Turkey Creek: A "Golf Course" Community : Developing an Approach to the Conversion of Defunct Golf Courses

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Title:
Turkey Creek: A "Golf Course" Community : Developing an Approach to the Conversion of Defunct Golf Courses
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Book
Language:
English
Creator:
McCollister, Adam S.
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School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
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Bachelor's

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Subjects / Keywords:
golf course
conversion
defunct
community
land planning
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Abstract:
Approximately 100+ golf courses are closing every year in the United States. This project attempts the creation of a model, or "tool kit", that can be applied to any golf course community facing similar circumstances. This approach provides a systematic way of identifying the issue(s), developing a wide range of possible solutions, evaluating the solutions with criteria related to the issue(s), and sharing the findings with community stake holders to facilitate the decision-making process.
General Note:
Landscape Architecture capstone project
General Note:
Undergraduate Honors Thesis

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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Turkey Creek: A Golf Course Community Developing an Approach to the Conversion of Defunct Golf Courses

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A Terminal Capstone Project Prepared for: The Department of Landscape Architecture University of Florida Residents of the Turkey Creek Community Alachua, Florida Turkey Creek Master Owners Association Mr. Wallace Cain, Owner Turkey Creek Golf Course Prepared by: Adam S. McCollister Bachelor of Landscape Architecture Candidate University of Florida Spring 2014 Faculty Advisor: Robert R. Bob Grist, FASLA Associate Professor Department of Landscape Architecture Turkey Creek: A Golf Course Community Developing an Approach to the Conversion of Defunct Golf Courses

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I would like to thank the University of Florida, and especially the Department of Landscape Gainesville and I was fortunate to be able to learn from an incredible group of faculty every day. Also, a special thank you to the many professionals that assisted me throughout this project: Wallace Cain, Turkey Creek Golf Course Sarah Beavers, Turkey Creek Master Owners Association The entire Dix.Hite + Partners family Javier Omana, CPH Inc. Walter Smith, Meadowbrook Golf Course David Armbruster, EDSA Marty Misner, Misner Realty / Turkey Creek Resident Randy Brown, Florida State Park Service Timothy Becker, LLC Pellucid Corporation National Golf Foundation United States Golf Association Erik Larsen, American Society of Golf Course Architects / Larsen Golf Dana Fry, Fry / Straka Golf Course Design Alex Kline-Weeden, Rich Harvest Farms Golf Course Finally, I would like to thank all of my studiomates for four amazing years of late nights, early mornings, and lots of laughter in between. I have gained much more than just a degree in landscape architecture from UF... you are my family, and I love you all. See you on the professional side. Department of Landscape Architecture Maria Tina Gurucharri Robert Bob Grist, FASLA Kay Williams, FASLA Glenn Acomb, FASLA Kevin Thompson Margaret Peggy Carr Tom Hoctor, Ph.D. Michael Volk Cindy Barton Les Linscott (retired) Department of Urban and Regional Planning Ferdinand Lewis, Ph.D. School of Architecture Bradley Walters, AIA Department of Biology Francis Jack Putz, Ph.D. Environmental Horticulture Hector Perez, Ph.D. Acknowledgements

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I dedicate this book to: I felt like I was drowning. Not many people can say they met the love of their life when they were thirteen years old. But, I can. I am a lucky man, Amber, I love you. My parents, for their unyielding love and support through every decision Ive made in my life My Mom, for your creative mind and unparalleled work ethic My Dad, for your raw intelligence and pure determination My grandparents, Honey & Pop-Pop, for showing me the world with hearts full of love, trust, and respect. I miss you both every day. Oh, and thank you Honey for never allowing me to say I cant My sisters, for their inspiration, encouragement, and support throughout my life Thank you, I love you all. Dedication

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I was naturally inclined to assume there would always be an answer that maintained a portion of the golf course. I imagined this perfect scenario where all of my best laid plans solved all of the problems. Maybe I was bias, perhaps a little naive... probably both. As time progressed and I began the proposal process for this project, my intention was master plan with all of the experiential details. I would have had freedom to freely express my ideas and designs as what I thought was the best solution, making a lot of critical decisions along the way. The problem with that scenario is the fact that I personally do not have the experience or ability to make many of the critical decisions inherent to this sort of project. My solution most likely would have been viewed as a biased interpretation of one possible outcome, or worse, just another academic exercise. I wanted more than that. This is a real world issue, and one that is near and dear to my heart. So, after much thought and being asked repeatedly by professors and professionals, what do you want to get out of this?, I realized I needed to change my approach. Instead of educational for me to attempt the creation of a model, or tool kit, that can be applied to any golf course community facing similar circumstances. project will help me to better understand the opportunities and constraints that this type of project presents, as well as the wide array of solutions that could enrich the lives of countless people and the environment. Combined with my previous experience as a golf professional, the real world implications and possibilities of this topic are very exciting to me and I hope to position myself at the forefront of this emerging niche. Personal Goals & Objectives

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Table of Contents 1 Project Introduction .............................................. 01 The Conversion Process ............................................. 06 Developing the Matrix ................................................. 09 2 Applying the Process ........................................... 11 Welcome to Turkey Creek ........................................... 12 Discovering the Issues ................................................ 18 ......................................... 20 3 Analysis & Data Collection ................................... 23 .......................................................... 24 Golf Course Evaluation ............................................... 28 Precedence Based Design ......................................... 32 Environmental Systems Inventory & Analysis .............. 36 Opportunities and Constraints .................................... 40 The Matrix Loaded ..................................................... 45 4 Land Plan Concepts ............................................. 47 5 The 19th Hole: Golf & Landscape Architecture .... 55 Resources ............................................................. 61

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Chapter One Project Introduction

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Project Summary Approximately 100+ golf courses are closing every year in the United States. This project attempts the creation of a model, or tool kit, that can be applied to any golf course community facing similar circumstances. This approach provides a systematic way of identifying the issue(s), developing a wide range of possible solutions, evaluating the stake holders to facilitate discussion and the decision-making process. JUNE 8, 2011: We may close 100 courses/year in the USA for the next 5 years... 10 times more than will open.

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The Big Picture With the number of golf course closures growing so quickly, there is a high premium on converting these open spaces into real estate product for the highest bidder. However, the types and amount of infrastructure inherent to all golf courses (walking/cart paths, irrigation, electrical, lakes and ponds, scenic views) provide ample opportunity for creative and adaptive reuse is in a perfect position to become the unifying fabric for the surrounding community, instead of the segregating barrier that the previous golf course might have been. An eighteen-hole golf course can range in size, anywhere from 100 to 200 acres or more. Closing 100 golf courses per year means there is a potential of 50,000 100,000 acres of open green space coming available in the next win scenario that provides the owner with a return on their investment

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We abuse land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect. Aldo Leopold 1887 1948 Source: the-back-40.com

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S O C I A L The Conversion Process Trying to determine the right course of action for a golf course under these conditions can be very taxing and requires a great deal of patience, cooperation and understanding. It is not uncommon for this just to arrive at the design development phase. Nevertheless, with a proper process in place, this complex issue can be broken down into a logical process that is transparent, easy to follow, and empowering to all who are involved. It is important to remember that the majority of the closures are residential courses where the course was built as an amenity within a residential development. This elevates the issue by its ability to negatively impact how people live and their overall quality of life. It brings into play a social aspect that can be challenging to overcome, but extremely rewarding when accomplished. Defunct Golf Course Create Solution Scenario Matrix Data Collection & Analysis Opportunities & Constraints Design Land Plan Concepts Evaluate Findings Final Decision Making Detailed Planning Design Development Implementation Zoning Approvals Permitting Discover the Issues

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The Scenario Spectrum Social Experience Diversity of Amenities Opportunity for Interaction Increased Community Involvement Development Higher Density Minimal Conservation Maximum ROI Potential Conservation / Reclamation Little / No Development Open Green Space Reforestation With such a long list of potential wants, needs, challenges, and opportunities presented by this type of project, there could be any number of possible outcomes along a broad spectrum of solutions. In one area, you have the economically focused scenario. This might be ideal for an area with a growing population, low housing density, and little demand for golf and/or other open space amenities. This option will most often produce the greatest return on investment (ROI) for the stakeholders. In a second area you have the conservation focused scenario (again, with no golf course to remain). This would include areas with minimal population growth, no need for density, high demand for open space, and/or greenway network connection opportunities. Conservation, and even reforestation with little/no additional development is one possible outcome with this scenario. The third primary area of the spectrum involves the social realm. Golf courses are certainly considered an amenity, and most often a social experience, but they are also a tremendous barrier to anyone who doesnt play golf. Due to the amount of space required, golf courses provide little opportunity for additional amenities within a community of limited size and resources. These spaces can become outdoor recreational activities, community gardens, dog parks, playgrounds, bike and walking trails, and much more, typically at a fraction of the cost required to maintain the same space as a golf course. This newly energized space promotes a friendly social experience with great opportunity for interaction and community building. Finally, there is the middle-ground scenario, where a portion of each spectrum area come E N V I R O N M E N T A L E C O N O M I C S O C I A L IDEAL SOLUTION Return on investment Operations / Maintenance Declining property values Loss of amenity Community character Quality of life for Residents Wildlife habitat Stormwater management Abundance of green space Sustainable land planning The Key Issues Due to the high land value defunct golf courses are typically developed for the maximum return on investment. However, this precious green space is often intertwined throughout a community, providing an amazing opportunity for greenway connections, wildlife habitat, active park space, and much more

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To develop the matrix is a relatively simple process once all of the pieces have been determined. With the golf course conversion matrix, the columns represent the big picture land plan scenarios while the rows represent evaluation criteria. Rating systems may vary and some criteria may even be weighted if necessary, but ideally the matrix remains quite simple. Land plan scenarios should only be developed once the data collection and analysis has been completed.

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DEVELOPING THE MATRIX EVALUATION CRITERIA Responds to the unique issues of each project in order to provide a fair and proper evaluation C ONCEPTUAL LAND PLAN SCENARIOS analysis while addressing the goals, objectives and needs of the community

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Chapter Two Applying the Process

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Turkey Creek Community Alachua Gainesville Micanopy US 441 I-75 The Turkey Creek community was established in 1974 in Alachua, Florida. Today, its a 600-acre community of single and multi-family homes, situated midway between the cities of Alachua and Gainesville alongside US Highway 441. The community has grown up around the Turkey Creek Golf & Country Club and other amenities. Welcome to Turkey Creek

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Turkey Creek Community City of Alachua City of Gainesville San Felasco Hammock Preserve & State Park Turkey Creek is characterized as a community of open spaces, wide vistas, estate and villas lots located along the banks of Turkey Creek, in the shadow of the San Felasco Hammock Preserve & State Park. Golf Course Community. In early 2011 that description was made void by the closure of recessions since the Great Depression. This had a lasting impact on the housing market, one that we are still recovering from today. From age and ethnicity, to their general interests and hobbies, the residents of Turkey Creek are extremely diverse. Considering the somewhat secluded location and poor state of community amenities, there is not much for residents to do in the immediate area.

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I 7 5 I 1 0 I 9 5 F l o r i d a s T u r n p i k e I 4 Regional Considerations Being centrally located in the state of Florida provides Alachua County residents excellent connectivity to many of the states primary hubs of activity. Turkey Creek is within a twohour drive of eight International airports, countless professional sporting events, as well as some of the worlds top theme parks and golf courses. Florida remains one of the premier golf destination in the world. Jacksonville Alachua County Orlando Tampa 50 Miles

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I 9 5 F l o r i d a s T u r n p i k e Immediate Context Looking at potential connections to adjacent conservation lands, either existing or proposed, you can see the relationship to San Felasco Hammock State Preserve, which borders the southern property line of the community. Riddled with horse, mountain bike, and pedestrian trails, as well as wildlife and abundant natural beauty, the San Felasco State Park provides an excellent opportunity for green space connectivity to Turkey Creek Community, although a direct connection to the preserve is not permitted. in the large red parcel due east of Turkey Creek, directly across highway 441. This parcel is home to GRUs Deerhaven Power Plant, and the future home to the new and highly-controversial 100-megawatt biomass facility, which will emit at least some level of methane and CO2 through its operation. San Felasco Preserve Conservation Land Existing or Proposed Not Existing or Proposed (residential, commercial, green space) (light industrial, factory, etc) (heavy industrial, waste management, etc) Study area: 5 mile radius Study area: 5 mile radius TC TC GRU

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Inventory of Physical Features Turkey Creek Community is a Development of Regional Impact (DRI) and is zoned as a as recreational land and open space in those documents. The community gets its name The nearly 60 feet of elevation change on site is a substantial amount for the state of Florida. San Felasco Hammock State Preserve borders the southern property line of the community. However, the dominant land feature is a 150-acre golf course that meanders throughout the entire community. The course contains multiple ponds, wide vistas, scenic views, a great deal of topography change, and a wide variety of landforms inherent to a golf course (raised tee boxes and greens, bunkers, sloped fairways, etc.) An additional 50 acres surrounding the clubhouse includes a pool and tiki bar, tennis and racquetball courts, horse shoe pit, and an RV / boat / trailer storage area. Also on site, located in the southeast corner of the community, is a small park with a picnic area, playground, basketball and tennis courts, and a multipurpose open space with soccer goals included. Existing Residential Vacant Residential Vacant Commercial Vacant Golf Course Existing Park & Picnic Area Turkey Creek Corridor Stormwater Detention Master Owners Association Multi-family Residential Single Family Residential

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The majority of existing multi-family residential is clustered in two primary areas at the center parcels in these areas, making them the primary focus for any proposed multi-family residential. Whoever assumes ownership of the golf course may wish to strategically Any situation involving changes to golf course entitlements will require a substantial amount improvement to the community and their residents quality of life, that time spent will be The current zoning of the community allows for medium density residential, 4 to 8 density units per acre (du/ac), excluding the golf course which is entitled as open space. However, 10 acres surrounding the existing clubhouse and pool have been rezoned to allow for 67 the stark reality is that most developers (in Florida at least) will not get their hands dirty for less than 250 units. In the development world, anything less than 250 units is not worth the time and cost of permitting, labor, transportation, and overall logistical headache. 441 Multi-family Residential Single Family Residential

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Discovering the Issues Since the closure of the club facilities, upkeep of the golf course has been cut to a bare minimum resulting in a negative community appearance. The community and the MOA community, home values, and overall quality of life for residents. These concerns have resulted in serious discussion and (at times) heated debate about the future of not only the golf course but of the community as a whole.

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Additionally, there is an abandoned 29,000 square foot clubhouse at its center, causing the community to have lost a great deal of its social and economic vitality. Along with the pool and tennis courts, the clubhouse area used to be the social center of the community, but now is nothing more than an eye-sore. On a positive note, the golf course irrigation and pool pump system is practically brand new and fully functional.

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These criteria are placed along one axis of the matrix as a guide to evaluating the conceptual land plan scenarios. The most important part of this task is ensuring that the criteria responds directly to the issues, both of which should be stated explicitly. Issues High land cost and need for owners return on investment (ROI) Cost to maintain as an 18-hole golf course is too high for current level of support Property values continue to decrease with every year the golf course is closed. whatever land plan is chosen Lack of amenity options within the community Diminishing community character and overall quality of life for residents Sensitive environmental context; proximity of Turkey Creek and San Felasco Hammock Preserve; golf course use is not currently sustainable

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Evaluation Criteria Return on Investment to Owner Operations and Maintenance Cost Potential to Increase Property Values Level of Financial Obligation to Homeowner Potential for Amenity Diversity Improves Community Character and Quality of Life Environmental Impact

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Chapter Three Data Collection & Analysis

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June 21, 2013 Prepared For: Turkey Creek Master Owners Association 11820 Turkey Creek Boulevard Alachua, FL 32615 Prepared By: Timothy Becker, LLC TimothyBecker, Principal 107 NE 4th Street Gainesville, FL 32601 (239)405 2897

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The following survey results and golf course evaluation information was acquired from a third-party Market Analysis, conducted in June 2013 by Timothy Becker, LLC. Local realtors who have bought or sold homes in Turkey Creek in the last seven years were surveyed, along with community residents and golf course management experts. provided by the TCMOA. Additionally, a paper version of the survey was placed in the online surveys to voice their opinion. In all, the survey produced 486 responses, eight of which were paper surveys. That equates to a 37% response rate, which is higher than the average response rate of 30% for online surveys. Each resident was asked to provide 38% of residents have lived there for over ten years. An additional 38% of residents have lived here for 5-10 years, meaning over 75% of the residents were living here as the golf course started to decline and subsequently close. Although still dominated by an older to middle-aged age population, 77% over the age of 40, a trend of young families has been seen moving into the community over the last decade. This next generation of residents have unique needs and demands compared to their older neighbors.

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When asked about the level of satisfaction with the factors below at the time of purchase, community amenities and the golf course. When asked about the level of satisfaction now, compared to when they purchased, most residents feel the same about most items, but feel worse about the condition of the security, community appearance, community amenities, and especially the golf course. Finally, When asked if the MOA dues are fair for value received, there is a pretty even split amongst residents: 39% disagreed 26% were neutral 35% agreed When asked whether or not they thought the golf course negatively impacts their home values: an overwhelming 86% agreed Satisfaction Levels

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In order to determine the level of support within the community, the survey asked if the respondents said they would. It is unclear whether the HOA documents would allow the community to buy the facility without a vote of the membership. If a vote is necessary, the weighting of votes for the HOA is not the same as the response to this survey. Therefore, even if the respondents voted in the same manner as they responded to the survey, it is likely that the results would not be the same. Nevertheless, this response rate it is evident from the comments that there is a divide between purchase for a golf course and purchase for conservation: Quit trying to force owners to bail out a very badly managed operation. bankruptcy and move on. Realize that only a small group of residents play golf. Check with conservation groups to see about establishing permanent green space. Cease all discussions about Special Tax Districts Community Qualities That Led to Purchase To Buy, or Not to Buy?

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Golf Course & Market Evaluation (Source: Timothy Becker, LLC) When attempting to develop solutions for this contentious issue, it is critical to understand the golf business including everything involved in the day-to-day operation and maintenance of a golf facility. It is also important to understand if there is an opportunity for the golf The Golf Market University of Florida and Ironwood golf courses. Several years ago, the City of Gainesville commissioned a study of Ironwood to help determine a course of action that would facility. The city asked the National Golf Foundation Consulting Group (NGF) to provide the study. The NGF concluded that the Alachua County market is an inactive market characterized by low participation rates and low per capita supply. However part of the exported to Ocala and other areas due to a lack of quality courses in Gainesville. The closing of the Turkey Creek club added to that dilemma, as Turkey Creek is considered by many as one of the best layouts in the area. As consumers feel better they start spending more money on discretionary items like golf, and Florida is seeing an increase in consumer sentiment, according to UFs Bureau of Economic and Business Research. One factor having a positive impact on the overall market is the continued closure of struggling courses. Nationally, there was and continues to be an oversupply of golf holes, which puts downward pressure on prices. However, 2012 marked the seventh consecutive year of a net reduction in the number of golf holes nationally. Gainesville has not participated in that since the closure of Turkey Creek. Gainesville remains a very low capita to golf hole market. Therefore, oversupply is not an issue. More to the point, Gainesville has an undersupply of quality golf. Optimistically, there is enough demand, demographically, to support seven courses in the area.

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Financial Viability ( (Source: Timothy Becker, LLC) price per round and additional revenue from food and beverage and golf merchandise spend too much on the purchase of the club. the NGF report as it applies locally. The NGF survey has a sample size of 83 facilities that are similar to Turkey Creek. The should perform in a similar fashion to this benchmark. Additionally, according to the NGF survey, the total average revenue per round for the sample facilities was $42.86, implying an average number of rounds per year at 34,601. This is consistent with the demographic study for the Gainesville market. BCG believes that Turkey Creek could be a $1.4 million to $1.6 million revenue per year club that would consistently by review of the operational performance of Turkey Creek prior to the decline in the condition of the course and particularly the greens. In fact, Turkey Creek was performing better than this benchmark operating statement while generating only 25,000 rounds per year. However, it is important to remember that these numbers do not take into account the initial purchase of the facility. A golf course operation is a low margin operation and care must be taken not to overpay for the purchase. Given the Gainesville market compared to others, the estimated value of the course is between $1.0 million and $1.5 million. However, keep in mind those values imply an operating golf course. Currently, with no revenue, the value to an investor is zero. Therefore, in order to evaluate the potential current value of the property we need to consider the cost to refurbish the property to an operating level, which could range from $900,000 to $2,400,000 depending on the level of revitalization needed.

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1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Range 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 *19th hole does not currently exist. It can be designed as a par-3 hole by utilizing the space between #10 tee and #18 green, in either direction to accomplish two 6-hole options. Hole Numbers 3-hole Loop 10, 17 18 5-hole Loop 1 4, 9 5-hole Loop 10 11, 16 18 6-hole Loop 1 4, 9, 19* 6-hole Loop 10 11, 16 19* 7-hole Loop 1 5, 8 9 Front Nine 1 9 Back Nine 10 18 Tee Green Golf Course Routing Analysis

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Golf participation is steadily decreasing in the United States. This is obviously due to a range of issues, but two of the primary issues are the fact that golf costs too much, and it takes too long to play. Not many people these days, other than said a golf course has to be eighteen, or even nine holes? Why not twelve, seven, or even three holes? Any amount that allows people to enjoy the game for its good qualities while avoiding the typical time/cost issues should be considered a viable option. Also, with a little creative design thought, some layouts may be achieved that will still allow golfers to play a standard eighteen hole round.

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Precedence Based Design Turkey Creek Community is one of hundreds of golf courses facing these issues today. Part of the data collection and analysis process includes the evaluation of case studies that relate to the golf course in question. The following is a short list of case study material Creek. Oak Ridge Golf Course Union County, New Jersey 67-acre 9-hole course turned in a $410,000 annual loss prior to closing Course was fully converted to park space with bike and walking trails, and an archery range Glen Miller Links Richmond, Indiana 85 year-old course needed $5 million in improvements Parks Board elected to downsize to three practice holes and convert remaining space to general recreation DeLand Country Club DeLand, Florida 105-acre course closed September 2012 due to economic conditions 35 acres will be converted into commercial space (approx. 100,000 sq. ft.) Remaining 70 acres will be developed to accommodate 240 homes & a 120-bed assisted living facility Municipal Courses New Orleans, Louisiana Following Katrina, city had to decide what to do with four municipal courses covering 520 acres Repurposed a portion of the land into a 50-acre Festival Ground Additional land now features a boardwalk, dock, meadow concert venue, nature trails, and a very popular walking/jogging trail

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Rich Harvest Farms Sugar Grove, Illinois Private landowner amassed 1,820 acres of farmland Built one hole to satisfy his personal desire/passion of golf course architecture Eventually added two new holes, then three more, bringing the total to six holes A creative layout of tee boxes allowed the six holes to be played as 18 unique holes Done so well, the course was elected to host the 2009 Solheim Cup (the LPGAs Ryder Cup equivalent), a very prestigious honor for such a unique and untraditional golf course Rich Harvest Farms ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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Sabal Point Golf Course Seminole County, Florida Closed in 2006 286 multi-family units being developed at previous clubhouse location and hole numbers 10 and 18. 3 holes were purchased by assisted living facility within the community or stormwater management; no golf was retained Took nearly eight years to arrive at the following land plan Now in the Implementation phase; construction expected to begin this year Source: CPH, Inc. Sanford, Florida

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CPH, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Typical 60 minimum landscape provides sense of privacy and helps to ease the not-in-my-backyard challenge. Note: areas with low canopy cover can be planted to increase privacy, improve microclimate, provide numerous ecological of being utilized as a walking/ biking trail corridor

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Overlaying soil characteristics with land use data and open space provides a visual of the gross open green space that is available for active recreation. Based on soil drainage characteristics and sun exposure, the dark green areas are the prime areas for community gardens (pending soil quality tests). to determine the areas where exceptional made to protect water quality. In this case, aquifer recharge area within the San Felasco Preserve. Water quality protection is of the upmost concern for any plan moving forwards. Over 90% of the site has sandy, well-drained soil, suitable for a wide range of opportunities. It is unclear as to whether there would need to be any major soil remediation before allowing agriculture to be planted on a golf course parcel. Further soil testing would need to be done in this case. Areas Suitable for Active Recreation Areas Suitable for Community Agriculture Soil & Drainage Suitability Environmental Inventory and Analysis

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With very little culvert piping, the community relies on grass swales to convey water as it moves down approximately 60 feet of elevation towards Turkey Creek. Considerable stormwater management issues may need to be considered depending on the level of future development (if any) Walking the entire site provided me with the opportunity to scenic views and wide vistas surrounding golf course, and the community. Its important to remember that even though golf course are seemingly wide open spaces, there is still typically an abundance of tree canopy be taken into consideration Topography & Drainage Tree Canopy Cover Site Visit Inventory

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Four distinct systems that provide a framework for all land plan scenarios Water is sacred, especially in Florida. It is critical to protect these areas, regardless of the land plan outcome. Utilizing these areas as amenities could improve the aesthetics and health of the community while also shedding light on important environmental issues A crucial layer to the system. It serves multiple functions from ecological services and wildlife habitat, to providing a sense of privacy from any potentially intrusive development. This area also serves as a potential corridor for walking/biking trails and greenway connectivity evaluated for development suitability, based on size/width, location within the community, and ease of access from existing roadways. Any space that does not meet the minimum requirements is designated as potential open green space or outdoor recreation is all of the area that meets minimum requirements for development. It is important to note that all of this space is not intended to be built on, it is simply recognizing all of the areas that are suitable for development. After all, we want to preserve green space throughout this process. Higher densities Note: some totals include areas not within golf course parcel boundaries, including 8.1 acres of vacant commercial space east of community entrance Systems Layering Analysis Gross Buildable Area; suitable for development 82.2 AC 32.0 AC Net Open Green Space; not suitable for development 42.8 AC Landscape Buffer / Potential Trail Corridor; typical 60 minimum from all existing residential 33.6 AC Hydrology; existing stormwater detention and stream corridor

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A B E F Golf Tract Key Opportunities and Constraints Golf tract A is an excellent area for open green space activity or even community gardens. The stormwater pond at the northern end is the centerpiece of a scenic landscape surrounded by specimen live oaks. The area (formerly the par 3, hole no. 14) has great potential for This tracts limited space, remote location, and proximity to single family housing make it unsuitable for development. Tract B is very similar to A in its limited space and being surrounded by single family residential. Also, this tract in particular has very limited potential for vehicular access. Being adjacent to Turkey Creek makes this area an opportunity for becoming a node where multiple systems interact. Capitalizing on this may open up educational opportunities as well. The eastern edge of tract E sits along the main entry drive, Turkey Creek Boulevard. Although the street lacks a bit of luster, it is in a prime position to become a scenic tree-lined boulevard that provides a real sense of arrival for residents and visitors alike. Proximity to the community entrance is a heavily weighted criteria when locating multifamily residential. Being located with frontage to the main entry drive, along with ample prime candidate for development. Great lengths should be taken to preserve the natural character of the community and promote low impact development (LID) practices. Tract F is very interesting with some of the more dynamic topography changes on site. Also located adjacent to Turkey Creek, this tract has a number of scenic view opportunities (with the construction of a new interior road), but being located so far from the community entrance makes this tract a less suitable candidate for proposed development. There is enough space to have double-loaded lots through half of the tract, but overall I believe this tract is better suited for outdoor recreation activities, dog parks, and other social programs. There also happens to be an existing restroom facility on this tract, making it an even better option for becoming a node of activity.

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7 0 0 1 7 5 1 5 5 0 2 7 5 471,000 sq ft 10.8 acres 1 2 5 2 5 0 4 0 0 2 0 0 1 6 5 0 2 3 0 0 Tract E (rotated) 924,350 sq ft 21.2 acres 1 7 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 443,300 sq ft 10.2 acres 1 0 0 Tract A Tract B Tract F 924,350 sq ft 21.2 acres

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C Golf Tract Key D 2,288,580 sq ft 52.5 acres 1 3 0 0 1 5 0 0 5 0 0 928,525 sq ft 21.3 acres Tract D Tract C 2 2 5 5 0 0 5 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 5 0 3 3 0 0 100

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Opportunities and Constraints Tract C is one of the primary options for future development. It is a rather large parcel with prime location near the entrance of the community. One option would be to construct a new road that was better aligned with existing roadways, which would also allow a portion of NW 118th Avenue to become a greenway trail connection to the Master Owner be aligned with residential lots on both sides (double-loaded) while still leaving ample Being located on Turkey Creek Boulevard with close proximity to the community entrance makes tract D and excellent candidate for development. Its location at the perceived heart of the community with the existing clubhouse, pool, and tiki bar make this tract a subject of contentious conversation. With very little adjacency to existing residential, this been approved around the clubhouse area are a good start, but they are nowhere near what is needed to sustain the future of Turkey Creek Community and Golf Course. That few of units may be enough to help pay for the maintenance of the golf course as open support from the community.

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Basic scenarios can be determined once the data and analysis has been gathered. These scenarios revolve around three main principals: economic amount of development social future of golf course space environmental amount of conservation Additional considerations and detailed planning will come at a later time. For now, the goal is to evaluate the big picture scenarios and choose the most ideal for further exploration. Exploring the Options Maximum Development (>500 Units) No Golf Limited Park Space Minor Development (250 Units) 18 Hole Golf Minor Development (250 Units) Reduced Golf Minor Development (250 Units) No Golf Limited Development (67 Units) 18 Hole Golf Limited Development (67 Units) Reduced Golf Limited Development (67 Units) No Golf Maximum Conservation No Golf

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Any proposed development beyond the 67 pre-approved multi-family units will require sustainable future of Turkey Creek Community. If done carefully and with attention to detail, minor development can be accomplished without diminishing the environment or community character, and quality of life will only increase. The Matrix Loaded Least Favorable Most Favorable Maximum Development (>500 Units) No Golf Limited Park Space Minor Development (250 Units) 18 Hole Golf Minor Development (250 Units) Reduced Golf Minor Development (250 Units) No Golf Limited Development (67 Units) 18 Hole Golf Limited Development (67 Units) Reduced Golf Limited Development (67 Units) No Golf Maximum Conservation No Golf Return on Investment to Owner Operations and Maintenance Cost Potential to Increase Property Values Level of Financial Obligation to Homeowners Potential for Diversity of Amenity Addition Improves Community Character and Quality of Life Environmental Impact Basic Conversion Scenarios Evaluation Criteria

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Chapter Four Final Land Plan Concepts

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GOLF COURSE 130.5 ACRES RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT (250 UNITS) DENSITY UNITS PER ACRE 24.5 ACRES 10.2 OPEN SPACE / ACTIVE RECREATION 10.3 ACRES LANDSCAPE BUFFER / PASSIVE RECREATION N / A STORMWATER ENHANCEMENT AREAS 11.5 ACRES COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT (OFF SITE) 8.1 ACRES EXISTING CART PATH REUSE 2.5 MILES PROPOSED CART PATH / TRAIL CONNECTION N / A LEGEND 0 feet 300 900 1500 Land Plan Scenario One: Complete Golf Course + Limited Development Considering the regional golf market analysis and desires of over 50% of residents, one solution is to reopen the entire 18 hole golf course. However, even with that level of support, this would likely prove to the least amount of development, the success of this land plan relies heavily on the willingness of residents to support the operation of the golf course. This may come in the form of monthly fees and club spending minimums. The local golf market may not be enough this option on its own. Reopening the entire golf course also limits the space available for multi-family development and subsequently requires higher densities where development occurs. This land plan keeps the majority of new residential development within the 10-acre parcel surrounding the existing clubhouse which has already been rezoned to allow a minor amount of multi-family residential.

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GOLF COURSE N / A RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT (250 UNITS) DENSITY UNITS PER ACRE 36.4 ACRES 6.7 OPEN SPACE / ACTIVE RECREATION 62.2 ACRES LANDSCAPE BUFFER / PASSIVE RECREATION 54.4 ACRES STORMWATER ENHANCEMENT AREAS 17.2 ACRES COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT (NOT ON SITE) 8.1 ACRES EXISTING CART PATH REUSE 1.9 MILES PROPOSED CART PATH / TRAIL CONNECTION 2.5 MILES LEGEND 0 feet 300 900 1500 Land Plan Scenario Two: No Golf Course + Minor Development Choosing not to reopen the golf course is the most suitable option for maximizing the golf course obligation to homeowners. Without the heavy burden of a golf course maintenance budget, residents would have the opportunity to experience a wide range of outdoor recreational activities, community gardens, dog parks, playgrounds, bike and walking trails, stormwater parks, and much more at a fraction of the cost. Financial support from the community will be needed for any option moving forward, but this option provides the greatest diversity of community activities at a minimal cost. Also, In this land plan, the optimum areas for residential development have been fully utilized and reduces the necessary density to achieve the desired 250 units. Thorough landscape greenway connection, and overall community character.

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GOLF COURSE 46.6 ACRES RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT (250 UNITS) DENSITY UNITS PER ACRE 39.2 ACRES 6.4 OPEN SPACE / ACTIVE RECREATION 39.7 ACRES LANDSCAPE BUFFER / PASSIVE RECREATION 31.8 ACRES STORMWATER ENHANCEMENT AREAS 15.32 ACRES COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT (OFF SITE) 8.1 ACRES EXISTING CART PATH REUSE 1.6 MILES PROPOSED CART PATH / TRAIL CONNECTION 1.7 MILES LEGEND 0 feet 300 900 1500 Land Plan Scenario Three: Reduced Golf Course + Limited Development After considering every potential golf course routing option, and considering the optimum locations for residential development, scenario three focuses on a 6-hole golf course layout, which could be creatively This option is aimed to provide at least some level of golf amenity to residents, while also meeting the necessary space and density requirements for This land plan also repurposes over 70 acres of existing golf course. This open green space can be transformed into a wide range of amenity options (as mentioned in Scenario Two). entire community to enjoy, including golf, as well as achieving obligation to homeowners.

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Chapter Six The 19th Hole: Golf & Landscape Architecture

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As someone who spent four years working as a golf professional, and nearly twenty years as an avid player, it is no secret that I am passionate about the game of golf. Whether its the Boy Scout natureloving side of me, or the athletic competitive side, I love the game and and still very unsure about the overall sustainability of golf courses in general. In the end though, I think golf is a tremendous assett to our youth, as it teaches many valuable lessons and can easily transcend any background or economic status. It is still the only sport I know of where you call penalties on yourself. I am interested in growing the game, not growing golf courses. or eleven hole golf course. The best of the best championship golf courses are not going anywhere. However, the one in your backyard may be the next to go belly up. What would you want to have in your backyard if the golf course closed? Now, imagine asking that same question to 1,200 residents and trying to come up with a single solution that works for everyone. The process can be a challenge, but the rewards are well worth it. Let the golf course be your communities connecting fabric, not a segregating barrier. Regardless of the outcome, the key is to remain cooperative and open-minded to the possibilities throughout the process.

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With an open-minded and straight forward approach to the problem, the complex issues being faced by so many golf courses can be logically evaluated in order to make the best decision for the greatest good. Golf is not dead, its just on a market-induced diet. With approximately 100+ golf courses closing every year in the United mistakes while looking at creative and responsible ways to repurpose, or convert, defunct golf courses. This project was focused on the creation of a model, or tool kit, that can be applied to any one golf course community facing similar circumstances. By systematically identifying the issue(s), developing a wide range of possible solutions, and evaluating the solutions with criteria responsive to the issues, I was able to develop three conceptual land plans that will be useful in fascilitating thoughtful discussion. Experiences as both a golf professional and in school have taught me many invaluable lessons, including what it will take to become a successful landscape architect, and I am truly excited to see what my future holds.

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Resources

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CONTACT NAME COMPANY TITLE Wallace Cain Turkey Creek Golf Course Owner Sarah Beavers Turkey Creek Master Owners Association Manager Timothy Becker Timothy Becker, LLC Principal Jeff Raimer West Bay Golf Club / PGA of America S. Florida Section Director of Golf / Past President Jim Koppenhaver Pellucid Corp Principal Javier Omana CPH, Inc. Vice President / Planning Associate Dana Fry Fry / Straka Global Golf Course Design Partner / Golf Course Architect Erik Larsen American Society of Golf Course Architects / Larsen Golf Past President / President Alex Kline-Wedeen Rich Harvest Farms Golf Course General Manager Dave Armbruster EDSA Senior Partner Marty Misner Misner Realty / Turkey Creek Resident Turkey Creek Resident Randy Brown Florida State Park Service Park Manager San Felasco Hammock A special thank you to all of the personal and professional contacts that aided me throughout the course of this project: Listing of All Resources to Date: Rules and Governing Documents Turkey Creek Master Owners Association Ordinance 07-06 City of Alachua Interview Wallace Cain, Golf Course Owner Interview Walter Smith, Former General Manager Interview Sarah Beavers, Manager of TCMOA Excellence Restored: A Guide to Golf Course Renovation American Society of Golf Course Architects (ASGCA) An Environmental Approach to Golf Course Development ASGCA Building a Practical Golf Facility ASGCA Turkey Creek Real Estate Analysis Mike Sullivan via YouTube.com Alachua County Property Appraiser (Parcel / Property Data) Alachua County Department of Growth Management (Land Use, Zoning, Comp. Plan, etc.) How great is the new Bandon Preserve 13-hole course? CBSsports.com Origin of the 18 Hole Round of Golf United States Golf Association A Golf Course Experiment: Why Not Five, Seven, 12 Holes? Wall Street Journal E-mail Correspondence Erik Larson, Larsen Golf Architecture President, ASGCA Past President Professional Team Strategy for Repositioning Properties Associated With Golf Courses in Todays Markets EDSA / Dave Armbruster The Original Six Rich Harvest Farms The Pellucid Perspective & State of the Industry Report Pellucid Corporation (Golf Market Research) Turning Golf Courses Into Parks Governing.com Reclaiming Golf Courses LandThink Taking Back the Fairways for Parks Keith Goetzman Sabal Point Redevelopment Site Plan Javier Omana; CPH, Inc Turkey Creek Golf Course Community, Market Analysis Reportt Timothy Becker, LLC