needs Before 1980 . . . . 87 Future Needs After 1980 . . . . go Library . . . . . . . . . . . go
Police Protection Gainesville Urban Area . . . 93
Gainesville Police Department . . . 93
Alachua County Sheriffs Department . . 95 University of Florida Police Department . 96 Florida Department of Public Safety . . 96 Region 11 Low Enforcement Planning Council 96 Schools Needs Gainesville Urban Area, 1980 . . 97 Needs for New Elementary Schools 99
Projected Future Enrollment in Junior-Senior High Schools loo
Junior Senior High Schools . . . 102 Uti I ities . . . . . . . . . . . 103
TRANSPORTATION . . . . . . . . . 104
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN . . . . . . . . . 107
CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LIST OF TABLES
Past and Future Resident Employment, Alachua County
1950-1980 . . . . . . . . I I
Percentage Distribution of Present and Projected Employment
by Industry Group, Alachua County, 1967, 1975 and 1980 . . . 13 fit. Personal Income: Major Sources of Personal Income Received
by Civilians for Participation in Production, Alachua County and Florida 17 IV. Existing Dwel i ing Units 1970 . . . . . . . . . 58
V. Dwelling Unit Composition, Gainesville Urban Area 1969-1970 59
VI. Low and Moderate Income Housing Completed or Underway Gainesville Urban Area . . . . . . 61
VII. Recreation Standards-Recreation Facilities for the Gainesville Urban Area . . . . . . 68
Vill. Existing and Proposed Recreation Facilities Gainesville Urban Area . . . . . . 84
IX. Standard Response Distances and Distribution of Companies . . . 88 K. Police Activity, Gainesville Police Department . . . . . 94
X1. Comparative School Enrollment and Population
Gainesville Urban Area., 1960, 1967, 1969 and 1980 . . . 98 XII. Membership and Recommended Capacity of Urban Area Elementary Sc hoo I s . . . . . . . 101
XIII. Existing Land Use, Zoning and Land Use Plan Recommendations Gainesville Urban Area . . . . . . 110
LIST OF CHARTS, ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS
I. Composition of the Resident Employment, Past and Projected
Alachua County 1950-1980. .. ...........14
It. Income Per Capita United States, Flor ida, Alachua and Selected Counties 1950-1966. .. ...............15
Ill. Age -SeK Totals for 1960 .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .. ....21
IV. Past and Projected Population, Gainesville Urban Area 1950-1990 ...23 V. Neighborhood Shopping Center Service Districts
GainesvilIle Urban Area 1970 .. ...........56
VI. Composition of New DwellIing Units Gainesville Urban Area .. ....62 VII. Recreation Plan Neighborhood Parks Gainesville Urban Area. ... ..71 VI1 I. Recreation Plan Neighborhood Playgrounds Ga inesville Urban Area .. 76 IX. Major Parks and Open Space Gainesville Urban Area. ...... ...78
X Fire Station Service Districts, Gainesville Urban Area ...... ...91 XI. Generalized Soil Suitability Map. .. ................Appendix
XII. Existing Land Use, Gainesville Urban Area, Gainesville, Florida . . Appendix XIII. Proposed Land Use Plan, Gainesville Urban Area, Gainesville, Florida Appendix
The Gainesville Plan Board undertook the preparation of a Comprehensive Plan for the urbanizing area of the City and environs approximately three years ago. In the period that followed a series of background or "tooling up" studies were completed as follows:
Physiographic Study April, 167
Enrollment and "Em--ployment, University
of 1716rido and Santa Fe Junior College September, 1967
Population Study January, 1968
Community Fac7i ities and Recreation May, 1968 Pra-nning Unit Study July, 1968
Land Use Analysis January, 1969
Economic Study March, 1969
Commercial Study September, 1969
Industrial Stud December, 1969
The purpose of these studies was to provide background information on "what makes the Gainesville Urban Area tick". Such an understanding of the resources of the community, coupled with an expression of the community goals and objectives, forms the basis for the preparation of a plan to guide the growth of the urban area during the decade ahead.
In sum, all of the documents which have been prepared in this program constitute a portion of the comprehensive plan. None are as important, however, as the Land Use Plan which is presented herein in a proposed or preliminary form. It should be noted that this plan does not represent an inflexible guide for the development or placement of land uses in the urban area without cognizance of likely unforeseen changes and technological innovation. The Plan, however, is intended to provide a firm footing for shaping the future of the urban area of, Gainesville, and therefore, should not be disregarded or changed without documented evidence as to the need and desirability of such change.
It is not necessary here to reiterate all of the undesirable characteristics
of the typical urban scene today which have resulted from a lack of sound planning. There is abundant evidence that cities, for the most part, have grown in a haphazard manner with chaotic growth accompanied by a host of problems. Not the least of these problems has been an inflation of the cost of government and all community services to a point where the battle cry of taxpayer revolt is now frequently heard.
No major corporation or company would think of embarking on an extension of their structure without first thoroughly assessing their current status and drawing up a blueprint for their expansion. It is hoped that this document will provide such a blueprint for both the public and private decisions relating to the community growth in the future.
It is vital that two facts be understood regarding the Plan:
It is not a panacea for all ills which exist now in the community, nor will it insure that mistakes will not be made in the future. It
wi I I, however, provide a better base for decision making than
has existed in the past.
2. The Plan is only a first step in a continuing process. In fact, the
Plan will only be viable to the extent that it is implemented
through such community development tools as zoning, subdivision
regulations, capital improvements and public and private decisions
effecting the future shape of the community. Even then, refinement
and change to reflect new conditions must be constant.
BASIC FRAMEWORK OF THE PLAN
Several factors which help provide the basic framework of this report should be set forth at the outset. Ideally and intentionally this document should reflect the desires of the community as interpreted by a representative group of citizens the Plan Board and within the context of good sound planning practice with guidance provided by a professional staff Neither the Plan Boord mor the staff can divorce themselves from the overall setting or mood of the people at a given time. 1hiS too Must be taken into account in reviewing this report.
What are some of the factors influencing this plan?
THE NEED FOR A VIABLE PLAN
A first consideration in drafting this plan was recognition of the fact that values and techniques which influence the character and composition of urban living change too rapidly to make it practical to adopt a rigid plan. One example for illustration purposes is the case of mobile homes. As recently as two or three years ago mobile homes were not considered a very important factor in the housing supply of this community. Based on a very general study of new dwelling units added to the community each year, only two or three times since 1960 had mobile homes made up as much as 10 per cent of the new housing stock, compared to 15 percent or so notionally. Nationwide mobile homes accounted for 90 percent of all dwellings under $15,000 in cost during 1969. The reasons for this dramatic increase are many, but perhaps the most important is that it is now becoming almost impossible for the average person to afford a single family house and, therefore, people are turning to mobile homes as a substitute. That this is a local as well as a national phenomenon is pointed up by the fact that recently the County Commission has had requests to rezone hundreds of acres into the mobile home category.
The point of this digression is that had the Plan been drawn 2 to 3 years ago, much less attention would hove been given to mobile homes. While maximum consideration has been given to new innovations in developing the Plan, it is pointless to believe that other such changes will not be forthcoming in the near future, and the Plan must retain viability to accommodate legitimate change.
ECONOMY AND THE PLAN
Perhaps the most basic precept in planning is that, by its very nature, the element of economy will be introduced into the otherwise random growth process There are many facets to the word economy in this context, but most important it means getting the most good out of the taxpayers dollar.
Without question, there are varying costs to the public-at-large resulting
f rom the development of different parcels in difficult locations. For example, to the extent that the general public bears the cost for utility expansion, it costs more proportionally to provide service the further you are from the sewer treatment plant or the water source. It is therefore a public concern to the extent that it must pay for utility expansion.
Certain areas, when developed, will create greater storm water run-off than others, which must be considered. Another example, it will ultimately cost more to locate a new shopping center in an area insufficiently served by streets than one which is adjacent to an existing thoroughfare, at least to the extent that streets are provided by the taxpayers. And finally, the distances which people must travel to and from home, work, and shopping, etc., has a direct relationship to the cost of providing streets on which such travel takes place. Therefore, in a very general sense, a plan should seek to minimize this cost to the public within the framework of the democratic, free enterprise system.
Another meaning of economy is equity. By this is simply meant that everyone should pay his fair share in proportion to the benefits he receives. There is without question certain benefits which accrue from one type of development over another. It is impossible to build a very strong case that one class of development should bear a disproportionate share of the common development costs of a community.
ORDER AND HARMONY
Many early plans in this country began with the stated objective of
"providing the very best community in which to live, work, and play". Stated another way, what these early planners were seeking to achieve was the maximum harmony of man with his physical environment.
There are many facets to the problem of achieving peace with man's environment and, by no means, are the factors which are considered important by some likewise as important to others.
Perhaps most important, however, is the desire for privacy and the related facet of compatibility with the adjacent property. Much, if not most, of the physical planning effort today is aimed at achieving compatibility between differing uses. Its achievement, on the other hand, is directly and irretrievably tied to the social attitudes of the majority of the people, and change can only be accomplished to the extent that such attitudes are changed. Most of the people no doubt in the search for privacy, have chosen to live in single family detached dwellings. This represents for the majority of homeowners the largest single investment of their lifetime. Any force which threatens this investment, such as
the introduction of a use believed to be incompatible, will result in conflict and disruption. In accord with this attitude a major objective of this plan is the minimization of such conflicts, while still providing for a full range of legitimate building types and land uses.
PLANNING FOR THE URBAN AREA
The need for broad area plans irrespective of artificial political boundaries is so well documented as to hardly need mention. Almost all of the physical forces relating to urban development are ignorant of such boundaries. Water flows across them, traffic runs through them and people cross over them at wi I I Thus, the decision to plan on an urban area basis was the only sound logical approach. The extent to which the plan is a force in the area outside the corporate limits will depend on the logic of its recommendations plus the political forces which shape all developmental decision. Certainly the principles of good modern planning have their best chance in the areas outside the City where errors made in more developed areas have not yet been made.
GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA GROWTH FACTORS
There are many factors which exert an influence on the growth of a community. Among the more important of these are the location, climate and other physical characteristics of the area. Most important is the basic economy of the area.
Physical factors such as land and development are the "materials" of planning, but the purpose of pini-ning is to improve the lives of people. Elemental to a plan then, is an examine, ,-,n and understanding of the characteristics of the population, i.e. the people. These considerations are examined in the following sections.
PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC SETTING
Gainesville is located rout-l"Iv in the middle of the State being approximately as for from the fortkerlmost of the panhandle in Escambia County as from the tip of the F;orida peninsula. Geographically, the urban area is located on the Florida peninsula at a point just south of where the State becomes a peninsula and midway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.
It is the largest urban area in North Central Florida with the exception of the port City of Jacksonville. The area lies within the economic sphere of Jacksonville, although it exerts a strong economic influence over a wide geographic area on its own. It is believed the outside limits of this influence are roughly bounded by the Gulf Coast and the cities of Ocala, Lake City, Starke, Keystone Heights and Palatka. The area is serviced by railroads, by feeder airlines (which may become major passenger airlines if recent proposals are implemented), and by an interstate highway and other major roads.
The mean temperature of the area is just slightly less than 70 0 and ranges from a January mean of approximately 570 to a July average of approximately 81 Slightly less than 50 inches of precipitation is measured here every year on the average. The growing season is estimated to be approximately 285 days.
The topography of the area ranges from extensive flat areas to moderately level plateaus, to the rolling foothills north and northwest of the City. There are relatively few areas from which development would be excluded because of topographic characteristics, however, certain areas, such as the rolling terrain in the Northwest favor selected types of development such as single family residential, as opposed to the larger more flat sites better suited for commercial and industrial developments.
There are three basic types of geological formations in the urban area: old Pleistocene terrace deposits which are basically sand formations; the Hawthorne formation, which is primarily a clay formation; and the Ocala group formations which is basically limestone. The latter is found generally in the areas west of 1-75
and underneath and south of Paynes Prairie. The clay formation forms a wide belt roughly lying between US 441 and 1-75 and extending eastward to and around Newnans Lake. The remaining part of the area is basically covered by the Pleistocene deposits, especially in the Northeast portions of the urban area.
Two different types of limestone formations characterize the subsurface geology of the area. These have been named Avon Park and Lake City. These limestone formations alternate in layers of very porous rock formations to very dense and practical ly impermeable dolomites and limestones making up the famous Florida aquifer, which provides an abundant supply of water for the area. This aquifer is fed, however, by water through surface sinkholes which permits pollution of the supply as evidenced in this area in the past.
Most of the precipitation which falls in the urban area eventually is absorbed into the underground by way of either Alachua Sink or the Kanapaha Sink with only small portions of the surface run-off finding its way via canal to Orange Lake and eventually into the ocean. The ability of the sinks to absorb water is inversely proportional to the level of the water table. Thusthe higher the water table the lower the rate at which the sinks absorb water, with the result being that flooding has occurred in the past during heavy storms and periods of high water table
The irregular distribution of the rainfall in this area drastically complicates the problem of absorbing all surface water through si nks. While an average of over 50 inches of rain fal Is during the year, more than half of this rainfall occurs from June to September. This rainfall can come in sudden great outbursts, which adds substantially to the problems of accommodating the runoff. Another factor that greatly influences the problems of flooding in the area is the poor percolation of certain typ6s of soils found in the urban area due primarily to a relatively impervious organic hardpan which is found in some flat areas.
Flooding from run-off water has occurred in three areas in the recent post.
The first area is in the Southwest in the Sugarfoot Prairie area around Clear Lake. This may be attributed directly to the slow absorption of the Konapaha Sink and the ill-defined channels running through the prairie area. The lost substantial flooding in the area occurred after Hurricane Dora in 1964. A second area which flooded at the some time, I ies east of Northwest 34th Street south of 8th Avenue and is characterised by a poorly defined Hogtown Creek Basin. Flooding also occurred in this area in 1970, when in excess of 7 inches of rainfall occurred in a short period of time. Flooding has also occurred in the Southwest 13th Street area where Tumbling Creek posses under the roadway. This situation was created in part by an improper grade of the culvert under this roadway, a problem that has since been corrected.
Several areas flooded by standing water were outlined in the Physiographic
Report. Basically, flooding in these areas are the results of poor soil characteristics, namely soils which have extremely poor percolation and, therefore, poor absorption of what is frequently a very heavy downfall of rain in a short period of time. The results can be standing water for substantial periods of time. The generalized soil suitability map which is included in this report outlines many of these areas, which occur in the soil Groups 3, 4, and 5 (See Map in Appendix).
The intensity of development, or at least the probable cost of development,
may be directly related to the type of soils where such development occurs. Wetness, shrink-swel 1, trafficabil ity, and bearing values are all characteristics of soils which can have limiting effects on development. For example, the shrinkswell characteristics are extremely important in the development of foundations, slabs and road pavement. In soil areas of extremely poor shrink-swell characteristics foundations, roadways, etc., may buckle due to the expansion and contraction of the soil. A generalized soil suitability map is included herein, but it is emphasized that this map is generalized and the basic value of it should be limited to general broad areas and notas a substitute for individual inspection of a specific location.
Group I soils have no inherent characteristics to deter urban development and may be used for residential, commercial, and industrial development or for transportation without reservation from a soils standpoint.
The soils in Group 11 may also be utilized for most types of urban development where deep foundations are not required. Limestone occurs at levels varying from thirty-five to fifty inches below the surface. At places this limestone may also be capped with a of clay which hinders internal drainage.
Care must be taken in utilizing the soils in Group III because of their wetness. Low intensity development is feasible, however, if the soils are drained and precautions are taken against future flooding. Much of the area classified in Group III would be well suited for extensive recreational uses.
The soils in Group IV and V have so many limitations that even low intensity urban development vould be severely hindered. The soils would be too expensive to drain effectively for urban uses and in sDme cases are not suited for development due to high shrink-swell potentials, low trafficability or low bearing values. In some places these soils coincide with areas that should be left undeveloped due to flood control conditions. It is recommended that in these cases the land be reserved as open space.
Areas designated in Group VI have little value for urban development except for recreation purposes and open space. Parks and picnic grounds would be well situated along the courses of streams where alluvial deposits.occur. These land areas can sometimes, be transformed into attractive swimming and picnicking areas. Large areas of alluvial deposits along stream channels should be retained in their natural state for the purposes of flood control and urban esthetics.
Table 2 in the Physiographic Report gives the suitability of each soil series for various urban uses. In using this table it must be remembered that each series is classed according to its inherent characteristics. Therefore, a soil classed as poor for a given use such as resident ial may be developed for that use with modification of its natural properties.
Perhaps the two most significant years in the economic history of this area were 1859 and 1905. In the former year the railroad linking Gainesville with the Florida East Coast was completed, and in the latter year the City was chosen as the location for the University of Florida.
With completion of the railroad Gainesville become a significant market and service center for a broad agricultural region. This agricultural resource remained the primary economic base for the area until after World War 11. It was not the only resource, however, because at one time or another tung oil production, tourism, phosphate mining, and processing of wood products played significant roles in the economy. Even agriculture varied in its principal crop over the years, with cotton, oranges, field crops, livestock and even peanuts either dominating or playing a major role in the economy. Throughout this period the University or its predecessor existed, slowly growing in size and importance until it come to dominate the economy of Gainesville and outlying regions. It remains today as the single largest force in the economy. Other significant factors have come into the picture in recent years to provide basic employmentsuch as the new Veteran's Hospital, Sperry Tube and General Electric. In addition, agriculture remains a significant part of the economic base of the community.
Employment: Growth and Composition
Resident employment was the measure chosen as a yardstick by which to quage the growth of economy in Alachua County in recent years. The Economic Base Study was based primarily on county-wide statistics, since they were the only ones readily available. Resident employment in 1950 was estimated to be 19, 948 and had grown 36.7% to an estimated 27,277 in 1960. In the next seven years it grew another 38% to a total of approximately 37,553. Thus from 1950 to 1967 resident employment is estimated to have grown by approximately 88%. The rate of growth, while somewhat slower than that experienced by the State of Florida, was far greater than that of the nation as a whole.
The composition of the resident employment varies widely between the County, the State of Florida, and the United States. The most significant differences lie in the importance of service industries in the State and the County versus the importance of manufacturing to the Nation. In both the County and in the State services comprised the largest single industry group in both the 1950 and 1960 census, whereas manufacturing
was the largest industry group far the Nation.
The significant role of services in the State may be attributed to the tourist industry which is the single most important factor in the Florida economy. In the Count> however, it is attributed primarily to the fact that education is listed in the census as a service industry. With the University being the single most important factor in the local economy, it naturally follows that the services group is the most important industry group. The services group is also the most important in terms of new growth during the past two decades. Other industry groups registered more significant percentage gains, such as the finance, insurance and real estate industry, but in terms of total numbers they are relatively insignificant by comparison. It was estimated that the total services resident employment constituted 34% of al I resident employment in 1950, that it had grown to 44% by 1960 and stood at just under 50% by 1967. Education, the largest component of the service industry group, was estimated to have grown from 16.8% of the total resident employment in 1950 to 22.5% in 1960 and 24. 1% in 1967. Table I indicates the estimated resident employment by all major industry groups for 1950, 1960 and 1967, with projections for 1975 and 1980.
Each of the major industry groups were examined individually and projections were made of the total resident employment through 1980. The results were a forecast for total resident employment to increase to 47,350 by 1975 and to 53,515 by 1980.
The rate of growth for the County was estimated to be 3.8% for the total
period from 1950 to 1967. The 1967 to 1980 growth rate is projected at approximately 2.7% a year. This compares to an employment growth rate for the nation of 1.2% from 1950 to 1965, and a projected growth rate by the National Planning Association for the period 1965 to 1985 of 1.8%. It therefore represents a continuation of much greater growth than is being experienced nationally, but a slight decrease in what has happened recently in the County.
The forecast called for a gradual leveling off in the rather spectacular rate which has been experienced in the past, which can be attributed primarily to the conclusion that growth in University enrollment would level off in the coming decade. However, subsequent to the completion of this forecast, new enrollment projections were announced which would supplant the previous enrollment ceilings. This latter projection would result in a greater rate of growth for the coming decade than has been experienced in the past. It is concluded therefore that the 53,500 employee forecast is probably on the conservative side if this latter rate of growth comes to past. When this employment forecast was related to overall population growth, a projected 1980 Urban Area population figure of 115,400 resulted. It was concluded that due to the possibility that this forecast was conservative the original forecast of 120, 000 as found in the Population Study was accepted as the projected population for 1980.
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Composition of the pr ieced employment and the estimated employment for past yearsereshown in Table 11 and in Chart i. No major structural changes are forecast in the general composition. Obvious trends are expected to continue such as the decline of agriculture as a percentage of the whole. It should be pointed out that rapid changes in the manufacturing sector are possible at any time by simple occurance of the location of a major plant in the area. No such change could be forecast because factors of location are not subject to advance warning. It is believed, however, that as a percentage of the total employment picture, manufacturing will generally maintain its relative position, while education is expected to peak and then remain stable.
Contrary to the seen-ingy widespread belief, Gainesville is not the wealthiest
community in Florida. Because of the University payroll, it is comparatively wealthy when contrasted with the surrounding basically rural counties. The mistaken belief that it is wealthier than it really is may be attributed to various published sources of estimated family income which are derived by dividing the total personal income by the number of households in the community. This process, however, does not take into account the income or numbers of residents added to the community in group housing, particularly the University, which result in a higher total personal income but fewer households than the typical community. The total household income is therefore greatly distorted upward. Such estimates appear annually in the Sales Management's Survey of Buying Power and various other sources.
As was the case with employment, the basic geographic unit in which income information is readily available is the County. Therefore, the firsthand data included herein is for that geographic unit. However, estimates have been made to fit such information to the Urban Area of Gainesville.
The latest statistical information available is from themagazine, "Dimensions", K which is published by the Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, for the year 1967. The total personal income of the County as recorded in that magazine in August, 1969, for the year 1967, was $230,941,000, a gain of 305% over the total personal income of $57,024,000 in 1950. This percentage gain, however, was not as spectacular as that experienced by the State of Florida which increased 375% during the same period. The gain from 1960 to 1967, as measured in constant dollars, (1957 1959 base year) was 68.4%.
During the same 1960-67 period the per capita income increased 33.8% in constant dollars, indicating that a material improvement had taken place in the economic welfare of the community. Per capita income in 1950 was $999, and had risen to $2,534 by 1967 based on unadjusted dollars. On a per capita income basis Alachua County has generally ranked from about 15th to as low as 23rd among the 67
TABLE I I
PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF PRESENT AND
PROJECTED RESIDENT EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY GROUP
Alachua County, 1967, 1975 and 1980
i1967 1975 1980
Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries 2.84 2.41 1.90
Mining .48 0.46 0.48
Manufacturing (8.38) (8.03) (7.98)
Furniture, Lumber & Wood Products 1.56 1.12 0.93
Food & Kindred Products 2.02 1.86 1.81
Electrical Machinery, Equipment & Supplies 2.37 2.68 2.92
Other 2.43 2.37 2.32
Transportation, Communications & Utilities (3.44) (3.12) (2.96)
Railroads & Railway Express 0.37 0.27 0.21
Trucking & Warehousing 0.43 0.43 0.43
Other Transportation 0.50 0.46 0.44
Communications 1.35 1.36 1.37
Utilities 0.79 0.60 0.51
Retail Trade (15.81) (16.50) (17.33)
Food & Dairy Products 3.64 3.16 3.32
Eating & Drinking Places 4.15 3.94 4.51
Other Retail Trade 8.02 9.40 9.50
Wholesale Trade 2.23 2.37 2.38
Finance, Insurance, & Real Estate 3.96 4.17 4.34
Services (49.98) (49.88) (49.08)
Private Household 4.27 4.07 3.02
All Other Services 21.66 19.00 19.65
Education 24.05 26.81 26.41
Local Public Administration 4.15 4.64 5.05
Construction 8.75 8.42 8.50
100.00 100.00 100.00
Numbers in are sub-totals
Source: Planning Division Estimates
COMPOSITION OF THE
RESIDENT EMPLOYMENT, PAST AND PROJECTED
ALACHUA COUNTY ss,ooo 1950 -!960
T A GRICULTURE, FORESTRY,
-7- TRANSPORTATION, UTILITIES,
R...-~ETAI_ TRADE 45,000
AND REAL ESTATE .
LOCAL PUBLIC :
ADMINISTRATION ".. ..
20,000 l~?I?:c~ i.--,l,
/SERICELA N I I
-111111 r//ii/// Al11I/1 1/1t1t
AL.I I/ / l l/ l / l
0. . ... / l / l / /! / l l l /
.......... 1960 1i7 19 0 19
counties in the State. In 1967 it stood at 15th. This is approximately the same rank that the County has held for several years in terms of total personal income. (See Chart 11.)
The sources of County income from wages and salaries and other labor income (the so called fringe benefits), proprietors income, property income and transfer payments, closely resembles the primary resources as reported for tM Nation as a whole. Wages and salaries plus other labor income make up about 65% of this total personal income. This differs materially from the State sources which receive 6% to 7% less from these two categories. On the other hand, the State as a whole gets about 17% from property income as opposed to the 10% to 11% from the County. The State also gets a higher percentage from transfer payments. It may be speculated that these differences between the County and the State and the Notion are due primarily to the larger number of retirees and the differing sources of retiree i ncome.
Table III indicates the major sources of income for workers participating in
production (mainly wages and salaries, other labor income and proprietor incorre). Note that this table is some $40, 000, 000 less than the total personal income because certain sources are not included. The major difference between the County and the State as a whole is readily apparent in that the County gets some 42% of its total income for participation and production from government whereas the State as a who le receives less than 16% from this source. It may be assumed that this difference lies in the presence of the University and Sunland Training Center in the community. Tallahassee, which is similar in many respects to Gainesville receives some 49% of its income from Government. On the other hand, the State receives more of its income from tourist-oriented categories than does Alachua County. This shows up in wholesale and retail trade category, and in transportation and communication, public utilities and services. It also gets more from one non-tourist related category, manufacturing.
Perhaps a more meaningful basic unit of income is average family or household income, which is the primary unit by which money is expended. The census reports only median family income as opposed to an average. In 1960 this median family income for the County was $4, 741 and was estimated at $5,302 for the Gainesville Urban Area. The census information was utilized to estimate an average family income based on the number of families in the urban area in 1969. This estimate was $5, 686 for the County as a whole and $6, 154 for the urban area.
The current estimated average household income was found by dividing the total personal income by the estimated number of occupied households. It was first necessary to subtract out that income which is attributable to residents of group quarters. Total personal income was available only through 1966 at the time the Economic Base Study was completed. Therefore, personal income for 1967 was estimated It has since been found that this estimate was somewhat low. For example, in the earlier report the estimated household income was $7,360 for January 1, 1968. Based on the actual total personal income it was fuund that the
INCOME PER CAPITA UN ITED STATES FLORIDA ALACHUA
AND SELECTED COUNTIES
3,500 3,000 I
(L- ESTIN 1966).
1950 1952 5954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966
BRADFORD, COLUMBIA, ,ILCHRIST. SOURCE: BUREAU Of BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH,. LEVY, MARION PUTNAM AND UNION
BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC PIMENSIONS W*I., 1.o0B6 J"06, 1947
sad,FLORIDA STATISTICAl. ABSTRACT, 1944
PERSONAL INCOME: MAJOR SOURCES OF PERSONAL INCOME RECEIVED BY CIILIANS FOR PARTICIPATION IN PRODUCTION, ALACHUA4 COUNTY AND FLORIDA, 1967
Alachua County Florida
($000's) ____ ($000's) __Agriculture 7,979 4.18 475,000 3.93
Mining and Fisheries 677 0.36 85,000 0.70
Contract Construc'tion 13,264 6.95 934,000 7.72
Manufacturing 19,893 10.42 2,020,000 16.70
Wholesale and Retail Tracks 27,318 14.31 2,499,000 20.65
Finance, Insurance and Real Estate 8,369 4.38 822,000 6.79
Transportation, Communications, 6,976 3.66 992,000 8.20
and Public Utilities
Service, Trade and Professions 25,980 13.61 2,340,000 19.34
Other Private Industry Payrolls 293 0.15 30,000 0.25
Civilian Government Payrolls 80,146 41.98 1,902,000 15.72
Total 190,895 100.00 12,099,000 100.00
Source: Dimensions, August, 1969, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida Tabe~h 1-page 14.
average household incone to Aachua County should have been $7,604. For the same date (january I, 198) it a originally estimated that the average household income of the urban area was $7,965. This average was no doubt slightly over $8,000.
in order to prove 2 yardstick hy which to measure future commercial needs, estimates were ma If a t~ tora] pen inome through 1980. These projections were made on the bass tha income uld continue to rise at the same rate as had been experienced over he post 5 to 6 years. In addton, adjustments were made for the different employment giup mix as had seen previously estimated. The results were slightly in excess of $339, 200,000 for 1975 and $413,900,000 for 1980, in constant dollars. TIat is, the rate ofgrowth does not reflect projected inflation. This was desirable because the rato of ,uies ro square footages which would be used later in the study to determIne con .ecal band needs would also be based on current do llars.
Overall, the estirnaed increase fora )966 to l980 was estimated at approximately 100%. For the urban area the stioted totai personal income was just slightly less than $300,000,000 for 1975 and approximately $370,300,000 for 1980. This was broken down into average househod income projections of $9,891 for the County and $10,287 for the urban area for th.e ie dote and $7,225 for the rest of the County which lies outside the urban area. Again, it should be emphasized that these figures are based on constant dollars and are therefore much lower than the actual averages will be when that date is reached.
Generally speaking, after examining the economy of the Gainesville Urban Area, it was concluded that future stable g, owth of the community is assured. The projections contained in the Economic Base Study were for a slackening of the pace due to a then existing enrollment ceiling at the University, but nevertheless for steady upward growth. It is now believed that this ceiling will be exceeded, but the question remains to what degree. In any event, an upward growth in the economy is assured with the known factors of; an increasing enrollment plus now almost certain expansion of the Medical Center lo provide a stimulus for this growth.
It is impossible to predict the occurrence of an economic factor which would materially alter the growth rate, such as would occurwith the location of a major new factory in the Gainesville Community. It is believed, however, that the manufacturing sector will continue to grow as per the past rate. In the past such growth has taken place but has resulted in no considerable increase in employment because it replaced existing industries. As the urban area of Gainesville grows larger it is believed that more grwth will take place in the non-university sectors. For example, once a given size is reached many of the wholesaling activities which are now provided by the larger center of Jacksonville may be expected to relocate in the Gainesville Urban Area to service the growing population. In addition, recent surveys have indicated a growing pool of underemployed and unemployed persons, especially in our lower income neighborhoods. It may be expected that eventually some industry will take advantage of this resource by locating in the community.
On the other hand, it should be also noted that there is a growing awareness
that growth for growth sake alone will not necessarily mean the best possible community for all people. In the post 20 years the community has been basically a universityoriented college town. The wage structure as a consequence has been relatively high, though not the highest in the State. It is for the citizens of today to decide what direction they wish to take in the future in terms of economic and hence overall growth. Such decision must be made on the basis of a knowledgeable examination of the implications of growth as it is proposed in the future.
It has been said that "the stuff of planning is land and development. The purpose of planning is to improve the I ives of the people". *
In order to plan for people certain facts must be known about them, not the
least of which are numbers, general characteristics and their distribution throughout the planning area. Population size is essential as a measure of the 'amount of growth which has taken place and which will presumably take place in the future. Knowledge with regard to the population composition and other characteristics is essential to providing a plan which will cater to the needs of the people. Spacial distribution must be ascertained as a guide to the placement of various land uses and facilities throughout the area.
In 1853 the population of Gainesville was estimated to be 275 people. By 1900
it had risen to 3,633 and 50 years later (in 1950) the Urban Area population of Gainesville was estimated to have risen to ten times that figure to more than 36,360. Today only 20 years later this figure has more than doubled.
The actual City population was estimated in the Population Studyto have been 62,500 persons in January, 1968. The urban area population was estimated at the same time to be approximately 75,500. These estimates were prepared by a variation of Census Method 11 which is somewhat complicated but reasonably reliable method of estimating current population. Subsequent to the completion of the Population Study an accurate count of the total number of dwel I ing units in the urban area was completed in the Planning Unit Study. By multiplying the number of dwelling units by the average number of persons found in various types of dwelling units, a revised current population was derived which was slightly higher than had been found by the census method. This latter methodology has again been used to produce a current estimate of 83,000 persons in the Urban Area.
* Canty, Donald, (editor) The New City, National Committee on Urban
Growth Policy, Urban America Inc., Frederick A. Prayer, publisher, New York, 1969, page 70.
Approximately one-fourth of the urban area population is composed of students at the University of Florida. Knowledge of this fact alone would provide a clue to some of the characteristics of the population if no other information were available. For example, the average age of the population is consequently lower than the State and national averages. The average age of Urban Area residents was estimated to be about 23 years in January 1967. Because there are more males than females at the University there is a larger percentage of males in the total population than females, which is opposite the State and national characteristics.
The Gainesville Urban Area has experienced a growth rate during the 60's
which is estimated to be 4 1/2% or more annually, based on current population estimates. An estimated 60% of this growth can be attributed to in-migration with the remainder attributed to natural increase. However, this trend does not hold' true for the non-white population, most of whose growth has come from natural increase The total estimated non-white population in 1967 was estimated to be at approximately 18 1/2% of the total, which figure represents a substantial decrease of the estimated proportion in 1960.
The average number of per-sons per household in 1960 was 3.26. It is believed that the average household size declined during the 60's, however, due in large part to the fact that more multiple family housing units were being constructed than single family housing. In 1960 the average household size for apartments was estimated at 2.52 versus 3.52 persons for single family households and 2.6 persons for mobile home households. Thus the overall average was estimated to be 3.20 persons in 1967. A recent survey of the mobile home households has indicated a slight increase in the number of persons residing in this dwel I ing type, which may be attributed to the fact that more families are now buying mobile homes, whereas in the post mobile occupants were mostly students with few children. It is still believed that the overall I household size is continuing to decl ine in I ine with the overall I projections contained in the Population Study. If one were to assume the average household size for the various types of dwel ing units had remained constant the dwelling unit mix today would result in an average household size of approximately 3. 15 persons.
A very important consideration for an urban area is the age distribution of its
population. Chart 111, which is an age-sex pyramid for the population inside and outside the Urban Area, Alachua County and the State of Florida, vividly demonstrates the impact of University students on this area. Another significant factor pointed out by the pyramids is the much smaller percentages in the retiring ages(65 and over)in the urban area as compared with the State. Generally speakingGainesville's location in the northerncooler part of the State has resulted in attracting fewer retirees than is true of the State as a whole. At the some time the college work-force age population is greater, percentagewise, than that of the State.
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Future Population Projections
The process of forecasting the future population size of the Gainesville Urban Area with respect to this plan proceeded along two lines. On the one hand, a population holding capacity figure was determined as an outside limit of the total population which the urban area could physically support. On the other hand more realistic projections of the likely levels of populations were developed. These latter projections were aimed at the target date of 1980. The first such projections were contained in the Population Study report. Further projections for the some target year were prepared in the Economic Base Study'.
As the earlier discussion of this report has pointed out, technological progress has proceeded so rapidly as to make long-range forecasts of the traditional type somewhat meaningless. It is very difficult to accurately guage a community size ten years in the future, let alone 20 or 30 years hence, as has been the case in many older master plans. Even the most cursory of examinations, however, would bring about a realization that the total population holding capacity, as determined for the urban area, would not be accomplished within any reasonable time period.
The first holding capacity of the urban area as determined in the Planning Unit StudX was 638,490 persons and was based on the ultimate development of the to urban area in accordance with the maximum development allowable under the existing zoning patterns and densities. In succeeding studies the total amount of land that was devoted or assigned to residential in the Planning Unit Study was subsequently reduced at each stage of the planning process as land was assigned to other uses or found to be unsuitable for development. Upon completion of the first preliminary sketch plan the holding capacity was calculated, at which time estimated densities were assigned to various areas based on the trends in development in the various sectors of the City. For example, the lot sizes were increased considerably in those outlining areas where acre lots now predominate By this process a holding capacity of approximately 325,000 persons, not including all those persons that could be housed on the University of Florida campus proper, was found. The holding capacity of the preliminary plan, as presented, was approximately 335,000 people, again not including all those persons that could be housed on the University of Florida proper. In round figures then, the plan would accommodate approximately 350,000 people, assuming that the recommended densities for various residential areas of the plan were adopted.
It is quite obvious that this overall total capacity will not be reached in the time period during which this plan could be considered a viable document. To establish some outside parameters on how many people we should consider, a secondary target date of 1990 was selected with very generalized projections made based on various assumptions with respect to the potential growth rate for the next 20 years. The results ranged from a high of 204,000 persons, based on a growth rate identical to that experienced in the decade of the 60's, to a low of 144,000 persons based on a growth rate equal to the average annual rate of growth of the State for the last ten years. The selected figure which is used as a long range target population was 173,000 persons which would be reached in 1990 should the
same rate of growth which was forecast between 1970 and 1980 continue to 1990. This figure then, represents the upper limit on which all facility needs in this plan are based. It should be made very clear that long before such date is reached, the Plan will no doubt be reviewed and revised to compensate for unforeseen conditions and circumstances.
PAST 8k PROJECTED POPULATION
GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA 1950 1990
z /0 /e
4 150 /
The Regional Plan Association of New York in the text of its recent, widely acclaimed plan for the New York region said:
"The regional plan is not a precise blueprint of everything that should be
built mile by mile. It is a framework of basic principles which can be applied
over the years when development decisions are to be made. Nothing will
happen just from publication of the plan. But a great deal happens when a regional plan principle is laid alongside a prospective public program or
private investment so the public can judge the long term effects."
The following section of this plan is a statement of the goals and principles to provide or yardstick against which to measure the everyday development decisions that fill the voids in the necessarily generalized plan. They are perhaps more important than the more visible land use plan map which makes up the other half of this plan.
Canty, Donald, Editor, The New City, Urban American Inc., Frederick A.
Praeger, Publisher, N. Y. 1969, page 75.
The Gainesville Area now contains a wide choice of residential development.
Previously, the area contained a predominance of single family houses. More recently, there have been great increases in the construction of apartments and group housing and the location of mobile homes throughout the area.
Most of the recent residential construction has seen single family dwellings
in the northwest and apartments in the south and southwest. Most of the mobile homes are located along Archer Road in the southwest.
A great deal of the residential development in the Gainesville area has been in a scattered, uncoordinated pattern, which not only consumes large land areas but allows for through traffic into residential areas; expensive sewer lines are extended great distances to serve only a few homes; and shopping facilities are poorly situated because of the uncertainty created by the "leapfrogging" subdivision development.
One of the major concerns of planning is the maintenance of residential neighborhoods at a "livable" level and the protection of residential areas from the encroachment of non-residential and incompatible uses.
Goals for Residential Development
A. Efficient and Economic Use of Land
Land has become an expensive and sought-after commodity throughout this country, especially in urban areas. The use of raw land is very important
because once structures are built and growth patterns established, the money invested in land and buildings prohibits a large scale redevelopment of these
The general growth pattern for residential areas around Gainesville has been
a sprawling type with a great deal of "leap frog" subdivision development.
This type of growth consumes huge land areas and increases the cost of providing public services and facilities.
In some instances land has developed prematurely creating platted subdivisions in which only a few dwellings are scattered. This tends to downgrade the total
residential character of these areas and consequently the community.
B. A Sufficient Supply of Housing for All Area Residents
Shelter is a primary need, and providing it is usually an acute problem in
most urban areas.
If there is to be housing for "all", present policies will not be able to meet the challenge. This is because new housing is primarily aimed at a market comprised of persons with above average incomes. Recently there has been
an effort to provide housing for the poor and aged through rent supplement
programs and public housing managed by the Gainesville Public Housing
Au thori ty
Situated between those who can afford new houses as they are presently
provided and those who qualify for public housing is a large segment of the population not now being catered to by new construction. There is a need for action by both the public and private sector in constructing, improving
and renovating homes which these families can afford. Housing provided
in Gainesville must meet the urgent needs of the poor, the aged, the minorities,
as well as upper and middle income families.
C. Convenience to Other Activities and Facilities
Man cannot isolate his home or place of residence from the rest of his environment
without losing economy, efficiency and physical, intellectual and spiritual
stimulation. He must have access to work, shopping facilities, recreation, to
utilities, to police and fire protection and to schools for his children.
While this convenience is presented as a housing goal, a large part of it will
have to be provided through action in other policy areas. Policies concerning
shopping center construction and location, industrial location, open space reservation, school buildings, or transportation improvements will have just
as much to do with such convenience as housing policies themselves.
The convenience needs of one type of residence may be quite different from
those of others. In general, principle holds that the higher the density of
development, the greater should be the proximity to activities and services.
The convenience needs of one type of resident may be quite different from
those of other residents. For example, unmarried university students will desire
to have convenient access to different activities and facilities than many of
the married "permanent" population.
D. Safe, Healthful, and Blight-Free Residences and Neighborhoods
While the explanations of previous housing goals have considered factors affecting residential blight, the growth of slums or obsolete and blighted
neighborhoods is usually related to the age of the neighborhood. A large
part of central Gainesville is presently in a condition where rehabilitation
and/or renewal may be necessary to correct the situation. By 1980 additional
areas may be in this condition unless positive, corrective action is taken.
The rehabilitation and renewal of existing blighted neighborhoods can be
undertaken by the City on a limited basis. This is due to the fact that under
existing legislation, land in the renewal project areas can only be put to
public re-use, which would include schools, recreation parks and playgrounds, etc. Therefore, any ext pensive renewal, especially for private re-use of land,
would have to be completed through private enterprise.
In addition to revitalizing the blighted neighborhoods, there must be a concerted
effort to prevent blight and its influences in our stable neighborhoods. The
enforcement of the Gainesville Housing Code is one method of preventing
blight in all areas of the community. This is a code which defines the minimum
standards for housing conditions in the City.
It appears that more emphasis in the future must be given to prevention of decay
through both public and private efforts. This would go a long way in revitalizing old neighborhoods by improving their quality and appearance, strengthening their property values, and maintaining these areas as desirable places in which to live.
Most of this activity is expected to occur in the City of Gainesville with very
little rehabilitation or renewal activity occurring in the outlying areas. Nevertheless, decay in the central area is not exclusively a central area problem. It
also affects the vitality of the outlying areas and should be conducted as an area
Principles of Residential Development
Residential areas are the most important to local residents because this is where the family spends most of its time and where most families have invested a large
part of their incomes.
I The general high quality of existing residential areas should be maintained and
improved whenever possible.
2. Future residential development should be planned and designed to insure
an initial and continued residential quality so as to protect the investment
of property owners and public investments in services and facilities.
3. Residential areas which contain blighted and sub-standard conditions and
housing should be improved through conservation, rehabilitation, and redevelopment by both public and private initiative.
4. Scattered and disorderly residential development caused by premature
subdividing should be discouraged and prevented.
The ever-increasing costs of land, building materials, construction and
community services in conjunction with a change in living patterns have
created a large demand for apartments and mobile homes. These trends are expected to continue with an increasing number of new apartments
and mobile homes, and a reduction in single family dwelling construction.
New innovations in residential development have been introduced in recent
years. These include cluster subdivisions and planned unit developments
which are normally developed on large tracts of land on a total project
I Abrupt changes in housing types should be discouraged where such changes
will adversely affect the property values of adjoining properties.
2. Mixed dwelling types and housing densities should be permitted in those
areas where prior planning will permit such a mixture.
3. Adequate sites, both in number and location, should be provided for the
increasing demand for mobile homes.
4. Mobile home parks should develop at lower densities with adequate parking,
open space, and buffering between adjacent uses
5. New innovations in mobile home development such as platted subdivisions similar
to single family developments should be encouraged.
6. Low density apartments with the some number of units per acre as single
family subdivisions should be encouraged in outlying areas.
7. Duplex dwellings should be permitted to intersperse among single family
dwellings in areas where these types of dwellings are compatible.
8. New residential development should promote new innovations in housing
types and residential design such as cluster subdivisions, planned unit
development, cooperative apartments, and other contemporary innovations
such as modular or factory produced housing.
Residential areas are intended to provide a quiet, peaceful, and safe
place for residents to establish their homes and raise their families.
These areas are intended for living and the activities closely associated
with raising a family such as schools and recreation areas. Most nonresidential uses of land are to some degree incompatible with residential
I Existing and future residential areas should be protected against the
encroachment of undesirable or unsuitable uses, permitting only those
activities that serve the residential areas directly.
2. Through traffic should not be permitted in homogeneous residential
3. Local shopping activities should be provided in locations convenient to
4. Living areas should be conveniently located relative to major shopping
facilities, work areas, cultural facilities, and leisure time facilities.
5. Residential and non-residential uses should be discouraged from locating
adjacent to one another.
6. Where it is impossible to separate residential from non-residential land
uses, buffering should be encouraged to lessen the impact between the two.
Such buffering may take the form of:
(a) Physical barriers such as hedges or greenbelts, walls, fences,
an open space separation left in its natural state, or
(b) The placement of another use between the incompatible uses which
would be more compatible to the uses on either side. (Such as a low intensity office between commercial and residential areas.)
7. High density residential development should be encouraged to locate near
concentrations of non-residentiol activities such as the University of Florida
and the Central Business District, and adjacent to major traffic arteries.
The development of commercial land has greatly changed in this country over the years. At one time pedestrian traffic dictated the growth pattern, but now it is geared almost exclusively to the needs and demands of the automobile. While pedestrian movement inside shopping centers and within the CBD are important factors, parking needs, flexibility of site choice resulting from freedom of movement and one stop shopping are all dominant factors in the development of today's commercial growth pattern.
These auto generated characteristics have led to the evolution of the shopping center as the principal development pattern of commercial land use. This evolution is for from complete, however, as certain uses have continued to locate along major traffic arteries on individual sites, with their only concession to the shopping center concept being in the form of larger lots with more parking than before. This latter type of commercial land use pattern - frequently termed "strip commercial" has generally led to the reservation of most land on all major traffic arteries for commercial development. This reservation, whether actually zoned for commercial use or only held vacant by the owner in hopes of such future use, not only greatly exceeds any logical demand for such land, but frequently is ill located to serve the actual demand as development proceeds further out into the suburbs. In addition, those areas for which there is a demand and on which development occurs often die of selfstrangulation as over-development clogs the traffic on which they are dependent.
Goals For Commerical Development
A. Adequate Supply of Goods and Services
The population of the urban area has a purchasing power and demand or
need for a given level of goods and services which should be met locally to the maximum extent possible. it is an objective of this Plan toassure
the fulfillment of this need by providing adequate, convenient sites for
the outlets which cater to this purchasing power or need.
B. Varied Sites Suitable for a Variety of Outlets
The need for suitable sites to provide for the many varied outlets for goods and services spans an extremely wide range in size and location. It varies from the single use on a major thoroughfare which relies almost exclusively
on passerby traffic, such as a tourist facility, to a range in shopping centers
from the smallest convenience center to the large regional facility serving
a larger area than even that considered in this plan.
C. Functional, Safe, Attractive Design and Display
Many successful businesses attract attention to themselves through distinctive
store design, advertising or display. While individually such displays may not be offensive, when included with others the results have an unsightly,
Commercial centers are also important focal points, usually located on the
major thoroughfares of the community. Their appearance is therefore a
community interest which should be considered in the comprehensive plan.
D. Minimum Conflict With Other Urban Activities
Shopping areas are among the busiest places in the urban area, with their
basic success often measured by the traffic they generate. This level of
activity with its attendant noise, odors, dirt, glare and safety hazards
frequently conflicts with other uses which have less intense nature, particularly that of the residential sector. It is therefore a very basic objective
of this plan to minimize such conflict.
E. Effective Use and Development of Old Centers
Commercial areas, like all other uses, can become obsolescent with age.
With such obsolescence come blight with attendant cost not just to the
owners of the property but to the community at large' A goal of this plan
is to encourage the conservation of such areas in keeping with old adage that
an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
Principles of Commercial Development
Commercial activities are oriented to the automobile. Principles:
Commercial activities wil I be located on major streets and particularly
at the intersections of such major streets and central to their service area.
Local access streets by their design and nature should not carry the nonlocal traffic associated with commercial development. Concentrations of
commercial at intersections distributes the traffic to and from such cancentrotions over the largest possible street network and is therefore to be
desired when such streets ore designed to handle such traffic.
Access to and from commercial sites should be carefully designed and located
so as to minimize friction with the flow of traffic on the adjacent thoroughfares.
All access points on a street by their nature create points of conflict with
the flow of through traffic causing delay, reducing the street capacity and
creating hazards. A site should be easy to enter and safe to leave.
Commercial activities must be provided with ample parking to satisfy the
demands of all customers of that activity.
If less parking than needed is provided it is detrimental to the welfare of
that activity as well as the general community. Vacant stores resulting from insufficient parking are a blighting influence, and public streets designed to
carry traffic can become extremely expensive parking lots.
4. Concentration of Uses
Concentration of both similar and complementary uses are encouraged to the extent that such grouping promotes a more efficient, viable and logical use
Certain uses frequently lend strength and support to each other when grouped
together, and therefore are encouraged, unless such concentrations are at the expense of adequate service to the whole area, or by design or nature
become a burden on the area where they are located. Premise B:
Basic conflicts occur where two different uses of land meet, with the extent
of such conflict varying with the difference in intensity of each use, aesthetic qualities, the amount of buffering provided between such uses and many other
Incompatible land uses will not be located adjoining to one another without
sufficient buffering to insure the harmonious existence of both uses.
2. Transitional Uses As Buffers
When not contrary to any other principal set forth herein, incompatible land
uses may be buffered by transitioned uses more compatible with the use on each
side; for example, offices or multiple family may be used to separate single
family areas from commercial area.
Screening by walls and/or landscaping will be required where other separation
is not possible.
A rear to rear arrangement between incompatible land uses will be promoted in deference to a front to front or front to rear relationship. The latter two
shall be avoided whenever possible with a side to rear relationship permitted
only where absolutely necessary.
Shopping centers are the principal development pattern in retailing today.
Encouragement of Shopping Centers
Because shopping centers more logically adhere to modern standards in
commercial development, particularly in recognizing the importance of the automobile in their design, they are to be encouraged in preference
to scattered, concentrated and unplanned commercial development.
2. Shopping Center Types
The size, location and function of shopping centers should be related
to the population and market area they are to serve.
The basic types of centers are:
(a) Local Convenience a very small center typically with a
convenience (7-1 T) type store as the major tenant.
(b) Neighborhood a convenience outlet with a supermarket
typically as the major tenant, afong with a drugstore and other
personal service stores.
(c) Community a center usually having a junior department or
variety e as the major tenant, combined with a supermarket
and other convenience outlets and providing some comparison
(d) Major a major shopping complex providing comparison shopping
wit -one or more major department stores as major tenants. Premise D:
Not all future commercial activities will be located in planned shopping
I Development of Vacant Commercial Land 1- L
Non-center commercial uses should be encouraged to locate on those vacant
parcels of land in existing commercial areas in deference to the needless
opening up of new areas to strip commercial
2. Sites for Marginal Uses
The legitimate needs of marginal or so called "incubator" commercial
enterprises can best be served by the "filtering down" process of existing
commercial, as opposed to opening up new areas to commercial development.
3. Spread of Commercial
The existence of commercial on one corner of an intersection need not
dictate the development of all corners with the same or similar use;
nor does the existence of commercial on a major thoroughfare dictate
that all frontage must be similarly used.
Commercial activities frequently occupy the most conspicuous sites in an area, and are important influences on the impression which others have
of that area.
The control of signs, promotion of landscaping and overall appearance
of commercial areas are legitimate concerns of the general public.
Industrial development in the Gainesville area has varied over the years. Industrial activities initially involved the processing of agricultural and forest products and phosphate extraction. Industry in this area now has evolved to lightmanufacturing and warehousing.
An expansion of the community's industrial base is a matter of concern. Civic, business and governmental representatives frequently meet with business and industrial officials in other states for the purpose of attracting industry to Gainesville. There are other residents in the Area who feel that industrial expansion should not be encouraged and that Gainesville become only a university city.
Goals for Industrial Development
I Enough Industry to Meet Industrial Employment Needs
Industry plays an important role as a source of employment for local residents and adds to the tax base. Industry is not one of the largest
employers but it does add stability to the areas' employment situation.
Florida is increasingly becoming more industrialized and there are a wide variety of industries locating in the state. It is expected that
the urban area will expand and that new firms will locate in the area
to keep pace with future population and labor force increases.
2. Adequate Supply of Industrial Land Suitable For Both Industry and the
The industries which may locate in the area in the future will require
adequate amounts of land suitable to their particular needs. Land must
have certain characteristics before it can be considered adequate for
There are three essential criteria which sum up the vocational needs for industry. The first, which far outweighs the second and third, is good
access. In selecting a site, proximity to good highways is usually a primary criterion. Secondly, industrialists normally locate near other
firms in their manufacturing process. Thirdly, industrial developers look for land suitable from a physical development standpoint; that is, a site
that is large enough for their needs, preferably flat, stable, well drained,
and not subject to flooding.
3. Minimization of Industrial Blight and the Blighting Effects of Industries
on their Neighbors
Because of its nature, industry is not only subject to the same type of blight that affects other land uses, it often is particularly capable of
causing other blight. The explanations of previous goals have indicated
how industries can be sited and regulated so they do not disturb surrounding
areas. Generally, industry should be located in areas that are predominantly industrial where it will not put too heavy a load on the transportation system.
On the other hand, blight has been caused by the mixing of land uses in predominantly industrial areas. Industry's peculiar needs segregate it from other uses. Industrial uses should not be mixed withsuch uses as various retail commercial activities and residential development. Industry should be separated from these other uses whenever possible. As a general rule, from the community point of view, industrial parks are the best sites for almost all industries because they provide the necessary separation.
Principles for Industrial Development,
The industrial base will continue to grow in the Gainesville area at a
moderate rate with the expansion of existing facilities and the addition
of new "light industrial" firms.
1 Expansion of industry should be encouraged on a selective basis.
2. Sufficient land area in proper locations should be reserved to meet the
anticipated expansion of industry.
3. Industrial development should be located on relatively flat, well drained,
stable soils, and should be provided with adequate utilities.
4. Industrial sites should be convenient to major transportation facilities and
should be so located as to minimize the journey to work.
5. Access to industrial sites should be designed so as not to inhibit the movement of through traffic on major thoroughfares.
6. Industrial sites should be designed and buffered so as to minimize conflicts
with adjacent land uses.
7. Industrial zoning should be exclusive rather than inclusive so as to protect
industrial development from encroachment by commercial in other non-related
The current and expected future trend in industrial development is occurring in industrial districts or parks, in attractive, well designed buildings where
various industries locate near one another because of their similar
and complementary site needs and operating characteristics. There are a limited number of industrial concerns which will locate on individual
sites separate from industrial districts because of their operating characteristics
or space requirements.
I Industrial plants should be encouraged to group together in planned
industrial districts on sites capable of being developed in stages.
2. Streets within industrial districts should be designed to accommodate
the movements of large trucks and employee vehicles.
3. Areas for loading and unloading of materials, outdoor storage areas,
and parking for employee and company vehicles should not be allowed in
the front of industrial plants and should be adequately screened from
public view by screening wal Is, landscaping, or other suitable barriers.
4. Advertising and identification signs for industrial development should be
complimentary to such development in terms of the size, construction,
location, and maintenance of said signs.
5. Scattered industrial plants should be encouraged to locate on adequate
sites, adjacent to major transportation facilities, and should be designed
and buffered so as to minimize conflicts with adjacent land uses.
6. Industrial blight should be eliminated through physical rehabilitation
of structures, relocation or removal of unsightly and obnoxious elements
on the site, or the replacement of old equipment andvor facilities.
The inter -dependence of land use and the circulation system which serves it is perhaps the most basic relationship of community development. Each exerts a compelling influence on the other; if you build a major transportation system, land use development will usually spring up along it; if you build a major land use development, ultimately a circulation system will evolve to serve it. Recognition of this relationship is essential to the planning for any urban area. It is also essential to recognize the multi-faceted and interrelated nature of the circulation system as a whole, including the street and road network, which caters to the automobile, mass transit facilities and air, rail and other long distance transportation facilities.
The Gainesville Urban Area is presently served by a street and highway network,
which serves both locally and includes a major freeway facility that provides connections with the major highway system of the notion; it is served by "feeder airline" services which provides connecting services with major air transportation facilities; it is served by railroad freight service and by interstate bus systems, and finally, it is served locally with a bus system and taxi service.' Each of these systems plays a vital role in the total circulation network.
In the future, as the area grows in size and complexity, the safe, economical and convenient movement of goods and people will in large measure determine the desirability of the Gainesville Urban Area as a place to live.
Goals for Transportation
I Ease of Movement Throughout the Urban Area
Provision for the safe, economical and convenient movement inside, through, and interconnections with the outside is a first priority objective of any plan
for the future. Without ease of movement growth cannot be sustained and
living itself becomes a more frustrating experience.
2. A Variety of Modes of Travel to Meet the Different Needs of Different People
The private automobile has become the most universal mode of transportation
in the urban area. It can be expected that this dominance will continue in
the future. Not everyone can drive, nor is it always feasible to adequately accommodate all automobiles within the limits of the fiscal restraints on most
communities. Therefore, provision should be made for circulation by other
means to accommodate those people, or goods, which do not travel by automobi le More specifically, the need will continue for mass transit facilities to se rve the local needs such as the bus system, and to serve the long
distance transportation needs such as the airline, interstate bus and train systems.
Each system should be examined in depth to accurately determine the best
overall circulation network for the area.
Principles of Transportation
The automobile will continue to be the dominant transportation mode in the area, necessitating emphasis on the street and highway network serving the urban area; however, as the urban area grows in size an increased demand
for mass transportation may be expected.
I The urban area should be served with comprehensive street network which
is designed to separate traffic by its major function or purpose such as
through vs. local traffic and local residential access vs. movement between
2. The major thoroughfare system should provide safe and easy access to and
from and between all parts of the community.
3. To the maximum extent possible automobile and pedestrian traffic should
be separated, particularly in those areas where children are likely to
be, such as around schools, parks and playgrounds and in the residential
areas of the community.
4. The major thoroughfare system should be designed not only to serve existing
land use but to stimulate future land use patterns according to the future
land use plan.
5. The development of the circulation system for the automobile must include
provision for the storage of said automobile when not in use.
6. Streets should be designed to carry traffic and not serve as expensive taxpayer provided parking lots.
7. Residential streets should be designed only to provide access to local
properties and not to carry traffic through residential areas.
8. Access points on all streets should be kept to a minimum so as to minimize
conflict with the flow of traffic on that street.
Automotive and truck transportation alone cannot fulfill the need for a
rounded circulation system for the urban area.
I An efficient and economical transportation system calls for a balance
between road, rail and air, auto and mass transit systems, and should
be based on an analysis of costs and benefits.
2. No segment of the population, such as those with very low incomes, should
be left completely without means of movement in the urban area, even if
a subsidy at the community expense is required.
3. Long distance transportation systems provide real benefits to the community
and should be strengthened to the extent that cost/11benefit studies determine.
RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE
Recreation holds a position of high importance in American life today. As the amount of man's leisure time increases, the demand for recreation areas and facilities also increases.
Another important consideration is the preservation of areas of national
beauty in a time of fairly rapid urban growth. In order to preserve areas of natural beauty and open spaces in a period where they are rapidly disappearing, public and private agencies throughout the nation are recommending the local agencies utilize every available means to either initiate or enforce more stringent controls over the development of certain areas.
Goals for Recreation and Open Space
I Satisfaction of the People's Outdoor Recreation Needs
The Gainesville area has a fine natural setting for outdoor recreation.
The climate, lakes, streams ponds, wooded areas, and rolling terrain
al I offer a great deal of potential.
The City of Gainesville has made great strides in providing outdoor
recreation for area residents in the post few years. Yet, despite this progress, much more needs to be accomplished. Several areas which are now developed require additional recreation facilities. Several
other areas will be developing in the next decade and will require
2. Conservation and Effective Use of Natural Landscape Qualities
The Gainesville area is expected to continue to grow with residential,
commercial, industrial, transportation, and community facilities uses
utilizing large tracts of land. Among the dangers of such a development
is the threatened loss of the natural environment, both by making the
open countryside inaccessible to many area residents and by eliminating
natural features within the built-up area.
Not-with-standing its value to recreation, open space should often be preserved for its own sake or for the sake of related development. By
its own beauty and contrast with development, open space often sets off
nearby structures and lends beauty to adjacent built-up areas. Open space also provides refuge for wild animals and plants, which should
be conserved not only for the sportsman and outdoorsman, but for science,
education and the preservation of the balance of nature. Historic sites also have an educational value and are sources of community pride and
consciousness. Flooding in certain portions of the Urban Area from time
to time illustrates the danger of allowing development to encroach on
flood plains or occupy water storage areas.
3. An Early Program of Acquisition of Open Space and Recreation Facilities
Immediate steps to implement a planned program of acquisition, by whatever
means necessary, of a comprehensive system of open spaces, parks, green
belts and often recreation facilities, as outlined in goals one and two shall
be given top priority. Desirable land worthy of preservation must be purchased
in advance of urbanization if the cost of some is to be within the fiscal
possibilities of local government., and if such features are to be preserved
from development themselves. As the prestigious New York plan, which was just recently complete4notes, it is essential that land for open space
to accommodate the needs at fu I I growth shoul d be purchased now Principles of Recreation and Open Space.
Residents in the Gainesville Area will have an increasing amount of leisure
time requiring a variety of both public and private recreation facilities.
The City of Gainesville will continue to provide public recreation facilities
and various semi-public and private facilities will be developed from time
to time to complement the public facilities.
-1. Planning for recreation parks and facilities should be based initially upon
comprehensive and thorough evaluation of existing facilities; therefore
periodic review, re-evaluation, and revision of long range plans should
fol I ow.
2. Land for recreation purposes should be purchased on a planned basis in
advance of the need for this land.
3. The parks and recreation system should serve all age groups at the neighborhood
and community level.
4. The parks and recreation system should be developed to provide for a variety
of recreation pursuits and to produce a relief in the physical pattern of the
The location, size and design of recreation areas and facilities should be related to the size and age grouping of the population to be served,
but these areas and facilities should be flexible so as to be adaptable to changes in the populations served and programs offered in order to
meet changing needs.
6. Wherever possible, for purposes of efficiency and economy, unnecessary
duplication of facilities should be avoided through coordination and
combination with Alachua County School facilities.
7. Recreation parks should be lands dedicated and held inviolate in perpetuity., protected against diversion to non-recreation purposes and
against invasion by inappropriate uses.
8. Whenever possible and feasible, the natural landscape qualities of
developing land should be preserved to enhance development and maintain
a balance of nature.
9. The purity of natural open spaces, lakes, streams, and ponds should be
maintained and preserved because of their value to the area.
In modern urban society, the provision of water, sewers, electric powers, police and fire protection, education, library services, hospital care, and other basic needs are recognized as community responsibilities being provided directly or closely regulated by government. The level of public service in the Gainesville area has been fairly high. Most of the public facility needs are provided by combined forces in providing services on a joint basis.
Goals for Community Facilities
I Adequate and Efficient Service
Service results from the provision, management, and use of facilities. To
provide for the needs of the area's growing population, such facilities
should be expanded according to design and demand. In many instances
facilities have been provided long after the need for them is present, which
has resulted in inadequate and inefficient service.
2. Fair Distribution of Costs and Benefits
A serious problem affecting the provision of public services and construction
of facilities is the question of equity: Who is going to pay for what? Simply
stated, equity means "fair". In the computation and apportionment of costs
for public facilities this means that persons should pay in proportion to
This has become a serious problem in the Gainesville area because of the rapid growth and development of land adjacent to the City. Most of the residents residing just outside the City obtain their livelihoods within the
City and receive the benefit of many City services, but they do not directly
participate in the financing of these services. City taxpayers currently
pay for fire calls to areas adjacent to the City. City tax dollars provide
recreation facilities which are available to persons living outside the City
on the some basis as City residents.
Principles for Community Facilities
The public schools in the Gainesville Area have experienced a rapid increase
in students in recent years. New schools are currently under construction
or are being planned and most existing schools are being of have been expanded
to accommodate current and future student education demands.
There will be a continued growth in the number of school age children in
the Gainesville Area necessitating the expansion and construction of
existing and new school facilities by the public school system.
I Land for school purposes should be purchased on a planned basis in advance
of the need for this land.
2. Elementary schools should be located as near as possible to the center of
areas served, on less heavily traveled streets.
3. Junior high schools should be located near the center of areas served,
on collector streets.
4. Senior high schools should be located near the center of areas served,
on major thoroughfares.
5. The joint use of school facilities for education and other community
purposes such as recreation should be encouraged.
STANDARDS FOR SCHOOL PHYSICAL PLANT FACILITIES ALACHUA COUNTY
Pupi I Site
Type Capacity Size
Elementary 678* 15 acres
Junior High 1,200 25 acres
Senior High I f 600 40 acres
Does not include kindergarten students which most frequently go on double
shifts. They usually number 50 pupils per elementary, for a total capacity of 728.
Source: Updating of Survey of School Plants, Alachua County: December, 1967 State Department of Education. Public Utilities:
The City of Gainesville has provided major public utilities in this area for many years. These utilities include electricity, water, and sewer. There are private utility concerns which also provide major utility services in the
Gainesville Area, but the Gainesville Utilities Department provides the most
comprehensive service to a larger portion of the area.
The provision of utilities is one of the most important factors facing future
growth and development in the area. These facilities cost high sums of
money to construct and maintain. They are also a necessity for urban growth
because of their vital role in every phase of human activity.
Most of the Urban Area is now served with electricity and a large percentage
of the built-up area has public water and sanitary sewerage facilities.
As the Gainesville Area continues to develop it will be served with electricity,
water and sewer and the Gainesville Utilities Department will continue to
provide a majority of these services.
I The utility system should be designed to provide the maximum in flexibility
within the system and to the user.
2. Power and telephone lines should be buried underground where practical and
3. The location of utility lines should be determined by subdivision design and
the relative costs of alternative locations.
4. Utility services should be extended to everyone in the area where it is
economically feasible to do so.
5. The duplication of utility service in a given area should be discouraged whenever
6. Utility services should be provided by one comprehensive authority rather
than by several smaller uncoordinated companies.
7. The future extension of power and telephone lines should be completed in
a manner so as to preserve the beauty of the area served.
8. The development of the major utility systems should be coordinated with
an overall plan for long-range area growth.
The Gainesville Police Department, Alachua County Sheriff's Department
and the Florida Highway Patrol all provide police protection to parts of
the Gainesville area. The University of Florida also maintains a campus
The quality and efficiency of police protection in a community is greatly
affected by the growth pattern. For example, it is more difficult to provide services to a scattered pattern of residential and commercial
development than to a more coordinated and comprehensive community
The Gainesville Area will continue to be protected with police service
and the Gainesville Police Department will provide police service to all
parts of the City
I The Police service should be maintained to adequately meet the needs of
The Gainesville Fire Department serves the entire area within the Gainesville Corporate Limits. The Department serves areas outside the City on a voluntary
basis with responses to fire calls left to the responsibility of the fire chief.
Continued growth in the Gainesvillearea places additional responsibilities on the fire department. Again, as with the police service, the pattern of
community gowth has an effect on the quality and efficiency of fire service.
The Gainesville Fire Department will continue to provide fire protection
inside the City and the future fire districts and service areas will be determined
according to recommendations of the American Insurance Association.
I Land for fire stations should be purchased on a planned basis in advance
of the immediate need for this land.
2. Fire stations should be located central to their services areas with convenient
access to major streets.
3. The fire service should be maintained to adequately meet the needs of future
The Gainesville Public Library serves all of AlachuaC-ounty.
The central library in Gainesville serves as the administrative center
for this area.
Library service varies according to the type area being served. Some of
the factors which are important to library service are population characteristics,
new urban development, changes in reader interest, establishment of new
employers, and technological changes.
There will be an increasing demand for expanding library facilities as the
Gainesville area grows. This demand may require the establishment of branch
libraries at some time I n the future.
I Land for branch libraries should be purchased on a planned basis in advance
of the need for this land.
2. Branch libraries should be located near the center of areas they serve. 3. Library service should be maintained to adequately meet the needs of
LAND USE PLAN
The major uses of land can be divided into any of many different categories for
examination and study. Generally these include at least the following: Commercial, Industrial, Residential, Public and Semi-publ ic and Transportation or Circulation. These are the major categories discussed herein, except that pubi ir- and semi-publ ic uses are divided into recreation and open space and other community facilities.
No element of the land use plan is more important, causes more concern, or receives more attention than commercial This is deservedly so, for by any yardstick it has the greatest impact, for good or bad, on the growth of the community of any single land use category. The reasons for this are many. Perhaps three of the more important are related to problems of location, the problem of surplus commercial zoning and excessive speculation in commercial property, and the conflict between modern retail standards and obsolete land uses practices.
Because it is extremely difficult for local government to insure good design, that is, the proper integration of commercial land uses into a neighborhood, there has always been a dichotomy between the equally desired ends of commercial which is located convenient to the people it serves, and the necessity of avoiding conflicts between incompatible land uses.
One of the oldest planning concepts is that local convenience goods and services should be located near the population it serves. This is a logical concept in that such is the meaning of convenience and it avoids certain city-at-large expenses such as the necessity of providing extra street capacity, which would be required if people had to travel long distances from their residences to do their shopping.
On the other hand, commercial land uses can be characterized as being
generally much more intensive than an residential land use. They therefore entail 4e production of more noise, glare, odor, and general action or commotion, which conflicts with the desire for peace and quiet in one's residence.
There are no obvious solutions to this conflict of goals, that is, the minimization of incompatibility and provision of convenience at the same time. Certain steps may be taken, however, to minimize the differences. These are outlined in some detail in the Policies Plan section of this report. Generally speaking, it entails the location of non-local commercial in areas apart from residential neighborhoods and the careful design and integration of local commercial land into neighborhoods, especially by the utilization of buffers.
The second problem mentioned is summarized by the following quotation which was taken from a now unknown source:
"Viewed substantively, it is a rare ordinance indeed that does not commit greatly excessive land areas to commercial or industrial use, thereby ensuring that the land so classified will not be used for much of anything or
that in the spotty development that does resultlarge sections of the community wil I be permanently blighted. It is a rare ordinance that does not
strip zone for commercial use the land along major thoroughfares, even
though every objective study since World War 11 has demonstrated clearly
that strip type commercial developments are now generally functionally obsolete and are likely to result in business failures, community blight,
increased traffic hazards, and other problems" I
While the above quotation pertains to zoning, it is equally true of many land use plans which of necessity must take into consideration existing development patterns. One root cause for this surplus of commercial land in both plan and zoning ordinance is the tremendous profits to be made in land speculation in developing areas. The Douglas Commission reported on the impact of this speculation with regards to housing In a report prepared for the commission by Mrs. Grace Milgram, Assistant Director for Research of the Columbia University Institute of Urban Environment it was stated:
"In the course of transformation of land from rural to urban use, enormous
values are created which encourage speculative activities that reinforce the
tendency towards higher prices".*
The author of this report found developing land to be increasing in price from 10% to 15% annually. Another Douglas Commission Report (Research Report No. 16, U. S. Government Printing Office reported that the single most powerful upward
thrust on housing costs was rocketing land prices, which rose 259% from 1948 to 1966. The significance of these findings is relevant to a discussion of commercial land use, in that commercial land generally demands a much higher value than does residential property and therefore encourages speculation to an extent even greater than that which occurs in residential properties. The result, of course, can be problems outlined above. On the other hand, a shortage of land for commercial uses would doubtless also result in inflated prices for such land, and perhaps a log in the provision of adequate commercial goods and services.
Another problem which arises from the development of commercial land is a result of the design of commercial development. Oversimplified, these may be characterized as the development of strip commercial versus the development of shopping centers. The characteristics of shopping centers versus strip commercial were outlined in detail in the Commercial Study. Very briefly, it may be said that strip commercial is a more inefficient use of land, is much more costly to service, greatly reduces the capacity of streets and thus increases congestion and hazards because of the numerous curb cuts and the intersections with streets. In many instances strip commercial can become a blighting influence, limiting comparison shopping and perhaps most importantly from a land use standpoint, has a for greater I inear exposure which may be adjacent to residential areas or other low intensity land uses, and therefore, multiplies the potential for land use incompatibility.
U. S. Land Prices -- Directions and Dynamics Page 7, Commission Research Report No. 13, P. 77 US Government Printing Office.
There are certain uses which are dependent on exposure to passerby traffic,
such as a tourist facility on a major highway. Other uses have traditionally located on individual sites, although there are few such uses which have not been placed in shopping centers at least on occasion. Even automotive service centers have been incorporated in some shopping center designs and in at least one instance a shopping center of several automobile dealerships has been developed. Another factor counting for the preponderance of commercial along major highways is the lack of appeal of such locations for residential uses. It is estimated that there are approximately 157 miles of principal and minor arterials in the proposed classification system of streetswhich does not include collector streets and purely local streets. If 200 feet of depth were preserved for commercial on either side of all these thoroughfares, more than 7,500 acres would thus be available for commercial use. Contrast this with approximately 580 acres now developed.
In summary, commercial is one of the most difficult land uses to make provisions for in a community. In general, as a land use, the costs are greater to provide municipal services such as larger streets, more police protection, more fire protection, more frequent garbage collection, etc. than other land uses. On the other hand it is generally believed that it returns a surplus in taxes above the cost of such services, because of its higher value. In addition, it is one of the larger employers in a typical community. It was estimated that slightly less than 6,000 people were employed in retail trade in 1967, which was approximately 16% of all resident employees in Alachua County. While commercial enterprises are in a sense a part of daily living, the location of commercial uses frequently becomes an issue with the adjoining properties because of the high intensity characteristics of the use. The solution to the problem of locating such use in the community lies with intelligent design and location. Only with the proper orientation and site selection can commercial land use become an entirely welcome neighbor to its surroundings and thus convenient to the people that it is to serve.
Existing Commercial Land Use
The Gainesville Community owes its early existence to the fact that it served as a market place for a broad region in North Central Florida Consequently it has developed commercial land use somewhat out of proportion to its size. Overall I, it was estimated (in the market analysis prepared as a part of the Commercial Study that in 1967 Gainesville was capturing approximately 128% of the dollars which should have been available for retail goods and services from the local residents, indicating that a good share of the support for such goods and services was coming from non-residents.
Approximately 520 acres are devoted to commercial uses in the urban area, with approximately 60 additional acres of offices, or a total of 580 acres. This amounts to approximately 0. 7 acres per 100 persons in the urban area. Approximately 2 1/2% of the developed land area in the Gainesville Urban Area is devoted to commercial and office uses. This percentage would seem to be in line with the amounts devoted to commercial in other cities, however, the figure is deflated by the fact that the Gainesville Urban Area contains an inordinately large amount of developed public uses, such as the University. Because the public share in a larger percentage of the total the other user are proportionately smaller
to commercial and other uses. For example, approximately 32.3 percent of the developed area is devoted to public and semi-public uses, excluding rights-of-ways. This compares with approximately 22% for fifteen American Cities as reported in Land Use In American Cities. If the publ ic and semi-publ ic percentage of the developed area were reduced to a similar amount, i.e. 22%, the commercial and office percent would be increased to over 3% of the total developed area also, as was the case with the sample cities.
Commercial land use is generally discussed with regards to three different
types: the central business district, strip commercial and shopping centers. There is no standard definition for a central business district although they are generally defined by the type of uses which are found therein. Thus the distinction between what is downtown or central business district versus what is strip commercial is sometimes unclear. If one assumes that the area lying within the proposed loop is Central Business District and the remaining commercial radiating out therefrom is strip, then approximately 5% of the total developed commercial in the area is located in the CBD, 18% in planned shopping centers, and approximately 77% of the total commercial is located in strips along major thoroughfares. While the central business district and the shopping centers comprise only 26% of the total commercial land in the urban area, they account for 39% of the commercial floor space. This is due to the aforementioned inefficient use of land which is characteristic of strip development.
Central Business District
It was concluded through this study that the central business district suffers from the same problems which have plagued most older downtowns through the country. These include insufficient parking, problems with automobile and pedestrian circulation, and most importantly, the central business district is suffering from competition from shopping centers which provide these latter two amenities. In addition, the function of downtown has, and iscgradually changing from a major retail center to more of a government and office center. This is true in many cities including Gainesville.
A detailed study of the ills and solutions to these problems was not attempted
in this study. Such a study was completed in 1963 which included many recommendations to aid in the revitalization of the central business district. Paramount among these was the development of the so-called parking loop around the central business district to improve circulation and act as a feeder into parking lots to be developed around same. This loop concept is still in the forefront of planned development for this area. In addition, a preliminary central business, district improvement plan was presented in the Commercial Study for discussion and evaluation. This improvement plan can only be evaluated fully in terms of a complete circulation system which would be the product of a transportation study.
Land Uses in American Cities, by Harland Bartholomew, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1965. -52-
Most of the major thoroughfares in the older parts of Gainesville have been developed to some extent with strip commercial. These include West 13th Street, North Main Street, and parts of West 6th Street, Waldo Road, and Hawthorne Road. In addition portions of NW 39th, NW 23rd and NW 16th'Avenues have been subjected to strip commercial developments although to a lesser degree. However, substantial stretches of West University, 8th Avenue, 16th Avenue and 39th Avenue, especially west of 13th Street have been kept free of this type of development, both inside and outside the City limits.
Shopping centers are usually defined as a group of stores planned and
developed and generally owned and managed as a unit. They are distinguished from shopping districts basically by the fact that they are planned as a unit.
Shopping centers are generally classified as to one of three types: Neighborhood Centers, Community Centers, and Regional Centers. Each type of center may vary greatly in size and are, t ,ierefore, generally classified by the characteristics of the major tenant located therein.
The principal tenant of a neighborhood center is generally a supermarket. Neighborhood centers are designed for and accommodate primarily the local convenience needs such as foods, common drugs, and sundries of a neighborhood. They generally need 5,000 or more people for support. The trade area is thought to be within approximately 6 minutes driving time and the center should ideally be located within approximately 1 1/2 miles of the people that it is to serve, although there are no hard and fast rules pertaining thereto.
The community center is generally based on a junior department stoie or a variety store as the major tenant. In addition, it generally has a supermarket, drugstore, and other local convenience goods and provides a I limited amount of comparison shopping- as wel I It is, therefore, somewhat of an "in-between" or intermediate step between the local convenience neighborhood shopping center and the comparison shopping afforded by a major or regional center. Again, while there are no hard and fast rules, some experts believe that a service radius of approximately three to five miles is the limit of the service area of a community type center.
The major tenant of a regional center or major center as classified in these studies is the full line department store or stores. These may have from 300,000 to more than a million square feet of gross leasable area and draw from a wide trade area, depending upon the competition and pull of other similar centers.
Only eight centers were considered to have been planned shopping centers in the Gainesville Urban Area. Although classification of existing centers is never very clear cut, perhaps the best example of a neighborhood center is the Northgate Shopping Center cn NE 16th Avenue. Others are located at North Main Street and 10th Avenue and at West 34th Street and University Avenue. However, the latter center, in combination with the center on the east side of 34th Street, creates trade and service pul I more I ike that of a community center. Other community centers are located at West University and NW 6th Street (Central Plaza), the Gainesville Center on North Main Street, and Fields Plaza. The Mall was considered as the only major or regional shopping center.
In addition to these centers there are approximately 30 planned local convenience centers scattered throughout the urban area. These centers have many of the characteristics of planned shopping centers although they are very much IT smaller in scale, usually constructed around a local convenience food outlet with one or two additional stores. Frequently these additional stores are laundramats, smal I hardware, etc. Because of their smal I size and the fact that they may be located adjacent to or near other strip commercial many of these centers take on the characteristics of strip commercial.
The quotation included earlier pointed out the common practice of overzoning for commercial uses. Such has been the case in Gainesville. It is estimated that there areapproximately 1, 966 acres zoned in various commercial categories in the urban area, not including 146 acres of resident ia I-professiond I zoning. In addition, therearealmost 3,000 acres zoned MS in the City and County and MP in the County which permits commercial uses. At the time the land use report was completed, when there was some 80 acres less commercial zoning than now, less than 12% of all the land which permitted commercial development was actually developed for that purpose Only 27% of dl I the land that permitted commercial development was developed for any use, including industrial, residential and other non-commercial uses which were located in these zoned areas. Of the land which was zoned in commercial categories exclusively, less than 25% was being utilized for commercial uses. Approximately 63% of the commercially zoned land was vacant while 12% was being used for non-commercial purposes. Of the non-commercial zoning districts which permit commercial uses approximately 80% is still vacant. Based on the estimated current population of 83, 000 there is approximately 0. 6 of an acre of land which is zoned to permit commercial uses for every person in the urban area. This compares with the approximately 0. OCVof an acre per person actually developed for this use.
In sum, the Gainesville Urban Area is not unlike that of most older cities in the country in that it has a tremendous surplus of commercially zoned land which has little if any chance of development for tha t purpose. In addition, there are many problems created thereby as was outlined earlier in this section.
Future Commercial Land Use
The commercial land use portion of the Land Use Plan was developed in accordance with three important concepts.
I In the older areas where the pattern is well established by existing
commercial land use, fairly detailed recommendations were made in
an attempt to upgrade the functioning of said areas and to better
integrate them into their surroundings by buffering, "rounding off"
etc . Where the pattern was not irreversibly established by
existing development, cutbacks in commercial land use were sometimes recommended
2. In the outlying undeveloped areas of the community, specific site
designations were not made unless there was an extremely logical site already properly zoned. This was to avoid the frequent result
of having such areas withheld from development for speculative
3. In all future development of commercial not designated on the
Land Use Plan, it is an important consideration of this plan that such development be in accord with the principles and policies
as set forth herein. In addition, with particular reference to
shopping center development, the need for same should definitely
be established by a reliable market analysis before it is added to the
Land Use Plan.
After careful consideration of the location and amount of commercial included on the plan, it was concluded that the Urban Area could well be served both as to amount and with convenience as shown This conc I usion includes the non- local needs of the larger market area which the local merchants serve. The plan includes approximately 1,675 acres of offices and commercial in total. This would amount toO.0097acres per person projected for 1990 versusO.O(Fin use today. Thus there is not only an increase allowed per person cver what is now used, but this figure is also inflated by the fact that with modern shopping centers the land area per person is dropping because of more efficient land utilization.
It is not intended, however, to preclude additional commercial development where such development is soundly conceived, is based on a demonstrable demand, and can be properly integrated into the development pattern of the location where it is sought. This may be particularly true for neighborhood level shopping centers during the later stages of the Planning period, i.e., the 1975- 1980. Such areas might include the area West of 1-75, Archer Road, in the Devil's Millhopper area, the Kincaid Road area and perhaps in the far Northeast.
Note: the service pattern of local neighborhood commercial is illustrated by Map V,
which shows a one mile and 1 1/2 mile radius around the existing and probable shopping centers.
i., 0 810. Off 5 joz
In many areas where commercial was adjacent to single family residential uses, a buffer use of offices or multiple family residential uses was provided in between. One exception to this is the commercial at the freeway interchanges where only a small generalized greenbelt buffer is shown. However, the current zoning on these sites already permits multiples and offices, so that the same buffering effect can be achieved under current conditions, and should be encouraged to happen in any event.
Summary of Existing Characteristics
To the average person, interest in a land use plan centers around their home or in theresidential aspects of the plan. it is in these areas that the average person spends most of his time and has his biggest investment. In terri-is of the City as a whole this land use category constitutes the biggest user of all developed property. The latter statement is supported by a survey of 15 American cities which was done by Harland Bartholomewwho reported that in a typical city 43% of the total developed land was used for residential purposes. Only -street right-of-ways with 26% are close to this large a share of the total developed area.
In Gainesville the percentage is much lower due primarily to the fact that a substantially larger percentage of the total developed area is devoted to public and semi-public uses. This in turn lowers the percentage of all other categories relative to the whole. The actual residential percentage in Gainesville is approximatelly 28 1/2%. If the public land holding were reduced in a hypothetical case from the approximate 37 1/2% to a more normal 22% (as was found in the sample cities) the total residential would constitute approximately 35% to 36% of the whole.
In terms of zoning approximately 8,700 acres out of 13.800 zoned, or about 64%, are zoned for residential use This does not include the residential estates
(RE) and agriculture districts, which are considered holding zones, even though they do permit single family residential uses on large lots. In addition, some of the residential categories, notably the residential professional (RP), allow non-residential uses. Most of the residential zones also permit public and semi-public uses such as schools and churches.
The proposed plan contains approximately 35,000 acres in the various residential categories out of a total of approximately 54,000 acres in the recommended development area or about 65% of the total This percentage, however, does not exclude rights-of-way except for some of the ma-or existing thoroughfares. Since rights-of-way normally constitute 20% to 30% of the developed area of residential properties, the percentage of the plan which would be residential is considerably less than what is apparent from these figures. If 20% were excluded the approximate percentage would be dropped to about 50%, as an example.
It is estimated that there are in excess of 25, 200 dwelling units in the Urban Area. A breakdown of these units is as follows:
EXISTING DWELLING UNITS
Single Family (SF) Multiples (MF) Mobile Home (MH)
Within City 12,374 6,803 336
Outside City 3,737 487 11066
Tota 1 16,111 71350 1,402 (Parks Only)
Percentage 63.9% 29.2% 6.95%
The present trend in development of residential housing units, both nationally and locally has been away from the traditional detached single family dwelling. This is illustrated for the Urban Area by Table V. As the estimates in this table indicate, single family has dropped from a high of 80% of the total number of dwelling units in 1960 to the estimated 64% today, whereas both multiple family (apartments) and mobile homes have increased their percentage share of the total.
There are numerous factors behind this dramatic change in the dwelling unit composition of the Urban Area. The most significant factor, of course, is cost. For various reasons, the traditional single family house is now beyond the reach of many. The significance of this fact is that alternative types of housing, such as apartments, mobile homes and new types of dwellings such as modular construction dwellings are becoming a significant factor in land development and must be considered in the development of the overall I Land Use Plan.
DWELLING UNIT COMPOSITION GINESVILLE LAR BAN AREA
Total D.V.'s Single Family Apartment Mobile Homes
January, 1960 15 :-056 12,020 2,336 690
(1 00%/) (80%) (15.5%) (4.5%)
1965 18,542 14,309 3,307 926
(77,2%) (17.8%) (5.0%)
September, 1968 22,890 15,304 6,137 1,449
(66.9%) (26.8%) (6.3%)
April, 1970 25,111 16,111 7,350 1,752
(63.9%) (29.2%) (6.9%)
Source: Department of Community Development estimates.
The Gainesville Neighborhood Analysis study, completed in 1965, indicated that
within the city imits there were 105 diaiated dwellings (0. 7%/ of the total), 2,353
dwellIings in need of rehabilIitation (15. 1%), and 13, 003 standard or conservation dwellIings
(84.2%). A Housing Survey was conducted by the Department of Community Development
in July, 1969 in those areas where substantial numbers of substandard dwellIings units are located. The survey enumerated approximately 1, 650 substandard dwelling units within
the City. Approximately 1,500 of these were dwellings in need of rehabilitation to bring
them up to the standards in the Housing Code, and approximately 150 were considered
dilapidated beyond repair. Because of the enforcement of the Housing Code, it is now believed that this figure has been reduced to approximately 1,300 substandard dwellings of which approximately 100 are dilapidated.
These figures are indicative of the fact that continued efforts must be made to insure that al I residents of the community are afforded the opportunity to I ive in a dwelling unit which meets at least the very minimum standards as set forth in the Housing Code. To do so will require the continued co-operation of both the governmental and the private sectors of our community.
Much effort has been and is continuing to be spent, by both the public and the private sector to provide low and moderate income housing in the Gainesville Area. A I ist of many of the projects completed or now underway is contained in Table VI. Continued enforcement of the Housing Code in an effort to bring substandard units up to a level of minimum health and safety standards, coupled with the ever rising cost of housing, will undoubtedly result in continued efforts in the direction of providing such housing as is included in this list.
As noted earlier, roughly 35, 000 acres out of the approximate 54, 000 total
which are recommended in the development portion of the plan, was devoted to residential uses. These could be broken down as approximately 28,300 acres or 81% single family, 3,800 or 11% multiple family and 2,800, or the remaining 8% in mobile home areas. This breakdown is somewhat deceptive in that approximately 1,800 acres were designated on the plan as areas in which either of the three above mentioned categories of residential would be suifable, so long as the density were maintained at approximately 8 units/acre. Other areas were designated suitable for either multiples or single family units. These areas would also permit any of the newer types of dwelling units such as the proposed modular housing types which are now coming into vogue.
Of the different residential categories, single family detached housing has been allocated by for the largest amount of land in the plan. This does not mean that a heavier emphasis has been placed on returning to this particular type of dwelling unit, but is recognition of the fact that it is, and will probably continue to be the largest land user because of its density. It should also be noted that in all aspects of the plan, 1009/o development would be impossible by 1980. This is true of the industrial, commercial as well as the residential portions of the plan. Only 120,000 or approximately 38, 000 to 39, 000 additional people are expected to be aided to the population in the next 10 years.
A survey was made of all lots platted in 1960, and was found that the average lot size was approximately 16,500 square feet,, even though the largest required lot size is only 10, 000 square feet. It was also found that the average size of lots has been steadily increasing during this period, in keeping with the increasing price of the dwelling units. A projection of this lot size to 1980 resulted in an average in excess of 25, 100 square feet by that date.
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At the same time a projection was made based on the actual number of single
family dwelling units constructed over the same period. This data was also projected to 1980, the results of which was a continued gradual decline in the number of single family units constructed per year, to approximately 375 by that date. The total demand in this hypothetical case was approximately 4, 165 more single family dwellings in the urban area. If all the additional dwelling units were constructed on 25,100 square foot lots, and approximately 25% is added for street rights-of-way, the total additional demand for land would be only approximately 3,000 acres.
It is impossible to determine what will be the actual percentage division between the different residential types for the future. It was attempted in the plan to logically relate land uses in a harmonious manner, and to provide adequate opportunities for the development of all types consistent with the objectives expressed in the Policies Plan outlined in this report.
NEW DWELLING UNITS
GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA
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Source: Department of Community Development estimates.
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Source- Department of Community Development estimates.
The division between the housing types in the post is shown in Table V and in
Illustration VI, which shows the approximate composition of the new units constructed in the period from 1960 to 1968. All evidence indicates that the Gainesville Urban Area has logged behind the State and the Nation in the percentage of the total housing market which is made up of mobile homes. Nationally the percentage market devoted to mobile homes has averaged around 15% although it has surged higher in the last 2 or 3 years. Locally, in only one year is it estimated that this figure has been approached, and aswas indicated earlier only about 7% of the total housing stock is found in mobile homes. Based on the 120, 000 population projected for 1980 and assuming that 15% of all living units will be mobile homes, it is estimated that approximately 1,750 additional units would be required by 1980. At 7 units/acre (the current ordinance permits 9), this would require an additional 250 acres of property in the mobile home category. If all 2,800 acres on the plan were developed at 7 units/acre, a total of 19,699 units could be accommodated.
Based on the same anticipated population of 120,000 by 1980, and subtracting
from the total anticipated need those persons expected to be housed on the campus of the University, and subtracting the single family and mobile home demand from the total, a hypothetical figure of 5,800 units was developed as the anticipated need for multiple family units by 1980. Densities in multiple family vary greatly from a planned low in the plan of approximately 8 units/acre up to approximately 20 units/acre, about the top for Garden type units. Assuming an overall average of approximately 15 to the acre, something in excess of 400 acres would be required to develop all of the anticipated multiple family or apartment units needed between now and 1980. This compares with the proposed 3,800 acres in the plan.
Thus, as was true with the other categories, an extremely ample supply has been set aside in the plan for each specific land use category. Assuming all of the lower densities as anticipated in the plan, a total of roughly 350,000 people could I- accommodated by same compa red to the 120,000 plus anticipated by 1980. Assuming total development of all of the land, the dwelling unit breakdown would be approximately 33% multiple family, 49% single family and 18% in mobile homes.
A preliminary industrial land use plan was developed as a part of the Industrial
Study. Only minor changes were made in the final overall I recommended pTan.-One cRo'nge was the expansion of the industrial site north of, and adjacent to, the Hawthorne Road location of Florida Fryers Company. Subsequent re-examination of this area revealed its extensive use as a barrow pit which rendered it virtually useless for other uses. It was therefore included as industrial on the final version of the plan. Also, a small amount of industry was removed along SW 16th Avenue on the final plan.
The following is a summary of pertinent findings and recommendations taken from the Industrial Study with these minor changes made. Note the total industrial land use reported -hereinafter differs slightly from the overall summary of land use totals as contained in Table XII This is due to the fact thot the latter is generalized with only major rights-of-way excluded, whereas the former figures have all existing right-of-way excluded
I There is approximately 3,023 acres of land zoned for industrial in the
Urban Area. Of this total about 2,081 is zoned Manufacturing Industrial
(MP), and approximately 942 acres is zoned Local Service Industrial (MS).
2. Of the total land zoned approximately 2,405 acres currently is vacant.
This is approximately 79 1/2% of the total.
3. Approximately 89 acres of industrial or whol esa I e/wo rehouse type land
use was found in areas zoned some classification other than industrial.
4. There is an estimated total of 481 acres of industrial land use in the
Urban Area with approximately 354 acres located in the industrial districts.
5. The industry in this area is characterized by a low intensity of land
coverage, a low employee per acre ratio, and has an average lot size
of approximately 2 acres per use. The actual uses themselves cover
a broad range of types from very light industry to some very heavy
industries. They also include many uses which are permitted in nonindustrial districts such as light wholesaling operations.
6. It is recommended in the plan that recognition be given to the differing
characteristics and vocational needs of I ight versus heavy industry and
to purely wholesale and/or warehousing types of uses.
7. A total of 2,918 acres (including 21 additional acres added from the
preliminary plan) are recommended for industrial in the land use plan.
8. Approximately 2,261 acres of vacant industrial land is included in the
plan recommendation, although a smal I portion of this would be classified
as unbuildable without extensive site preparation, and some of the area would include land which would need some site preparation or may have
soil characteristics which dictate a low intensity utilization.
There are some 2, 400 acres of vacant property now zoned for industry. It was estimated that in 1967 that the average number of employees per acre was about 12. If the remaining vacant acreage now zoned were developed at this density it would support 28,800 workers. Projections of the number of resident employees in various
industrial categories were contained in the Economic Base Study. The total for 1980 in Manufacturing, Wholesale Trade and Construction, many of whose workers would ordinarily be found in industrial districts, was 10,091. (Note: this total was for resident employment, which is a measurement of the employment of the residents of a given area, as opposed to other labor force counts which may include commuters and/or workers who hold more than one job, and consequently are counted more than once). At the rate of only 12 employees per acre, the prevailing overall ratio found in the survey in this study, a total of 840 acres would be required. This would not be in addition to the acreage in use now since these same three categories already had 7,265 employees in 1967. Thus the net projected gain is 2,826 employees, which would need about 218.8 acres based on this rate. A much higher ratio is expected as urbanization continues. Thus it is safe to conclude that sufficient land is provided in the plan to accommodate all workerswho can reasonably be expected in industry in the near future.
Three major goals for industrial development were presented in the earlier report on goals. These are:
I Enough industry to meet industrial employment needs. As the above discussion clearly points out, there is unquestionabTyenough land now zoned
to meet any foreseeable need for industrial development in the future.
2. Adequate supply of suitable industrial land Again, it has been established
that an adequate supply is now available; it's suitability was also discussed in
the Industrial Study. While clearly not all land now zoned is suitable for use, only a reasonably small fraction of the total land is completely unusable. Unquestionably an adequate supply is available.
3. Minimization of Industrial Blight and the Blighting Effects of Industries on
Their Neighbors. Emphasis in this plan has been placed on this goaF-TNis
is accomplished by recommending cutbacks where appropriate and/or "rounding
off" of industrial land where such action would tend to encourage a better land use relationship between differing uses; and by hereby strongly recommending the pursuit and implementation of those desirable standards discussed in the Industrial Study report under the section on industrial Promotion and/or the Selection of New Industry, and in the Policies Plan section of this report.
It is recognized that there are at least three basic types of industrial uses. These are
warehousing/wholesale operations, manufacturing or processing industry, and non-manufacturing industry such as heavy construction types of land uses. In addition, there are certain retail or commercial uses which by their nature might be better located in an industrial district than in a commercial zone. Such uses might include heavy automotive repair, lumber and building supply stores, and etc.
The Zoning Ordinance currently gives some tacit recognition to the existence of different levels of industrial use by the establishment of two industrial zones, one called local service industrial and one called manufacturing. This is somewhat parallel to the practice in many communities of classifying industry as "light" and "heavy". In practice, however, both types of uses have indiscriminately located in either zone. Because of this fact, most of the districts outlined on the plan are simply labeled industrial However, ir. a few instances on the plan a purely wholesale/warehousing district is recommended where it is felt that such locations would be inappropriate foi most manufacturing operations.
No large expansion in terms of land area has been recommended in this proposed plan because most of the available sites are reasonably located and the supply is more than sufficient to meet the foreseeable needs. However, one very important need for change clearly stands out: Industrial districts must be mode more attractive if new industry to expand the economic base of the community is to be attracted to locate here. Industry is a legitimate land use in itself deserving of the same exclusive zoning which promotes harmony and compatibility as any other type of land use. It is strongly urged therefore, that zoning changes be made to recognize this vital fact about modem industry.
A second important consideration is that not al I locations outlined on the plan are considered suitable for manufacturing uses. Therefore, certain districts are shown as purely wholesale/warehousing operations. A certain amount of such uses are necessary in locations with close and good communication with the major commercial districts that these uses serve. However, who lesale/warehousing uses have not tra, -ional ly presented the best appearance. It is urged that particular care be token in the implementation of these districts through zoning standards which will protect surrounding areas.
Finally, it should be recognized that not all industrial uses would be appropriate in al I districts Generally speaking, it may be concluded that only the so called I ight industrial uses are desi red by th is Community This would seem to be the consensus reached from the earlier goals discussions. Nevertheless there are several existing heavy industries in the Urban Area, such as Koppers the meat processing plants, and heavy construction firms, and there is likely to be additional demands for such uses in the future
Because these uses could have a negative influence on certain light, research type industries, it is recommended that two categories of industry be established, in addition to who I esa I e/wo rehousing. It is further recommended that industrial districts, A, B and E be restricted to the "lighter" category, with districts C and D divided into zones providing separation between the light and heavy types, and, of course, recognizing those heavy uses which now exist. This should be accomplished by the drafting of new zoning district boundaries.
RECREATION AND OPEN SPACE
Recreation holds a position of high importance in American life today for as the amount of man's leisure time increases, his demand for recreation areas and facilities also increases. This need becomes even greater in urban areas where large concentrations of people are centered. Recreation and open space areas give urban man a place to which he can retreat, relax, and escape the rigors of urban tension. The fact that recreation and open space areas positively serve both physical and psychological human needs is a factor of prime importance.
Another consideration that is often overlooked is the urban work fhat is performed by open space and recreational areas. Not only do they provide relief from urban development, but open space areas enhance and protect the urban area's resource base. Such natural resources as clean air, uncontaminated water, and productive soils can be conserved through the proper use of open space and recreation areas. Open space wetlands and floodplains act as holding basins, thus preventing floods caused by the excess water runoff of development lands. Open space provides recreation for the outdoorsman and sportsman and is an essential tool for education in the natural and physical sciences. The ecological balance of nature is preserved by open space lands.
Open space and recreation areas their size, character, location, and shape can have a profound effect on current and future development patterns. As such, open space and recreation planning becomes an integral factor in the comprehensive planning process.
It becomes no easy task to relate the needs and desires of the people to the
potential physical resource base available for open space and recreational development. Close coordination of all levels of government within the planning area is of prime importance to guarantee that paper plans become physical realities.
That the residents in the Gainesville Area will have an increasing amount of leisure time requiring a variety of both public and private recreation facilities can be a guiding premise for recreation and open space planning. Certain principles can be followed to help insure both the quality and quantity of public recreational facilities. These were outlined in the proceeding policies plan section of this report.
The recreation standards developed by the Gainesville Recreation Advisory
Board and reported in the Community Facilities and Recreation Study (See Table VII) recommended one to two acres per 1 000 population for neighborhood parks. It further recommended that such parks be in sites of 12 to 15 acres and be located within approximately 3/4 of a mile of the populations it was to serve. The function of such park was to provide both passive and active recreation for neighborhoods.
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A I ike amount of I to 2 acres per 1, 000 people was recommended for neighborhood
playgrounds. Where both neighborhood playground and neighborhood parks were provided, minimum of one acre of each, and at least two acres in total, was included in the standards.
By these standards a minimum of 120 acres to as much as 240 acres of neighborhood parks should be provided to meet the needs of the 120,000 people expected to be in the urban area by 1980. This standard would call for at least 8 sites, assuming 15 acres per site.
There are two important considerations in providing for neighborhood park
needs, however, above and beyond the question of an adequate amount to service a population of a given type. The first of these is that in order to really accommodate the needs of the population such facilities must be provided within a reasonable distance from the homes they are to serve. No amount of neighborhood parks is sufficient if the land is so located as to negate its use by the resident of a community. The second important consideration is that the ten year span covered by this plan is insufficient when considering land needs for recreation. Open land available at a reasonable price rapidly disappears in those locations where 'it is most needed as growth takes place, and therefore realistically purchase must take place much in advance if any reasonable standard is to be met.
The recommendations contained in the land use plan wereaimed'at achieving two
objectives. One was the provision of adequate park needs in locations which would be convenient to most of the people in the community. (See Illustration VII). At the same time an attempt was made to economize on the total amount of land which would be needed by combining neighborhood parks with other facilities where possible.
A total of approximately 189 acres is recommended in the plan. However, of
this total only 49 acres represents separate new neighborhood park site recommendations. The remaining acreage is for park facilities in conjunction with either schools, community parks, or regional parks, plus 45 acres in existing parks. It should be noted that the acreage indicated is not an exact amount, inasmuch as such figure includes a simple designation of a 5 acre area to be used for neighborhood parks facilities in conjunction with each of several larger facilities of which it is to be a part More or less amounts may be desired depending on the configuration and character of the larger area and of the population which would be served by the specific facility.
Thirty-five of the acres contained in this recommendation represents the addition of five acres to each of seven elementary school sites, which would expand the park and playground facilities of said sites to meet the total need for neighborhood recreation in those areas. These sites include the following: an elementary school in the Glen Springs planning unit area, another in the Richland Heights or Northwood East planning unit, a site in either fhe Pine Grove, Rutledge, West Hills or West Park
planning units, a site in the Santa Fe planning unit, Glenwood planning unit, theft Kanapaha planning unit, and finally, in the Arrendondo planning unit. These locations are only suggestive, however, as it is not possible to anticipate specifically where each new school will be most needed, or when needed.
An elementary school site by the recommended standards of the State Department of Education is 15 acres. Of this amount normally approximately 7 acres is devoted to playground activities. Therefore, in combination with 5 'additional acres for park purposes a standard neighborhood facility of approximately 12 acres would result.
Seven or eight additional community parks are anticipated ultimately to serve
the urban area. Only four of these are recommended in this plan for development in the period between now and 1980. It is proposed that in three of these an additional five acres be added to the 25 or so acres normally making up such a park to provide facilities which would serve the immediate surrounding neighborhood park needs. These three sites are in the general area of Millhopper planning unit, one of two sites west of the freeway in the Glenwood or Kanapaha planning units, and finally, a facility in the Rocky Point Idylwild area. It should be noted that with regards to community parks, and particularly with reards to regional parks, the location of the neighborhood facility must be in such manner as to permit ready access and use by the surrounding a rea population if it is to serve a neighborhood park function.
The equivalent of at least seven, 5 acre sites were recommended in conjunction with the proposed regional park open space areas in the plan. First of all it was noted that the picnic and passive recreation facilities of the existing Morningside Park could serve a limited neighborhood park need in that vicinity. It is recommended that similar developments take place to serve the development area near other such facilities. A neighborhood park at Newnan's Lake (in the vicinity of University Avenue) as a part of the recommended regional park open space facility, is an example.p
It is anticipated that a community park will eventually be needed in the area of the public boat ramp on Newnan' s Lake at Hawthorne Road, and it was also recommended that most of the low lying land in this area be included in an overall major regional park facility at some time in the future. Within these facilites a minimum of a 5 acre neighborhood park should be developed to serve the surrounding urban population of this area.
It is anticipated that several neighborhood park facilities could be constructed in the l inear parkway running from the Millhopper down through the Hogtown Creek basin to serve the residents of adjoining areas. The same is true of a facility in the vicinity of a small lake south of Terwilliger School, and possibly a facility could be developed in the regional park shown in the vicinity of Lake Kanapaha, although a neighborhood school was anticipated in this area eventualIly with additional acreage for a park shown in conjunction with same.
Finally, five sites were shown on the plan as being needed for new neighborhood park facilities not in conjunction withanyother type of recreation facility. Two are in the older built up areas of town and therefore it was anticipated that 5 acres would perhaps be all that could be acquired for these areas, although in both instances the possibility ity of urban redevelopment does exist. One area needing a neighborhood park is the vicinity of Jones, Finley and Lanier planning units, an area now served, but inadequately, by the Kiwanis Park located on 8th Avenue. It is recommended that the additional land not now utilized on the Finley School site be developed with some park fac il ities to serve part of the area. However, additional park is needed, especially east of 13th Street in the Jones and south Lanier area.
Another developed area not adequately served by park facilities ismade up primarily of the Duval Planning Unit. Agai n 5 acres was recommended for this general area for a neighborhood park facility. This amount, in conjunction with the recently announced tot-lots in this area and the playground facilities at Duval, would bring the area up to near normal in regards to neighborhood recreation.
Another site was recommended in the area of the Biven's Arm extension which
lies between US 441 and South Main Street. Actually, this site could be considered as a development of a neighborhood facility in conjunction with an oper space or regional park proposal; however, it was anticipated that this land might possibly be acquired not in fee title but by one of the other open space methods, and it was recommended that at least 12 acres be set aside to service the growing population of Kirkwood, Coiclough Hills and the apartment developments on SW 13th Street.
It was also recommended that a full sized 12-15 acre neighborhood park be
acquiredsouth of the Williston Road cutoff in the Idylwild planning unit to service the area between there and the prairie. Because of the slow development of this area this site is not needed immediately but will be needed to give adequate coverage to this area ultimately This is assuming that a community park recommended for the same general area, but perhaps North of Williston Road, will be provided first. A similar situation exist in two other locations although specific reservations were not made in this plan because of the time span anticipated before substantial development will occur. These two areas are in the extreme Northeast section in the vicinity of SR 232 and SR 26 and in the Kincaid planning unit to fil I in the gap between the facilities provided at Newnan's Lake and the existing park facilities at Boulware Springs in the same planning unit.
Finally a facility of at least 12-15 acres is recommended for the Northeast area. This facility will serve both a neighborhood park function, and as a site for additional community facilities to supplement Northeast park. This recommendation is discussed more fully in a following section.
In summary, the plan recommends approximately 189 acres be devoted to neighborhood park functions. Of this amount 49 acres represent separate parks to be acquired, and about 45 acres now exist. The remainder is recommended for development in conjunction
with other facilities. It should be noted however, that these facilities must be acquired in order for this plan to work. This is true particularly of the new school sites, at least one of which already has been purchased. If the regional facilities or the community facilities are not acquired then this plan should be re-evaluated with the idea of acquiring separate neighborhood facilities to serve the same urban area population.
The total of 189 acres, (which are located in 24 separate sites) would amount to
a ratio of 1.6 acres per thousand persons. This is above the minimum of I acre/1,000 but lower than the higher standard of two acres. Thus, while the recommendations of this report will serve the anticipated population of 1980, it will not suffice for the population for long thereafter. A summary of the existing and proposed facilities may be found in Table Vill
Perhaps the most vital recreation facility in a community is the neighborhood playground. It is the facility closest to the people and receives perhaps the most utilization of all recreation facilities. The most common provision for neighborhood playgrounds is in conjunction with an elementary school. In addition, active organized play and informal game areas frequently are provided in full scale neighborhood parks.
The suggested standards for neighborhood playgrounds is 1 to 2 acres per 1,000 population with a minimum of a 5 acre site. (See Table VII). The maximum service area of such a facility is about 1/2 mile, or the limit of the walking distance for the lower age groups which would normally use such a facility. The basic age groups served by a neighborhood playground are 6 to 15 years old.
The Recreation Study listed some 17 existing playground facilities. These included Gainesville High S _h l which has a very limited use as a playground facility. Since that report was completed, three additional facilities have been added in conjunction with the Glen Springs, Majorie Kinnan Rawlings, and the Prairie View Elementary Schools. It is estimated that approximately 7 acres of each of the latter sites is devoted to playground activities. In addition a percentage of the Meadowbrook and Green Acres neighborhood park is devoted to playground use and a 5.2 acre playground has been dedicated to the City at the Woodland Park public housing site. This brings the approximate total acreage devoted to playgrounds to about 187.2 acres or approximately 2.2 acres per 1,000 existing population (assuming 5 acres each at Meadowbrook and Green Acres is playground). In total, not including GHS, there are now 23 existing playground facilities.
Fourteen add itio nal playground facilities are recommended in the plan. These include a new playground at each of 9 proposed elementary schools in the Plan plus at two additional Junior High Schools. The Ictter two are not located on the Plan but it is generally assumed that at least one of these facilities would most likely be located in the 1-75 Archer Road Area. Assuming that 7 acres are provided with each elementary for playgrounds, and 10 at each new Junior High, a total of 83 acres would be added to the existing playground acreage.
Three new complete neighborhood parks are recommended in the plan. These are located in the Idylwild section,.near Biven's Arm (P. K. Yonge planning unit) and one in the Northeast area in the Highlands planning unit. It is assumed that a portion of each of these neighborhood parks would be developed for playground use Thus the total new acreage provided in the plan plus the existing acreage would amount to approximately 285 acres, or about 2.4 acres per 1, 000 population projected for this urban area by 1980.
It should be noted that the two equally important criteria in providing recreation facilities, i.e. an adequate amount as well as adequate service area to all developed areas of the community, wil I not be met by this plan. This is because it wil I not be possible to locate a playground facility within approximately 1/2 mile from all the major developed areas which will be in existence by 1980. It is presumed, however, that reasonable coverage will result from the plan recommendations. (See Map Vill)In addition, it is recognized that far more elementary schools will be needed in the period following 1980. It is assumed that the policy of providing playgrounds with such elementary schools will be continued and that many of the schools will be located in the gaps which are now existing on the map, thus ultimately providing more adequate coverage. It must be strongly urged, however, that school sites be purchased in advance insofar as it is at all possible, because of the growing sz;arcity and rising cost of land.
In summary, the neighborhood park and playground facilities will total 449 acres if all the recommendations are implemented. This would provide a total service of
3.7 acres/], 000 population which is below the upper standard but above the minimum, and hence adequate to serve the urban area needs to 1980.
Community Parks represent the largest intensively developed facility in most communities, providing large areas for active organized play plus facilities for passive recreation, picnicking, meeting space and other special activities. The facilities usually include athletic fields, game courts, playgrounds, picnic facilities, walks, and frequently such special facilities as swimming pools and indoor meeting accommodations.
The standards of the Gainesville Recreation Advisory Board call for two or three acres of community park per 1,000 population, with a minimum site of 25 acres. The preferred service radius is up to 2 miles generally serving from 10,000 to 25,000 people.
Three facilities comprising a total of 84 acres were classified as community parks in the recreation inventory included in the Recreation Study. These are Lincoln Park in conjunction with the old Lincoln High School-, N rtheast Park on NE 16th Avenue, and Westside Park on West 34th Street. In addition, Meadowbrook Park, located less than one-half mile south of Lincoln provides meeting facilities which would normally be included in a community level
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park. All remaining facilities, including a swimming pool, lighted ballfield, practice fields and multi-purpose tennis courts are located on the Lincoln property.
The Northeast Park has dressing facilities, lighted tennis courts, assorted playground equipmentand two lighted softball diamonds. It is approximately 4 acres below the recommended 25 acres minimum and does not provide the full range of facilities which are available in the vicinity of the other two community parks. Since there is insufficient room for expansion, it is recommended in this plan that consideration be given to a development of a dual use facility, such as exist in the Southeast, for the Northeast area. That is, it is recommended that consideration be given to the development of a swimming pool and indoor meeting facility such as is provided by Meadowbrook Park in the far Northeast area Of the community. A 15 acre neighborhood park facility has been recommended for the area in the vicinity of NE 39th Avenue and 15th Street. This facility could be constructed in conjunction with this park.
The most complete facility in the community is Westside Park, at least insofar as to the provision of all desired uses in a single location. While this 27 acre parcel surpasses the hypothetical minimum, service to a much larger population has already made this facility inadequate. A complete range of uses are provided at the park site including indoor meeting rooms, active supervised recreation, swimming pool and passive recreation facilities such as picnicking.
The total of 84 acres equals approximately one acre per 1, 000 population, which is less than one-half of what would be recommended to service the current existing population of the urban area. It should be noted, however, that with a one and one-half to two miles service radius around each of these facilities, the major development areas of a community are being served from a location standpoint alone. (See Map IX).
It is believed that approximately 7 additional community parks will be necessary to ultimately provide adequate service to the whole urban area. This plan, however, recommends only 4 of these at the present time. It is recommended that these facilities be located approximately as follows: in the extreme Northwest section of the City, in the Millhopper or one of the adjacent planning units; West of 1-75 in the Glenwood or Kanapaha Planning units; in the Rocky I'Dint or Idylwild planning unit (note that a neighborhood park is recommended for whichever planning unit is not chosen for the community park in this area); and finally, a community park to be located in the extreme Eastern section of the Community, perhOPS in the Hawthorne Road-Newnans Lake area. It should be noted that regional parks are recommended in the some vicinity as three of the four community park recommendations. Nothing in this recommendation should preclude the possibility of developing the community park as a part of these regional facilities, if it is found after a thorough study that the potential uses of each of those recommended open space regional parks would not be diminished in purpose by such combined use.
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Assuming that 25 acres apeset aside for each of the four recommended faci lit ies, 100 acres would be added to the inventory of community parks, making a total of 184 acres. This would provide approximately one and one-half acres per 1,000 population as anticipated by 1980. This is well below the 2 to 3 acres per 1,000 population recommended by the Recreation Advisory Board, but the coverage would appear to be adequate for most of the anticipated urban growth of the next ten years. Again, as with all of the recreation facilities, if at all possible it is recommended that additional sites above and beyond the minimum recommendations contained herein be purchased. It is recognized that these recommendations are minimum and will not service beyond the 1980 target date of this plan.
Special Use Facilities
There are several special use facilities in the Gainesville Area including
Harris Field (baseball field), Citizen's Field (football stadium), the Archery Range, Auto Driving Course, Florida State Museum, and several others, all of which are designed to serve needs which are specific in nature. Others such as the Boys Club, Recreation Center and Community Center serve a variety of needs in the form of both indoor and outdoor activities.
These special use facilities serve as supplements to the total area re.-reation program in that they help to fill deficiencies in the total program. Standards for special use facilities vary from areato area according to existing and potential future conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to assess the adequacy of existing special use facilities in the Gainesville Area. It appears that the wide range of existing special use facilities available to Gainesville Area residents are adequate to serve most of the current needs. Future considerations regarding special use facilities might include expanding existing facilities, a civic center, municipal golf course, additional recreation buildings, and new Boys Club facilities.
Semi-Public Recreational Facilities
T he ma jo rity o f the sem i- publ ic fac i I ites i n the Ga i nesvi I I e Area are swim c I ubs
and golf courses. These facilities serve as a supplement to the City recreation program in that they reduce the need for similar public facilities in the area. These facilities are operated on a membership basis which means they serve a I limited number of the population.
The University of Florida, on the other hand, has athletic fields, tennis courts, etc. which are used by the student body as well as by non-university related persons. Certain University facilities such as the swimming pool and golf course are only available to faculty, staff, and students. Even with this restriction, the facilities on the campus lessen the recreation facilities demand on the Gainesville Recreation P rog ram .
There are no public standards to measure the adequacy of the semi-public facilities.
These standards are established by the owners or the associations who control each facility. Any additional semi-publ ic fac il ities constructed in the area willI further enhance the total recreation facilities programs for the Urban Area residents.
Regional Parks and Open Space
Regional parks are major recreation facilities providing both active and passive type recreation. They usually attempt to utilize the advantages of unique natural features and resources. The facilities provided usually include a mixture of nature trails, boating, swimming, picnicking, covered shelter, play equipment for young and old, informal game areas, and bridle paths. The recommended minimum size per 1,000 population is 3-4 acres, with a minimum of 100 acres per regional park. The preferred service radius is 10 miles and the population served is usually 25,000 people plus. These are deceptive standards, however, developed long before the current national concern over the preservation of open space for its own utility came to the attention of most people. More recent standards such as those contained in Planning Design Criteria* call for as much as 15 acres per 1,000 population for major regional parks and reservations. In reality, numerous local factors must be taken into consideration for this level of facility. Among such considerations are the desire to preserve unique natural features of the locale worthy of such preservation, the total amount of such facilities available to a given area from all sources, and the desire to assure such facilities will be equally available to the whole urban area.The one existing regional park in the Gainesville Urban Area is Morningside Park
located at East University Avenue and 35th Street. This park was purchased by the City from the General Service Administration in 1964 for $80,820. Funds for this purchase were raised as part of a general obligation bond issue. Morningside Park contains 278 acres and development thus far consists of a paved access road and parking, picnic tables with benches, permanent l ighted restrooms, and cooking grillIs. Further development of the park will proceed as funds become available. Immediate proposals for the development of Morningside Park include marked nature trails and a nature center. The nature center would include displays of flower and plant life. This center could be used for the education of students in the natural and physical sciences. Future plans include a tent camping area with appropriate services. Since Morningside Park is the only regional park in the Urban Area, it should be completely developed as soon as possible. At the present time it is providing approximately 3.3 acres of regional park per thousand of Urban Area population.
The first regional park and/or open space proposed is located in the Northwestern quadrant of Gainesville. It has three distinct but interdependent components:
* de Chiara, Joseph, and Koppelman, Lee, Planning Design Criteria, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, N.- Y. 1969, page 203.
The first component consists of the Milihopper The Milihopper is a sinkhole approximately 130 feet deep and as wide as 450 feet across at some points and is believed to be the largest sinkhole in the Southeastern United States. The natural beauty and plant life of this area should be preserved. The Millhopper land is owned by the University of Florida with a deed restriction limiting it to park use. The University has not had the funds available for its development. Development of the Millhopper into a park for use by University students as well as the City and County residents could be a joint project of all levels of government equally sharing their burden of development costs. Additional land should be bought to bring the total to an amount sufficient to develop a full scale regional park.
The second component of the Northwest open space proposal is the acquisition
of portions of the Hogtown Creek Basin and various tributary branches. The proposed greenbelt areawould begin in the vicinity of the Millhopper and extend to below 8th Avenue traversing Northwood West, Madison Park, Brywood, and Westwood Planning Units. Not only would the acquisition of this property preserve valuable open space, it would also serve as a passive recreation park and as open space relief for the residents of the above planning units.
The third possible component is in reality a secondary use of the greenbelt area
formed by the Hogtown Creek basin. This component would be a limited access boulevard through the center of the acquired greenbelt area. Such a facility would be a scenic drive system not only performing a vital traffic function, but more importantly would preserve a natural greenbelt and streambed area for posterity. A recent Traffic Quarterly journal article entitled "The Automobile and Recreation" related the findings of a survey done for State of Wisconsin Department of Resource Development. It stated that pleasure driving is the most popular form of outdoor recreation and that the number one attraction is scenery and sightseeing. The proposed boulevard would serve this purpose. It is believed that there could be a minimum of disruption to adjacent property because of the limited access and layout design confining movement to the interior of the system. The adjoining areas would in fact receive a substantial benefit in that the park area will remain primarily in its natural state.
A second regional park and open space proposal would be Lake Kanapaha, Sugarfoot Prairie and the surrounding area. As shown,the area covers approximately 1,550 acres with at least 400 acres of the total being under water. The entire floodplain of Hogtown Creek south of Newberry Road including Lake Kanapaha, Kanapaha Sink and Sugarfoot Prairie would form this area. As pointed out in the Department's Physiographic Survey, this area is highly subject to flooding. Because of the flooding possibilities and the occurrence of poor soils, the value of the area for urban development is greated reduced.
With the proper development the area east of the Interstate could serve as permanent open space doing such urban work as providing a flood plain during the wet season and acting as a storage basin for flood waters. The Lake Kanapaha area could be of tremendous value to the residents of the Urban Area if it was, in conjunction with the uses above, used also as a recreation site. Facilities that could be included are swimming and boating areas, overnight tent camping facilities, nature trails, wildlife preservation areas and a stocked fishing lake.
It is recommended that further in-depth studies of this area be conducted as soon as
possible. They should be concerned primarily with the physical characteristics of the area and the positive functions this area serves to protect and enhance the physical environment of the Urban Area.
The fourth new park is located on the East side of the Urban Area at Newnan's Lake. In addition to the purpose of providing access to one of the areas greatest natural facilities, it could also be designed to provide a permanent open space-wildI ife refuge on some of the land, which i s basically marginal for development purposes but would serve very wel I for open space and recreation.
Altogether, slightly less than 3, 000 acres of regional park is recommended on the Plan. The exact amount was not determined as the actual boundaries were left flexible and subject to more specific delineation, especially in those areas where flood plains are involved, which cannot be determined without such additional study. This would exceed the needs for the population by 1980 and slightly exceed the 15 acres per thousand general standard for the estimated 173,000 population expected by 1990. It must be remembered, however, that the natural features sought to be protected are not repetitive, that is, once lost they cannot be recalled. Therefore, in this instance it would be wise to provide for the population beyond 1990, in order to save the features involved.
It is not necessarily recommended that all portions of the proposed regional park network be purchased in fee title. The purpose would be served in some instances if some other means of assuring continued existence as open space is used. In other communities such means have included scenic easements, waiver of taxes in return for guaranteed preservation as open space, etc. However, if some of the latter devices are used, which should be the subject of further intensive investigation and study, it is important that at least enough land be purchased to provide the facilities which wil I be intensively developed, such as neighborhood parks along the proposed greenbelt ranging north to the Millhopper.
For many years the accepted rule of thumb for gouging the adequacy of a community's recreation land was 10 acres for each one thousand people. Eventually this figure was broken down into different kinds of recreation facilities, usually playgrounds, neighborhood parks, community parks and regional parks. Other designations such as playfields and reservations are sometimes used. Most standards stil I amount to about ten acres per 1,000 people, however, including the standards developed for this community during the process of this study.
In comparing the present facilities with the selected standards, inadequacies are apparent. About the only area where a reasonable amount of recreation is provided is local playgrounds, which are provided in conjunction with the existing schools. There are approximately 187 acres which could be labeled playground, a ratio of about 2.2 acres/1,000 people (versus a standard of 1-2 acres). Even these, however, do not meet the vocational standard of being within 1/2 mile of most of the built up, urban areas. There are only 45 acres of neighborhood parks, or less than 1/2 acre per 1,000 people.
The selected standard for community parks is 2-3 acres/1,000, however, presently only 84 acres or about 1 acre/1,000 people is provided. The regional or major park standard was 3-4 acres/1,00 persons. Standards prepared by Temple R. Jarrell, Southern Representative of the National Recreation Association call for a minimum of
5 acres, and the standards included in the new publication Planning Design Criteria* calls for 2 acres of "District Parks" plus 15 acres of "Regional Parksand Reservational" per 1,000 people By the least of these standards the Urban Area is presently well served with 3.3 acres/1,000 people provided by Morningside Park. By the latter standard, it is not.
Not counting the regional park open space proposals, a total of 633 acres are provided on the Plan (See Table VIII). This amounts to 5.2 acres per 1,000 population. Again, not counting regional parks, this is quite in line with the local recommendation of 4-7 acres per 1,000 population and the 5 acres per 1,000 recommended by JarrellI. It is wellI below the 8.5 acres/1,Q000 recommended in Planning Design Criteria.
There is no adequate gauge for the amount of open space which should be preserved. The 3,000 acres of combined open space regional parks recommended herein exceeds the normal rules of thumbs for the latter, taken alone, but in the judgement of the staff and Plan Board, represent a reasonable provision for protecting vital natural physical features of the area, and provides for a balance in the long range urban development pattern.
A recent article in the newsletter "Florida Planning and Development "** said the ideal state (regional) park should be located in such a manner as to permit travel to and from the faility, spend at least five hours there, and return, all in one day. In addition, parks should ideally be located near where the people are. By computer, the author of this article sought to determine the ideal locations for all state parks. The results were recommendation of five such parks for Alachua County. While the locations were hypothetical -- they ranged from 3 miles east of Gainesville to 14 miles northwest -- the important point is that the logic of locating such facilities near the Urban Area and the number of such facilities is consistent with the recommendations contained herein.
* de Chiara, Joseph, and Koppelman, Lee, Planning Design Criteria, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company New York, N.- Y., 1969.
** Jones, Douglas H. "Future Park Locations in the State of Florida" Florida Planning and Development, Florida Atlantic University, Department of Social Science, Volume 20 No. 8, September, 1969.
EXISTING AND PROPOSED RECREATION FACILITIES GAINESVILLE URBAN AREA
Facility Name or General Location Area
(Planning Unit) Existing Proposed Total
Neighborhood Park Green Acres 19.0 0 19.0
Kiwanis 2.5 0 2.5
Meadowbrook Park 13.0 0 13.0
Smoky Bear Park 1 5.5 5.5
Bouleware Springs 5.0 10 15.0
(New Elementdry Schools)
Glen Springs 5 5
Northwood East Richland Heights 5 5
Pine Grove West Park 5 5
Santa Fe 2 5 5
Glenwood 5 5
Kanapaha2 5 5
Arrendondo 5 5
(In conjunction with New Regional Parks: ) i
Morningside3 0 0 0
Newran's Lake2 0 10 10
Parkway 4-5 sites 0 20-25 20-25
Terwi II iger 0 5 5
(In conjunction with Community Parks:)
Millhopper Pine Grove 0 5 5
Kanapaha Glenwood 0 5 5
Rocky Poi nt 0 5 5
Jones/Lanier Planning Unit 0 5
Duval 0 5 5
P K Yonge (Biven's Arm) 0 12 12
Idylwild 0 12 12
Highlands 0 15 15
Total Neighborhood Parks (24 sites) 45 144 189
Neighborhood Meadowbrook (5)4 0 (54
Playground Green Acres (5) 0 (5)
Tumbl in Creek 4 0 4
19 Elementary and Junior 168 0 1S
Woodland Park (Public Housing) 5.2 0 5.2
9 New Elementary (See locations 0 ~3 4
2 New Junior High (Locations not spec ified) 0 20 4 20
3 New Neighborhood Parks 0 (15) (15)
Sub Total 1 .2 83 200 2
Community Parks Existing
Lnn 3to 30
Northeast 21 21
Westside 27 27
Mi Ihopper 0 255 255
Glenwood- Kanapaha 0 25 )5
Rocky Point 0 25 25
Lakeshore (Newnan's boat ramp area) 0 25 25
Total 84 100 184
GRAND TOTAL 306.2 32 6033.2
Acres 1,000 people* 3.7 (1970) 5.3 (1Q80)
1 Note: This table does not include regional park facilities. Bouleware Springs is actually not a park, but is the original source of Gainesville's water supply, and is still used for water by the power plant. It does contain picnic facilities which are available for use on a reservation basis. In addition it contains a police shooting range and private gun club on the grounds, which total some 34 acres. It is recommended that this facility be made available for neighborhood park, especially as its present use is phased out. Could be in conjunction with regional park. 3The exact acreage attributable to neighborhood service cannot be specified. 4Counted in above totals, assumes minimum of 5 acres devoted to playground use. 5One of two eventually foreseen for this general area, 5 acres should be added for local ieiqhborhood facilities.
OTHER COMMUNITY FACILITIES
The Gainesville Fire Department presently has five (5) fire stations. The location of these stations is based primarily upon response distances and value of the districts being served. Fire protection is presently provided for all areas within the City Limits. The Fire Department does not have any type of contractual agreement for fire protection with any of the areas outside the City and fire protection in these areas is provided only on a voluntary basis, with initial response limited to one engine; whereas two are normally sent to a fire inside the City.
The area within the Gainesville Corporate Limits currently comprises approximately 26 square miles and has an estimated population of 67, 000. The City is divided into six (6) service areas which are provided with fire protection by the existing five fire stations, each of which is assigned to protect at least two areas in combination with another station.
Fire Department Standards
The Gainesville Fire Department attempts to base its fire station or company distribution and responses to fire alarms on standards developed by the American Insurance Association. The standard response distance for the "first-due" engine company to high value districts is 1-1/2 mile for districts requiring fire flow less than 4,500 gpm. The standard response distance is I mile for districts requiring fire flows of 4, 500 gpm or greater, but less than 9, 000 9pm. The standard response distance is 3/4 mile for districts requiring flow of 9,000 gpm or more. In Gainesville the high value downtown and University of Florida areas require a fire flow of approximately 6,000 gpm which means that the response distance for the first-due engine company is I mile. Table IX provides the standard response distances for different types of districts according to the type of fire company.
Responses to Alarms
Responses to business and manufacturing districts is based on required fire flow rather than population. The following table contains the recommended alarm response distances by type of districts.
Type of District Required Fire Flow Companies RequiredBusiness and Manufacturing less than 2, 000 gpm 2 engine companies and ladder service as may be
Business and Manufacturing 2, 000 4, 500 gpm 2 engine companies I ladder company
Business and Manufacturing 9, 000 + gpm 3 engine companies
2 ladder companies
Standard alarm response for residential districts are as follows: Not less than two engine companies and adequate ladder equipment. In densely built areas where buildings consist of apartments, hotels, or where the life hazard is higher, the response should be greater and in some cases equal to that for business and manufacturing districts.
Future Needs Before 1980
The primary determinants of the direction of a community's growth are the existence of utilities and the quantity of suitable residential land. Community facilities such as parks, schools, improved thoroughfares, and shopping areas usually closely follow growth to service the newer areas. The Utilities Department is currently extending municipal utilities westward beyond Interstate 75. This follows a trend which has been apparent in Gainesville since WorldWar 11 Completion of the first phase of the new Santa Fe Junior College site, planned in the early 70's should also stimulate residential development in the Northwest.
The impact of mobile home park development along Archer Road outside the City is expected to continue during the next ten years. The relative importance of mobile homes for providing new dwelling units has increased significantly in the past few years with much of this growth being along Archer Road. In addition, several other areas in this Southwestern quadrant having close proximity to the University are expected to see significant inroads of apartments within the next ten years. With the likely annexation of the City of thesedeveloping areas during the planning period to 1980, the adequate provision of fire protection will have to be met. It might be appropriate to point out that of the estimated current population of 83,000 in the Urban Area, approximately 16,000 live outside the City, the majority of which live west of the City. Population projections made by the Department of Community Development indicate that approximately 120,000 persons will live in Gainesville Urban Area by 1980.
The Gainesville Fire Department is presently endeavoring to relocate Fire Station Number 2 from 321 NW 10th Street to a site near NW 20th Street on West University Avenue. This new facility will contain both a pumper and a ladder company which would service primarily the University of Florida and the surrounding high density development. This relocation is expected to occur within the next five years
STANDARD RESPONSE DISTANCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF COMPANIES
Type of First- Standard Response
Type of District Due Company Required Fire Flow Distance
High Value Engine less than 4,500 gpm ]- 1/2 mile
High Value Engine 4,500-9,000 gpm 1 mile
High Value Engine 9, 000 + gpm 3/4 mile
Residential E ng ine Not Applicable 2 miles
Residential Engine Not Applicable 4 miles
Residential Engine 2,00+ gpm 1- 1/2 miles
High Value Ladder less than 4,500 gpm 2 miles
High Value Ladder 4, 500 -9,O000gpm 1- 1/4 miles
High Value Ladder 9, 000 +gpm 1 mile
Residential Ladder Not Applicable 3 miles
Residential Ladder Not Applicable 4 miles
Residential Ladder 2, 000 gpm miles
Source: American Insurance Association
Based upon the response distance criteria given above, a generalized response distance map was made. This illustration, which follows, shows the general areas
which fire fighting equipment would serve using the existing and expected street
networks. The relocation of Fire Station Number 2 is assumed in this discussion. It
is apparent that there is a vast developing area in the Northwest (outside the City
Limits) which presently is inadequately protected against fires. The South and Southwest also have inadequate fire protection.
The four dashed areas with symbols in the geographic centers indicate approximate locations for new fire stations and fire service areas by 1980. These general locations
No. 6 On Wi I I iston Road near the proposed extension of SW 23rd Terrace.
It is believed this location would serve the existing and expected apartment development in this Southwest area as well as have a direct link to the University and the medical complex and the SW 13th Street high value areas. Both an engine company and ladder company will be needed at this site.
No. 7 On NW 23rd Boulevard approximately 1-1/2 miles west of NW r 43rd Street. This location would provide fire protection for the
heart of the existing single family growth areas in the western portion of the Urban Area as well as serve the new Santa Fe Junior College site.
No. 8 Near the intersection of NW 34th Street at NW 39th Avenue.
Tkisfire station would provide fire protection to the Brywood, Northwood and Madison Park residential areas which are rapidly developing.
No. 9 Near the intersection of SE 43rd Street at Hawthorne Road. This location would provide fire. protection for a presently scattered residential area with good proximity to the existing Lake Forest Elementary School and a new junior senior high school under construction. After discussion with Fire Department personnel, it was concluded that this location would probably house two engine companies ultimately. This would be necessary to provide adequate protection for the large area between two public lands to the North Northeast and t he prairie to the south. Two locations were not chosen in this area because a single locations south or north of Hawthorne Road would not adequately serve the present and near future urbanized areas, and two stations could not be justified for the near future.
Future Needs After 1980
While the exact locations of additional fire stations needed to meet expanding urban demands after 1980 cannot be spotted precisely in the Gainesville Urban Area, general locations for additional fire stations are indicated. The locations have been approximated by assuming a natural pattern of extension of major streets. The limitations to urban growth presented by such areas as Lake Kanapaha and the flood plain of Hog Town Creek have also influenced the location of additional fire stations.
Illustration No. X indicated that perhaps five (3) additional fire stations
(12 in total) will be needed after 1980 to serve the ultimate Urban Area residents. This number may increase or decrease due to variations in the intensity of expected urban development in the long range future. One of thethree shown for after 1980 near the intersection of Tower Road and Archer Road may be needed before one of the NW section stations due to the rapid development of this area.
The Gainesville Public Library dates back to 1904 when the 20th Century Club, now the Gainesville Women's Club, raised funds to buy books which were stored on three shelves in the Presbyterian Manse. In 1915 a Carnegie Grant was secured for the purpose of building a new Library. This new Library was opened in 1918. In 1956 the Library was rebui I t and'6pened at is f ormer si te on- East Uni versi ty, now the locate on for the court facilities for the City of Gainesville. In 1959 the Library become headquarters for the Santa Fe Regional Library when Bradford County joined with Alachua County to form same. The Gainesville Public Library administered and was the central headquarters for the Regional Library. In 1962 Union County also joined the Santa Fe Regional Library.
Since that time the Union and Bradford Counties have withdrawn their support and membership in the Regional Library, and the Library now serves the City of Gainesville and AlachuaCounty. According to the current operating budget, approximately 50% of the support for the Library is provided by the City of Gainesville with approximately 44% provided by Alachua County and the remaining 6% from the State and from fines and servi ce fees The current budget is $252, 500. 00.
In April, 1968 a survey report was completed for the Santa Fe Regional Library by Louis M. Nurse, a consultant from Tallahassee, Florida. Numerous shortcomings we're pointed out in this report. While the new Library facility, located in the Civic Center area, had, not yef been opened when the report was written, it noted that the total size was approximately half of what was recommended by the building consultant.