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Senior Capstone: Christopher Stidham Zidell Yards: A Stormwater Design Approach to Shaping a High Density Mixed-Use Community
The University of Florida College of Design, Construction and Planning Zidell Yards: Stormwater Design Approach to Shaping a High Density Low Impact Urban Design An Undergraduate Capstone Project in Landscape Architecture By Christopher Stidham Faculty Advisor David Barth 2014 Bachelor in Landscape Architecture
Acknowledgements I would like to thank my Capstone Advisor, Dave Barth for his support encourangement and guidance throughout this project. I would also like to thank Professors Tina Gurucharri, Kevin Thompson, Kay Williams, Bob Grist, Mike Volk and Glenn Accomb. It is through their un derstanding and support that I wasble to be successful in this program. I would especially like to thank my wife Stephanie Jones for her support and encouragement throughout my academic Career. Most importantly for giving me the greatest gift ever, My son Finn.
Table of Contents: CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER TWO: RESEARCH CHAPTER THREE: SITE ANALYSIS CHAPTER FOUR: SITE SYNTHESIS CHAPTER FIVE: CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CHAPTER SIX: MASTERPLAN CHAPTER SEVEN: SITE DESIGN STORMWATER PARK SPACE PEDESTRIAN EXPERIENCE RETAIL EXPERIENCE SOCIAL EXPERIENCE CHAPTER EIGHT: CONCLUSIONS CHAPTER NINE: REFERENCES
Mankind has always been drawn to the waters edge. To live, to provide Food for Commerce and Trade, and for its healing and rejuvenating Qualities Zidell Yards creates a new home, a new desti nation for residents, Portlanders, and Tourists alike. Located on the Willamette River adjacent to Downtown Portland, Oregon, Zidell Yards will seek t o bring the community together with each other and the natural environment The focus of the project is to create a high den sit, low impact sustainable urban neighborhood. One that provides the community with an urban oasis: balancing the the recuperative and healing aspects of nature, with the social and economic needs of the community. Transforming what is currently a void in the surrounding communtiy, and restitching it into the Urban fabric in a manner that is environmentally responsible, as well as creating a variety of opportunities for social interaction and economic growth. The 33 acre site is currently the operations of the Zidell Marine Company. After 60 years of ship dismantling and arge building, the site has recently undergone extensive remediation, and been approved for redevlopment. The opportunity exist for the redevlopment of this property to act as both a recconnection with the communityat large, as well as a catalyst for change and growth. It provides the opportunity for the community to reconnect and engage with the riverfront. A network of trails will bring in the community to experience restored plant and wildlife ecosys tems along the rivers edge. They are welcomed into the new community through spaces of social engagement, such as the waterfront community aphitheatre and a central park system that will bring celebrate wildlife as part of the communi ty. This communtiy living room wil be anchored by ample creative spaces, a pedestrian oriented retail, and unique waterfront night life, all made more personal in scale by a variety of residential communities that will truly energize and person alize Zidell Yards. Project Abstract:
Project Overview The 33 acre Project site is located directly on the Willamette River in Portland Oregon. The site represents the only un developed site of its size within the city limits. It i s located between the Southwest Ecodistrict, and the Oregon Health Science University downtown Campus. This project aims to explore development opportunites that are now available in reaction to the completion of a long remediation of the site.
Inventory/ Analysis Site Artifacts: google earth google earth
Inventory/ Analysis: Surrounding Context www.portlandmercury.com oregonian.com
www.ankrommoisan. www.portlandmercury.com oregonian.com
Adjacent Typologies: : Adjacent Typologies varying in scale from 320 foot towers to town houses. The overall style is modern with ohsu.edu ohsu.edu
Adjacent Typologies: : ohsu.edu ohsu.edu zidell.com
Public Transit and Bicycle Connections
Sheet Flow Drainage Topography
Ross Is l and B r idgeRo ute 43 SW River SW BondSW RiverSW Moody Existing Conditions: Street Connections Palmer Bridge
R oss Isla nd Br i dge *Additional height awarded through bonuses and/or contributions S o u t h Waterfront Greenway 250320* 125250* 75125*
R oss Isla nd Br i dge *Additional Floor Area Ratio through bonuses and/or contributions S o u t h Waterfront Greenway** Awarded through Floor Area Trade 6:1*8:1 **(9:1) 5:1*7:1 4:1 *5:1
e Zidell Site is zoned CX, and resides within the central city district plan, but also is tagged DS which relegates it within the design overlay of both the North Macadam dis trict, and the also the South Waterfront Design Guidlines. https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/arti
South Waterfront Design Guidelines A1-1 Develop River Edge Variety..................... 14 A4-1 Integrate Ecological Concepts in Site and Development Design................................ 18 A4-2 Integrate Stormwater Management Systems in Development ......................... 22 A5-1 Consider South Waterfronts History and Special Qualities ............................... 26 B1-1 Facilitate Transit Connections.................. 30 B1-2 Enhance AccesswayTransitions ............. 32 B2-1 Incorporate Outdoor Lighting that Responds to Adjacent Uses..................... 36 C4-1 Develop Complementary Structured Parking ................................... 38 C13-1 Coordinate District Signs ......................... 40 https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/58749 https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/58802 Development Code and Guidelines:
Title 33, Planning and Zoning Chapter 33.130 6/13/12 Commercial Zones 130-7 Table 130-1 Commercial Zone Primary Uses Use Categories CN1 CN2 CO1 CO2 CM CS CG CX Residential Categories Household Living Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Group Living L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  Commercial Categories Retail Sales And Service L  Y N L  L  Y Y Y Office L [2 ] Y Y Y L  Y Y Y Quick Vehicle Servicing N L  N N N N Y L  Vehicle Repair N N N N N Y Y L  Commercial Parking N N N N N Y CU  CU  Self Service Storage N N N N N N L  L  Commercial Outdoor Recreation N N N N Y Y Y Y Major Event Entertainment N N N N N CU CU Y Industrial Categories Manufacturing And Production L /CU  L /CU  N N L /CU [4, 5] L /CU  L /CU [5,7] L /CU  Warehouse And Freight Movement N N N N N N CU [5,7] N Wholesale Sales N N N N L [4, 5] L  L [5,7] L  Industrial Service N N N N N CU  CU [5,7] CU  Railroad Yards N N N N N N N N Waste Related N N N N N N N N Institutional Categories Basic Utilities Y/CU  Y/CU  Y/CU  Y/CU  Y/CU  Y/CU  Y/CU  Y/CU  Community Service L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  Parks And Open Areas Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Schools Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Colleges Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Medical Centers Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Religious Institutions Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Daycare Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Other Categories Agriculture L  L  L  L  L  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  Aviation And Surface Passenger Terminals N N N N N N CU CU Detention Facilities N N N N N N CU CU Mining N N N N N N N N Radio Frequency Transmission Facilities L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  L/CU  Rail Lines And Utility Corridors CU CU CU CU CU CU CU CU Y = Yes, Allowed CU = Conditional Use Review Required L = Allowed, Bu t Special Limitations N = No, Prohibited Notes: The use categories are described in Chapter 33.920. Regulations that correspond to the bracketed numbers [ ] are stated in 33.130.100.B. Specific uses and developments may also be subject to regulati ons in the 200s series of chapters.
130-10 Table 130-3 Summary of Development Stan dards in Commercial Zones Standard CN1 CN2 CO1 CO2 CM CS CG CX Maximum FAR (see 33.130.205) .75 to 1 .75 to 1 .75 to 1 2 to 1 1 to 1 See 33.130.253 3 to 1 3 to 1 4 to 1 Maximum Height (see 33.130.210) 30 ft. 30 ft. 30 ft. 45 ft. 45 ft. 45 ft. 45 ft. 75 ft. Min. Building Stbks (see 33.130.215) Street Lot Line or Lot Line Abutting an OS, RX, C, E, or I Zone Lot 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Lot Line Abutting other R Zoned Lot See Table 130-4 See Table 130-4 See Table 130-4 See Table 130-4 See Table 130-4 See Table 130-4 See Table 130-4 See Table 130-4 Garage Entrance Setback (see 33.130.250.E ) 5/18 ft 5/18 ft 5/18 ft 5/18 ft 5/18 ft 5/18 ft 5/18 ft 5/18 ft Max.Building Stbks (see 33.130.215) Street Lot Line Transit Street or Pedestrian District None 10 ft. None 10 ft. None 10 ft. None 10 ft. 10 ft. 10 ft. 10 ft. 10 ft. None 10 ft. None 10 ft. Building Coverage (see 33.130.220) Max. of 85% of site area Max. of 65% of site area Max. of 50% of site area Max. of 65% of site area Min. of 50% of site area Min. of 50% of site area Max. of 85% of site area No Limit Min. Landscaped Area (see 33.130.225) 15% of site area 15% of site area 15% of site area 15% of site area None None 15 % of site area None Landscaping Abutting an R Zoned Lot (see 33.130.215.B.) 5 ft. @ L3 or none 5 ft. @ L3 or none 5 ft. @ L3 or none 5 ft. @ L3 or none 5 ft. @ L3 or none 5 ft. @ L3 or none 5 ft. @ L3 or none 5 ft. @ L3 or none Ground Floor Window Stds. Apply (see 33.130.230) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pedestrian Requirements (see 33.130 240) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Table 130-4 Minimum Building Setbacks From Residential Zone Lot Lines  Height of the building wall Lots abutting a side lot line of an R zone lot Lots abutting a rear lot line of an R zone lot 15 ft. or less 5 ft. 0 16 to 30 ft. 8 ft. 8 ft. 31 to 45 ft. 11 ft. 11 ft. 46 ft. or more 14 ft. 14 ft. Notes:  Does not apply to lot lines that abut lots in the RX zone.
G. Bonus height in the South Waterfront subdis trict. This amendment will allow buildings in South Waterfront to gain additional height if they take advantage of Buildings on sites with a base height of 125 will be able to build to a height of 250 if they took advantage of bonus or transferred quired to take advantage of this bonus. The bonus height will not affect the maximum height of buildings in the western portion of the district that are allowed a maxi mum of 250 by right. The bonus height also will not affect buildings within 150 feet of top of bank that will be limited to either 125 or 75 (see map 510-3).
Opportunity area will instead be able to take advan tage of additional height if and provided a contribution to an open space fund. (see 33.510.205.G) G. South Waterfront height opportunity area. These amendments will allow buildings within the area shown on Map 510-16 to go as high as 325 feet if they meet certain standards, provide a contribution into an open space fund, and the review. This approach will allow buildings taller than 250 feet if they: support the vision of the district by providing a point tower, or by providing
is amendment will clarify the maximum oor area increases allowed on sites in the South Waterfront subdistrict. In general, if sites took advantage of all oor area bonuses available, the western portion of the subdistrict will be limited to 8:1 FAR and the eastern portion of the subdistrict will be limited to 7:1 FAR. Additional exibility could be gained transferring oor area from one site to another, or by taking advantage of an open space or greenway bonus; however, a particular site could not exceed an FAR of 9:1 under the code, unless transferring FAR from the greenway under the provisions of C.3.b. e increase in oor area on a receiving site will be balanced by a decrease in allowed oor area on a sending site. Note: Sites will be allowed to include the site area contained within the greenway setback in the total site area when calculating allowed oor area. e provisions for transferring oor area from the greenway will apply when the greenway area was being dedicated to the city.
F. All parking. The regulations of this Subsection apply to all parking. 1. Minimum required parking and maximum ratios. There is no minimum parking requirement. Parking is limited to the maximum ratios of 33.510.267.A-E. Where there is more than one use, the amount of parking allowed is calculated based on the net building area of each use. 2. The applicant has a signed agreement with the Parking Manager to provide 3. The applicant will provide the following information within 30 days of the date the parking begins operation: a. The number of parking spaces constructed; and parking spaces. At least one copy of the plan must be 8-1/2" x 11" 4. Surface parking lots. a. Parking on surface lots where the total surface parking area on the site is up to 40,000 square feet or where the surface parking area covers up to 30 percent of this sitewhichever is largeris allowed. Parking on surface lots where the total surface parking area on the site is larger than 40,000 square feet and where the surface parking area covers more than 30 percent of the site is subject to CCPR. b. Surface parking is prohibited on the portion of a site within 100 feet of a light rail alignment. c. Surface parking is prohibited on the portion of a site within 300 feet oftop of bank. d. No more than 200,000 square feet of new surface parking area may be created in the South Waterfront subdistrict after January 20, 2003. Surface parking is prohibited if it will exceed the district-wide limit; however, the following are exempt from the limitations of this subparagraph and are not counted towards the 200,000 square foot total: 1) Surface parking that is operated by the City on a site to be developed as a park in the future. The property owners must execute a covenant with the City which is attached to and development and use of the site as a park. The coven s. For example, a building could meet this requirement by wrapping 4. This provision will provide an incentive for sites in South Waterfront to include parking in automated parking facilities. These facilities, also known as robotic parking, allow much less space within the building to be used for parking. This provision will encourage more compact parking structures within the district. (The provision replaces an FAR bonus for automated parking that was included in the proposed draft of the North Macadam Plan
Synthesis: Opportunity: to illustrate how a district scale stormwater design approach can provide the most opportunity to achieve stake holder goals.
River Renaissance: A) Economic: 1. Increase in jobs i. (8500-10000 jobs according to North Macadam Plan)* for overall District 2. 3,000,000 sq ft Mixed Use (ZRZ) b. Retail c. Restaurant/Leisure d. Residential (1500-3000) 2. Increase tourism a. Restaurant /Night life hub b. Events i. Summer concerts/Outdoor Movies ii. Farmers Market iii. Saturday Market/Art WAlk 3. Increase tax base
B) Social: Varied street plan, and pedestrian access ways of the neighborhood will provide a pedestrian experi ence that is more meander ing, diverse, and visually appealing than the rigid 200x200 street grid of downtown Portland (ZRZ pg7) Series of related open spaces..engaging outlooksplaces for recreation, to extend usable habitat, to treat storm wa ter ( ZRZ pg 9) 1. Destination for bike ride day trips Rest stop Restaurants Water features to cool off in summer 2. Multi-modal Accessability a)Woonerf (pedestrian and cyclist centered) b) bike/ trail connectivity c) Water Taxi 1. Community Interaction a. Community spaces i. Community Living Room for greater community ii. Small Intimate for locals iii. Woonerf Pedestrian Oriented to increase interaction C) Environmental: 1) Stormwater Mitigation (ZRZ Vision Plan)(pg9) (Green Spine-SW Montgomery Green Streets)---Sets stage for Green Infrastructure as the guiding design Principle A) Cleansing i)Treatment train methods Bioswales* according to North Macadam Plan)* for overall District Green streets Curbless streets Green Roofs B) Harvesting for reuse and aesthetic i) Constructed Wetlands ii) Desconstructed Wetlands 2) Native habitat connectivity and enhancement (SW ECO District) according to North Macadam Plan)* for overall District B) Harvesting for reuse and aesthetic
After researching and coordinating the goals of the North Macadam Plan,The South Waterfront Ecodistrict guidelines, River Renaissance, the Southwest Greenway Plan and the developer, these criterion were extracted as meeting the majority of the stakeholder goals.CREATE a low impact community utilizing green infrastructure to mitigate storm water, shape community and social spaces enhance ecosystem services and provide aesthetic value. ENHANCE the advantage of the sites proximity to the river to actualize private, public, and environmental Goals. PROVIDE a vibrant pedestrian scaled community that is a place of celebration, creativity, destination, refuge, and a Home.DEMONSTRATE how district scale Green Infrastructure can be used to maximize Social, Economic and Environmental benefits in a High density Urban Environment CONNECT to, and Invite in the greater community at large through jobs, entertainment, social events, and multimodal accessibility. SITE GOALS: Site Goals:
Final program elements were developed as a result merging the social, economic and environmental goals of the stake holders, through the lens of what is possible as discovered in the site synthesis. Program 2.5 million sq ft Mixed use development Large scale multi purpose open space for Festivals/ Farmers Market/ Art Fair Active 1216 hrs a day ( Restaurants, night life, activities) Ampitheater Multi modal connectivity Variety of scaled social spaces Ampitheater Play Area Dog Park Community Gardens Reflective spaces Access to / celebration of River Trails Handle stormwater on site/surface Program: Final Program Elements were developed as a result of merging the social, economice, and environmental goals of the stake-holders, through the lens of what is possible as discovered in the site synthesis. After researching and coordinating the goals of the North Macadam Plan,The South Waterfront Ecodistrict guidelines, River Renaissance, the Southwest Greenway Plan and the developer, these criterion were extracted as meeting the majority of the stakeholder goals. CREATE a low impact community utilizing green infrastructure to mitigate storm water, shape community and social spaces enhance ecosystem services and provide aesthetic value. ENHANCE the advantage of the sites proximity to the river to actualize private, public, and environmental Goals. PROVIDE a vibrant pedestrian scaled community that is a place of celebration, creativity, destination, refuge, and a Home. DEMONSTRATE how district scale Green Infrastructure can be used to maximize Social, Economic and Environmental benefits in a High density Urban Environment CONNECT to and Invite in the greater community at large through jobs, entertainment, social events, and multimodal accessibility. SITE GOALS:
Precedents/Case Studies: 15 acres 1.3 million sq Mixed-Use 26 Buildings 70% residential 2500 residents Dockside Green: Perkins + Will Vancouver B.C
Green Spine Flex Space Multimodal Variety of changing spaces with continuity Setbacks Scale SW Montgomery Green Streets: Nevue-Ngan
Bishan Park : Herbert Dreiseitl Singapore Precedents/Case Studies: Engagement Programatic Elements Water as Center of Social Activity
Originally designed as the Olympic Village Southeast False Creek/Hinge Park: PWL Partnership: Vancouver B.C. Constructed Wetlands Elements of the Design Educate Visitors about ecological past history, infrastructure intercon nectedness, and sustainability thevillageonfalsecreek.
Arkadien Winnenden: Herbert Dreiseitl Stuttgart Germany Precedents/Case Studies: 2011 Green Dot Award -Most Sustainable community
Oregon Health Sciences University: Schnitzer Campus 2,214,100 sqft 19 Acres Use of Stormwater Techniques and Regenerative Landscape OHSU.edu
A recent EPA study of the site examined 3 drainage scenarios of the site. These 3 approaches each had benefits and constraints. Approach: e pa.gov Methodology/Three Approaches:
A recent EPA study examined 3 drainage scenarios of constraints. Approach: Epa.gov
Three Design Concepts: Three Approaches:
Utilizing these methodologies and calculations, I came up with a preliminary program to test the scenarios for their ability to best achieve the desired goals. The initial program for testing included New building footprints and layouts, and a simplified and efficient street network. Being the largest volumes, when inserted into the drainage diagrams itwould become evident which approach left m with the most opportunity to achieve the site goals Approach: Three Design Concepts:
The Master Plan: Site Plan: MasterPlan North
Site Plan: MasterPlan North
MasterPlan By utilizing the central and focused approach, all programatic elements were included. Additional open space was gained, as well as increases in surfaces.
Works Cited: South Waterfront Development Plan: Code and Design Guidelines www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/269639 Zidell Visioning Plan: http://zidell.com/the-yards/ North Macadam District Plan: https://www.portlandoregon.gov/bps/article/103204 http://www.pdc.us/Libraries/North_Macadam/ Ecodistricts Framework Plan: www.wsdot.wa.gov/NR/rdonlyres/ 6F915B3C-4206-437A-8798-C595D5729901/0/ EcoDistrictsFrameworkMay2013.pdf South Waterfront Greenway Development Plan: www.portlandoregon.gov/parks/article/175890 EPA: District Scaled Infrastructure Scenarios: http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/greeninfrastructure/upload/Portland_Zidell_Report.pdf