Today for Tomorrow: A Study of How Leadership Training Workshops Impact Students' Self-Efficacy and Equal Access in Escu...

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Material Information

Title:
Today for Tomorrow: A Study of How Leadership Training Workshops Impact Students' Self-Efficacy and Equal Access in Escuela Agricola San Francisco, Paraguay
Physical Description:
Project in lieu of thesis
Language:
English
Creator:
Lliteras Espinosa, Antonia
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Master's
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Committee Chair:
Schmink, Marianne
Committee Members:
Hartmann, Marta

Notes

Abstract:
This Report is an overview of a Field Practicum carried out in Paraguay during the summer of 2013 and the analyses of results collected in that time. The focus of the practicum was to understand whether leadership-­‐training workshops had an impact on self-­‐efficacy and equal access perceptions in high school students. Working under the framework of the USAID-­‐funded and Administered by Higher Education in Development (HED) Women’s Leadership Program in Paraguay (WLPP) and in cooperation with Fundación Paraguaya, a series of leadership training workshops was set up at Escuela Agrícola San Francisco de Asís. Self-­‐ efficacy and Equal access questionnaires provided by WLPP were applied before and after the workshops. Combined with direct observation and informal interviews they were used to assess the effectiveness of the leadership training. The main observation was that leadership training is indeed beneficial for students. Although there was not much change on the answers they gave to the survey, direct observation and informal interviews indicated that students were actually benefiting from this kind of activity. Furthermore, baseline data was compared with baseline data from other two agricultural schools. Although the data were not conclusive, they suggest that school environment, or role models may have an impact on a student’s self-­‐efficacy and views on gender.
General Note:
Sustainable Development Practice (MDP) Program final field practicum report
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright Antonia Lliteras Espinosa Permission granted to the University of Florida to digitize, archive and distribute this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
System ID:
AA00023806:00001


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! ET =8& H"/ I<5'0*: & =878& !A%&J1,+'56 & 1'+'>3'@ A!'#!%)0!;.'#&,8!2%)%#@A! >'&#*0!&$,!�*.*#0*#2*!&#!EUEE \GS"!P %+)0! /'2$6%%IA!CDET] L S#!$8*!4&0 M EUDD,!1'+'>3'@![',!'!6)%%4&#>!+*>&%#')!.%[*+!&#! ;%3$8!"4*+&2'L!J%[*=*+A!&$,!'46&$&%3,!.+*,&0*#$A!/+'#2&,2%!;%)'#%!(%.*jA!0*2&0* 0! $%!&#$*+=*#*!&#!'!2&=&)!['+!&#!?+3>3'@!&#!EUZFL!R%$!+*,.*2$&#>!'#@!&#$*+#'$&%#')! +*)'$&%#,A!;%)'#%!3.,*$!$8*!"+>*#$&#*,A!$8*!X+'j&)&'#,!'#0!$8*!?+3>3'@'#,A![8%! 0*2&0*0!$%!7%+4!'!,*2+*$!'))&'#2*!'>'&#,$!1'+'>3'@L!N8*!['+!)',$*0!3#$&)!EUeD!'#0! %=*+!eDd!%7! $8*!4')*!'03)$!.%.3)'$&%#!0&*0A!6+&#>&#>!$8*!2%3#$+@!$%!,$'+='$&%#!'#0!'! 0[�)&#>!.%.3)'$&%#!\N8*!-2%#%4&,$A!CDEC]L!N8&,!2%#7)&2$!&,!,$&))!)'$*#$!&#!$8*! 1'+'>3'@'#,^!4�,!',!'!6+3$')!'#0!*46'++',,&#>!0*7*'$L!S#!7'2$A![8*#!&$![',! 6+%3>8$!3. &#!CDEC 6@!J3> %!;'>3&*+A!1'+'>3'@^,!'46',,'0%+!$%!$8*!O+>'#&j'$&%#!%7! "4*+&2'#!;$'$*,!\O";]A!$%!$8*!O";!7)%%+A!&$!3.,*$!23++*#$!+*)'$&%#,! '4%#>! $8*!7%3+! 2%3#$+&*,!&#=%)=*0!&#!$8*!['+!'#0!&$!'[%I*! 7**)&#>!%7 &#,*23+&$@!'4%#>! 1'+'>3'@'#, \N8*!-2%#%4&,$!CDEC] L N8*!4%,$!+ *2*#$!4'f%+!2%#7)&2$!&#!1'+'>3'@![',!$8*!TK M @*'+!0&2$'$%+,8&.!%7! ")7+*0%!;$+%*,,#*+! $8'$ $%%I!.)'2*!6*$[**#!EeKF!'#0!EeUeL!"4%#>!%$8*+!$8&#>,A! $8&,!4'#![',!+*,.%#,&6)*!7%+!$8* 23++*#$ 3#*=*#!0&,$+&63$&%#!%7!)'#0 H A!C!d!%7!$8*! .%.3)'$&%#!%[#!%=*+!WWd!%7!$8*! )'#0A!4'I&#>!&$!$8*!4%,$!3#*93')!2%3#$+@!&#!;%3$8! "4*+&2'!\;$'0&3,A!CDEC] L N8&,![',!0%#*!,%!$8'$!$8*!G'30&))%A!',!$8*@!2'))*0! ;$+%*,,#*+A!2%3)0!4'&#$'&#!8&,!,$'$3,!93% \"6*#$*!X+3#A!EeUec!1'+*0*,A!CDDFc! X%3=&*+A!CeUU] L!;$+%*,,#*+!,3,$'&#*0!8&,!2%3#$+@^,!*2 %#%4@!$8+%3>8!$8*!$+'0*!%7! &))&2&$!,36,$'#2*,!,328!',![8&,I@!%+!0+3>,A!$8*!=')3*!%7![8&28A!,%4*!'+>3*A!$+&.)*0! $8*!=')3*!%7!1'+'>3'@^,! %77&2&')!$+'0* \N8*!-2%#%4&,$A!CDDZ] L <*,.&$*!$8*!*77%+$,!$%!

PAGE 14

! EF 4%0*+#&j*!1'+'>3'@!6@!.'=&#>!+%'0,!%+!$8*!S$'&.3!0'4!.+%f*2$ [&$8!X+'j&)A! ;$+%*,,#*+!&,!4%,$)@!+*4*46*+*0! 7%+! 8&,!$@+'##&2')!4%0*!%7!>%=*+#4*#$!'#0!$8*! .+*2*0*#$!7%+!2%++3.$&%#!'#0!6+ &6*+@ ,$ &))!.+*,*#$!&#!$%0'@^,!1'+'>3'@ \B%)06*+>A! CDEC] L ! =8=8& K%2%$'B4%*+&9*:1/"+'5, & N[*#$@!.*+2*#$ %7!1'+'>3'@^,!.*%.)*!23++*#$)@! )&=*!3#0*+!$8*!.%=*+$@!)&#*! \N%++*,!CDEC]!'#0!$8&,!2%3#$+@!&,!+'#I*0!EEE!&#!$8*!J34'#!<*=*)%.4*#$!S#0*b! \J!\:')&IA!CDET]L!N8&,!4*',3+*! )30*, BRS!.*+!2'.&$'A!*032'$&%#!'#0! )&7*!*b.*2$'#2@A!$83,!2'.$3+&#>!$8*!2%3#$+@^,!0*=*)%.4*#$!&#!'!4%+*!8%) &,$&2!4'##*+L! N8*!$'6)*!6*)%[!,8%[,!$8*!=')3*,!%7!$8*!J8%3$!$8*!@*'+,L! ")$8%3>8!$8*+*!8',!6**#!4328!&4.+%=*4*#$A!BRS!.*+!2'.&$'!&,!,$&))!=*+@!)%[!'#0! &#*93')&$@!8',!#%$!6**#!'22%3#$*0!7%+L!/3+$8*+4%+*A!$8*+*!&,!'!83>*!0&,$%+$&%#! 6*$[**# $8*!*b.*2$*0!@*'+,!%7!,28%%)&#>!'#0!$8*!4*'#!@*'+,!%7!,28%%)&#> L!")$8%3>8! 23++*#$)@!$8*+*!&,!')4%,$!3#&=*+,')!*)*4*#$'+@!*032'$&%#!*#+%))4*#$A!&$!&,!#%$!$8*! ,'4*!7%+!,*2%#0'+@!'#0A!*,.*2&'))@!$*+$&'+@!*032'$&%#L!<&77*+*#2*,!'+*!.'+$&23)'+)@! #%$&2*'6)*!7%+ >*#0*+ M 0&,'>>+*>'$*0!0'$'L!J%[*=*+A!'22%+0&#>!$%!-G("G!\CDET]! $8%,*!,$30*#$,![8%!'$$*#0!,*2%#0'+@!,28%%)!'+*!4%+*!)&I*)@!$%!2%#$*![&$8!$8*&+! $*+$&'+@!*032'$&%#A!*,.*2&'))@!7*4')*,L!N8&,!&,!*=*#! $+3*+ [&$8!$8*!@%3#>*+! >*#*+'$&%#,L ! Life expectancy at b irth Expected years of schooling Mean years of schooling GNI per capita (2005 PPP$) HDI value 1980 66.8 8.2 4.6 4,084 0.549 1985 67.3 8.5 5.3 3,767 0.562 1990 68 8.5 5.8 4,098 0.578 1995 68.9 9.8 6.1 4,327 0.604 2000 70 11.8 5.9 3,810 0.617 2005 71.2 12 6.9 3,870 0.641

PAGE 15

! EK 2010 72.3 12.1 7.7 4,550 0.668 2011 72.5 12.1 7.7 4,657 0.670 2012 72.7 12.1 7.7 4,497 0.669 "RSTQ!A ?>?! 1'+'>3'@^,!J!$%!-G("G(!\CDET] A!$8*!#346*+!%7!,$30*#$,!*#+%))*0!&#!$*+$&'+@! *032'$&%#!8',!+*',*0!*b.%#*#$&'))@!&#!$8*!)',$!$8&+$@!@*'+,!\,**!28'+$!ELE]L! P%4*#A!&#!7'2$ A 8'=*!,&>#&7&2'#$)@!8&>8*+!*#+%) ) 4*#$!+'$*,!$8*#!4*#L!S#!'!2%3#$+@! [8*+*!3#&=*+, ')!,*2%#0'+@!*032'$&%#!&#!$8*!.+ *,*#$ >*#*+'$&%#!8',!6**#!')4%,$! '22%4.)&,8*0A!$*+$&'+@!*032'$&%#!+*2%+0,!'+*!'!6*$$*+!�&2'$%+!%7!8%[!$8*!2%3#$+@!&,! &4.+%=&#>!&$,!)&$*+'2@!+'$*, L ! 6URPV!A ?>?! #+%))4*#$!+'$*,!&#!$*+$&'+@!*032'$&%#!%=*+!$&4*L!\ ; %3+2* H -G( "GA!CDET] J%[*=*+A!0*,.&$*!$8*!+*)'$&=*)@!8&>8!#346*+!%7!,$30*#$,!*#+%))*0!&#!$*+$&'+@! *032'$&%#A!4%,$!�&=&03'),!&#!$8*!2%3#$+@!,$&))![%+I!&#!)%[!,I&))!f%6,A!+*>'+ 0)*,,!%7! $8*&+!,*b!\,**!28'+$! C LE ]L!N8&,!0*4%#,$+'$*,!$8*!&4.%+$'#2*!%7!'>+&23)$3+')!,28%%) ,! 7%+!+3+')!,$30*#$,A! $8'$!'))%[!7'+4*+,!$%!+*2*&=*!'!7%+4')!*032'$&%#![8&)*!'$!$8*! ,'4*!$&4*!'293&+*!$8*!,I&)),!$8*@!#**0!$%![%+I!&#!$8*!7&*)0,L D! ED! CD! TD! FD! KD! 4PWXX!"QPVMRPY!0ZPWTT[QZV! 2RPRNORY!"WVRT!2W\OTRVMWZ! X%$8!,*b*,! :*#! P%4*#! -G("G!CDET!

PAGE 16

! EZ ! 6URPV!A ?A?! <&,$+&63$&%#!%7!f%6,!'22%+0&#>!$%!)*=*)!%7!,I&)),!'#0!>*#0*+!%=*+!$&4* L!\7&>3+*![',!2%.&*0! 7+%4!' CDED P%+)0!X'#I!5*.%+$]L =8C8& !A%&D5"*&)A"/' & -,23*)'!">+&2%)'!;'#!/+'#2&,2%!0*!",&,!\-";/"] A!$8*!,28%%)![8*+*!4%,$!%7! $8&,!.+'2$&234! $%%I .)'2* A &,!)%2'$*0!&#!$8*!B+'#!G8'2%!+*>&%#L!N8&,!*b$*#,&%#!%7!)'#0! 6*$[**#!$8*!5&=*+!1'+'>3'@!'#0!$8*!5&=*+!1&)2%4'@% *b.'#0,!&#$%!X%)&=&'A! "+>*#$&#'A!'#0!1'+'>3'@!'#0!&$!&,!$8*!,*2%#0!)'+>*,$!7%+*,$!*b$*#,&%#!&#!;%3$8! "4*+&2'!'7$*+!$8*!"4'j%#!+'%+*,$!\<'#&*),A!CDEE]!'#0!$8*!)'+> *,$!0+@!7%+*,$!&#! ;%3$8!"4*+&2' \PG;!CDET] L R%$!%#)@!&,!$8*!B+'#!G8'2%!&4.%+$'#$!7%+!&$,!6 &%0&=*+,&$@! +&28#*,,A!63$!&$!&,!'),%!&4.%+$'#$!6*2'3,*!&$!&,!8%4*!$%!4'#@!�&>*#%3,!.%.3)'$&%#,c! ,*!$8&,!+*>&%#!&,!%#*!%7!$8*!8%$$*,$!+*>&%#,!&#!;%3$8!"4*+&2'A!2%)%#&j*+,!0&0!#%$! =*#$3+*!',!4328!&#$%!&$!'#0A!$8*+*7%+*A!4'#@!�&>*#%3,!$+&6*,!+*4'&#!&#! $8&,! $*++&$%+@!$%0'@!\X'[#,$*&#!'#0!:&))*+A!Eeee] L ! J%[*=*+A!&#!+*2*#$!@*'+,A!$8*!G8'2%!+*>&%#!8',!6**#A!'#0!,$&))!&,A!0*7%+*,$*0! 6@!7%+*&>#!2'$$)*!+'#28*+,A!4'&#)@!7+%4!X+'j&)A!'#0!:*##%#&$*,!\0*,2*#0'#$,!%7! B*+4'#!2%)%#&j*+,![8%!'++&=*0! &#!1'+'>3'@ '6%3$ '!2*#$3+@!'>%]L!!S$!&,!*,$&4'$*0! $8'$!&#!$8*!.',$!,&b!@*'+,!%=*+!EDd!%7!$8*!B+'#!G8'2%!7%+*,$![',!63+#$!7%+!$8*! .3+.%,*! %7! 0*=*)%. &#> 2' $$)*!+'#28*,A!*#0'#>*+&#>!$8*!)&=*)&8%%0 ,!%7!$8%,*!#'$&=*,!

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! EW )&=&#>!$8*+* \5%4*+%A!CDEC] L /3+$8*+4%+*A!$8*!*b.)%&$'$&%#!% 7!$8*!)'#0!$%!23)$&='$*! >*#*$&2'))@!4%0&7&*0!%+>'#&,4,!\B:O,]A!*,.*2&'))@!,%@6*'# A!8',!73+$8*+! *#0'#>*+*0!$8*!)&=*)&8%%0,!%7!4'#@!.*','#$!7'4&)&*,!&#!$8*!2%3#$+@!\<%3>84'#A! CDEE]!'#0!2%#$'4&#'$*0!,%&),!'#0!+&=*+,A!$%%L =8E8& !A%&4':%$&'(&"&30,+"1*"#$%&3/A' '$ & -";/"!&,! '04&#&,$*+*0 6@!$8*! /3#0'2&_# 1'+'>3'@'A!'!#%# M >%=*+#4*#$')! %+>'#&j'$&%#!$8'$!,$+&=*,!$%!*)&4&#'$*!.%=*+$@!&#!$8*!2%3#$+@!\ /3#0'2&_# 1'+'>3'@'! CDET]L! N 8*!,28%%)!&,!,*)7 M ,377&2&*#$!\'3$%,37&2&*#$*] A '#!&##%='$&=*!4%0*)!$8'$!$8*! /3#0'2&_# 0*2&0* 0!$%!.3$!&#!.+'2$&2*!&#!$8*!2*#$*+!&#!CDDT!\X3+$!CDDe]L!S#!,8%+$A!$8&,! 4*'#,!$8'$!$8*!,28%%)!0*.*#0,!%#!&$,*)7!$%!,3+=&=*!'#0!0%*,!#%$!+*2*&=*!73#0&#>! 7+%4!%3$,&0*!,%3+2*,!,328!',! $8*! :&#&,$+@!%7!-032'$&%#!%+!$8*!:&#&,$+@!%7! ">+&23)$3+*L /3#0'2&_#!1'+'>3'@ '!8',!6**#!,322*,,73)!&#!4'I&#>!-";/"!73))@!,*)7 M ,377&2&*#$L! -";/"!8',!EKW!,$30*#$, ',!%7!:'@!CDET A!%7![8&28!)*,,!$8'#!,&b$@!'+*! 7*4')*L!N8*!4'f%+&$@!%7!,$30*#$,!2%4*!7+%4!+3+')!'+*',!\CnT!%7!$8*!,$30*#$!6%0@]! '#0!$8*@!'+*!'))!B3'+'#&!,.*'I*+,![&$8!$8*!*b2 *.$&%#!%7!'!7*[!,$30*#$,!7+%4! ",3#2&%#![8%!'+*!;.'#&,8!0%4&#'#$L!N8*!,$30*#$!6%0@!'),%!8',!'!=*+@!,4'))! .*+2*#$'>*!%7!�&>*#%3,!,$30*#$,L!N8*,*!,$30*#$,!'+*!$8*!%#)@!%#*,![8%!'+*! '))%[*0!$%!7'&)!%#2*!03+&#>!$8*&+!-";/"!2'+**+!&#!'22%3#$!%7!$8*!)%[!93')&$@ %7! *032'$&%#!'$!$8*!S#0&>*#%3,!,28%%),!'#0!6*2'3,*!'!)%$!%7!$8*,*!,$30*#$,!0%!#%$!,.*'I! ;.'#&,8A!$8*!)'#>3'>* %7 &#,$+32$&%#L!;$30*#$,!$8*4,*)=*,!0%!4%,$!%7!$8*!f%6,!$%! 4'&#$'&#!$8*!,28%%)!'#0!'))!$8*!0&77*+*#$!4&2+%63,&#* ,,*,!&$!8',L!;$30*#$,!'+*! 0&=&0*0 &#$%!>+%3.,H!%#*!>+%3.![&))!'$$*#0!2)',,*,!7%+!'#!*#$&+*! [**I![8&)*!$8*! %$8*+,![%+I!& #!$8*!7&*)0L!N8*@![&))!')$*+#'$*!*=*+@!,*2%#0![**IL! N8*!RBO!'),%!8',!

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! EU $[%!4%+*!'>+&23)$3+')!,28%%),A! X*)r# '#0!;'#!1*0+% A!6%$8!%7![8&28!8'=*!#%$!+*'28*0! 73))!,*)7 M ,377&2&* #2@!@*$!\/3#0'2&_#!1'+'>3'@'A!CDET]L ", $8*!X+&$&,8!RBO N*'28!'!:'#!$%!/&,8!\CDET]!*b.)'&#, A ,*)7 M ,377&2&*#$! ,28%%),!\%+!*2%#%4&2'))@!�*.*#0*#$!',!$8*@!2'))!$8*4]!,$+&=*!$%!$*'28!6@!0%&#>c! $8&,!4*'#,!$8'$!4&2+%63,&#*,,*,! '+*! +3#!&#!$8*!,28%%)!6@!$8*!,$30 *#$, A $%!,3..%+$! $8* &#,$&$3$&%# ^, 73))!*2%#%4&2!�*.*#0*#2*!7+%4!%3$,&0*!73#0&#>!,%3+2*,!\&L*L! >%=*+#4*#$!7 3#0&#>A!&#$*+#'$&%#')!'&0 ]L!N8&,!4%0*)!8',!6**#!*b.'#0*0![%+)0[&0*! '#0!*,.*2&'))@!N*'28!'!:'#!$%!/&,8A!$8*!X+&$&,8!RBOA!8',!$'I*#!&#$*+*,$!&#!'0'.$ &#>! $8&,!4%0*) 2+*'$*0!6@!/3#0'2&%#!1'+'>3'@' &#!$8*&+!,28%%),!&#!"7+&2'L!S#!.'+$&23)'+A! &$![',!&4.)*4*#$*0!&#!,%4*!2*#$*+,!&#!N'#j'#&'!03+&#>!$8*!)',$!@*'+L!\N*'28!'!:'#! $% /&,8A!CDEC]L

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PAGE 33

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b.)'&#!,$'$&,$&2')! 7�&#>,!\k+3*>*+!CDDC]L!B&=*#!8%[!2%4.)&2'$*0!$8*!,*)7 M *77&2'2@!'#0!*93')! '22*,,! ,3+=*@ [', A &$!,**4*0!7&$$&#>!$%!8'=*!7%))%[ M 3.!0&,23,,&%#,!&#!,4'))!>+%3.,L!;$30*#$,! [*+*!&#=&$*0!7%+!2%%I&*,!'#0!2%2%'!&#!%+0*+!$%!'#,[*+!,%4*!93*,$&%#,L!P8&)*!,%4*! %7!$8*4![*+*!&#$*+*,$*0!&#!8*).&#>![&$8!$8*! .+'2$&234! ,$30@A!4%,$!%7!$8*!.3.&),! [*+*!$8*+*!f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�&=&03'),!'+*!#%$!3,*0!$%!8'=&#>!>+%3.!0&,23,,&%#,L S#! +*$+%,.*2$A!S!+*')&j* S 0&0!#%$!>*$!$8*!%+4'$&%#!0*,&+*0!7+%4!$8*,*!>+%3.,!6*2'3,*!

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! We @0<"5G&-,/0%$"&U<5Y/' $"&3"*&S5"*/1,/' & U/+121:":G&)"B"/1+"/1'*%,&:%&$1:%5"^<'G& )'*+51#0/1W*&"$&<50B' & S%/A"G & 7]&g0*1'&=`7C & #SfQVM_W!aQ!TR!%`VM_MaRa+! TQ_RZVRP!QT!ROVWQXVM[R!aQ!TWXjTRX!\RPVM`M\RZVQX? )05,'G & 7a&U & Tb4%5'&:%&M"5+1/1B"*+%,G & =]d&c&40R%5%,&6&=7&2"5'*%, & !%4"f,&+5"+ ":'f,G& "0+'%,+14"?&2"$'5"5,%&"&0*'&41,4'?&/'4'&,0,&B5'B1",&/0"$1:":%,& B0%:%*&"60:"5&"$&<50B'8 & <3+'2&_#H!FD!4$%, K%,/51B/1W*&:%&$"&"/+121:":&6f'&/'4%*+"51',&5%,B%/+'&"&",B%/+',&5%,"$+"*+%,&:%$&<50B'& & -,$*!$'))*+!#%!*,$'6'!.)'#*'0%!.'+'!*,$'!8%+'! a '3#93 *!)'!'2$&=&0'0!))*='0'!'!2'6%!,&! *+'!.'+$*!0*)!.)'#!0&0{2$&2%A!#%!*,$'6'!.+%>+'4'0'!.'+'!*,*!0`'L!;*!4*!'=&,%!2%#!TD! 4$%,!0*!'#$*)'2&_#!93*!$*#0+`'!g2)',*i!2%#!*,$*!>+3.%L!1%+!)%!$'#$%A!#%!836%!)'! .+*.'+'2&_#!#*2*,'+&'L! ;*!.3,&*+%#!)%,n)',!*,$30&'#$*,! *#!3#!2&+23)%!@!,*!)*,!.&0&_!93*!.*#,'+'#!*#!,3!4*f%+! 23')&0'0L!"!2%#$'2&_#A!73&4%,!$&+'#0%!3#!%=&))%!0*!)'#'!@A!2'0'!=*j!93*!')>3&*#!)%! )'#j'6'!$*#&'!93*!0*2&+!23')!*+'!,3!4'@%+!23')&0'0L!")!.+&.&%!.'+*2&_!93*!)*,! 2%,$'6'!2%4.+*#0*+!)'!&0*'A!@'!93*! 4328%,!0*2`'#!gQ%!,%@!63*#%!%+0*~'#0%!)'! ='2'i!%!g(%!93*!'!4&!,*!4*!0'!6&*#!*,!*)!8%$*)iL!G%#!.'2&*#2&'!)*,!*b.)&93*!93*! ,&>#&7&2'!3#'!23')&0'0!@!)'!4'@%+`'!.30&*+%#!0*2&+!,3!23')&0'0L!?#'!=*j!93*!$%0%,n',! 836&4%,!$&+'0%!*)!%=&))%!8'6`'4%,!2%#,$+3&0%!3#'!$ *)'!0*!'+'~'A!3#'!+*0A!')>3#%,! 0&f*+%#!3#!~'#03$`L!G3'#0%!,*!)*,!.&0&_!.%+!93*!*+'!&4.%+$'#$*!93*!$%0%,! ,%,$3=&*+'#!,3!.*0'2&$%!0*!)'#'!)*,!2%,$%!4328%!))*>'+!'!)'!2%#2)3,&_#!0*!93*!*,',! *+'#!,3,!23')&0'0*,!93*!7%+4'6'#!3#!$*f&0%L!(%,n)',!*,$30&'#$*,!*,$'6 '#!43@! 0*,2*#$+'0%,!@'!93*!#%!*,.*+'6'#!$*#*+!93*!*,$'+!'))`A!',&93*!,*!)*,!0*f%!&+!.+%#$%L ! ! ! !

PAGE 80

! UD @0<"5G&-,/0%$"&U<5Y/'$"&3"*&S5"*/1,/' & U/+121:":G&)"B"/1+"/1'*%,&:%&$1:%5"^<'G& )'*+51#0/1W*&"$&<50B'&6&!5"#"R'&%*&%F01B' & S%/A"G & 7e&g0*1'&=`7C & #SfQVM_W!aQ!T R!%`VM_MaRa+! XOSMP!QT!ROVWQXVM[R!aQ!TWXjTRX!\RPVM`M\RZVQX!Y! [WXVPRP!TR!M[\WPVRZ`MR!aQ!TR!`WW\QPR`MgZ!QZVPQ!VWaWXjRX )05,'G & =a&U & Tb4%5'&:%&M"5+1/1B"*+%,G & =]d&c&40R%5%,&6&=7&2"5'*%, & !%4"f,&+5"+":'f,G& "0+'%,+14"?&2"$'5"5,%&"&0*'&41,4'?&/'4'&,0,&B5'B1",&/0" $1:":%,& B0%:%*&"60:"5&"$&<50B'?&2"$'5%,&:%&/''B%5"/1W*&6&"$+501,4'8 & <3+'2&_#H!FD!4$%, K%,/51B/1W*&:%&$"&"/+121:":&6f'&/'4%*+"51',&5%,B%/+'&"&",B%/+',&5%,"$+"*+%,&:%$&<50B'& & ;*!.3,&*+%#!)%,n)',!*,$30&'#$*,!*#!3#!2&+23)%!@!,*!)*,!.&0&_!93*!.*#,'+'#!*#!, 3!4*f%+! 23')&0'0L!"!2%#$'2&_#A!73&4%,!$&+'#0%!3#!%=&))%!0*!)'#'!@A!2'0'!=*j!93*!')>3&*#!)%! )'#j'6'!$*#&'!93*!0*2&+!23')!*+'!,3!4'@%+!23')&0'0L "!0&7*+*#2&'!0*)!>+3.%!0*! .+&4*+%A!*,$%,!2%4.+*#0&*+%#!0*!7%+4'!+{.&0'!93*!*+'!3#'!23')&0'0L!?#'!=*j!93*! $3=&4 %,!*)!#30%n$*)'+'~'!8*28%A!)'!0&,23,&_#!$'46&r#!73*!)&>*+'!@!)%,!28&2%,!@!)',! 28&2',!2%4.+*#0&*+%#!)'!4*${7%+'!0*)!%=&))%!0*!)'#'L!-,!4{,A!*))%,!4&,4%,! 2%4.+%6'+%#!93*!,&!')>3&*#!,%)$'6'!,3!.*0'2&$%!0*!)'#'!)'!$*)'+'~'!,*!+%4.`'L!"! 2%#$'2&_#A!.'+'!+*2%> *+!)'!)'#'!,*!)*,!.&0&_!93*!23'#0%!$&+',*#!*)!%=&))%!'!)'! .*+,%#'!93*!,*!)%!8'6`'!0'0%!$*#`'#!93*!2&$'+!,3!4*f%+!23')&0'0L!:328',!,%#+&,',! ,3+>&*+%#!'!+'`j!0*!*,$'!'2$&=&0'0A!'!.*,'+!0*!93*!)%,n)',!*,$30&'#$*,!,&*4.+*! 93*+`'#!2%#$+&63&+!23'#0%!#%!*+'!,3!$3 +#%A!'!=*2*,!2%#!2%4*#$'+&%,!&#'.+%.&'0%,L -#!)'!,*>3#0'!4&$'0!)'!&#,$+32$%+'!)*,!.&0&_!'!)%,n)',!*,$30&'#$*,!93*!2*++',*#!)%,! %f%,!&!,*!2%>&*+'#!0*!)'!4'#%!*#!2&+23)%A!*#$%#2*,!*))'!)%,!2%)%2%!*#!3#!#30%!834'#%L! G3'#0%!'6+&*+%#!)%,!%f%,!@!$3=&*+%#!93*!0*, 8'2*+)%!')!.+&.&%!836%!$&+%#*,!@! *4.3f%#*,A!.*+%!.%2%!'!.%2%!,*!0&*+%#!23*#$'!93*!)%!4*f%+!*+'!*,2328'+,*!)%,!3#%,! '!)%,!%$+%,!8',$'!93*!')!7&#')!,%)'4*#$*!3#'!.*+,%#'!0&+&>`'!')!>+3.%!@!)%,n)',!0*4{,! '@30'6'#L!-#!*,$*!2',%!)'!0&,23,&_#!73*!43@!+{.&0'!@ 7)3&0'c!*)!>+3.%!*#,*>3&0'! '04&$&_!93*!,&!#%!,*!2%%.*+'6'!@!,*!'@30'6'#!)%,!3#%,!'!)%,!%$+%,!*)!#30%!#%!,*! 0*,'$'+`'L! ! ! !

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! UE @0<"5G&-,/0%$"&U<5Y/'$"&3"*&S5"*/1,/' & U/+121:":G&)"B"/1+"/1'*%,&:%&$1:%5"^<'G& )'*+51#0/1W*&"$&<50B'& & S%/A"G & =`&g0*1'&=`7C & #SfQVM _W!aQ!TR!%`VM_MaRa+! XOSMP!QT!ROVWQXVM[R!aQ!TWXjTRX!\RPVM`M\RZVQX! )05,'G & Ca&U & Tb4%5'&:%&M"5+1/1B"*+%,G & ed&=&40R%5%,&6&c&2"5'*%, & !%4"f,&+5"+":'f,G& "0+'%,+14"?&2"$'5"5,%&"&0*'&41,4'?&/'4'&,0,&B5'B1",&/0"$1:":%,& B0%:%*&"60:"5&"$&<50B'8 & WE'/?.A)C" 79"D.)E&( % K%,/51B/1W*&:%&$"&"/+121:":&6f'&/'4%*+"51',&5%,B%/+'&"&",B%/+',&5%,"$+"*+%,&:%$&<50B'& & -#!*,$'!%2',&_#!2',&!#%!836%!*,$30&'#$*,!.+*,*#$*,!*#!)'!'2$&=&0'0!@'!93*!,*!)*,! '=&,%!2%#!43@!.%2'!'#$*)'2&_#L!")!$*#*+!3#!>+3.%!0*!.%2%,!*,$30&'#$*,!.+*,*#$*,A!,*! 8 &j%!.+&4*+%!*)!*f*+2&2&%!0*)!%=&))%!@'!0*,2+&$%!*#!'2$&=&0'0*,!'#$*+&%+*,A!0%#0*! )%,n)',!*,$30&'#$*,!$&*#*#!93*!#%46+'+!,3!4*f%+!23')&0'0L!-#!*,$*!2',%A!')!,*+!$'#! .%2%,!*,$30&'#$*,!@!0*!)%,!4'@%+*,A!)'!'2$&=&0'0!73*!43@!+{.&0'!@!)%,n)',! *,$30&'#$*,!*#$*#0 &*+%#!+{.&0%!*)!2%#2*.$%!0*!93*!$%0',!,3,!23')&0'0*,!$+'`'#!')>%! ')!>+3.%L!".+%=*28'#0%!*)!6'f%!#34*+%!0*!.'+$&2&.'#$*,A!#%,!,*#$'4%,!*#!3#!2&+23)%! @!,*!)*,!.&0&_!'!2'0'!3#%!93*!0&f*+'#!)'!4*f%+!23')&0'0!0*!$%0%,!)%,!.+*,*#$*,L! ;%+.+*#0*#$*4*#$*!*,$*!*f*+2 &2&%!73*!$%4'0%!43@!*#!,*+&%!@!73*!3#!4%4*#$%!43@! )�%!*#!*)!93*!)%,!28&2%,!@!28&2',!,*!'6+&*+%#!3#!.%2%!*#$+*!*))%,L!")!7&#')&j'+!)'! '2$&=&0'0!$%0%,n',!,*!73*+%#!2%#!3#'!,%#+&,'!*#!)'!2'+'L €!")!0&'!,&>3&*#$*!73&!'!93*f'+4*!'!)'!'04&#&,$+'2&_#!.%+!)'!6'f '!',&,$*#2&'!@!,&!8'6+`'! ')>|#!2',$&>%A!'!)%!23')!4*!+*,.%#0&*+%#!93*!#%!@!93*!*))%,!#%!.%0`'#!8'2*+!#'0'A!'! .*,'+!0*!8'6*+!*,$+*,'0%!')!2%4&*#j%!0*!4&,!'2$&=&0'0*,!93*!$%0',!*+'#! %6)&>'$%+&',L ! ! ! !

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! UF @0<"5G&-,/0%$"&U<5Y/'$"&3"*&S5"*/1,/' & U/+121:":G&)"B"/1+"/1'*% ,&:%&$1:%5"^<'G& [1215&%*&<50B'&6&/'*+51#0/1W*&"$&<50B' & S%/A"G & =N& > & g0*1'& > & =`7C & #SfQVM_W!aQ!TR!%`VM_MaRa+ RThRP!OZR!aMX`OXMgZ!XWSPQ!_RTWPQX!aQ!`W[\RPVMP!Y! `WW\QPR`MgZ?:![QfWPRP!ROVWQXVM[R!aQ!TWXjTRX!\RPVM`M\RZVQX? )05,'G & =a&H & Tb4%5'&:%&M"5+1/1B"*+%,G & 7 e&c&40R%5%,&6&7=&2"5'*%, & !%4"f,&+5"+":'f,G& /'*212%*/1"&%*&$"&,'/1%:":&%&1:%",&:%&/''B%5"/1W*&%*+5%&1*:121:0',?& $"&/'*+51#0/1W*&F0%&/":"&0*'f"&A"/%&"$&<50B'f,'/1%:":?&1:%",&:%&"0+'51:":8& & <3+'2&_#H!C!J%+', K%,/51B/1W*&:%&$"&"/+121:":&6f'&/'4%*+"51',&5%,B% /+'&"&",B%/+',&5%,"$+"*+%,&:%$&<50B'& '&1*:121:0"$1^":',8& & )%,!*,$30&'#$*,!,*!0&=&0&*+%#!*#!$+*,!>+3.%,!@!'!2'0'!>+3.%!,*!)*,!0&*+%#!3#',! &#,$+322&%#*,!0&7*+*#$*,H!EL!1%#*+!$%0',!)',!,&))',!f3#$%!'!)'!.3*+$'A!CL!1%#*+!$%0',!)',! ,&))',!f3#$%!'!)'!=*#$'#'!@!T L!1%#*+!$%0',!)',!,&))',!*#!3#!2&+23)%L!N'46&r#!,*!)*,!0&f%!'! )%,!>+3.%,!93*!#%!$*#`'#!.*+4&$&0%!8'6)'+!*#$+*!*))%,!@!93*!$*#`'#!EK!4$%,!.'+'! $*+4&#'+!,3!$'+*'L!G%4%!*+'!0*!*,.*+'+A!836%!4328%,!*4.3f%#*,A!$&+%#*,!@!>+&$%,L! ('!4'@%+`'!0*!*,$30&'#$*,!'.+% =*28'+%#!*,$'!%2',&_#!.'+'!.%0*+!8'2*+!$'#$%!+3&0%! 2%4%!93&,&*+'#A!@!f3>'+!2%#!)',!,&))',A!@'!93*!)%!=*`'#!2%4%!3#!f3*>%L!-,$'!=*j!,&#! *46'+>%A!3#'!*,$30&'#$*!,*!'2*+2%!'!4&!@!4*!.&0&_!93*!.'+',*4%,!*)!f3*>%!.%+93*! ,*!.%0+`'#!8'2*+!0'~%L!"3#93*!*,$'!*+'!3# '!0*!)',!+*'22&%#*,!*,.*+'0',A!*,$'!73*!)'! .+&4*+'!=*j!93*!,32*0&_!*#!)'!*,23*)'L!S#4*0&'$'4*#$*!,*!.'+%!*)!f3*>%!@!,*! 2%4*#j_!)'!0&,23,&_#!2%#!*)!2%4*#$'+&%!93*!*,$'!28&2'!8'6`'!8*28%L!G3'#0%!)*! .+*>3#$*!.%+!93*!4*!)%!8'6`'!0&28%!'!4&!@!#%!'!,3,!2%4.'~*+% ,n',A!*))'!4*!0&f%!93*! $*#&'!4&*0%!93*!,*!)'!.*#')&j',*!.%+!,3,!'22&%#*,L!(%!23')!73*!3#!.'$+_#!93*! '.'+*2&_!*#!4328',!0&,23,&%#*,!'!)%!)'+>%!0*!*,$',!2'.'2&$'2&%#*,H!4&*0%!'!)'! '3$%+&0'0L!-#!*,$*!2',%!,*!=*`'!93*!)%,!*,$30&'#$*,!$*4*#!'!93&*#!*,$'!*#!.%0* +!@! 8'2*#!)',!2%,',!0*!7%+4'!4%#_$%#'!,&#!23*,$&%#'+)',L "!2%#$'2&_#!,*!8&j%!*)!f3*>%!2%#!*)!%=&))%!0*!)'#'!0%#0*!)%,!*,$30&'#$*,!,*!='#! $&+'#0%!3#!%=&))'!0*!)'#'!4&*#$+',!0&2*#!23')!*,!,3!4*f%+!23')&0'0L!")!,*+!3#!*f*+2&2&%! 4{,!$+'#93&)%A!#%!73#2&%#%!& >3')!0*!6&*#!0*,.3r,!0*!)'!'2$&=&0'0!'#$*+&%+!93*!*+'!$'#! 4%=&0'L!J36%!4328'!7')$'!0*!2%#2*#$+'2&_#A!4328',!6+%4',!@!)'!0&,23,&_#!')!7&#')! 73*!4'@%+4*#$*!)'!&#,$+32$%+'!0'#0%!3#'!.*93*~'!)*22&_#L!V'+&',!2'3,',!.30&*+'#! 8'6*+!2%#$+&63&0%!'!*,$'!+*'22&_#A!@' ,*'!.%+93*!7')$'#!,%)%!0%,!,*4'#',!.'+'! $*+4&#'+!*)!,*4*,$+*!@!)%,n)',!*,$30&'#$*,!*,${#!0*!*b{4*#*,A!%!6&*#!.%+!*)!%+0*#!*#! *)!93*!,*!8&2&*+%#!)%,!*f*+2&2&%,L! !

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