|Table of Contents|
Letter of transmittal
Letter of transmittal
Summary and analysis of hearings on the application of science and technology to crime control
Appendix. List of witnesses
[COM ITEE ONIT
RG AD A A ND TECNOLGY O, HEE ONTRL
ents~ri ULANI. Govrnen PiLaS01c
030 for eachmailorde
SCIENE AN TECHOLOG
comkirkaw oN liermta AD TAcINOGG NA
ousN E. WZas, Twespeua Cm KENEHECHLER, West Virginia ORA&RLEB3 A. MOSHER, Ohio* THOMAB3 N. DOWNING, Virginia ALPHONEO BELL, Caltornia DON FUQUA, Florida ,JOHN JARMAN, Oklahoma JAMES W. SYMINGTON, Missouri JOHNi W. WYDLER, New York
WALTER FLOWERS, Alabama LARRY WINN, JR., Florida
RO~lpt R RE,,New Jerser, LO5718 FRET,im., flgrift
MIKE MCOMbACK, Washingich AR RY M.GOLDWVAT1A, FL, (ifea
GEORGE E. BROWN, I., California MARVIN L. ESCH, Michigan DALE MILFORD, Texas jOHN B. CONLAN, Arizona
RAY THORNTON, Arkansas -GARLY A. MYERS, Pdnnsylvania
JAMES H.80CHEUER, New York DAVID F. EMER Y, Maine RIONARD L.OTTINGER, New York LARRY PRES8LER, South Dakota
HENRY A. WAXMAN, Californas.* PHILIP H. HAYES, Indiana TOMt HARKIN, Iowa
JIM LLOYD, California JEROME A. AMA6, N'ew tork A
CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connectient MICHAEL T. B LOUIN, Iowa .
TIM L. HALL, Illinois
ROD ERT (B0B) KR UE GE R, Txa a MARIYaN LLO YD,,7ennessee .TAMES 1. BLANCHARD, Michigan TIMOTHY E. WIRTH, Colorado JoxN L. SwroZr, Fr., ExecutiveDirector mAnceo A. Govrn -Depa~(rgareroq Pna B. Yales, Connd
Ant. T. wascxorealit. omaitant JTons D. lorenhatsultant RALPHn N. READ, 'Jechnical Conutant RonzR C. katenix, Counel RzNrA A. D)AVzs, Chief Cler k .1MrURr A. wr a=RATA, Minority Coned
SynooxwrrE ON I0MyBTIC AND INTERNATIONAL .BoyNTir PIA AUNG AND ANALYalB
'!RAY THORN'tWN, Arkansais, Cheirman LtOBERT A. BOE, Ne& Jragl 'J6HN B. CONLAN, Atzona DALE MILF ORD, Teasw', 'JOHN JARMAN, Oklahama JAMES H. SCHEUER, Ni;r York QAR41Y A. MYERB, Pennsylvania HENRY A. W ,DN, California JEROME A.AM9kRjp',New York JAME3 L. BLANCHARD, Michigan
JonN D. Hotrm-wm,iece Consitat DAncle D. Bucraw, Science Consedn tW&%. xtlasisn. Afto"r +6'aded immtestw
190n.=i===== OLNE TEAGUE,...
C~~~~imiiiiiiiiii Co mite nScecean ecnloy H o m eiiiiii ofiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii
IiiiiiiiMi.iCHAIRMAN:iIiamipleasedito submii~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiit i youiourirepiiiiii
jieariniiiigsiiiiiiii nthAplctoofSineadTcnlgtoC ie
conducted by..t.e.S.b.o.mittee.o.....es...... Ir
nsfioWi~ .............. Pln in ndA alss
Bets o i seil nees nth ra fcim otrl heHn
ambl Jaes:H.,8chuer a embe oftheSubomm ee chiredii
this erie. ofhear S
ing. r. eur, log wthSento Roer F
Kened, asresonibe or hemititie tatle t th ceaio o
th Ntinl nsiut o riinlJutie.H asowot adfiitv
book~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~i ontesbjcinileTiikihSret aey
Thee er svealarasofatenio drig hee eaiiiiii
1.:~iii Pureiandiapliediresearh iiiicrimecontroliandprevention
2. Iterovenmetal issmintioiofinfrion toiiii asiiiiiiiiiiiie
......... o f ...................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -I I
conta.... -- - -- - -- - --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
a]o er i h - -- - -- -- - -- -- - -- -- - --i1
eeiineliiio n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -liiiiliii= iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiili iiiii
Sumar ad aalsi o herigsontheapliatin f cincean tch
nology to eriii controli----------- ---------------------------------.
............................ and .......~en is=, conductedi th o g o t th e e a
GoviiiiiiiiiMostiagenciesiiandidepartments support research and devlopen tofuthe avanesih i ed ofsicantch
nolo- whc aerltdothiision. iii
i~heS pcialOvesigt hearings covered by this report were held foe th pupos considering the current and potential application of ciece nd echolgy to crime prevention and control. The heariW wreotuctued t gain an insight into current efforts to bring amece nd. tchnlog t bear on one of the nation'sn major problemsIntragncycoodintion and intergovernmental cooperation rece~ied rimry mphsis while specific techniques -forhnrie control and preention ereas discussed.
.. Te Sucon=tterived testimony *from witnesses repredinag' theresarc ommnit, the potential users of new techniques, and FW*l gecie wrkng to apply scientific and tehooia advanes:todea wth rie prevention and control. Ba sed on h hearingg: te fllowng ecnmendations for future activitis are made.
IN'E .RAENCt, >nDINATrmM 01 RIrnME RELATED RESEARCH A~i D~E~omENActivrries S etron En IMPROVED IN ORDER TO ISUREA UIFIED APM ACII A'ND A MORE ErraCTIVE 'APPICATONO RES r TO Tim NATTON's3 ORME PRonC rc nd ct cann ot b e con ald e rd as vn lit d ''
lem n wichto focus research and development efforts.)
.. involved in.hestudy of wide range of
ed t i' frequetl oerooed i the biorientation of eac Aec's R. & .effrt.Iiutioa mechanisms to bring abut a focu on he roader questions adthe need for funds requied.to llo interagency coordination where programs are po nialy cmplimentary and/or duplicative' should be
IDETIICTIN NDto ETABLISHMENT OF PRIORITIES FOR RE9EARH ANDEVLOPMENT IN Ontus PREVENTION AND CONTROL SaotD BE ETRMINED IN COOPERATION' WITH STATE AND
o R T8
Onlyhave State Planning Agencies, fnedr partly
1',S. ous ofReCommittee on Science and Technology, Ninety-Fourth Congrees No.25,Subomitte= 10tu e and International Scientific Planning and Analysis. Special Oversight Hearing on Te Appicati n cee and Technology to Crime Control, July 1975.
R. & D. priorities for crime prevention and control. This has also been augmented by efforts of local public interest groups to have an input to the agenda for future activities in the criminal justice area. For new developments in science and technology t9 ed and utilized by non-Federal jurisdictions, th& .Wlvwi 40W#ncouraged. There am
several isolated success stories of techniques beinK utfl 6
o* natioti arem&& wtiMoP& WAAW(ft 4HW V1ft*1feW
niqum, anti, erds, Jini:gdittidtig rivahiok 6&A&Meh"
rdlefit oU effejotiv6r, kr6&-9Kde(, erfiffin& igykeqftf
sidorktion shoul .U
W ib e gi thoitlbR".
grant program to effect this cooperation..
Tis]D PZRFO=.A-NCF. Ot- ITUR, PFdVkRT:,Fvi)awAL:, dRuWAd6citt)m
DwELOPMBNT ExTITY IN .'Tas FrELD I Or OBINW&L, J1J8nqJY
NAT10XAL:,1NW=UTk ok.LA*,1ENV0RCE4MT (NLEX) Wi*j% ''TiaE LA* ENFORCEMEItT AwiwAxCS "MI10MRATION ,-QW)OW
DEPARTMENT OF JU TlCk, SiMtLD BE, RRYAWAM BAWW
TERMS OF ITS RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AND IN RELATION TO fT ORGANIZATIONAL POSITION IN THE D9rX1fttftW AM IkAwitkf A
Tbeabil4y.to:oi*ssemiuateR.,&.D ,re nitsvwUblic ,I ding p, orities, 1. 1 1. .4 an attviot t q. to AeVelop, monitor a4A opoduct, xfrpqVch on crimp jwveqCQ13 and Norol:401d bo .4 subj ecP -for careful QDAgwwA*,o x4view
CkRiFUL, $TUDY SEk913,0,: MADIP 0Y Tj*,:, LXM61fq
DisszwxAToi ,.A$D USE QV SWATJSTICS R*SUj6,p9;q 'Rom R
SIZAlwK."D Pla:YI'Lop* NXT Vijro 'UNAW*xP f o AssIST
Ilq, TH0,CONTIROL, O1r QW41R,1NOWDING DW:M*,N AiPPRx
W$NSIONI AND REITXWLITATION.
on Lne vanp a 01
Rects, 01 P bp
criminal ate us 1@' fools i1i developing p q '11" to deter crime. However, utilization of such data be one canfully. The distinction line between
It T, JV11r r
reduce criminal activity and actions w c cou
torpreto;"As behaviftir. W044ex0n, must, I ., @# and . o #Worstv
respeotod-It io e user
WgV, Aecaswy W. e, w*4 A of 0*tioti9pp(Ph'ceW J, t4vow. concerned with crime prevention-poM,4o'WA rq_4 pooaxch
data plays in effecting -useful Programs. Proper use, once
.................................. ... ........
CVRRENT AND ANTICIPATED RESEARCH ON CRIME PREVENTION AND CONTROL SHOULD BE EVALUATED AND CONDUCTED To INSTITUTE AN IMPROVEDBALANcE BETwEzN HARDWARE DEV-ELOPMENT AND THE STUDY OF SOCIETAL ANDBEHAVIORALAspEcTs
Previous emphasis in R. & D. for crime prevention and control has been on the development of new hardware devices and techniques. There is increasing awareness that human and social factors need greater consideration in research relating to the criminal justice system. Crime control does not consist only of ap rehension of the criminal, but also on the functioning of tve courts, the determination of what is criminal activity, proper punishment and rehabilitation of criminals, and problems of humane and compassionate
consideration of the victim of crimes.
Programs in crime prevention and control that are successful should be evaluated for continued federal assistance. Often local units of government are faced with the problem that once a program is proven successful, fun" is no longer available. Shifting emphasis in R. & D. priorities often work to the disadvantage of the most innovative cities unless they can restructure programs to fit the current areas of interest.
-Ax x Increased evaluation and data collection to substantiate the
impact of programs would assist policymakers in determining
whether to proceed with prese-nt or planned activities.
facets ANt ANAYS quo HAIGu'ing THEr
>me' ae-phe eer in alg Scienfc
te a nDmenstice sy"m In
alid Aha reachs tha.mt e oSuccel an.. cnl
6 on taiciation of AAA)nc and tehnresearch arm,
''tis a-isu of aw, nfoemtentancrminale' JStI luntiok fr fecomanendti on mtl regardinothe ane
ppi~~~ andad h developments reolat 'to aia other
andComith o the tons nstitute.:
19oingino ubromm.& it herienso was paon the federal softecil. evrigtfftots wedir t ore in ind ficat, though t~~~~ ourH~e ain ngbaejsitiono criminal j tice ys vteee
xdd~~~ o oft udr hi tnidetiony- **:th irst hand soecomnd ay
M91,N" lo Vdia- .&adpeetsac ctivities and priorities) 194o Suc~te usmer, n esae persiv. Witnee
kjM~hx~p of parhers and rpeenttsbivego sttene and leh
udlff t baronth fces f:ths uetiii 1urig(5)har
The fina uay uoffre tne ubuonmitte tne opportunity oherfo representatives of three federal agencies and fromanidvul familiar with those states' criminal justice planning agence upre by the Law Enforcement Assistance Admmnistration. Bai usin asked of the witnesses on the final day of hearings we:Doscr
re.and :antiopatept resarch mnesh with tAe paeeds n
efforts related to crime control, and; are R. &Rresutsl iiv potential for improving the criminal justice system ismiae effectively to jurisdictions aeroshe nation?
The agencies represented before the Subcommitte r e
National institute of Law Enforcement ad Criminal Ju te research arm, of the Law Enforcement Assistance of toe Department of Justice; the Research Applicatioss Of the National Science Foundation; 'the Center for Stie lfr( and l'nqecy of the National Institute of Nua:e a1di= ITf
States' Crmal Justice 'Inf ormation, Project within State Governments. The funding levels for R..& D. roaeivaies widely *between these agencies. NTLE command hl.' Adllsr resources with approximately 40iilioug Rolare ut*R~ and 2811agnquq -Center, devotes approximately 5 m inO1%research and trana~jg programs related to crime pire~t 4...
control. The National, Science *Foundation ,and :she Conie06tt Governments, while..involved in rewearoh -related to armnt,.u combine R. & D. activities with planning, evaluation, an if oatm dissemination efforts secncerebyg Ja btadd age &o donesi~eve in e -nanner that, nakes separate rbu tfigurgaes diliculto teedevelop.
1neddition to the:ddllatsedevoted toweesearehtthimiis eaydmti toward* crime prevention ad control,aehi agncy rlaotdm involved with R. *B. *-evaluation, traiing and anonsiogfw semination covering a wi eengeafe o ic plem 'rlWit hw
housing, poverty, education, ethc. 'Acivtie oftheraecsae related to this problem because of the interrelationshisormet the, entire social -and cultural -fabric of. the -nation."ToeOecs represented at the hearings were invited, :because of -hi ii programs directed: at crim control and prevention.
The interchange between agencies, research and deeomfvpgrams was highlighted on the ;final day of the series of haigve Dr. Plaut of the National Institute of Mental Healthiscs h
transfer to LEAA of an originally NIMH funded studytdeloa uniform reporting system. Dr.: Plaut noted that:. The creation of LEAA was welcomed by us because it strengtee h'oa Federal effort in crime, and permitted a division of effort betwenNM n LEAA. For example, in the eadly andlate4060's, thevational IniteofMna Health developed not by itself but through its extramural grantpormaui form system of reporting on the effectiveness of parole programs h o~t ment of Justice laer.,took over this activity and continued thisreotn s" after the expiration of the original grant funded by NIMH. (P. 112
Expressing concern over the limited funds available
otowsw bltyo aam mde
na~tie et n:stp .14 of is setions acof e-S
***k 0dtftkan cek fhe information :fseuiad knecey 'p5eas
lal~eor the sardi he reconnends oftch
Ooto j ap enplewrpl i pie sec~tor sUha0 h s
poe agenio the c hu'iomutertids tbether6
e' ce' and crmial terd hisoi adtm aewne e thtomue as inusr has" benusn iurn proessonaizainof olcleisonantheg.ormlhodo yf ondepoy
of callsg to youate the tnebrhatod oft
h, "R1 t a follfo Wt impact e wian viatiosin thaed uesion remain tobcaserd p6. osrvde htheknso ohsiaedaayihtwl
Tke~~~~~~ drm rbe naylre ciwty stratgie o t puriise (pp 32omc33)i
V k a poodinaion.and oriin exp etanropt uistions
OA~~fufthtrsuggeted that there is &vtmedfra poreole niv
wefdtaiehv ococ htw ed1 aeueo hsto h
.... can us u -4U e se010i alya o lead sefetvl a oi
Bu ntrso u inin pwi ei a nocmn il elw ed
.us s o erfo vroeta ishr eoeyuta hyne n ny
Whl wedntbleew a sleteevr ope polm ipyb tw
1gmnya hm aieyo xeiet nHassOt n h iA
th optri assCt a enmd osientb asv i%*bv
by reaivl sml ut fse oewic wsmr~humth4 y..
reo re"r mt eD p r met n h eut a e en m s no R1
tem fahivmn. An o ewudas htteFdra oenethlpu.Freap veysalgatcudfcltt h rnfro rvt etrepri ivte
fild toplc gnis ed aelrg oprtosta r rsnl
ti o ohnbtsm norgmn n oefnnilassacIbiI". col gral exeieadices hskn ftcnqe
Discussing mdandizthereforeaincarcerationm nagmete p~~an~arin and iue. Itecio icu is aossume edutat the number
Wrosreuird; ibealiatinue of inactuharimes commiloted,
pecet f rie cmmttd esl Uiderlying:~ ~ tecnrnw thpoemat hteyn the criminalize im iq~te~ipl t vew tat u ree t wild rnffcetucae celays
St~~~wl~ Fik haraprmnapoe omite of Cuth NsewYork Legisl~ frd exrse sy ie ha sitnemsandgcerAtaiy
."verity ~~ m df th etnesrcue,"H-cnurdwaalizvitpertesi
monythatthepercptio oftmg dot sputes outinlsd tthe rmm Oa~sindiate hereis arest inguishbne ote activiteloies whic "W1t~nag~n10 ercntof hes, nd trefadrealloaceat manowe Rf,~~~~~~~a deotdci esta h ubrn ofatel hcring: "vmictes" pad~tereloe ony a facti nt ercestgy sfcimencemmand enlg
I tio testimny~hig liction bhefatwateen fthe oliya iseo andorcotinat ofenreus befdorped thaesbomtee.na
Addessng hesecnd ro tpo tan tha iwoe ocu unt distincio reiov o cetan casss islaurmAe n moenizing e ystmaitel idenifid for drectonsforacopnt ciinalroviies uipmeth expand'on ~ ~ thoonet6fmdat ipes ad seyordn the ia
us have gt ecinsadtios about, are~~~~~not2 Stmnlbu ahrsoiliatue' cnrimialoscoudte aom-r
aftnes~~~~~~ howdb eltwtad itrsig scienc and technology
ha a ipotatroe n chein this oandipoe.h or .-Mr. horntn dre acl aal intibttion the pc inal oc exchngewithMr.Staney ill sall wYrkemblteymnalh
betwe he vry eal uncion f tengiltein acilit th yseisl
_;ii : at: T
Otu assfo hip ht ay fushae gtrecios n nton bot
thanI thn th efr% o theinidvidul Sttes'crimnal odescoul be ccom
i~heinchmoe wfty.Tht' m oit.(p. 9-0
Foloin ro acncrnwthho sintfi ndteholgia
advances can asistia licema' hi 'ob and Unpro the cour
misacocrnwiIcorctoal-ititton.Th- rmia bc
canht ndconiced f crn*wil isu~l emin n he*cm .........
justice systm in ome frm Ofretenton faility
Mto g a .......n.....e tin wa.nt..c sd.n oroe,
t io n a l Iiiin s tit .............................................. iiiieiiiii o f theii iiiiiiiiiiai
j icessesmebsciseswr asd adteuiit fR.&
iiiiiin i s ara..........so ia......vorl m ar ee ed t
deemiete fec finaceain a ntd a er oe e t
deeomnst!mrv aiiis neicreaini fetd
In a dscusion f arumens surouning incaceraion olic
Professoriiii Alrd lmsen ugetdseealR:&D" edsf
imroemn in. correctonal aiities.iiisibasiciiiusiiias two
= 1 1
J s w a a fo llo w e d b y a c o u n te r a tta c k fro m th e le ft w h ic h in its tu rn sa id th at
r6 re ally ca n n o t v ery w ell id en tify th e p e o p le w h o ar e th e serio u s risk s to so cie ty. Tiiiiiliiiiliviiiiiliiiiiiiiliiiff l iichilion of idntifying the fuure criminalit
.............................................................................. a n d t h e r e f o r e ii
pu isb ent sould e impsed.a.thatlevel
thiiith t m kes thi de eop n de at ctnn important isiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii that==HNiiiiiiiiii~iiii iiiiiii===Hiii
1haalway ben ttaly delogca deat, ......,.nl.rhto.cisno
sk~bzWto inoke scentifc evidnce a part.f.thedebat. h snfi c e idenceiiM
asaxsl ftersac fot ha aegn noe h at1 er
TbA~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~... evdnc ,,tgtnopnaduli riia rvewb hoeabet
to aamse its alidityitolmkeitheilimitsofiitsivalidiyiveryiclearlnditoiprovid
a..sprngbar fo moingfuthe ino te extstaes f eserchto ro ieiiiii
bet ftigt ad ettr'udestadig o th process ellasthepoi!.....
J~kkae asociaed wth i (pp 4-5
Jude Atma proide th Subommtte wit bakgrund inf iii
fti~~ft"andexam lesof sdce~fulrehailiativ effrtsand rge
Su Ot toIn eprovn pr r ore i esre i com ent
Uleatedthatwhee -rhabta on po sconsst f inffetiv
11!W11*uriiiiii such asiig. M' oiiidiiiiiiiiques and activities
"d v r in"i as theiiiii ut iiii~iiiiii~~i~i il i ai o of coun elin ps ch ati help, ed '== ......... n rhbliain iete oar rmia ffne
ii nerissman Schue ase the... qusinietnnttini1.1a
iurentl bin ealatd,"Hve outrckdihee eolemian
and c,,: o m e up"' ........ so m e kind........... .......ucce..... f ....
(p 42).W hi.e.h.r...i...e..ar..sti.l.not...................he.nee..fo
th eelpetofts mtosa-ddtacletintciiu.
Jug lmnqoe'netmt f tlat5 o6 ecn f
yonstr dvrednt en ivlvdi tobliihi 3ps
.In adition o the xeasif concrn ilexly wthin te reai'd ti
ocile tom teodcm!iy
Yiii C m i t y iii iii~ iii iii i ..................................... .. .................................
I n! di i scussil ii iiiiii i i onii wi i i i t M r............ ........... M u ph on the pr pe ex e di uei1 ofiiiiiliiiii fuui6iiiliiliii i iii iii
in~iiii~i th ci meiiii area Congressmanii Schue suggestediii that.. "Itiliili~liiliiiiiiiiiiii i~~
beta ociia xeniue ol eabttrdtret ehp
ime thn anthin e s]yy i0
Eah inesmetondth eltonhpso tetoa cmiii
tci me-geto oniios huin dsgn ubransrai
frgeteioie eatneis he =o l gee nthene
oinaio o ifomaio i echofthsearas te osibeim'c of!)i! ........ f i ng ............o d na io f ed ra ro ra s
=Wd~my systom. th:emste re bagroundt to boe ttner. o i~m~loletak*ofod agnehnd atvte or uo ofndere givu
-M" 4u '6-48,4daltath welare dytu ell te the tno 10fmle ww'"~~~~~ oAN -Wtob ecesrrignal hon cter-te aplic. ae pol. Akd~jerune controL Howeverrakfonalha6
ch. Of Ue dscs dw urat therese, of data ollthi ediso ftl~~oftrfiiafa -pilroh bhne prvntiondre and control
9 dr rs~nf-Zime.Tho incl d!ree ne rmlty ore more Idpif
seiepm- ~ ~ ~ iet~ tls we teetol ao f ot oewear 1a -OVa wag otodtho ver isu oftione ses of dt oe d in awoz effort:~~~~~ Awn6'teR m rmeIpventin Vad fon itro ys..fti4 roug these suvysw ae1
es n wA akedva re very nicay CrossmaheTcouto ,
dW thnktator n the sdcien of crtyiomet ahc St11"OU1o*elate.'to rr ing.as Withu cialty n mr mindt
r~ngs bleh?. (Pp. 3-)
axe "Iorrbe1trpta thanwee rSco.mmi e
Ice~v and tecnoog coul do. Pro
kdmia tatin-latrials nd pinsroe-wrhih proid ilra IN ilp ofth in thv*eyg followigh thsecto intoey wh ate Fe< ~~~~~~~~tthat thnnrppr go cievr e oversighatl arolso the committee s
*ryJz~pfu-to polih pltannig and a itznlsis ar usyo ed in outr
Qf hw imh, Pme se Jur hustc Deatment, thrug LEAAnd, threha e~~~~~~8 l snorosIces. nriTtclearito whrat degproees heusi b
itetprnnin gecie yial naei
i I Feds rathethan en amg ad pro es a ior u *' veme'- etoflcondern aolternative usesovthes an U#04P~oi-fo. te inuir iothe partsofthe ciinjutic syst eoa money,4 ofe getting aapbiit tanicp Dr.: BLUMT~m. o th exns that ae bveingh ronsierte Thmite is t W w'I of plnning ad efeclyusedl would e think th pe omhe Ell~i frma h edrl teactoe Alevlumntete'iie
= it' Intriuing tar e, Jie fact ent, sedh.Ereuie
I think you ceald testermannh better newet'o phasing,,andvan yig ..
wtheeruse of information belag selleeted in samputtra., %1evs~ageyU of information. For: most sesearah purposes, -there iasa -om~ otke an individual sin the records, and so "privacy graeatheu auld8o as okkioi problem. ec
If. we thad complete records on people who bAre> hall hideAbistoe bo would her able to analyze those, records. to addmras the quast h ~eh--bdW Scheuer raised, about the degree to which, threisserealk nathem~x ath # committing a lot of crimes, ormaypplco itngafwrie
Resemich is very diffdult in tha ara IdnetMS k
to get. They are very cliffient: ogt remkYfrspnid searcker cares to know the asaao hs age i to the records in order to be abeo.dou bu.so that the system can undertake appropriate ite V ntion at e some of the legislation calling for planning and analysisetota d
Mr. BLANGHARD. T0 th1e eten thatther an,8 new>B ide, neAR ~88 -htoo to be workable in law enforcementis there a prohlem. plV W rAggi pt are spread around,.,or Are all of the new ideas 4ptt pg transfersg4; oul
We know in ouir other areas, technology- transfer is a 'thajbi kbTm I T
Mr. MURPHY. And it is worse than any plate else, J 0q1v4% .P~*0F cause in policing almost every cblef of police in the country todayi an ina who began his career 20, 25 r3years ago as a polekiffusier in IBM Z R wwars+ His wrhoe adult life hwes h&6n spent is untiinm wicghth* sie emal ay s somnewka narrowiNg experience, and inpone poliesdprmit ,4 wJe*# ments do not know what's going on 4a other gpf ortau tU you of that because I am a rare bird. I have' 1en hifour potteea is interesting to go fa~m-one to the other skid'Pbserve, 60 *usn 8rt vary widely. This is one of the basic problems in poicn whc g oe at-. mentation. Of course there is, no profession of, Iiig -1berg is,4ot a.vn fession of police administration. Pohliig his an as)ito, Ebi thre ispta R of a body of knowledge. Dissemination is wek un proving verrii4hb iO past few years. People do not. get an oppqu*-f knowt. *
policing. (pp. 22-28)
Congressman Thornton raised ,the question of the proper4e6, data gathered. This question is parklMI to the one ,raise a improved information systeygs std i pfWr .pr~dtip) I
earlier sections. The followmg excha e e~h ocern
1Mr. Thornton referred to lle mass 6iai 1"'data,4 roic
poect t determine the nahur ofciindt as A~repes inpr and questioned the use to whieh the informiion showit be '
1Mr. Shah and Mr. Platbath. responded 'that toe,1~~akei"
the particulAr study was'to deve46p a statistics 1I6bae y ita'wi some expansion to a "second stage" there 'Weould be on-'effort toi'n characteristics of "high risk" individuals and dev610phanit of'p of prevention.
Mr. Thorntoh expressed the opinionr that the idrilA la o
background factors conducive to the development of indhidh V high propensity for crime,' In th ecm edain fr
the societal structure to eliminate such factors,: seemed. an appropri~ and proper scientific appraisal, but utilization of this typ of to alter individuals in a physical/Iental concp coul ,E"g inconsistent with hum-an. rights and due .proces." He urged serious consideration of this dichotomy in -the use of research dsa'
The discussion in the preceding sections evidence problemWfbin
the various elements of crime prevention and control as well as'.de community' s efforts to affect reform inthcomnyatlre following section seeks to address the issue of how, well the perspeetv~ of identifiable needs mesh with activities-at the Federal 10A:t undertake R. & D. in the, field of crime Drevention and control.
AD DsVaLOPMENT assaaTE TO emME: CONTROL'
depdteamagein the Application of Science and Teehr k~y,4oiAwe Conltsoldfered the Subseensittee theopportunity7
Aftrrm:represea athee-~of thre Federal agencies and an individual a with? Abe, states!tb= rmial justice planning agendee ***W~supo tod by the Iaw rEaforcement Assistance AdmunstraThroder~ aspects of B. D. in esime control and prevention
***4Auwi on Q this final day: Does current and anticipated
ronwnoth.withlheateds and priorities identified.in the previous
of basas1 e n httaea ehnisms or incentives
w~~4edit5mptate tal or'alter R. &,,D.. efforts related to crime outro I, 4da$hp yy Ro & ASesults which have positive potential
theesimind justine system, disseminatdeecilyo
i~~nsis-n amose thd ae
veilanhead froms witnesses representing the National instot of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (NILE), the P~& irm 4_4te Ldw IXnfornameat Aissistance Administration *AllePeartrantal Justied;. the., Reisearch Applications Directorate of*Jo-ttin diese heaunatiaon.; the s0ater for Studies of Crime W &, j pe6sY W, the.0 National Insti tute of ,Mental Health; and,
dW:Qiatl Justian. Intrmation ] raiest within the Council
Ahd~mdI 1bhiue f Eaw Ekfbreement (NILE)
T.0 4u ffco of NILE.presented an overview of
Agsiads and submitted a research Plan for the record.
'C~pahnoted thf.rlativel, recent.'saurge of interest in crime
chenegged a major issue in the Presidentialcmi
6D% 6"1ahd ehkhcontines to suxrace as a major concern in public
.0 j6%,? v As wtsultERA has expamtled from, an initial budget
M3 4 Ao~ and stg$f 'f 4 in 1968: at a very rapid rate 'to a
app nnaionof $0 hillion and staff. comnpement -of 85.
tl eAA: initially had geat, expectations hut insuficent
roda* -of', the diffieulties, and olumenting with respect to
specifically, Mr. Caplan observed, "Perhaps the single most
fif~orantthing that' can be. said about these 7 years of extensive kft6 is: that -they have exposed linw little we know." (p. 91) coinmntedthat scientific and technological achievements in
W eieie space eOxpl)oration, an6i other areas are not analogous to I movement in 6he techniques of peention and crime control. "BSit. the wiser view is that it will be through improved understanding of -human behavior that real, progress will be made." (p. 92) .:C,.1aplan noted NILE's activities in fbur: major areas and provided examples of each:: Efficiency :of the institutions for criminal justic-polide, prosecution, courts, and corrections; Achievin a lvel of-fairniess in administration of justice-reducing disparities in tretent of criminals convicted of similar crimes; Reducing costs of crime to individuals in terms of prevention: land aftercare; and, laty,ftike reduction, t he first three areas, Mr. Capln noted
more rational: charging and plea, regulation;"prto new burglary armsyagems, restvely,. I4 he seen & in criehe was not optimistic, and said that, aside from r P W of lmedsuccess in specific progiramb such as metihddone ni~m c and new approaches to patrol, '"Wei haredea nod little-abtt the incidence of crime and have no reasonr tobelieve that reductions will be secured in the future., (p.104)
The perspective on NILE's activities given by n )& r. O ~ instrucetive in identifying concerns specifle to the. Iow Ented6Wft Assistance Administration which relate to problems sk m r in the previous two days testimony. On the opiening day, Gog-vwa INhue reuse ProfTessor BlisN: i la 9 15 fW dr4
their views nas to the effectiveness of LEAA and the Nationtal ni regarding first. the pure researrth developnibnt fatidtidninapir science and technology to the criminal justice systdss effectiveness as a clearinghouse- Getting information oUn- w techniques and approaches that, work, and, finally; renemtf improvement in LEAA's operations.
Mr. Murphy, generally supportive of the National s4U
effors, idetifie ba 3sic prblm it fae *nudet
nature of the client,-the policeman, thejuedge; and &w is not used to the ways of research, who fiiquently fais to pure research conditions,, and, is sheo ,f .ical -M Elicability 4-el obtained in LEAA studies undertaken>. in ast=s..),a-oneasA stated that IADAA has supported a volume # important rep. added "mistakes have been made in many researc egXorzi but** it ha help'dto build a foundato thtw0a aefoi
The LE9AA prga of blde gr ants to the st orfttiep
agencies faces its own problems. It is through the e,_d-W, effective R., &, D. undertaken at dlie Fdital level Aloio be I'e minted at tile 8tate and local lev et. However"Mi:14 pyn.
***The -LEAA program, pot, up as a block 1grantssen-oo tbtM easy to administer. No matterhow welmaningte people a~t Ua, planning administrators, whedi you get down to 6tass tacks it the But woI*.T
in the criminal justice system t is that kind of s. game.#ad the peal. politics of it, make it dificult..-(p. 14)
-Congressman Scheuer and Mr. Murphy exchanged views',ftA agreed that previous effort -had overemphasized ,kasrdisrama Lgm than research in the social: sciences. In an exchimg, with Blumstein, the kind of nonhardware research eflirts- which aka show promise were discussed by Congressman Sher palli
th ipat f ublic housn ocrmprevention and:-contraeMr Murphy noted the close interrelationship of, crime to other A problems and suggested that due to.the imitation of totAlp" funds and NILE funding specifically, other. agency iesisauch at4 National Science Foundation, the Department of. Health, Edueto. and Welfare, and the Department of Hosngad1ra Develop should utilize their resources in combined effort in a, naon-has MM approach to crime prevention. 1 .
Dr. Blumstein didsuggst that most of the large volumeot hrar expenditures that have been made are in the area of compatei&,
K-meutn of the information stored incmuters for the purpose Mmtiyas atiity at present: and how to alter conditions for
rovmen 8 i thutt where necessary.
%6toalu of the developments in unproved information systems not in MrE: Gaptan s testimony. He caotioned, however, that .IW is&-peablezn that is being addressed: MO a ted tnhfonrmati don sYstems does, of course, raise important
Z rvw~a s teeet ana privacr or the inrormation. As a safeguard,
whkibPO" idividual nights while p1ilerqdugip pgitimate use of information for
qsp~ Jpic urme. 93)
Of he'afional lastitute, a diseassion .of potential changes in the
RMB44,imor mechanics of the Institute's activities was initiated by
AL Sesr.. Ani outthn of the reasons why NHLE was
within the Department of Justice rather than as a separate
eagt, mh as The lastitute of Defense Analysis for defense related mesarc. was provided. This led to a question addressed to Mr. Caplan
tM,.Shower concerning possible placement of NILE closer to the
ey; 04ida, outside of L.EA-A. Mr. Osplan responded that:
th ppr circumstances, it would ,rsprin either place. If you cani
kbeot hatas ply evaslon, I mbuld appreiate it (0,106)
Ploqangon the meq a.t of NHAC's activities, the concern was
iwoold &semn tinof & D. results and funding priorities.
Rel .. o. te former the lament in earlier testimony, wich noted
Ife IbdB4 wantitag'its ondegg inent and feeling
1.4W "olem are naigap, sought the focus oni the difficulties of
P Mate Netor directors 'o management, consultation services workiing
0i. N frageuealy- esouter the dicls attitude that the probeneE ~ ~ ~ ~ qu -ea~ms4aepgn, that researalh findings are not
Oppicaleon an &l inclusive basis*. He observed that jurisdictions do vwy pat tht there are man meb denomitaterg and that utiliseuse ShA snoWd implemented. programs ra
r~w e~t miutial costfactor.
Qrwosman Schanam uankind the metho of, dissemination of Information of research fndings and new techniques. Mr. Caplan
adhecurrent active hitin INA A:: the' enlargement of the ,qe of Teclaiology Transfer, a curr-ently expanding publications Ngpn. and three majo trawdm pronms within this uit. Mr. thlnnoted the, exmpar ,oec pogramOWs which identify, revkew, find'.follow UP wit trmm and demonstrating outstanding ret s.~w l HeCited as an example the family crises unit work in New
Congressman Schener commnted that Judge Altman's testimony desrbn the family crisis program had favorably impressed him and Mr. Caplan concurred i that -the proga wa ta"enuiesces in that it avoided unnecessary arrests, brakup of families, and violence. hi tye f program was the focuso demonstration for-the past year And. neighborhood team policing was. to be the focus of the current year. Mr. Capl an noted thatlimnted funding precludes the preparation
the applicability of one city's innovations to-,the problems of anotbmarea. Dr. Blumstein's had testiflwd that, whether a chzawe 6
right is an empirical question that we can answer. That is.wbat,:06 Institute isabout."
The question of evaluation of projectsis inextricably ,bound tar funding procedures. Earlier discussion suggested-that jurisdietioso had. to play word games to present "innovative" projects for fundiag. In discussion with Mr. JCaplan, Congressm&n. Sch I uer eVrease& concern with criteria for continued funding. Are, suecessful PTdift, tA A?
supported and failures rejected'?'
An interesting caveat related to this subject had been introdVc4dpy Chief McNamara-wbat happens to the'innovativ6 ciq with-8164ccessful project. He suggested that in the case. 'of Kansas City:
ti., . people continually flock in to see what we're doing. We don!t financed for that; and it causes,-while it's a kindof honor to have that recognition-a considerable disruption. (p. 78)
There has been little consideration of funding mechanisms orussist ance for the innovative city to delmonstrate their results.
Dr. Jack D. Foster, Director of the Criminal Information and AssiOance Project of the Council of State Governments, who is famihar with state planning agencies supported by LEAA, provid"e-d- sAdirlonal sights into dissemination funding mechanism and noted the element
of politics vs. technology. He stated that, in his view, thm is a
The consumers within the Criminal Justice Agencies are experimenters of on uncontrolled type. They attempt to implement one kind of'change and then another kind. What I sense among what I call poUcy*makers---these woulct be the legislative staff, people in the Governors' offices and so forth, who are vontrollisW the flow of dollars and directing changes in legislation-they are gettingv" disturbed about the seeming confusion and conflicting requests about changes, and they are beginning to ask for harder information about the impact of those changes before they proceed any further to make them.
We went through a flurry of changes in the late 1960's- and early 1970's, largely, as a result of the influence of LEAA dollars. Much. of this money has,, in retrospect, probably been used unwisely because it was not preceded by reseaicti; I ineau, it preceded research rather than followed it. I think that we have to work more to bridge the gap between research and development andthe actual implemenUtibrtv.
One of the consumers of research that I haven t heard many peopW, talk about so far are the policymakers; and it seems to me that the things that really coneftu them most of all is an improvement in their ability to measure crime and1he impact of the changes that we L make in our system as we try to react to the problems of controlling crime. The measures of crime and the impact of out effort to control it is an evaluation measurement problem, and that is an aiew of considerable concern to them. They also want to kAow what we: can do to improve our ability to protect citizens from victimization. It is the heart of the matter of trying to bridge the' gap between coriventional. police control and other devices that we may have to develop in our society for the control of milhe. Artd, tbkd' they are beginning to ask the question that I think all persons in governnQ should ask and that is, are there other ways we can. get people to comply *1th law, other than relying upon criminal sanctions or criminal penalties? (pp. 132-133)
Mr. Caplan, Director of NILE, responded to this concem by noting that NILE would be containing both hardware and sovW research. His response identified a very rml problem for NILE in th& efforts to work withother agencies&
One of the frustrations is that the causes of crime seem unbowided. In some sense, the work of crime control is the work of all Federal agencies, aR. Governnient. agencies and private institutions. If we had some leads . we pould confAr with other agencies to find out what they know and what they have done. The
to, however, concentrates ow the more, marre*i~y defined criminal -j ustita
does no t o *=t eeh se&t would, for example, get involved in
Bse4i~~tcoo'rdination between ajencies underresan dtorn gravention and control e5not currently
'e OV. ie- aenci wid focuses more narrowly on social
to t e s tC Gei for Stalk's of and Diqueney -ihnthe National: Institute of Mental
1-1*Wbh~f N~ffd. arli& reference was::made to the dependence of
#e ability of thep National Institute of lAw Enforcement
16, re~iarel imitiate by NIMIT and carry it to implem entation aibitong aoveneffective.
IUMtifd sakte of An alth (NMMB}.
1 TomsF., A.. Plant' Wis Counselhor to the Director of the
a ~ ~~o tft -itttlbE 3dhytaH(eiAR (NIMH) and Dr. Safeem Shah,
f,"l~ierfor fttAh@ 'of" Crime and Deliniquestyk provided the
Subcomittee with .an overview of their activities related to crime
H6 6 t fst" their piegism wag only approimatly one4*htkthe ize 6P the liew ESifretent Assistance Administration's
f%&r~saftl 6 iyd asa *ere, noted. All were behavioral and
refhokt this lied are related. They were, 1) community
b~e 0 t'rms ia lt rnal as to institutionalization of children who S stf csoin dBif~n' and rltdb aviorst problems;
2) ute study improved criteria for decisibni-fhakihg with respect 4.4fkA la* and mental health iawse; 3) understnding ot the factors S9adstM Wedith viekat belaioar; and, 4) longitedinal studies to letter a stand involvement of younpters with the juventle and criminal
J-41AM depts.m anud factool! that entible most to: "msiture" out Ot~eh'Ant behavior while others persist in criminal careers. Each
futhr esrie with: examples in both oral and written
a apposehuS NMR, a& noted by Dr. Plant, is to give initial
"seed" funding and emphasize dissemination. The "Achievement
TW" iodel, an example of their R. & D. approach, provides comSammy bwed ome rather tha& institutienalisstion of delinquent
Dr. 1lu rioted that thigh program consists of fam ily-like
tb, i or '*t youths who h ve It troilble with the law
a Wy, it Ih specially trained haelkand and wife teams who assist
s ine CO g elth, life's problems while they continue to attend
t ar hOi their homie community. He continued with
Flie toal NIMH fund invested in thig research activity have been on the order of magnitude of $2.5 milion over 7 or 8 years. Users of this demonstration project in moere than three dozen other pince throughout the country have invested asm dathted- $7 mfihoni in this: projeek So we0 have her& an example where: limit ed ]Federal funds demonstrated the effectiveness of the program, trained people in its use, and helped to "seed" it. We are noew ivolved in the evaluation of program otftosesin other: settings Ikte yett may have in New York. (p. 1 13)
A sate~edra agncy te NtioalScience Foundation's program,
nvled. in: crime prevention and control and, is concerned with both beai and applied research.
Dr. Hare dborss et iectrfr441 iP veetion Apidctonro ye reatinal t:ec Fonato~ aeauos ofer texaisitiresofearh Henainrltot.a~ia o effcivene in teheoloreato crime conto.Hpea yntntainrol ement eal s otiuins prtisn mihrlvn:yiso'ghee
ei ndependf tore i ve l of r eh e inm
A.. e n m .
eitrng RD.in r so e lares sp ie a n ro anirmnlJutm(..14 tial Aserc s commied agnda ee fuueRt .'n take if the or. Tali fou resrph, l n-h uc"M tf relaeon pqrof eitrogh Toeseachi e ugdta vlaino R. effcResess eins uth atisfy thie ctripl b osdrd nte O anreme1 talt onse thereuire n ts. p.s 1a5 eur sm leafoAdderesigthhifiut.o h
design rle Dr. Averch ase ied thet pnocaine~ iny thi finance ah falreletoncomi f.&D n hrb nret reserch is uer taken dlas wpell asdic a civdFrs,,te itifed mute rolte and seteuiiyo esa en Rae nodrfr ai esearch designs in the criminalcjustice pesarons, ie through opaio arhe the'tm n. f h k~ It mayb that reerch fundersthe no Research designs or evalatin deis freqieet f ccfcv idt w sarch ab ltio n ietee Fdlre porme ts sho24) g ran s in o othe development and de elp etoadq tersib deain any evaluation t le prrams.t h ne fre~ki evlin thsisanea researdein ar cosmty, stoeautetedsin em Whsatcan we udotaIn unin reasater h eut r civ idesk ie sy teically.dsgetdposb6slt i h olwn
Weeha eisg in ea coribautin traotnld fe~&('mkn b Haiows will thoresearchabesacsomplishe? jc fte eerh.Ote, ttt Whatl mae the utilizatin pleasmos foruth e d pr:.er ueae otst~d Toktese quigs re utio eins ofo investigators. iotxapeth' woarkh ine grlating istin knowrl dget shwn ht fck ta 0'0'e can-hibe ahieved lend then tn rntg h ude oevlaiii-d s e wnh 1241
evlato an eeac eigsae oty btteyaet "'1
Whtcn ed? nfndn esac teeaeanmbroiqetozs weh'l
Whtpobe Viltereerh cnrbuet slig
Wht sth nceena cnriuio hereerc ffxgaeWw, =olef
Ho iltersachb copihd
only brieffyon the specific, areas for ai future R. & D.
igft~ijW.Averch noted areas previously mentioned that should be
pared given OMB, Congressional and user community guidance,.
motion matdhRs- diversion of juvaniles pregpms, and the W. aflega~lpersonnel---sudges, prosecutors, lawyeit. His final emphaA~tddedu'tvest :to the nleed-foi* better design aad evaluation for
OrR. &D. payoff, He stated:
i i~ noe arenthiephily the Integratiogi of R. & D, is so important because
iiosinlo tudiwahly aikes, a difference in this field. It takes a set of them inteoatel4VL way and tirasted for iners. That makes the difference. (p. -125)
ssma&Thornton 'expanded on the problem of I coordin ating
A &n had~tgrating research efforts inthe many disciplines which
O' tiJ tdibution fbr solving social probl elatdo
vor app this problem '4tith the Problem identified earlier
a 6:e edve evaluation procedures, Mr. Thornton and
&'16t1hdeveloped' the followhg'donogrn:.
34r I ALNx. You have easedd cancern,,'I believe, a very real congeern
id~~p #Mia area, at least as far asthsoilcensar
bbue~ed18not rMidly'sceficlly condutee.'
D.AvaEsC. The defects I mentioned apply both to social science and "haadd
pesag:ch so that the engieers are an culp le often as the social scientists
OI idi' miask to sige out' either one. I would like to pursue, thee~ 'it indeed" ie, th tyn to extrapolate results from this'
3 b a lead to %some haOreIserious wrong conclusions, could it not?
an;RCEs. Yes, you, san generate great sopial errors by acting on the basis
oftionousresearch. 1My concerm is, I thin k as is Dr. Blumstein's, that we don't hvAny sytm c means of: sifting the erroneous from the correct research. I t~n he ttgtinof toe re~git is something thget needs a good deal more wwil lavry diflieult to do.'We have some experince in reaching such appli.AdL ntod that. It is something that we will have to pay
more atetin.to. It is connected with the utilization questions. We do nb antl i 14n~ or have utilized invalid research, so they ate intimately
botudd (p. 125-126).
WOODIM~tt@OF TEDER L RESEARCH IN CRIME :PREVENTION AND CONTROL
O ,the Airst day of the Subeemmittee's hearings a basic theme a611lre that recurred thrbughout-priorities for R. & D. in crime conIb a:Mfst be established by coordinated effort'involving all levels of government. Patrick Murphy, President of the Police Foundation, kawn at the almost "non-system"' for decisidn1-mning inlaw enfordement altvitles ad applauded the emerging awareness on the part of states as to their proper role. One indication of this was a debate among .,participants -at the National Conference of State Orimainal Justke Planning Administrators held in Idaho in July 1975. Those: attending. discussed their role and whether it should be broadanaA kmrav~nd. administration of TX AA fund s +o include gerater incrimnal ustice within their; stats
Mr. Murphy made the pomnt tlst. within'the 50 states there are 25,00 r more police departinents and thousands of prosecutor's officesi "courts. and correction-. sses. :T hese are frequently ino" coordinagOl and do not, func~tion*,'effectively and efficiently. The
The~14 pepexP pm orth 1 pouems id pr.sD.torsnd te qua cotu, le ar M orD.ar
cant qufy forin fu tust a vlam iO nal 1
This'p ob e vai n was folo e bA
Whou t tis Soodiie
noloy Comtee otp. ly todo9p)e reseah theplet of o e'~ntce dler wih dpojnt Mr.tiMurphy'sdreso n auggste Oc pe resah This wa apid darksenaw, l
1)onaldson~~~~ bruh4no hr-ou
wTh shifteing: edralp fr &h D.ca priiete e0
share ~ ~ ~ ~ gl ofteR olr e6
each i thrug aua inolee# f ov
fort auftneamplmy couldis wi'ae beeud~ V
inse obynoat ingin caflompuer yaqbt~ ro r fn buletriing apeoplreonero tp us m te,'4 de I think oneofphe ons:stattcn t and thw'enot athi Sbomfl oi g h itd,.rteSiec n if we'r evmter g otget any kdotohlterm of a (u raykncoh ieec, th at w fsie nw e~no g y oc~ r Ir thinky' wh ret esonesudesbe inzrae tt jvlu thsekindar offcul phis'wartrs (. 5
Mr.aldonaldohnt rhrp ommenthoiom'fO 01tl
phrre ofth R. & D. fudingar Heas ed h hth etI o
Thr thas o be, thepon Ism khnd teoofy o t edtobsmthnta'soe over, nmenht e'r pr o ting t f o i.Te cAn d hn hti' e r eic e nd herging thei ect inso eachag aaw~eral 6,g~~ ofy cionfi feence that w oe part eog th u~ttb fup~iw i oiiprogramswhand tht sCcngess wil be rari ous smy~ klww1 succekssf ll ecotnuedthat they wi)
Mr. Donaldson' dutectomnte th til ~ i n lfb
either into eaction, woith R f & otnut intepogD.tht h Government s pr ceded b.yca' testi:d10490~~big tq Pubic Tdchnology Inc. He denti.
suntieu thl e ~hcon ord tinrn fhjw or tnet eeve ao-. Mr Dnadsn's esritinofthidle fceib JAM
in their ii~iIntrciqigaeds OeV
on wih R. A, f~i'
goenetI|speeddb otfin rmMoM-1Bl~
PulcTcnlgIc'H detfe sm c roe.e
sning he rbn Cnsrtim oi"ecnolgyIniiaive,
n of of a national urban R. & D. agenda. Based on approximately .hundred adtwenty-five 'aed' statements in crime prevention
tialr Bedik identified four broad categories of R. &D
DWUDolice hardware needs-techiiology developments foir the police .fttAstreet level-and; police software needs in three areas---m n a ..
metteelmiques that can be used by police administrators; th
;x;and, correctional..5pstitutions. He noted that "sixty percent of
"rW"h~ justice needl sAtements fall into the software area,
0ythidy-fivepercent into the hardware category." (p. 51)
A biefcolloquy followed sqggesting that the almost two to one
on the nees in the software areas and the previous, emphasis
pl .n see% for police eupetand trainn sugsts
awdeaaion in thinkin and R. & D. efforts. Congressman Scheaer r*&"edto Mr. Bedik'st comment and stated'
wovery eouraged by year remark that cities seem more inaersated ia Wtwmmthan they are interested in gadgetry and hardware, and while I've been
*,,Vppoterof the National Institute's development of hardwaread paliae andhelpee weharelie-eaving and important, perhaps thalf Venot been iving anagient priority to software items It's encouragn to : O~b% fro you that that's really what the local police profesinl peem
pnterebik'e for software R. &: D. are amplified in the folwig
seot dedling with specific areas with potential for RE. & .
In te tetimony relatn to NSL research activities, the emphasis
of coordination of efforts-s ted from local level priority setting to a
possinsaimfficient attention to coordination at the Federal agency P0? his led to the question of Dr. .Averch from Mr. Scheder "Where A proper plae in the Federal Government R. & D. establihent lar the r**m of the streams of information to take place?"
The question antd subsequent colloquy is applicable across the
b ro gon of federally funded R. & D,.
Mr. Scenavan What would you suggest; what would your recommaedatiote?
Dr. AvzmcH. I will nidt "make a recommendation. I will give you an option. There may be some room for considering a Federal systems integration office
Otwill take *e eostput of the R &s D agenates and put it together east feed it
bpkto the agemes and say, "Look -here is what we are saying."
1 Searwm. Where wQd this be located? *
Da A=. I think ths awe may options; you ean set it up as an iadependent kind of operation, as you mentioned, and you could attach it to OMB. M r. BaHEvan. God forbid.
DAv Recer. You couli attach it to NSF, for we have no particular interest Io programs oateames. I cealdn't tell you at the moment what the meet csteOfaptive arangeinents weald be.
.Mr. Sonizuan. Actually, taybe I should reconsider my reluctance about putting It in with the OMB, since the OMB is funding these social programs. Maybe the place where the agonizing reanpraisal. shoulM take place is rigbt at
Dr. AVERen. Well, again, as a professional economist I can tell you that there is some value in connecting budgeting activities with research and activities. (pp. 130-131)
In addition to coordination among the different agencies undertaking R. & D. related to crime prevention and control, each agency is faced with an internal problem that they share in common. The concluding section addresses this issue.
M? APWE IIAS A CRITIAL11 11EED~ INR 4 .RLTDT mor filcoes whc car bb'ffe eea gneiivl~ abou & research tcite wotin, &~a th edt.1 ecm indiitdalst to ttract outsideataentio nspcfi~l rm: eae Thrgessach of ourd rseemaprt tho succetht-'itousff apcto ldol e ofi youcrrsearc mn o a hrcm edtost~ie thespitefit issubviousnhot when 'ef touI ) abou he aresarc eibiitywin aderlAec efg osrits whaits youihave to ptat the.id ev tavent Hesggse ta $500 sucs day your anstaeh off for e~ af 3-montlheensccsso a tihei of a r greeacr t g
mhenstotae oni oustan pe o aea uthuaeebn ie for, y have a a fexibiity' w e .o eat tin pe r.
watyabjestto aymttio. and stiures opte 50adyy0 a a
Mr0a plcan gesed that terea3mot wiie pit o a s o atther hanfagetcrort inwt research Mr.biit ScheusaI ea satcal wer a oluton.th suggested uh th tlfeii n alrn rat ort two rthree. We oulgtan povle frvi e ii o.Yudntqiehv aencbiies, moewhe ou t oetngg in loqxctv: rnhadagniOO tl mrenujts, pr as oneaiii n trcue of these spal srce firmsm<
see theavanag tosiet ongthsating pbu h ult fpol. servings inuthesttt oled inatr onoirbcete o eiiatos the gre a n ugstri orgniatos thegrewan sipeoltn 4th ,Og street pato thet diseminrtation oe 'bigrsacsamnsr,6 r Inasoer ayrsaces r ce rsgetdta perhaps the motefc istrsf eerr n ap al kno letdele ha hac owrkfra'~ pora duori threWe pasd t ver iw hat hasot oh tae'pltodoen ir mown reerc aut th ne intt voa fot ih h oie-3"_; hes praone of ugesionspandfim osih&gra nineigs 1 spetrumvntg o oit of posilea tio n o p aeeeoedisgtfo techinogy ii
tions heatidseriare outlined ine gt egneig c la srecomedr ftedeiations.ocss .M.CpaIcnurd
contiiiiii nue (p ,18 19
The ran e.f..gesi....d..srv tins.fproles.o.e..u ie
inefrstoipoecrm__rveton cnrlcvee ra
LIST OF WITNESSES
NUA]&INQB ON THE "PLICATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO CRIME CONTROL
Dr. Alfred Blumstein, Director of the Urban Systems Institute,
School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie-Mellon Uni---- ItVM3111y, ittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Patrick V. Murphy, President, Police Foundation, Washington,
July 17, 1975:
Dr. J h D. McNamara, Chief of Police,, Kan as City, Missouri.
Stanley Vink, Chairman,, Criminal Code Commi e, New York
State Legislature, New York.
Lloyd T. Ifedik, Program Director, Urban Consortium for Technology Initia ves, Public Technology, Inc., Washington, D.C.
William V. Donaldson y Cit Manager, Cincinnati, Ohio.
Judge Benjamin Altman, &airman, Criminal Justice CoordinatIng Council, City of New York. July 18., 1975:
Gerald, M. Caplan, Director, National Institute of Law ]Enforcement and Criminal Justice Law En 'orcement, Assistance
Admini tration, Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.
Dr. Jack D. Foster, Director, States' Criminal Justice Information and Assistance Project, Council of State Governments,
Dr. Harvey A. Averch, Deputy Director for Analysis and Planning, Research Application, National Science Foundation,
Dr. Thomas F. A. Plaut, Counselor to the Director, National
Institu of Mental Health, D artment of Health, Education, and Welfare: accom Jeff Saleem Shah, Chief, Crime
and Delinquency Center, NIMH, Dertment of Health,
Education and Welfare, Washington, E