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expanding streetscape THE LAYERING THE PUBLIC REALM FOR VERSATILITY IN CHANGING CLIMACTIC CONDITIONS SENIOR CAPSTONE stephanie bou-ghannam
expanding streetscape THELAYERING THE PUBLIC REALM FOR VERSATILITY IN CHANGING CLIMACTIC CONDITIONS A SENIOR CAPSTONE PROJECT BYstephanie bou-ghannamAPRIL 27th, 2014 UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA COLLEGE OF DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION + PLANNING DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Id like to thank the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of Florida for providing me with the knowledge, skills, and passion required to complete this project proposal. A special and sincere thank you to my professor and capstone advisor Kevin Thompson. Without his guidance and input, this project would not have achieved its full potential. Thank you for encouraging me to be bold and for helping me work through various challenges and frustrations. Thank you to my loving and supportive family, Im so grateful for all your encouragment through out my college career.
THE STUDIO I was fortunate enough to have been a part of this 2014 graduating studio class. My studio mates have been my friends, family, teachers, and inspiration throughout my education and life these past few years. I owe them my success and sanity. Thank you for being genuine and generous.
Miami is a city in transition, it ranks amongst the worst cities for amount of green space allocated per resident. There are miles of surface lots on high-value, high-density urban land. The city is a haphazard amalgamation of buildings, parks, clubs, retail and residences, the organization and agglomeration of which has been largely determined by boom and bust development eras. Miami is also one of the most vulnerable cities in the world to severe damage that could be caused by rising sea levels due to global climate change. It is estimated about $416 billion dollars worth of assets are at risk. Currently the city is already plagued by hazardous ooding incidents during torrential rain storms and even during extremely high tides. The geology of the area, mostly porous limestone, will eventually allow sea water to seep up from beneath the ground and inland west from the Everglades. Although the issues of walkability, storm water management, and sea level rise are all daunting challenges, it creates the opportunity for innovative design solutions. My proposal attempts to overcome all of these challenges quite literally by exploring the potential of raising and layering uses. I am proposing raising the level of the street a meter (about 40in) high across the site Im working in. An underground storm water storage system will be laid beneath the site to capture storm water on site and mitigate ooding. The waterfront promenade will act as a buer preventing sea water from contaminating the detained storm water in the case of any sea wall breaches. A network of elevated pedestrian spaces will surround all the buildings on site. This network will not only increase green and public space while maintaining high density conditions, it will also provide shade for the streets and walks below. I grew up in the suburbs of South Florida. It wasnt until I was older that I was able to travel to various cities around the US and explore them. I knew I longed to be in a place where a car wasnt necessary for commuting and where aactivity was constantly ooding the streets. I discovered a love for urban spaces, the spaces between buildings, where life was constantly active and vibrant. My interest in landscape architecture is urban design, focusing on public space within metropolitan areas and making cities more livable. Drawing people of all ages and ethnicities back into the city by enhancing safety, walkability, green space, and connectivity through designed spaces is my goal as a future practitioner. In choosing this project, I wanted to explore the various challenges associated with a highly urbanized, high-density city, including ex ploring the potential solutions for coastal cities threatened by sea level rise and various climate change issues. NARRATIVE IMPETUS
project introduction existing proposals inventory & analysis challenges proposed solutions case studies design interventions
project introductionLOCATION CONTEXT TRANSECT
miami, FL Miami is a city in transition, it ranks amongst the worst cities for the amount of green space allocated per resident. It is also one of the most severely vulnerable cities to the eects of sea level rise caused by climate change. Despite the daunting challenges, Miami presents a unique development and design opportunity.
Downtown Miami South Beach B I S C A Y N E B A Y site location The project site is located in Downtown Miami, FL. Miami remains a prime area for urban inll. Despite being an international hub, the city lacks connectivity and rich pedestrian environments. Miami is also highly vulnerable to the damaging effects of sea level rise and climate change. These various challenges became design opportunities for the development of my proposal.
S U R R O U N D I N G american airlines arena adrienne arsht center perez art museum wynwood art walls bayfront shops 1 2 3 4 5 C O N T E X T see reference for images sources These images show the character of the surrounding context.
The project site is bounded by the Venitian Causeway to the North and the Macarthur Casueway to the South. The Westen boundary is 1st Avenue and Biscayne Bay to the East. The redevelopment potential of the Miami Herald building rst brought my attention to the potential of the site. I expanded it to include a larger area of various empty parcels and surface parking lots.
E X I S T I N G C O N D I T I O N S These images show the condition and character of the chosen project site. *all existing condition images were taken personally.
The site is located mostly in the T6-36 urban core transect zone according to the Miami 21 code.
existing proposalsHERALD PLAZA
H E R A L D P L A Z A residential towers mixed use public waterfront access project is currently on HOLDThe old Miami Herald building plot is the eastern most structure on the project site. It is currently being torn down and Architectonica has plans to redevelop this parcel into 3 mixed use towers and a waterfront promenade. I took these future plans into consideration and recognize this structure as a potentially being built on this site.
VIEW CORRIDORS site analysis by ARCHITECTONICA WATERFRONT SETBACK FIRE LANES REQUIRED FRONTAGE images provided by ArchitectonicaGEO
SOUTH SIDE LOOKING EAST SECTION OF SOUTH SIDE SOUTH SIDE LOOKING EAST renderings by ARCHITECTONICA images provided by ArchitectonicaGEO
inventory & analysisEXISTING CONDITIONS INVENTORY ELEVATION PROFILE
MIAMI HERALD (UNDER CONSTRUCTION) OMNI BUS TERMINAL & METRO MOVER PLATFORM ADRIENNE ARSHT CENTER NE 1ST AVENUE BISCAYNE BLVD NORTH BAYSHORE DR NE 2ND AVENUE NE 15TH ST NE 14TH ST NE 13TH ST
E L E V A T I O N P R O F I L E This section shows the existing elevation prole across the site. The cut line measures .56 miles in length, showing the highest elevation to be 10 feet above sea level at the most western portion of the site. A majority of the site is under 6 feet above sea level. Exploring the existing elevation prole was essential in understanding how changes in sea level would impact the site.
challenges PEDESTRIAN EXPERIENCE STORM WATER SEA LEVEL RISE
existing pedestrian experience
SECTION ACROSS BISCAYNE BLVD. EXISTING PEDESTRIAN ENVIRONMENT building facades are dark tinted glass poor connection and visibility insucent shade for pedestrians no designated bike lane narrow sidewalk buildings un-used
SECTION ACROSS N. BAYSHORE DR. EXISTING PEDESTRIAN EXPERIENCE no designated bike lane insucient shade across wide walk-way no building frontage fence surrounding surface parking
6 7 flooding With an annual rainfall average of about 62 inches, Miami is a city where it pours. Flooding is common during heavy rain events and even during unusually high tides where the water will overwhelm the citys ancient storm water system. A vast amount of impermeable surface combined with over 5 feet of annual rainfall (mostly occurring in the summer months) creates a condition where the infrastructure is often overwhelmed creating a multitude of dangers and liabilities. The most dangerous conditions, as shown in the images above, occur during tropical storms or hurricanes where rainfall is torrential. Both types of storms threaten the coast line annually and will only grow worse with future climate destabilization. climate change issues
20098 92100 sea level rise Miami currently has the most assets at stake in the world and the worlds fourth largest population of people vulnerable to the potentially damaging eects of sea level rise. The highest topographic elevation point is 12 feet above sea level making even a 6 foot rise in sea level disastrous to a majority of the city. An estimated $416 billion dollars in assets remain at risk, not counting the billions in tourist dollars that would be lost. Due to the geology of the area, traditional dyke and levy systems, such as those utilized in Louisiana and the Netherlands, to manage sea water intrusion, would be ineective in Miami. Miami is situated atop a highly porous limestone and coquina rock base, allowing sea water to rise up beneath the Swiss cheese like land. New, innovative solutions must be developed to meet these specic challenges. The staggering potential losses and danger to the citizens of this highly populated metropolitan area make drastic action and proposals necessary. The ability to enact extreme design measured to counteract the severe consequences is probably most possible in Miami.5 7 inches
1 meter SLR 40 IN SLR PROJECTIONS army corp engineers 2030 (16yrs) = 3-7 IN 2060 (46yrs) = 24 IN2137 (77yrs) = 40 IN unsuitable suitable sea level rise projections
SCALED UP ELEVATION SECTIONS OF AREAS AFFECTED BY SLR EXISITNG ELEVATION PROFILE WITH PROJECTED SLR SCALE: 1= 100 5 5 10 4 4SLR LVLS (FT) SLR LVLS (FT) 0AREAS VULNERABLE TO 5 SLR
today 12 SLR 1025 SLR art by Nickolay Lamm What is the city of Miami planning to do about imminent sea level rise? One plan the city is currently implementing is a $200 million dollar storm water plan proposed by engineering rm CDM Smith. Under the plan, the city will build sea walls, triple the number of stormwater-drainage pumps, reline storm-discharge pipes and install one-way valves on outlet pipes so that rising sea water cannot ow back into the pipes and ood the city. The issue with this proposal is that it will only be eective for up to six inches of sea level rise which is the low end of projections for the next 20 years. Other measures being taken include the Miami GreenPrint, a City-wide sustainability plan focused on developing climate action plans and initiatives to help move the city toward a greener future.
if trends continue... ...could this be the future?11
florida after 6+ meters of SLR approximately 20 feet in 500 years 12
proposed solutions GOALS & OBJECTIVES RAISING THE SITE STORM WATER RETENTION
Three main plans of action: mitigate adapt retreat RAISE site elevation to a consistent prole hight, 1 meter above current sea wall height (4ft above sea level), meet ush with higher grade at western end of site. CAPITALIZE on need to elevate site as an opportunity to install underground detention systems. ENRICH pedestrian experience and increase connectivity across site.
existing grade 7 new site grade 7 new sea wall hight raised from 4 to 7 86 year sea level line (5) Place on-site underdround detention system to manage ooding and block underground sea water from seeping up System shown is Contec pre-cast concrete detention systemsRAISE site elevation to a consistent prole hight, 1 meter above current sea wall height (4ft above sea level), meet ush with higher grade at western end of site. CAPITALIZE on need to elevate site as an opportunity to install underground detention systems.
case studies HUNTERS POINT PARK THE HIGH LINE BRICKELL CITY CENTER MIAMI WORLD CENTER
Designed with periodic ooding and climate change in mind, Hunters point is adaptive and resilient. This case study can serve as model for how to adapt the waters edge of the site. 13 14
The High Line is a successful redeveloped public space. The elevated, linear park ts well into its high-density surroundings. It is elevated only about 25 feet from the ground allowing it to still be very visually connected to the street below. Pedestrians are free to move through the city free of conicts with automobiles. 15 16 17
Currently under construction, the Brickell City-Center oers a unique elevated pedestrian experience. Platforms beneath several towers are connected acting as public open space. The public spaces occur between semi-private amenity decks that serve the tower residents. These elevated, connected platforms occur at the eighth oor, separating it signicantly from the public streetscape. 18 19 20
The Miami World Center is a large master-planned urban center planned for construction in the heart of downtown Miami. As of now it has not broken ground. In this case study there are elevated, public and private pedestrian spaces. High density is maintained while elevating the pedestrian experience to include shared walkways and open spaces between high-rises at the 8th oor. This development is proposed to be mixed use, introducing many program elements including retail, commercial, oce, residential, restaurant, educational, and public spaces. 21 22 23
MIAMI W ORLD CENTER LOCATION RELATIVE TO SITE
design interventions MASTER PLAN MODEL SECTIONS PERSPECTIVE
proposed master plan SCALE : 1-0 = 100-0 The master plan attempts to enhance the pedestrian environment by introducing an elevated inter-connected pedestrian network. The network is elevated 12 feet o the ground level, the top of the platform is 14 feet high, the space in between is intended for planting medium. The walk-way network provides more public open space while maintaining high density conditions. It also creates an arcade over the sidewalks at the ground level providing shade. The network allows pedestrians to move freely across the site, removed from the car trac below.
This sketchup model is a 3D visual representation of the building massing and shows the form of the elevated pedestrian walk-ways. The spatial as well as the sun and shade conditions are modeled as shown.
This portion of the model shows the various spatial layers. The pedestrian platforms increase in privacy as they occur higher up the towers. The street is public and now shaded by the inter-connected pedestrian walk-way linking the buildings. By elevating the pedestrian network only one oor high it maintains a visual connection with the street below, allowing more retail shops to develop on the second oor. The 8th oor platforms serve as amenity decks and common outdoor space for the tower residents.
view from the street at ground level looking west across site.
view from connected pedestrian network at the rst oor level. Perspective looking north toward the Metromover platform.
SECTION ACROSS BISCAYNE BLVD. EXISTING PEDESTRIAN ENVIRONMENT
SECTION ACROSS BISCAYNE BLVD. PROPOSED PEDESTRIAN ENVIRONMENT mixed use high-rise maximum frontages visibility and connection lush and varied planting removed from trac interference signicant shade provided wide and comfortable walk-ways shaded arcade spaces outdoor seating active dining and retail dedicated bike lane
ELARGEMENT OF BISCAYNE BLVD. SECTION EAST
ELARGEMENT OF BISCAYNE BLVD. SECTION WEST
SECTION ACROSS N. BAYSHORE DR. EXISTING PEDESTRIAN ENVIRONMENT
SECTION ACROSS BISCAYNE BLVD. PROPOSED PEDESTRIAN ENVIRONMENT
I like to think of mitigation as avoiding the unmanageable, whereas adaptation is managing the unavoidable. We must do both in order to solve the problem of climate change. DR JANE LUBCHENCO US DEPARTMENT OF C OMMERCE UNDER SECRETARY FOR OCEANS AND A TMOSPHERE WHITE HOUSE LISTENING SESSION JUNE 23, 2010, MIAMI D ADE C OUNTY FLORIDA
REFERENCES http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/why-the-cityof-miami-is-doomed-to-drown-20130620?page=3 http://news.yahoo.com/orida-ground-zero-sea-levelrise-194937074.html http://www.hungtonpost.com/2012/09/12/browardcounty-rising-sea-level-plan_n_1878406.html http://www.nydailynews.com/news/american-cit-ies-sea-level-rises-due-global-warming-gallery1.1314182?pmSlide=1.1314165 http://www.miami21.org/PDFs/AsAmended_April2013_ Volume_I.pdf http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/11/24/opinion/ sunday/what-could-disappear.html?smid=tw-share&_ r=2& http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?arti-cle=1084&context=etd http://www.oridatrend.com/article/15826/impact-build-ing-and-infrastructure http://www.zeeburgnieuws.nl/nieuws/mb_sea_level_rise. html Terre Arch Concrete Detention/Inltration Solutions Guide by Contec
IMAGE REFERENCES1. http://www.miamiinfocus.com/mif-data/miami-data/landmarks/ americanairlines/AA_AD_IMG_1094F.jpg 2. http://s3.evcdn.com/images/edpborder500/I0001/004/400/954-5.jpeg_/adrienne-arsht-center-for-the-per-forming-arts-54.jpeg 3. http://ironmanmiami.com/wp-content/gallery/miami/thumbs/ thumbs_9.jpg 4. http://miamisocialholic.com/wp-content/uploads/PAMM300x199.jpg 5. http://yellowmanblog.les.wordpress.com/2009/12/wynwood-walls1.jpg?w=614 6. http://completechoiceinsurance.com/wp-content/up-loads/2013/07/downtown-miami-after-hurricane-wilma.jpg 7. http://media.nbcmiami.com/images/1200*677/ood26.jpg 8. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?arti-cle=1084&context=etd 9. http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?arti-cle=1084&context=etd 10. http://assets.nydailynews.com/polopoly_ fs/1.1314165.1365713898!/img/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/deriva-tives/gallery_1200/miami.jpg 11. http://i.hupost.com/gen/769638/thumbs/r-RISING-SEA-LEV-ELS-MIAMI-CLIMATE-CHANGE-large570.jpg?7 12. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-F0oTvUYv058/T2rAlJRomgI/ AAAAAAAAH7I/oyb9fYFT2CE/s1600/Florida+Sea+Level+Rise+Be-fore+and+After.jpg 13. http://morfae.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/HPSLIC.NY-tba-103.jpg 14. http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/group5/building40996/media/ WM.Green%20Oval%20Flooded.jpg
IMAGE REFERENCES15. http://www.nycgovparks.org/photo_gallery/full_size/14433.jpg 16. http://www.nycgovparks.org/photo_gallery/full_size/14434.jpg 17. http://media.turnofspeed.com/media/MyrnaMinx/high-linepark-108533.jpg 18. http://arquitectonica.com/geo/wp-content/themes/new-geomain/scripts/timthumb.php?src=wp-content/blogs.dir/3/les_mf/ bccsiteplan.jpg&w=2000&zc=0&a=c&q=90 19. http://www.ocarinvest.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/ Brickell_CityCentre_Rendering_01172013.jpeg 20. http://igorida.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/OVI_Ren-dering-V03_with-solid-wedges-1500x1058.jpg 21. http://i.imgur.com/2QG4C.jpg 22. http://assets.bizjournals.com/southorida/news/Miami%20 Worldcenter%20Night%20Aerial%20Rendering*304.jpg?v=1 23. http://investinmiami.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/MiamiWorld-Center-600x299.jpg
3 The Lowest Installed Cost The Highest Strength and DurabilityContech is the exclusive U.S. seller of Terre Arch in the Eastern U.S. and International. Terre Arch is a modular, multi-chambered, precast concrete stormwater storage system that is engineered especially for underground installation. Terre Arch utilizes a proven arch design to provide a simple solution for stormwater detention and retention-recharge. Terre Archs patented, fiber-reinforced design is lightweight, yet incredibly strong. With a load-bearing rating of HS-25 (with 12 cover from the top of the arch to final grade), each section can support heavy gross weight trucks and machinery with virtually no cover required, allowing installation equipment direct access to the site during installation, dramatically reducing installation time and labor. Each Terre Arch installs quickly, adding several hundred cubic feet of storage in a matter of minutes. The Terre Arch Advantage 100+ year design life 5,000 psi compressive strength HS-25 load rating No foundation required 8 minimum cover above headwall Simple and fast installation; install 30,000 50,000 cubic feet of storage per day Provides maintenance access to individual chambered rows No on-site storage required Provides up to 11 LEED credits per project3Benefits 4 Underground Storage = More Usable Land SpaceTerre Arch provides flexibility for stormwater detention or infiltration, allowing you to meet runoff reduction requirements by storing runoff water in underground chambers before it is infiltrated or released at a controlled rate. Terre Arch will maximize your land space by storing runoff underground beneath parking lots or streets. This frees up valuable land space for buildings, parking lots or green space. Because little cover is required, Terre Arch is the best solution when the site engineer is faced with site restrictions such as high ground water tables and minimum separation between the top of the underground structure and the finished grade.Two Configurations = Flexibility in System DesignTerre Arch 26Terre Arch 26 is a connected 4 arch precast concrete structure providing 277 CF of installed storage and 152 SF infiltration area. Since it is less than 3 high, Terre Arch 26 is great for shallow sites and low drop infiltration systems. Terre Arch 48Terre Arch 48 is a connected 3 arch precast concrete structure providing 541 CF of installed storage and 160 SF infiltration area. Terre Arch precast concrete detention system Underground storage maximizes land space Terre Arch 26 Structure Terre Arch 48 StructureApplication Sizing & Storage Pipe Dimensions Model Volume Infiltration Area Weight (approx.) DimensionsTerre Arch 26 277 CF* 152 SF 13,500 lbs. 8-0 x 19-0 x 2-10 Terre Arch 48 541 CF* 160 CF 19,500 lbs. 8-0 x 20-0 x 4-8 Includes valleys between arches filled with stone to the top of the buttresses (40% void space typical with stone) Terre Arch can be designed in HydroCAD and Streamline Technologies ICPR Perc Pack
5Learn more at www.ContechES.com/detention Distribution openings in the legs of the arches equalizes flow between sections Ventilation and draining orifices prevent ponding and air pockets No requirement for spacing between each section reduces footprint and installation costs Ideal for shallow sites requiring minimal cover and shallow inverts No requirement for geotextile separation layer below, around or on top of the structure The minimum cover for both Terre Arch units is 8 above the elevation of the headwall and the maximum cover is 19 feet. Both elevations are to the top of pavement or final grade. Both Terre Arch units are appropriate for installation on a sub-base with soil bearing capacity greater than 2000 psf. For soils less than 2000 psf, Contech recommends a geotechnical engineer be consulted for appropriate soil treatment. Terre Arch 26 is installed with a 6 (minimum) stone bedding on sub-base that has a 3000 psf bearing capacity or greater. For sub-base bearing capacity between 2000-3000 psf, a 12 stone base is required. Terre Arch 48 is installed with a 6 (minimum) stone base on soils with a 5000 psf bearing capacity or greater. For soils with 2000-5000 psf, a 12 stone base is required. The minimum stone perimeter around all Terre Arch systems is 12 A Superior Design Bedding and Backfill Requirements
SENIOR CAPSTONE stephanie bou-ghannam