Tierra Despierta: A Social and Physical Study of the Agriculture Land in Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador

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Title:
Tierra Despierta: A Social and Physical Study of the Agriculture Land in Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Pazmino, Sebastian
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Gurucharri, Tina
Committee Members:
Schmink, Marianne

Notes

Abstract:
The question being addressed in this field practicum is: Can farming and conservation of land co-exist in the agricultural area of the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador? This project combines the application of landscape architecture, land planning and design practices with the use of socio-economic data to help develop recommendation strategies that protect natural resources within the agriculture hub and the adjacent areas to Galapagos National Park (G.N.P). Working with a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), this practicum addresses social (research, interviews & surveys) and physical (landscape architectural land planning and design) aspects in order to develop long-term sustainable conservation strategies for farming in Santa Cruz adjacent to protected lands. The results from the social aspects include an analytical document providing a synthesis of key socio-economic data including: demographic information, education, nutrition, food security, health, water, soils, economics, and energy use. From the physical aspects, illustrative graphics delineate recommendations for the agriculture buffer lands and will include proposed measures for enhancing resource protection. The recommendation drawings, or design guidelines, offer farmers strategies to reduce impacts to adjacent conservation areas.
General Note:
Sustainable Development Practice (MDP) Program final field practicum report
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.

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University of Florida Institutional Repository
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University of Florida
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Copyright Sebastian Pazmino. Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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Tierra Despierta: A Social and Physical Study of the Agriculture Land in Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Development Practice Degree Sebastian Pazmino May 2014 Supervisory Committee: Tina Gurucharri, Chair Marianne Schmink Member

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1 Table of Contents I. Acknowledgemen t .. 2 II. Abstract 3 III. Contextual Information .. .. 4 a. History b. Location of the project c. Overview of socio economic and environmental factors d. Current issues IV. Background information of the host organization ... 8 V. Conceptual Framew ork .. 9 VI. Objectives .. 11 VII. Methods utilized 12 a. Informal interviews for data gathering b. Surveys c. Land Planning i. Site A nalysis and Synthesis ii. Conceptual Master Plan VIII. Analysis, deliverables and discussion .. ..... 15 a. Informal interviews for data gathering b. Surveys c. Land Planning i. Site A nalysis and Synthesis ii. Conceptual Master Plan IX. Design Recommendations .29 X. Cross scale and cross discipline considerations ..... 35 XI. Conclusi ons .. 35 XII. Bibliography 37 XIII. Appendices . 40

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2 I. Acknowledgement I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the gracefu l and constant loving support my family h a s always provided me. I recognize their sacrifices and I thank them for motivating me to go places and pursue my dream. I would not be here without them. Gracias! I will like to extend my thanksgiving to all my classmates, friends and faculty that m ade these two years here at the U niversity of Florida a very enlighten ed journey. Special thanks to my advisor y committee, Chair Tina Gu r ucharri and Dr. Marianne S c hmi n k Extended gratitude to the entire MDP faculty, Dr. Glenn Gallowa y and Cynthia Tarter for their pivotal guidance. Moreover, I would like to recognize the support f r o m the Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs at the University of Florida. Thank you fo r allowing me to be part of such an amazing team and for all the direction dur ing my graduate school. I could not have imagined having a better committee, work or classmates. This quest has allowed me to tap into my strengths and discover the importance of l andscape architecture and planning in developing countries I am determine d to follow my passion to foster leadership, work with under represented communities, and use land planning to create nature and culture conscious design and programs that will foster education.

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3 II. Abstract The question being addressed in this field practicum is: Can farming and conser vation of land co exist in the a gricultural area of the island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador? This project combines the application of landscape architecture, land planning and design practices with the use of socio economic data to help develop recommendation strategies that protect natural resources within the agriculture hub and the adjacent areas to Galapagos National Park ( G N P ) Working with a Non Governmental Organizatio n ( NGO ) this practicum addresses social ( research, interviews & surveys) and physical (landscape architectural land planning and design) a spects in order to develop long term sustainable conservation strategies for farming in Santa Cruz adjacent to protected lands. The results from the social aspects include an analytical document providing a synthesis of key socio economic data including: demographic information, education, nutrition, food security, h ealth, water, soils, economics, and energy use. From the physical aspects, illustrative graphics delineate recommendations for the agriculture buffer lands and will include proposed measures for enhancing resource protection. The recommendation drawing s or design guidelines offer farmers strategies to reduce impacts to adjacent conservation areas.

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4 III. Contextual Information a. History Human history in the Galapagos dates back to 470 years ago. According to archives, the world first knew about the existence of the archipelago by the writings of the Dominican friar, Bishop of Panama Fray Toms de Berlanga, who officially discovered the group of Islands on March 10, 1535. Bishop Berlanga was sailing to Peru from Panama, but oceanic currents drove his boat towards the Galapagos. His accounts narrate the magnificent nature of the giant tortoises, unique flora, such as cacti, the harsh unreceptive terrain, and the difficulty in finding fresh water for drinking. Once the first populations settled the i sland of Santa Cruz in 1925 and before tourism, the populace lived as a subsistence economy; agriculture provided basic food and fish were abundant. With the arrival of tourism more financial capital circulated and the population grew, which included n ot only tourists, but also migrants from mainland Ecuador. Therefore, food could no longer be sufficient to fulfill subsistence needs and importations from the continent to the island ( History | Galapagos Conservancy, 2013). The flora and fauna of the Galapagos have their own history. About ten million years ago, the top of underwater volcanoes formed landmasses now known as the Galapagos Islands. It took many decades for plants and animals to start living in this arid region of the world. Most of the native plants came to the Galapagos through long distance seed dispersal, and while ferns and grasses abound, flowering plants are scarce. The salt tolerant seeds of coastal plants, such as mangroves and saltbushes, may have arri ved on the islands by ocean currents. There are also many wind pollinated plants in the islands (History | Galapagos Conservancy, 2013). The fauna of the Galapagos is unique to the region, with many species of reptiles found throughout the islands but no a mphibians; the islands are home to several species of land and sea birds but comparatively few species of mammals. Similar to seed dispersal in plants, many animal species came to the Galapagos by wind or sea (History | Galapagos Conservancy, 2013).

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5 b. Location of the project The Galapagos Islands are located off the western coast of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. They are classified as a World Heritage site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO). The Galapagos Islands and its immediate waters form an Ecuadorian province, a national park, and a biological marine reserve. The main language on the islands is Spanish. T he archipelago is composed of 13 main islands, 3 smaller islands, and 107 rocks and islets. The Gal a pagos Islands are known worldwide for the discoveries of Charles Darwin, and are home to unique animal and plant species. The whole archipelago originated from the uplifting and eruptio n of volcanoes ( Gal a pagos Islands UNESCO, 2013). There are about 25,000 inhabitants in the Archipelago of Galapagos, most of them situated in the islands of Isabela, Santa Cruz, San Cristobal and Floreana. Santa Cruz, located in the center of the archip elago, is the second largest island, having an area of 986 square kilometers (381 sq. miles) and a maximum altitude of 864 meters (2,835 ft.). The island is home to approximately 15,000 inhabitants and contains the most populated urban city in the archipel ago, Puerto Ayora. The Charles Darwin Research Station and the headquarters of the Galpagos National Park Service are located in Puerto Ayora and in the outskirts of the city there are agricultural and cattle raising villages. Santa Cruz is the only islan d with road access to its interior, therefore providing locals and tourists a rare opportunity to navigate across the island and see the magnificent flora and fauna. It is estimated that 11,432 hectares, 11.60% of the island territory, are devoted to agric ulture. The agricultural area has a hemispherical outline whose extent is about 20 km long from east to west and 5 7 km wide from north to south. It is located between 100 meters to its southern boundary and 520 meters to the Gemelos craters. The altitudin al gradient opens potentials for crop diversification. However, in the lower parts towards Bellavista, most of the land is dedicated to urban growth (Santa Cruz 2013).

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6 Image 1. Agricultural territory in the Island of Santa Cruz. T he rural territory in Santa Cruz. Bellavista, located north of Puerto Ayora is the urban hub in the agricultural district. Source: Fundacin Santiago de Guayaquil, 2012

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7 c. Overview of socio economic and environmental factors Santa Cruz is a shield volcano, located in the center of the Galapagos archipelago. It is the hub of human activity in the Galapagos. The south side of the island is home to the National Park Headquarters, the Darwin Research Station, and Puerto Ayora (the largest settlem ent in the Galapagos) (Santa Cruz 2013). The main industry of the area is eco tourism. Disclaimer: Before arriving to the field. There was a lack of contextual information, particularly for the agriculture area of the island of Santa Cruz. Therefore, one of the objectives for this field practicum became the consolidation of key socio economic factors for the area. d. Current Issues Environmental concerns: H uman activity has drastically changed the Galapagos Islands ecosystems, especially within the occup ied regions of Floreana, Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Baltra, Isabela, Espaola, Santiago, Pinta, and Pinz o n. Through hunting and other exploitative activities, animals such as whales, fur seals, giant tortoises, grouper, lobsters and sea cucumbers have suffered significant population losses. In addition to endangering animal populations through hunting, humans have introduced over 500 foreign insect species to the islands through the transport of wood, fruits, vegetables and other organic material. Fire ants and wasps have become a major threat to the microenvironment of the islands; they are altering the polli nation cycle, and attack different animal species. Furthermore, the number of introduced species in Galapagos continues to increase, with many of these species impacting the native ecosystems. A total of 36 vertebrates have been recorded as introduced spe cies, with mammals such as goats, pigs, dogs, cats, and rats being considered the most hazardous. (History | Galapagos Conservancy, 2013). W ith regards to water, the islanders in Santa Cruz buy potable water from small companies that use desalination pla nts, while water for non po r table uses comes from different sources. In Santa Cruz, brackish water (a mixture of rain water and sea water) is found in crevices near the coast ; this is the main source of water for the town

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8 of Puerto Ayora. However, the grow ing demand and rapidly growing population is putting increasing pressure on this vital resource. Furthermore, due to leakage from domestic use, waste water is mixed with water from the c re vices, causing health risks to the public (Direcci n 2013). Social concerns: The local population depends on imported foods which come over on ships from mainland Ecuador, in precarious condition, posing a health threat to the inhabitants, and allowing the introduction of invasive flora and fauna species. Mass tourism is growing faster than improvements in food production or water protection can keep up with. There are an increasing number of illegal immigrants f rom mainland Ecuador augmenting the need for drastic migration control and implementation to guarantee a sustainable livelihood for the residents, visitors, and farmers (Direccin del Parque Nacional Galpagos, 2013). Agricultural concerns: Farmers face low profitability of their farms, characterized mainly by the following aspects: lack of organization of farmers to plan production; lack of a regulatory system to control food and prices that are imported from the mainland; poor marketing system; lack of water for irrigation in large are as during dry season; low production and productivity levels of local agricultural crops; and presence of pests and diseases in crops (Plan de Desarrollo y Ordenamiento Territorial del Canton Santa Cruz 2012 2027). IV. Background information on the host orga nizatio n Ecuador Tierra Viva (ETV) is a non profit organization whose aim is through provision or improvement of water, health and education different projects throughout the country of Ecuador and collaborates with other institutions within the Galapagos to protect the fragile ecosystems of the islands through active educational endeavors. In this way, Ecuador Tierra Viva contributes to the co mmunity

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9 development of the Galapagos in social, cultural, and economic aspects to improve the quality of life. consultation for conservation authorities, education, and social services in order to achieve their objectives, which co mbine concerns for the ecological balance of the Galapagos Islands with the social welfare of its inhabitants. An overall aim is to extend successful strategies to other similar populated islands in the archipelago (Vivanco, 2013). V. Conceptual Framework As noted previously, Ecuador Tierra Viva aims to improve the improved (Vivanco 2013). Th is field practicum aims to support that goal by gathering socio economic data about Santa Cruz and the agricultural sector in particular to develop strategies to enhance the sustainability of the livel i hood and by enhancing the agricultural buffer lands to help protect the resources of the Galapagos National Park. The collection and analysis of the field data will provide Ecuador Tierra Viva with a strong foundation for future funding and program m ing to imp rove the livelihoods of the farmers in the island of Santa Cruz. O n the Island of Santa Cruz, seasonal products can only be harvested during a specific time in the year. Seasonality does not limit the volume of production, but rather its continuity throu ghout the year. Samples of seasonal products are plantains, bananas, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, cucumber, lettuce, tomato, pepper, orange, lemon, melon, pineapple, and papaya. When not locally available, these crops are imported from the mainland. La bor intensive means that crops such as beans, peas, onion and carrots, due to high costs in labor and machinery, are more costly to produce in the island. Therefore, it is cheaper to import them. (Gobierno Autonomo Decentralizado Muncipal de Santa Cruz, 2012).

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11 VI. Objectives OBJECTIVES PROBLEM QUESTION METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS PROJECTED RESULTS Enhanced understanding of socio economic information on the Island of Santa Cruz and the agricultural sector to be used by the nonprofit organization as baseline data for present and future projects seeking to enhance natural resources protection and farmers livelihoods The N GO currently does not have any base data, What are the key socio economic factors from the agricultural sector? Compile data from go vernmental institutions through data collection and informal interviews: Municipio de Santa Cruz; Secretaria Tcnica de Desarrollo Sostenible, D epartamento de Planificacin Urbana y Rural de Santa Cruz. Analyze information and prepare a synthesis of the m a jor findings, including tables of the findings Analytical document provides a synthesis of key socio economic data including: demographic education, nutrition, food security, health, water, soils, eco nomic a nd energy resources. To be used by the NGO for present and future endeavors. Assess the agricultural buffer lands of the Galapagos National Park (G.N.P.) and determine their potential to help protect the natural resources of the Park What measures might be taken in agricultural buffer lands to enhance the effectiveness of conservation, to protect natural resources ? Site inventory of hydrology, soils, vegetation, wildlife, erosion potential, forestry and agricultural systems Analyze site inventory information Use this data to identify measures to enhance conservation, pro tection O pportunities and constraints within the agricultural buffer will be developed Illustrative plans delineating practices for the agriculture buffer lands. Recommen ded drawings offer guidelines to farmers to reduce the impacts on adjacent conservation areas

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12 VII. Methods utilized The following diagram illustrates how the methods were linked during the field practicum. Procedures used to conduct these methods are described in the followin g sections: a. Informal Interviews The informal interviewing and research process utilized was adapted from the Qualitative Research Guidelines Project by Cohen and Crabtree (2009). The informal interviews took place within the different governmental institutions, including Municipio de Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz Municipality), Secretaria Tecnica de Desarrollo Sostenible (Technical secretary for sustainable development) and Departamento de Planificacion Urbana y Rural de Santa Cruz (Urban and Rural Plannin g Department in Santa Cruz). The reason for the organizations being consulted. An additional advantage was that these interviews did not require the scheduling of formal meetings. Conseque ntly it worked well with busy governmental agencies, and facilitated bureaucratic procedures required to secure key data. As a researcher, information was recorded in personal notes and memory. While in the field as an observer, informal interviews were ca rried out in an unpremeditated fashion. These informal interviews were particularly important during the initial stages of the study, since literature characterizing the local situation was quite scarce. Informal interviews were also used to draw attention to innovative topics of importance that may have been unnoticed by prior studies ( Cohen and Crabtree, 2006 ). Compile information from governmental institutions through data collection and informal interviews Inventory hydrology, soils, vegetation, wildlife, erosion potential, forestry and agricultural systems OF THE SITE.

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13 b. Surveys The survey was carried out about the current state of the farms in the agricultural area of Santa Cruz. The target group was 100 individuals, male and female older than 18 years old that either work ed live d or both in the Agricultural hub of Bellavista. As noted in Kelley et al (2003), surveys are typically carried out using a questionnaire or interview. The surveys were intended to take a snapshot of how things were at a specific moment in time. The surve y was carried out face to face, which required that respondents be approached individually, either in the street or by networking through a local person. A series of questions were posed to each respondent and their answers were re corded. Face to face inte rviews were a more expensive and laborious method than postal surveys; however, for Bellavista it was the right approach for the community and local context as people are more relational and the postal service is not efficient (Kelley et al, 2003). Moreove r, convenience sampling was engaged which permitted the deliverables to include a sample population selected because it was readily a vailable and convenient at hand, It was also highly suggested by the non profit organization to conduct them this way. Convenience sample is a non probability sampling method where subjects are chosen due to their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher. I used this sampling technique because it is fast, inexpensive, easy and the subjects are readily available. Th e disadvantage f rom this technique is that it does not provide a sample of the entire population (Convenience Sampling, 2013). c. Land Planning According to the Site planning and design handbook ( Russ 2009), most national decrees necessitate that zoning regulations be established and employed in harmony with a comprehensive land use plan, oftentimes know n as a " master plan ." Characteristically, a comprehensive plan embodies an expression of an agreed upon vision for the future development of a m unicipality. Comprehensive plan frequently report topics significant to future growth through components regarding housing, public inf rastructure necessities, recreational facilities, transportation, economic progress open space, and agriculture Furthermore, they should

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14 ensure that sustainable site planning limit s the impact of development on native ecosystems (Russ, 2009). The land pl anning exercise encompasse d the whole agricultural area in the area of Santa Cruz, with the aim of delineating the agriculture buffer lands and proposing measures for enhancing resource protection i. Site Analysis and Synthesis In the field of landscape architecture, site analysis is a process that includes a complete inventory of physical data, analysis of this data, and a synthesis of all the analyzed data to determine the opportunities and constraints for land to be used for agricultural, buffer or urb anized uses. (Contents Site Planning and Design, make informed decisions as a basis for the master plans and detailed conceptual designs. (Analysis and Site Reconnaissance, 2013). An inventory, analysis and synthesis were conducted of the agricultural areas in order to determine the opportunities and constraints of these lands to function as buffer zones for protected areas of the island. The process began by documenting the physical characteristics of the agricultural areas including the topography, soils, hydrology, vegetation and infrastructure such as building, roads and utilities (Russ, 2009). These features we re analyzed individually and then synthesized with the analysis of all the other features to determine the overall opportunities and constraints of the farmland to function as buffer lands. The inventory maps were obtained from different stakeholders, i ncluding Municipio de Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz Municipality), Secretara Tcnica de Desarrollo Sostenible (Technical S ecretar iat for S ustainable D evelopment) and Departamento de Planificacin Urbana y Rural de Santa Cruz (Urban and Rural Planning Department in Santa Cruz). T he information, maps and data were compiled to later be used in analysis and synthesis. ii. Conceptual Master Plan

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15 Based on the opportunities and constraints information, the master plan wa s responsive to the characteristics of the land, the needs of the farmers to maintain viable farming practices and the requirements of an adequate buffer zone to protect the resources of the protected areas. Additionally, detailed designs were developed that help ed to illustrate the intent of the maste r plan for more sustainable farm practices and the use of agricultural lands as buffer zones. VIII. Analysis, deliverables and discussion a. Informal Interviews Informal interviews were conducted to find out preliminary information about the current situation of the agricultural lands. Ecuador Tierra Viva guided me to the respondents from the different government institution s including Municipio de Santa Cruz Secretaria Tcnica de Desarrollo Sostenible, Departamento de Planificacin Urbana y Rural de Santa Cru z, and informally people were encouraged to reveal what they felt about the agricultural land. Such interviews were entirely informal and were not measured by a specific set of meticulous questions, but in the process a hypothesis was elaborated: Most of the agricultural land in the Island of Santa Cruz has no t been used to its maximum potentia l ; farmers might not be using strategies to protect the conservation zones and people prefer to work in the tourism hubs of Puerto Ayora f or it brings more revenue to the households. The informal interviews also provided an ample access to the socio economic data of the island. Therefore, this addressed the first objective of the practicum: Enhanced understanding of socio economic information on the Island of Santa Cruz and the agricultural sector to be used by the nonprof it organization as baseline data for present and future projects seeking to enhance natural resources protection and farmers livelihoods From the analytical document found in Appendix A, which provides a n in depth synthesis of key socio economic data i ncluding: demographic education, nutrition, food security, health, water, soils, economical and energy resources. The data is relevant and useful for the i llustrative plans delineating practices for the agriculture buffer lands. And the recommendation draw ings that offer guidelines to

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16 farmers to reduce the impacts on adjacent conservation areas co nstitutes the following: The degree of urban concentration of Puerto Ayora is the highest in the region with 11,974 people, and accounts for 47.66% and 77.8% within the canton. Most of the population is concentrated between 25 to 29 years old for both men and women. The two rural parishes have a regional concentration of 3.96% in Santa Rosa (994 inhabitants) and 9.65% in Bellavista (2,425 inhabitants), which tr anslates cantonal level at 6.45% and 15.75% respectively. Furthermore, in Santa Cruz there has been an annual incremental growth of 3.5% (Gobierno Autonomo Decentralizado Muncipal de Santa Cruz, 2012). The main agricultural hub is the town of Bellavista, The pH level of levels In the rural area, the pH levels range between 5 and 6. Most of the soil that is used for agricultural purposes is free from vegetative invasive species. The soil and vegetation dramatically changes in the highland area, where the soil is not arid and is able to produce verdant vegetation (Direccin del Parque Nacional Galpagos, 20). About 90% of the introduced species of flora have been brought by humans for ornament al or agricultural use. The vehicle for many of these invasive flora and fauna species is imported food, on which the human population in the Galapagos is dependent (History | Galapagos Conservancy, 2013). The highland area in Santa Cr uz is entirely surr ounded by the conservation land Galapagos National Park, a con servation land. The border between the GNP and farmland is commonly disturbed by the introduced flora that comes through wind, birds, cattle, animals and even humans. In addition, GNP has sustained a park only policy, which encompasses control of fauna and vegetative invasive species just for the park property. It is up to each farmer to eradicate the invasive species in their land and protect their borderlines resulting in tensions within landowners and park property, especially for the landowners that are adjacent to the GNP borderline. Farmlands vary in scale from two to 200 hectares. It is also known that pesticide and herbicide practice is limited and controlled by the Galapagos

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17 Nation al Park and the local Municipality; however, some farmers and property owners still obtain forbidden weed killers and pesticides for the control of their lands (Brewington, 2013) This last piece was fundamental for the illustration of maps and design reco mmendations when farms are adjacent to a conservation zone b. Surveys The survey in a c onvenience sample format was carried out with 100 that lived and/or worked in the agricultural hub of Bellavista. The population in Bellavista is 2,500 All participants were older than 18 years old, 45% male and 55% female. About 85% were married. The purpose was to find out the local perception from these 100 people about the current stage of the farm land. 1. In order to assess the overall perspective of informants about farming in Bellavista, we asked: What is the current condition of the agriculture and livestock farms in Bellavista? The results (Fig 1) show that a majority of those interviewed were positive about farming, but over 1/3 thought cond Fig 1: Current conditions of agriculture and livestock farms in Bellavista 4% 16% 44% 26% 10% Excellent Very Good Good Bad Very Bad

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18 2. Do you think the farms in Bellavista are self sufficient (do they have daily products produced in the farm for daily intake)? The results (Fig 2) give a demonstration that a majority of those interviewed agreed that the farms are not self sufficient. Fig 2: Perception on self suffiency of farms in Bellavista. The size of the farms varied on scale, and some use it for subsistence for commercial purposes or mainly as another piece of land for investment. 3. Do you trust the products that come from the agricultural and livestock s e ctor of Bellavista? The results (Fig 3) display that of the respondents h a ve some trust in the quality of the products they buy f ro m the a g ricultural sector, while the other has doubts about the quality of the products they purchased. Yes No 28 72 Yes No Yes lots of trust Some trust

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19 Fig 3: Perception on tr us tworthiness of products that come from the farm. It seems that everyone has a lot of trust o r some trust, no one has no trust at all. 4. Are the prices of the produ ct s that come from Bellavista cheaper, the same price, or more expensive than the ones tha t come from mainland Ecuador? The outcomes (Fig 4) show most of those interviewed were positive that the products sold from the agricultural land and the ones that come from mainland Ecuador are the same price. Fewer respondents thought the products are ch eaper. Fig 4: Perception on product prices from local farm vs. the ones from the continent. 5. Do you think the quality of the products from Bellavista can compete with those that get imported from mainland Ecuador? The results (Fig 5) show that a majority of those interviewed were positive about the quality of the products from Bellavista and that they can compete with those that get imported from mainland Ecuador Cheaper Same price More expensive 39 46 15 64% 36% Yes No

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20 Fig 5: Perception on quality of the products from Bellavista and if they can compete with those that get imported from mainland Ecuador 6. Do the farms in Bellavista act in a cooperative way, or do they act isolated from each other? The results (Fig 6) illustrate that a majority of those interviewed were positive about farms acting in isolated ways, while the remaining th o ught the opposite. Most of the land if not all of it is privately own ed Fig 6: Perception on farm cooperation in Bellavista 7. Do you think the farms in Bellavista have a clear vision of where they want to be in 1 or 5 years from now? The results (Fig 7) demonstrate that a majority of those interviewed had a negative perception about farms having a clear vision for their future. Fig 7: Perception on farm vision for the future. 24% 76% Act in a cooperative way Act isloated from each other No they do not have a clear vision Yes they do have a clear vision 74 26

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21 8. Do you think the farms in Bellavista are organized? The resu lts (Fig 8) show that a majority of those interviewed were not sure, confident or accepting of the current organizational practices that the farms have. But about 1/3 thought conditions were not organized at all and a smaller percentage thought they were v ery organized Fig 8: Current conditions of agriculture organization in Bellavista According to the survey s findings and the Development Plan of Santa Cruz for 2012 2027 (Plan de Desarrollo y Ordenamiento Territorial del Canton Santa Cruz), 100% of those interviewed purchased produce from Bellavist a including: p apaya, dairy products, eggs, legumes and hens. C urrently in the island of Santa Cruz there is a high dependence on crops that are imported from mainland Ecuador. On the o ther hand, in the island of Santa Cruz there is no government price control for crops. Demand for food to support the massive uncontrolled tourist population in the island also creates a disadvantage for local farmers. The results of the survey provide d the following data of the socio economic factors: e vidence of little self provisioning; strong potential for local marketing; little farmer cooperation or planning T his last finding, the lack of planning, feed s into the design recommendations as follow s : delineate recommendations, to which farmers can incorporate strategies to protect the border amid the GNP and their farmland properties. The bias of the convenience sample is that it does not represent the entire population; in addition, out of the 100 s urveys, 30 were conducted to actual 11% 59% 30% Yes they are very organized Somewhat organized No they are not organized

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22 farmers, and the rest to people that are created to the agriculture zone. Therefore, the farmers group was underrepresented. c. Land Planning i. Site Analysis and Synthesis The site planning process began with a physical analysis of the land adjacent to the Galapagos National Park The site analysis maps can be found in Appendix B. I t is estimated that 11,432 hectares, 11.60% of the island territory, are devoted to agriculture. The agricultural area has a hemispherical out line whose extent is about 20 km (12.4 miles) long from east to west and 5 7 km (3.1 4.3 miles) wide from north to south. It is located between 100 meters (328 feet) to its southern boundary and located 520 meters to the north of the Gemelos craters. The a ltitudinal gradient increases the potential for crop diversification. However, in the lower parts towards Bellavista, most of the land is dedicated to urban growth (Santa Cruz 2013). The site analysis was based on the maps and documentation retrieved f ro m the Santa Cruz Development Plan 2012 2027. (Plan de Desarrollo y Ordenamiento Territorial del Canton Santa Cruz 2012 2027). Forest and agricultural land account for most of the area, with 53% used for perennial crops that have a cyclical duration of ove r three years s uch as coffee, bananas and some citrus. The other 20.46% of marginal agriculture and forestry areas, characterized with a high maintenance and conservation measures, are suitable for grazing and/or forest. The rest of the agricultural area has slopes that are not suitable for growing crops and would be best as forests and conservation areas (Plan de Desarrollo y Ordenamiento Territorial del Canton Santa Cruz 2012 2027). The site analysis process for the agricultural land is based on the McHarg analysis methodology. The analysis constitutes a graphic overlay of the different data sets to delineate the most appropriate areas for agriculture and for buffer and conservation uses (Corbett, 2013).

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23 Based on the future zoning map by the Santa Cru z Development Plan 2012 2027, the local government has proposed to expand its urban settlement to the highland. This map and strategy currently lacks the creation of buffer zones that will protect the existing and fragile ecosystem. Following is a graphic site analysis of the agricultural area (Plan de Desarrollo y Ordenamiento Territorial del Canton Santa Cruz 2012 2027). The maps describe the various environmental characteristics of the agriculture zone in a graphic format (maps are not on scale). The site synthesis follows the site analysis, in which the opportunities and constraints of the site are determined. The map below illustrates the agriculture zoning for 2006. Agricultural Zoning in Santa Cruz 2006. Source: Fuente: Proyecto ECU/00/G3 1 en 2006

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24 Potential for forest and agriculture Potential for agriculture Potential for conservation Site Analysis Agricultural Zones Vegetative Zones Erosion Zones Flooding Zones Roads and Towns Opportunity to m aintain conservation area Opportunity to e radicate invasive species zone Opportunity to m aintain existing forest Good potential for agriculture and conservation. Not great potential for agri. or conv. Moderate potential for agriculture and conservation. Good potential for agriculture and con v. Best potential for agriculture and conservation. Opportunity to m aintain main paved road Opportunity to m aintain secondary dirt road Main population hubs opportunity for urbanization expansion NTS

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25 Site Synthesis Opportunity for: Endemic and native vegetative buffer Constraint for: Population growth expansion Opportunity for: Corridor expansion Constraint due to: High traffic from main road to the north to Baltra airport. Constraint due to: High traffic from main road to Puerto Ayora. White parcels denote areas for agriculture

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26 ii. Conceptual Master Plan According to the USDA National Agroforestry Center (NAC) Buffer zones are designated areas used to protect sensitive landscape patches (e.g., wetlands, wildlife reserves) from negative external pressures. Corridors are used to connect the buffered landscape ( USDA, 2014 ). The succeeding picture from USDA demonstrates a sample of a buffer adjacent to an agriculture zone. The width of a buffer zone is context specific; therefore the buffer must be based on the desired outcomes to protect the flora and fauna of the GNP. Plateau buffers of 250 to 1000 feet nearby wetlands have been suggested for wildlife such as turtles and amphibians (USDA, 2014). The following is a conceptual illustration of a buffer zone between the Galapagos National Park and an agricultural land. The proposed vegetative buffer zone is an undeveloped area bordering the GNP land with native and endemic plantings. The reasons for vegetative buffer zones include: Decreases runoff by allowing storm water infiltration into the soil, decreasing pollutant flow into conservation areas. Reduces erosion al ong the shores in water bodies and secures plant root systems in water and land flora. Restores natural habitats by providing native flora that provides food, shelter, and shade. Increases the chances of wil dlife survival (Vegetative Buffer Zones, 2013). When the vegetative buffer lies near a body of water, buffer zones should contain aquatic floras in shallow water, moisture plants beside the shoreline, and upland plants in dry soils (Muscutt, 1993). On th e other hand, when a vegetative buffer lies near a dry zone an easement can be incorporate d GNP Farm

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27 Wildlife corridors can be incorporated into the design of a development project by conserving an existing landscape linkage or restoring habitat to function as a connection between larger To be most effective, the proposed wildlife corridors need to be restored as native ecosystems so that they act as viable pathways for movement of the un ique fauna found in the region. The corridors should be at least 500 meters in width. Corridors provide pivotal links among larger areas of habitat, permitting migration, colonization and interbreeding of plants and animals (Natural Resource Management Adv isory Series: Note 15, 2013). Using the synthesis map and its determination of the potential of the land became the basis for the decisions in the final master plan that delineates the proposed areas for agriculture, livestock, urban and conservation devel opment in the agricultural zone.

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28 Landscape Architecture Conceptual Master Plan Existing corridors G.N. P Proposed corridors Proposed border easments Existing intervene forest Existing towns Proposed urban expansion Existing conservation Existing roads

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29 IX. Design Recommendations The following recommendations are based on a specific area of study that encompasses different dynamics within farm/human habitat use and conservation. The recommendation drawing s include a series of guidelines that farmers may adopt to reduce the impact of farming adjacent to conservation areas. E ach farmer may want to incorporate in these recommendations into their practices and adapt them to their specific context in order to maximize co existenc e with the conservation areas. Study area illustrated below demonstrates recommendations for three different conditions :

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30 Recommendations when agriculture is adjacent to a conservation zone Corridor Features (Bond, 2003): The wider the wildlife corridor the better. At a minimum it should have a 304 meters ( 1,000 feet ) wide dimension A s sign land uses adjacent to the corridor that reduce human impacts to the corridor. If housing or agriculture practices are near the wildlife corridor, place conservation easements on adjacent lots to exclude structures bordering the corridor (Drawing 1). Incorporate organic agriculture practice s do not use pe s ti cid es and have processes that have a low impact on the environment. Plant as many native and endemic species as possible in the easement. Create bio swales to catch overflow rain water. This will help cleanse the water before it goes in to the conservation zones. Dairy and cattle farms should have appropriate water treatment to mitigat e for contaminants This land us e should not to be located on top of the watershed. The runoff from these areas can contaminate the conservation zones. Bio swales should be used to help the mitigate impact s to conservation areas. Include fences for cattle and wildlife protection.

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31 Drawing 1. Sample of a farm la n d adjacent to a conservation zon e Recommendations for urban hubs adjacent to a conservation zone Develop strict lighting restrictions for the urban centers near the wildlife corridors to avoid light pollution into the corridor. Lights must be directed downward and inward toward the homes or business. Create permeable sidewalks, paths or roads so rain can filtrate better. Conservation Zone Easement Agriculture Zone with bio swales

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32 C ollect rain water for irrigation. Keep garbage recycle and composts areas well abdicated so no animals can get to it. Use sustainably harvested materials such as bamboo for construction infrastructure. Use endemic or native plants for gardens. Drawing 2. Sample of an urban hub adjacent to conservation Conservation Zone Easem ent Urban Zone with bio swales

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33 Recommended sample of a farm adjacent to an urban are To supplement their livelihoods, farms that are next to urban centers may want to incorporate agro t o urism or eco tourism. A sample of it is shown below for a two hectare farm : For all the design recommendations listed above, r esource management agreements may be implemented and negotiated to regulate the land use practices of farmers and create policies that will be reinforced to temper the ecological impacts of human growth in the agricultural sector. This is especially important w ith rising population and economic development p ressures adjacent to protected areas. Conservation organizations and protected area managers must begin to work with public policy experts to recognize key policy controls at national and local levels that will endorse conservation purposes like those of a nswering to the emergent

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34 pressures of human in migration to protected areas. Once these policy measures are known international and national conservation NGOs can either advocate for their implementation at the national and international level, or track f inancing from government and contributors for the crucial work at the local level (Shrebinin, 1998 ). X. Cross scale and cross discipline considerations A cross disciplinary approach was utilized throughout the field practicum because the project strives to integrate paradigms of social community endeavors, science, and different academia disciplines. Understandings from a wide ranging spectrum of disciplinary areas embracing the environmental science, landscape architecture, sociology, philosophy, law, economic, rural planning and management are accessible to support this position (Meppen, 1998). The different analysis and methodology used in this practicum validates the need for a cross disciplinary approach in which the collaboration of various entities is taken into account for the formulation of results XI. C onclusion The findings of key socio economic data includ e : demographic education, nutrition, food security, health, water, so ils, and energy resources can be found in Appendix A. The socio economic synthesis is based on the compilation of data from governmental institutions through data collection and informal interviews, from the Municipio de Santa Cruz, Secretaria Tcnica de Desarrollo Sostenible, Departamento de Planificacin Ur bana y Rural de Santa Cruz Illustrative plans delineati ng practices for the agriculture/GNP buffer lands and the recommendations drawings listed above offer guidelines to farmers to reduce the impacts on adjacent conservation areas. It is acknowledge d that each farme r deals with different terrain and thus different opportunities and constrains and has a more in depth knowledge of their land. The drawings simply serve as

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35 a guidelines and rec ommendations, which can be built upon I mpact to habitat may be mitigated to improve the ecological relationship between farm habitat and the surrounding landscape These management tools may also help in monitoring the special effects of land use practices in order to measure the efficacy of interventions (Complement ary Strategies, 2013). In order to make the buffer zones and corridors a reality the government could promote this endeavor by giving t ax cuts to farmers, and/ or offering payment for environmental services to them. In addition, the government should incorporate stronger population control policies that will protect the conservation zones and ovoid over population in the fragile Galapagos ecosystem. The limitations include unavailable updated GIS data, a coh esive inventory of the current agricultural practices in the area, the crops planted and their yields, the inventory of invasive species and a study of income and the farmers livelihoods. In addition, Landscape Architecture is not a known profession in th e area, but through the elaboration of this project there is a hope people will see the pivotal value the profession can bring. The surveys conducted were convenient samples. It was very hard to mobilize though the agriculture land, for there is no public transportation other than private taxis. Making randomized sample extremely hard to execute. Therefore, the farm group was underrepresented. However, the research was conducted to best of my ability and overall it was a great enlighten opportunity to impac t my homeland of Ecuador!

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36 XII. Bibliography Bienvenidos a FundarGalapagos.org Islas Galapagos Ecuador Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://www.fundargalapagos.org/portalj/index.php/foros fundar/382 ley organica reformatoria a la loreg 2012.html Bond, Monica (2 003). Principles of Wildlife Corridor Design. Center for Biological Diversity. http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/publications/papers/wild corridors.pdf Brewington, L. (n.d.). Agriculture and Conservation in the Gal¡pagos Islands. Inter American Foundation :. Retrieved June 10, 2013, from http://www.iaf.gov/index.aspx?page=427 Corbett, J. (n.d.). CSISS Classics Ian McHarg: Overlay Maps and the Evaluation of Social and Environmental Costs of Land Use Change. CSISS Classics Ian McHarg: Overlay Maps and the Evaluation of Social and Environmental Costs of Land Use Change. Retrieved November 11, 2013, from http://csiss.ncgia.ucsb.edu/classics/content/23/ Convenience Sampling. (n.d. ).Convenience Sampling. Retrieved November 25, 2013, from http://explorable.com/convenience sampling Complementary Staretegies (n.d.). The scope of organic agriculture, sustainable forest management and ecoforestry in protected area management. Retrieved November 10, 2013, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5558e/y5558e02.htm Direccion del Parque Nacional Galapagos. (n.d.). Direccin del Parque Naci onal Galapagos Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://www.galapagospark.org/sitiosdevisita/centro_de_interpretacio

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37 n.html Galapagos Report: 2006 2007 | Galapagos Conser vancy. (n.d.). Galapagos Conservancy Retrieved June 22, 2013, from http://www.galapagos.org/about_galapagos/galapagos report 2006 2007/ Galapagos Islands UNESCO World Heritage Centre. (n.d.). UNESCO World Heritage Centre Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1 Gobierno Autonomo Decentralizado Muncipal de Santa Cruz. (2012) Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial Canton Santa Cruz (1ed.). Santa Cruz. History | Galapagos Conservancy. (n.d.). Galapagos Conservancy Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://www.galapagos.org/about_galapagos/his tory/ Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos. (n.d.). INEC Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://www.inec.gob.ec/home/ Keen, M., Brown, V. A., & Dyball, R. (2005). Social learning in environmental management towards a sustainable future. London: Earthscan. Meppem, T., & Gill, R. (1998). Planning For Sustainability As A Learning Concept.Ecological Economics, 26(2), 121 137. Muscutt, A. (1993). Buffer Zones To Improve Water Quality: A Review Of Their Potential Use In UK Agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 45(1 2), 59 77. Natural Resource Management Advisory Series : Note 15 (n.d). Wildlife Corridors. Retrieved Novemeber 6, 2013, from http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/landholderNote s15WildlifeCor ridors.pdf Palma, E., & Cruz, J. (2010). Como elaborar un plan de finca de manera sencilla? (1 ed.). Turrialba: CATIE. Pezzoli, K. (1997). Sustainable Development: A Transdisciplinary Overview Of The Literature. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management,40(5), 549 574.

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38 Santa Cruz | Galapagos Conservancy. (n.d.). Galapagos Conservancy Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://www.galapagos.org/about_galapagos/santa cruz/ Sistema Nacional de Infromacion y Gestion de Tierras. (n.d.). SIGTIERRAS Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://www.sigtierras.gob.ec Shrebinin, A. d. (1998). Migration to protected areas and buffer zones: can we stem the tide?. Protected Areas Programme PARKS The international journal for protected area managers 8(1 ), 38 53. The Galapagos | Places | WWF. (n.d.). WWF Endangered Species Conservation | World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved June 22, 2013, from http://worldwildlife.org/places/the galapagos USDA National Agroforestry Center. (n.d.). (NAC). Retrieved April 9, 2014, from http://nac.unl. edu/buffers/guidelines/2_biodiversity/8.html Vegetative Buffer Zones. (n.d.). Vegetative Buffer Zones. Retrieved November 6, 2013, from http://www.sustland.umn.edu/related/water2.html Vivanco, P., & Gordon, D. (n.d.). Fundacion Ecuador Tierra Viva Volunnteer Work in Ecuador Galapagos Andes Amazon Coast. Fundacion Ecuador Tierra Viva Volunnteer Work in Ecuador Galapagos Andes Amazon Coast. Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://www.ecuadortierraviva.org World Bank Group System Maintenance. (n.d.). World Bank Group. Retrieved June 21, 2013, from http://www.w orldbank.org/en/country/ecuador/overview

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39 XI I I. Appendix A. Overview of the socioeconomic data in the Island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos. People Santa Cruz is not only the name of the most populated island in the archipelago, but is also the name of the canton, which is part of the Galapagos National Park and encompasses Santa Cruz Islands (986 km2), Santiago and San Salvador (585 km2), Marchena (1 30 km2), Pinta (59 km2), Baltra (27 km2), Finch (18 km2), Rabida (4.9 km2), and North Seymour (2 km2). There is a close relationship between Galapagos National Park, and the territory that is under the administration of the Decentralized Autonomous Municip al Government of Santa Cruz. The degree of urban concentration of Puerto Ayora is the highest in the region with 11,974 people, and accounts for 47.66% and 77.8% within the canton. Most of the population is concentrated between 25 to 29 years old for both men and women. The two rural parishes have a regional concentration of 3.96% in Santa Rosa (994 inhabitants) and 9.65% in Bellavista (2,425 inhabitants), which translates cantonal level at 6.45% and 15.75% respectively. Furthermore, in Santa Cruz there ha s been an annual incremental growth of 3.5% (Gobierno Autonomo Decentralizado Muncipal de Santa Cruz, 2012). Education In Santa Cruz 63.78% of the schools are public, 20.82 private, 14.38 with mixed funding from the government and private institutions and 1.03% municipal. Most school aged residents in the Galapagos attend public school but the reputation o f the public education system is high among young people. However, access to higher education is limited and long distance education hubs representi ng universities from the mainland have not been able to meet the demand. While some young people in the Galapagos migrate to mainland Ecuador to further their education, many teenagers, especially those between the ages of 15 and 19, drop out of school and begin work on the islands in the industry of fishing or tourism. (Gobierno Autonomo Decentralizado M uncipal de Santa Cruz, 2012).

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40 Health Health services in the Galapagos are poor, with very limited access to proper medical equipment and few medical expert s on the islands. Most residents on Santa Cruz travel to the mainland in search of care rather than risk the shoddy services of local health institutions. A survey by the Instituto Nacional de Estadstica y Censos (National Statistics and Census Bureau or INEC) in 2010 found that 52.3% of the population in Santa Cruz visited public healthcare establishments while 46.0% went to private healthcare. The same survey found, 8.6% of the children under five years old suffered from chronic diarrhea and 40.5% of the children were victims of chronic respiratory diseases. Regarding vaccinations, 98.5 % of children under five received the BCG vaccine, 90.3% obtained the OPV, and 93.7% got the doses for SRP. Social problems are on the rise, with a recent increase in d omestic violence being linked to increase d drug and alcohol consumption. (Instituto Nacional de Estadstica y Censos, 2009 2010). Nutrition According to a survey taken in 2010 by Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida 2009 2010 de Galpagos, 11,83 boys and girls suffer ed from malnutrition and are below average in both height and weight.(Sistema Nacional de Infromacion y Gestion de Tierras, 2013). Water The rainy season on Santa Cruz Island poses a number of e cological challenges: over 30 rivers and streams, which vary in size from five to fifty square kilometers, have their source on Cerro Crocker, the season, which causes flooding and the form ation of dangerous ravines. Although there is a much higher rate of precipitation in the rural highlands than at the sea level urban coast, the population is affected by these ecological changes. While 81% of inhabitants on Santa Cruz have access to potabl e drinking water, the crevices and wells that this water comes from are often highly contaminated (Galapagos Report: 2006 2007). In most cases, the water contains a high concentration of salt. The subsequent mix of fresh and salt water puts aquifers at ris k, because the saline oceanic water is being

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41 mixed with the sweat water. Sewers and sewage treatment also create hazardous conditions, with underground filtration contaminating extraction points. Direct dumping into the ocean causes environmental dangers o f its own (Sistema Nacional de Infromacion y Gestion de Tierras, 2013). Soil On Santa Cruz, soil in the highlands can reach a depth of three meters but becomes increasingly superficial toward sea level. The levels of phosphorous and potassium (Gobierno Autonomo Decentralizado Muncipal de Santa Cruz, 2012). Economy Santa Cruz has been recognized as the economic capital of the archipelago. Tourism is the main source of income and is responsible for 75% of econo mic output, employing 40% of the migrants looking for work, which increases the overall population and consequently leads to an increased demand for food and other basic services. Fishi ng plays an imperative role in the ecosystem even though it only represents 4% of the local economy; fishermen are organized in cooperatives that try to preserve the marine life, while bringing an adequate income to their families. The agricultural area ho wever, does not guarantee the food security for the population. Furthermore Puerto Ayora the capital of Santa Cruz prefer to stay in hotels rather than going on cruises (The Galpagos | Pla ces | WWF, 2013).

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42 Number of tourists per year since 2000 to 2010. Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadstica y Censos, 2009 2010. The agriculture industry covers about 12% of the island. The agricultural zone on Santa Cruz stretches for 20 km in latitude and 7km in longitude; the area grows melons, tomatoes and lettuce. The lower sector, Bellavista, has low productivity and some of i ts land has been lost to urbanization. The agricultural output depends heavily on the climate, with a lack of irrigation during the dry season and the presence of plagues and invasive species affecting overall productivity. Another troubling aspect related to agricultural production in Santa Cruz is the absence of planning methodologies, regulatory systems and overall organization. In particular, the lack of regulations systems threatens local farmers who are unable to compete with food imports from the mai nland and other sources (Instituto Nacional de Estadstica y Censos, 2009 2010).

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43 Destination of the agricultural production in Santa Cruz Almost 40% goes to house consumption. Source: INEC CGREG Encuesta de Condiciones de Vida Galpagos 2009, Elaboraci n: STPDS 2012. Energy and telecommunications Internet and cable television have poor quality and low coverage on the islands. Energy attention is high and covers the necessities of the populace and the elevated number of the port premises. Energy is produ ced by thermal generation, which is used as diesel fuel. This generation produces a high dependency on the use of fossil fuels, and introduces another severe risk since the diesel fuel must be moved from the continent, land at the port and then be transpor ted through the streets of the city to the generating station. There are no alternative power generation systems; however, there are two PV projects, which are expected to cover at least 50% of the demand of the canton of Santa Cruz. The execution of these alternative energy sources are projected to be completed by 2017 (Direccin del Parque Nacional Galpagos, 2013). Environment About 90% of the introduced species of flora have been brought by humans for ornamental or agricultural use. The vehicle for many of these invasive flora and fauna species is imported food, on which the human population in the Galapagos is dependent (History | Galapagos Conservancy, 2013).

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44 The highland area in Santa Cruz is entirely surrounded by the Galapagos National Park, a conservation land. T he border amid the GNP and farmland is commonly disturbed by the introduced flora that comes through wind, birds, cattle, animals and even humans. In addition, GNP has sustained a park only policy, which encompasses control of fauna and vegetative invasive species just f o r the park property It is up to each farmer to eradicate the invasive species in their lan d, resulting in tensions within landowners and park property especially for the landowners that are adjacent to the GNP borderli ne Farmlands vary in scale from two to 200 hectares I t is also known that p esticide and herbicide practice is limited and controlled by the Galapagos National Park and the local Municipality However s ome farmers and property owners still obtain forbidden weed killers and pesticides for the control of their lands (Brewington, 2013) Overview of the socioeconomic dat a in Bellavista, the agricultural hub in the Island of Santa Cruz, Galapagos. People Out of the 15 500 inhabitants that live in the Island of Santa Cruz, about 2 500 live in the agricultural sector of Bellavista (Instituto Nacional de Estadstica y Censos, 2009 20 10). Bellavista has a very young population, with 60% of its residents under 29 years old and the largest demographic group between the ages of 18 and 29 years old. Thus, there is an urgent demand for the proper educational infrastructure in this area. (Gobierno Autonomo Decentralizado Muncipal de Santa Cruz, 2012).

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45 Population in Bellavista according to age and sex. Most of the population is concentrated within the 16 to 25 years old. The green left side represents men, while the right beige side is for women. Galpagos Resultados de todas las variables de l VII Censo de Poblacin INEC Education Though there is no high school center in the area of Bellavista, there are two public elementary middle schools and one private school. There is a total of 235 students and 25 teachers in the area, which creates a 15:1 student teacher ratio ( Gobierno Autonomo Decentralizado Muncipal de Santa Cruz, 2012). Health There is only one health center in Bellavista with very limited insufficient water supply causes many residents of Bellavista to travel to the urban center of Puerto Ayora 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 05 09 10 14 15 19 20 24 25 29 30 34 35 39 40 44 45 49 55 59 60 64 65 69 70 74 75 79 80 84 85 89 90 94 % of Men % of Women

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46 to receive care. (Galapagos Report: 2006 2007). Water & Energy Supply water for the agricultural sector of Bellavista is insufficient. Most rural areas have access to the water collected in barrels during the rainy season, which then becomes scarce in dry season; po r table water from pipes is extremely scarce. About 4% of the population in the rural area has access to pipe water; while the other 96% collects water through rain barrels or water tanks. There is no sewer system in the rural area, forcing residents to excavate their own septic tanks. Energy on the other hand covers most of the areas; however, in some areas, sporadic cuts of electricity ha ppen within different times of the day. (Direccin del Parque Nacional Galpagos, 2013). Economy The estates and farms in Bellavista vary in scale. Most of them are used for the agriculture production and they divide most of the rural area. However, some d evote their land to raising cattle, and the production of milk and its deliverables. Most of the rural population has access to electricity, though they often experience random shortages. Though the economic livelihood of the residents is mostly concentrat ed in agriculture, there are some estates, which benefit bordered by mountains with scenic viewpoints and ancestral lava tunnels, or they serve as protective habitats for giant tortoises ( Gobi erno Autonomo Decentralizado Muncipal de Santa Cruz, 2012). Soil acid neutral levels In the rural area, the pH levels range between 5 and 6. Most of the soil that is used for agricultural purposes are free from vegetative invasive species. The soil and vegetation changes dramatically in the highland area, where the soil is not arid and is able to produce verdant vegetation (Direccin del Parque Nacional Galpagos, 20). B Site inventory for the agricultural sector in Santa Cruz

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47 Agricultural Zoning in Santa Cruz 2006. Source: Fuente: Proyecto ECU/00/G31 en 2006

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48 Basic services accessibility in the agricultural sector The analysis for the agricultural area of Santa Cruz gave the following percentages of coverage in terms of the availability of basic very Low).Source: Informacin del "Programa de Regularizacin y Administracin de las Tierras Rurales del Ecuador, U.E. MAGAP PRAT, SIGAGRO y Gobierno Municipal de Santa Cruz".

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49 Susceptib ility to erosion _About 64.12% of the agricultural area of Santa Cruz has a slight susceptibility to erosion with features that have fine textured deep soils to very fine, with gentle slopes less than 12% and with plenty of vegetation. Therefore, the area is good for agriculture. Source: Informacin del "Programa de Regularizacin y Administracin de las Tierras Rurales del Ecuador, U.E. MAGAP PRAT, SIGAGRO y Gobierno Municipal de Santa Cruz".

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50 Map of flooding susceptibility. In the agricultural zone, most areas have a moderate susceptible rate. The slopes in these areas oscillate between 0 5% and 5 12%. Source: Informacin del "Programa de Regularizacin y Administracin de las Tierras Rurales del Ecuador, U.E. MAGAP PRAT, SIGAGRO y Gobierno Municipal de Santa Cruz".

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51 Landslides susceptibility map. Source: Informacin del "Programa de Regularizacin y Administracin de las Tierras Rurales del Ecuador, U.E. MAGAP PRAT, SIGAGRO y Gobierno Municipal de Santa Cruz".