3 /New Zealand
UNITEiD STABS DEPAM NT O AGRICULTUE
Agricultural Research Administration
Bureau of entomology and Plant Quarantine Washington 25, D. c,
March 20, 1953
PLANT QUAATINE IMPORT RESTRICTIONS
This revision of the plant quarantine import restrictions.of the Dominion.of New Zealand has been prepared for the information of nurserymen, plant quarantine officials, and others interested in the exportation of plants and plant products to that country.
The summary was prepared by R. G. Oakley, Division of Plant Q)areantines, from the Orchard and Garden Diseases Act 1928, the Plant QLrantine Regulations 1952, and other related information, anil.was reviewed by the Director of the, Eortioultural Division ofthe Department pf -Agriculture of New Zealand.
The information contained in this circular is believed to be correct and complete up to the time of preparation, but it is not intended.'to be used independently of, nor as a substitute for, the original texts, and it is not to be interpreted as legally authoritative.
Chiefs Bureau of tomology and Pt Quarantine
PLANT QUARANTINE IMPORT RESTRICTIONS
The Orchard and Garden Diseases Act 1928 authorizes the GovernorGeneral, by Order in Council gazetted, to prohibit or regulate the introduction into New Zealand of any plant, fruit, fungues,,parasite, insect, or any other thing he considers likely to ihtro'diuce any disease, to appoint specified ports of entry, and to extend a schedule of diseases and insects appended to the Act.
Other legislation includes the Stock Act 1908, the Introduction of Plants Act. 1927, and the Seeds eImportation Act 1927.
The Plant Quarantine Regulations 1952, effective September 26, 1952, issued by the Governor-General by Order in Council, consolidate and amend the regulations under the Orchard and Garden diseases Act 1928 and the Stock Act 1908, and cites the Director of the Horticultural Division of the Department of Agriculture, or person with his authority, as the. official administering them. The regulations are sum.marized in the following paragraphs as they-apply to importations from the United States.
The regulations cover plants 'nd parts thereof (cuttings, scions, bulbs, tubers, rhizomes, etc.), fruit, seeds, bacteria and fungi, viruses, insects, containers, packing materials, and soil; also
ship, aircraft, and baggage inspection. Sanitary certificates (Federal or State), supplemented by additional certification for many items, are required with importations (including mail) of fruits, plants, seeds, etc., .except stored' products. Import per'mits in advance are required for nursery stock (see payr 4 (a)) and seed potatoes.
1. No person shall introduce into New Zealand
Bacteria, fungi, viruses, or any living stage of any invertebrate
animal, which may directly or indirectly injure or cause an unhealthy condition in any fruit or plant.
Blueberry (Vacoinium sppo.), on account of virus diseases.
Citrus stocks, seedlings, and budded or grafted trees, except citrus
seed, on account of citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri), citrus root
rot (Qhtophthora citrophthora), and virus diseases.
Citrus fruits from countries and places where citrus canker exists.
Fresh fruits and vegetables from countries and places where the
oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) exists.
Fresh fruits (susceptible to fIrtit fly attack) from countries where
any harmful species of fruit fly (Tephritidae (--Trypetidae)) exists
(except as authorized for bananas, citrus fruits, grapes, and
pineapples in paragraphs 13, 14, and 16, pp.7-9).
Fresh fruits of Pyrus app. (apple, pear, quince, etc.) and of Prunus
spp. (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, plum, etcs) on account of
brown rot (Sclerotinia fructigena ar.d Se laxa) and virus diseases,
such as cherry yellows and phony peach,
Grapevines (Vitis sppo) on account of vine mosaic virus and Pierce's
disease (alfalfa dwarf virus).
Hop (Humulus spp.) including hop sets and seed, on account of virus
diseases and downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora humuli).
Potato plants from any source and tubers from all places where the following insects and diseases occur: Potato wart (Synchytrium endobioticum), potato ring rot (Corynebacterium se edonicum),
potato yellow dwarf virus, Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa
decemlineata), and golden nematode (Heterodera rostochiensis).
Prunus app. seed, on account of virus diseases.
Pyrus app. plants on account of brown rot (Sclerotinia fructigena
and S. laxa).
Ribes spp. and Rubus spp. (currants, raspberries, etc.), on account
of virus diseases.
Sweetpotatoes (Ipomoea betatas) on account of sweetpotato weevils
(gglas formicarius and ousceee pontfasciatus), internal canker
virus, curly top virus, and soil rot (Actinomyces p.).
Soil, sand, clay, or earth, as such, or adhering to any plant, plant
material, or article, etc. (See par. 21, p. 12.)
Tobacco plants and seed (Nicotiana sp.) on account of blue mold
(Peronospora tabacina), wildfire (Pseudomonas tabaci), tobacco
yellow dwarf virus, and other virus diseases of seed.
Weedy plants, as follows: Asclepias tuberosa L. (pleurisy root),
Cassia occidentalis L. (negro root), oogon schoenanthus (Spreng), Cysanchum p. (Indian swallowwort), Datura metel L.
(hairy thorn apple), Digitalis lanata Ehrh. (foxglove),
Echinacea angustifolia D.C., Eichhornia speosa (water hyacinth)
Ephedra sinica, Monardia punctata (horsemint), Polygonum
bistorta L. (inake weed, snake root), Petasites hybridus (L.)
Fl. Wett. (butterbur), Pulicaria dysenterica Bernh. (fleabane).
Rhamnnus purachiana D.C. cascaraa sagrada), Satureja calamintha
(L.) (Scheele calamint), Tourretia volubilis, Tussiligpo.farfara
2. Entry of the following articles is subject to their being acoompanied by a sanitary certificate bearing special certifications as noted, and to shipments complying otherwise to regulations applicable:
Bananas, Lemons, Limes, and Pineapples: Must be certified as in
an unripe condition when shipped and to be packed in new containers; lemons, and limes also, to be certified as being produced in an, area free of citrus canker and that the fruit is
free of scale insects or has been effectively fumigated prior to
shipment. (See par. 13, p. 7.)
Bulbs, Corms, Rhizomes, and Tubers of Ornamental Plants: Shipments
found infested at time of inspection for certification purposes must be treated and the method of treatment described in the required sanitary certificate. (See par. 12, p. 7.)
Citrus Fruits (except green lemons and limes, see above): Entry
subject to certification that the fruit was produced in an area
free of citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri) and is packed in new
containers, plus one of the following three conditions: (1) That the fruit was produced in an area at least 50 miles distant from
any infestation of an injurious fruit fly and that the fruit is
free from scale insects or has been effectively fumigated against
them; (2) that the fruit was refrigerated for 21 days at a temperature of 310l F. (1 degree variation allowed) and supported
by a thermograph chart; and (3 certification that a consignment was or was not precooled to 34 F. before being loaded on a vessel on which treatment (21 days at 310 F, as above) is to be applied in transit, the certification to be supported by thermograph charts at ports of arrival by a ship's officer.
(See par. 14, pp. 7-9.)
Fresh Fruit (not fruit fly hosts): The sanitary certificate must
state that shipment is packed in new containers. (See par. 13,
Fresh Fruits (including tomatoes): Entry permitted of fruit (including tomatoes), (except as prohibited in par. 1), from areas where no injurious fruit fly, including Dacus dorsalis is known to occur, but subject to the required phytosanitary certificate bearing a statement that the consignment is packed in new con.tainers. (See par. 15, p. 9.)
Fresh Vegetables (excluding tomatoes); Entry permitted from
countries where Dacus dorsalis does not occur and subject to certification that shipment is packed in ne* containers and ''reasonably free of soil. (See par. 17, p. 10,)
Grapes: The reuired sanitary certificate must attest that no grapevine foliage is attached to the fruit and that the fruit is packed in new containers, plus one of the following conditions: (1) That
the consignment was grown and packed in an area not less than 50 miles distant from an area infested with an injurious fruit fly,
and.(2) treatment as for citrus fruits above. (See par. 16, pp.9.-10)
Nursery Stock, An import permit is required in advance and authorized
importations are subject to possible post-entry quarantine. Plants must be free of soil and each species properly labelled. Sanitary certification is required. (See par. 19, p. iOz )
Potatoes: Entry subject to certification that potato wart, ring rot,
Colorado potato beetle, and golden nematode do not occur in place
of origin and to being packed in new containers, unless the
Director has previously issued a permit authorizing used containers
in the case of potatoes for consumption. Seed potato importations
require a permit in advance and are limited to shipments of 28 pounds per variety per year by one person and must be grown in
post-entry quarantine. (See par. 19, pp. 10-I.)
Seed corn (including sweet corn and popcorn): Requires certification
that the crop producing the seed was inspected under field conditions
and found free of bacterial wilt (Xanthomonas stewarti), and that
the seed has been treated against boil smut (Ustilago zeae) and brown spot (Pysoderma zeaMaydis). (See par. 20, pp. 11-12.)
Seeds: A sanitary certificate is required for each consignment, and
in the case of packages of 28 pounds or more, of the following
seeds, a percentage of seeds in each package must be colored with
a seed-staining dye, such as an alcoholic solution of saffranus, as
indicated: 10 per cent for alfalfa, rye,,rass, and white clover,
and 5 per cent for cocksfoot. (See par. 20, p,), 11-12.)
IMPORTATION MI U2USTRI JTa
3. Stored products may be introduce& without sanitary certificates, but are subject to results of inspection on arrival.
GEiO L GMWTIONS
4. Definitionst(a) "Nursery stock" means every kind and species of plant,
including budwood, scions, and other portions of a plant; but does not include potatoes and other vegetables, fruit, seeds,
or the bulb, corm, rhizome or tuber of any ornamental plant,
a unit of which when propagated produces a single plant*
(b) "Stored product" means any dried fruit, grain, edible nuts, or other plant product used or intended for use for any purpose
other than sowing, planting, or propagation; but does not include fresh fruit or vegetables or any plant product which has
been subjected to any process of manufacture.
(c) "Disease" means any form of fungus, bacterium, or virus,
or any living stage of any invertebrate animal, which may
directly or indirectly injure or cause an unhealthy condition
in any fruit or plant#
(d) "Fruit" means the edible product of any plant, including
the peel, skin, or shell of such product, and also the seeds
of such plants, whether such fruit is or is not attached to the
(e) "Plant" means any tree, flower, shrub, vegetable, or other
vegetation, and includes the seed, spore, or any portion of any
(f) "Director" means the Director of the Horticulture Division
of the Department of Agriculture, or his authorized representative.
Sanitary Certificate Required
5. A health certificate is required to accompany every consignment of fruit, plants, nursery stock, or seed that may .by these regulations be introduced into New Zealand and shall be signed by an authorized officer of the appropriate Department or service performing the functions or duties relating to horticulture in the country or place of origin (except as permitted for seedcorn in paragraph 21) and shall contain such further certification as may lby these regulations be required to be included for specified plants and plant products.
Authorized Ports of Entry
6. (a) For importation of plants, seeds, and nursery stock:
Ports: Auckland, Bluff, Dunedin, Lyttelton, and
Airports: Evans Bay, Harewood, Mechanics Bay, Ohakea, and Whenupat.
(b) For importation of fruits, vegetablessand stored products
All ports and airports listed in (a) and Gisborne, Napier, Nelson, New Plymouth, 0amaru, Picton, Port Chalmers, Timara, ana Wanganui.
Inspection on Arrival
7. On arrival at any port or airport of entry prescribed by these regulations of any consignment of fruits or plants permitted importation by these regulations, the consignment or a representative portion shall be inspected by a plant quarantine officer (at the expense of the owner).
Treatment or Disposition of Shipments
S.. '(a) A plant quarantine officer will-issue an unconditional permit
to land any consignment of fruits and plants (except nursery stock
and seed potatoes) when found free of diseases and in compliance
-with the regulations. Permits conditional upon treatment (at
expense of the owner).will be issued for the release of such shipments 4hen found to be infected with a disease it is considered
can be effectively treated against.
(b) In the case of consignments of any kind imported in accordance
with regulations and found infected with a disease the inspector
considers cannot be eradicated by treatment, the consignment shall
be reshipped, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of. Shipments not complying with regulations shall be seized, treated, detained in
quarantine, reshipped, destroyed, or otherwise disposed of.
(c) Importation of potatoes and nursery stock shall be subject to
conditions in (b) above, to treatment prescribed in permits, and
to detention in quarantine.
9. No packing materials for authorized importations of nursery stock, plants, and seed shall be used other than moss, sawdust, ground cork, wood-wool, vermiculite, charcoal, or vegetable fibre free from pulp: Provided that any such substance used in packing material shall be clean
and free from disease.
Importation by Mail
10. Mail shipments of fruits or plants shall be clearly and legibly marked to indicate the contents.
Importation for Scientific Purposes
11. Any person with a prior permit in writing from the Director and subject to conditions as to quantity or otherwise as may be specified in the permit, may import from any specified country or place any nursery stock, fruit plant, insect, or other thing specified in the permit when deemed by the Director as necessary or advisable for any scientific or other specified purpose*
BLRBS, CORMS, RHIZOMES, AND TUBERS OF ORNAM2NTALS
12. Subject to the provisions of these regulations, bulbs, corms, rhizomes, and tubers of any ornamental plant may be introduced into
Newr Zealand. Each consignment shall be accompanied by a health certificate. If the consignment is found infested with insect pests by the certifying officer.the certificate shall include particuars of the date, .place, and nature of the treatment to which the consignment has been subJected-.so as effectively to destroy those insect pests.
BANANAS, LEMONS, LIIMES, AND PINEAPPLES
13. Subject to the provisions of these regulations, bananas, lemons, limes, and pineapples, in an unripe condition when shipped, and.any fruit.(other than vegetables), which is not ahost of-any harmful species of fruit fly (Family Trypetidae) may be introduced into New Zealand from any country or place, except where oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis).- is known to exist, and, in the case of lemons and limes, from any place where- citrus canker (Xanthomonas. citri) is known to exist. Each shipment of such fruit shall be accompanied by a health certificate, and also certification (1) that the consignment
is packed in clean new containers not previously used, (2) in the case of lemons or limes, that citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri) does not occur in the place of origin and that the fruit is free from scale insects or has been effectively fumigated prior to shipment, and
(3). inthe case of bananas, lemons, limes, and pineapples, that the fruit was shipped or transported in an unripe condition.
14. Citrus fruits (other than unripe lemons and limes) may be introduced into New Zealand from any country or place, except where oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) is known to exist, subject to one of the three following .conditions:
(a) Every consignment of citrus fruit (except as permitted by (b)
and (c), pp. 8 and 9) shall be accompanied by a health certificate which shall include a certificate to the effect that citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri) does not occur in the place of origin of the fruit, that the fruit was grown and packed'in a area hot less than 50 miles from any area infested by harmful fruit flies,
that such fruit is free from scale insects or has been effectively
fumigated prior to shipment, and that the consignment is packed
in clean new containers not previously used.
Cold Storage Method
(b) If the fruit, before being shipped or transported, has been treated as follows:
(l) The fruit shall be deposited in a cool store equipped
with a suitable cooling plant and recording instrument
an approved by the Director for purposes of this regula(2) The fruit shall be cooled to a temperature of 310 F.
and shall be held within 1 degree above or below that
temperature for a period of not less than 21 consecutive
d ys before being removed for shipment;
(3) Fruit treated as above musl be held in the cool store
at a maximum temperature of i0 F. until removed there'from for shipment.
Every consignment of citrus fruit introduced into New Zealand uder this provision shall be accompanied by a health certificate (official) and by a thermograph chart covering the period of cool store sterilization, signed by an authorized officer of the cool stqre. The health certificate shall certify that citrus canker does-not occur in the place of origin and that the fruit is packed in clean new packages not previously used.
Cold Storage Method in Transit
(c) If the fruit is treated in transit and in accordance with the following requirements;
(1) The cool store (if any) at the place of loading on
board ship and the refrigerated compartments of the vessel
on which the fruit is loaded shall be approved by the
director for purposes of this regulation.
(2) Each refrigerated compartment of the vessel shall be
cooled by forced air circulation, preferably from ceiling
to floor, be adequately insulated, and be provided with
temperature recording instruments approved by the Director.
(3) Where the period during the transit from the port of
export to New Zealand is of such duration that the fruit cannot be held at a temperature within 1 degree above or
below 310 F. for 21 consecutive days, unless the fruit has been cooled to a temperature not exceeding 340 F- prior to loading on board ship at that port, the fruit shall be so
precooled and shall be loaded in such a manner that its
temperature does not rise above 340 F.
(4) Forthwith after loading on board ship it shall be
cooled to a temperature of 310 F*
(5) During transit to New Zealand the fruit shall be
held within 1 degree above or below the temperature of
310 F., and for a period. of not less than 21 consecutive days and thereafter at a maximum temperature of 0 F.,
until the fruit is landed at a port of entry in New
Every consignment of citrus fruit introduced into New Zealand uder this regulation'shall be accompanied bya health certificate and by
the prescribed records showing the temperature of the fruit during
transit to New Zealand. The health certificate shall Incluae a
certificate to the effect that the fruit was cooled. before shiment
or was loaded on ship without being cooled (whichever the case), that citrus canker does not occur in the place of origin of the fruit, and that the fruit was packed in clean new packages not
The prescribed records referred to in the above paragraphs shall
consist of four temperature records taken continuously throughout
the period of shipment to New Zealand and shall be take from
each compartment of the vessel in whi-eh the fruit is stored by
means of suitable automatic temperature recording instruments
under control of a responsible officer of the owner ef the vessel.
Each of the temperature records shall show a variation of not more
than 1 degree during transit to New Zealand, except insofar as
heavy seas may cause oscillation of' the thermography.
FIUSH FRUIT (IJ CLUDING TO ATOS)
15* Subject to the provisions of these regulations, all fruit, including tomatoes (but excluding those kinds provided for in paragraphs 1, 13, i, and 16 hereof), may be introduced into New Zealand from any country or place, except from sources where the oriental fruit fly or any other harmful species of fruit fly are known to exist. Each consignment of fruit shall be accompanied by a health certificate and also a certificate that the consignment is packed in clean, new containers not previously used.
16. Subject to provisions of these regulations grapes may be introduced into New Zealand from any country or place, except where the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) is known to exist, under one of the following conditions:
(a) Each consignment of grapes shall be accompanied. by a
health certificate, including a certificate that the grapes
were grown and packed in an area not less than 50 m:Ues from
any area infested with any harmful fruit fly (Family Trypetidae),
that no grapevine foliage or wood is attached to the fruit, and that the fruit is packed in clean new containers not previously
(I) Each consignment of grapes shall be accompanied by a health certificate and also a certificate that the grapes were held in cold storage for 21 consecutive days within 1 degree of 310 P., either immediately prior to shipment or L. transit (same as for cold stcrae of citrus, see paragraphs 14 (b) and (c)), that no
grapevine foliage or wood is attached to the fruit, and that
the fruit is packed in new clean containers not previously used.
17. Fresh vegetables (excluding tomatoes, see paragraph 15) may be introduced into New Zealand from any country, except from sources where the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) occurs and as prohibited by paragraph 1, when accompanied by a health certificate which shall include a certificate to the effect that the consignment is packed in clean new packages not previously used and that the vegetables are reasonably free from soil.
Import Permit Required
Igo Nursery stock (except species prohibited by paragraph 1) may be introduced into New Zealand from any country or place, subject to provisions of these regulations. Every person desiring to introduce nursery stock shall first obtain a permit from the Director authorizing introduction subject to conditions he thinks fit, including a condition requiring detention of the nursery stock in quarantine for a period of not less than one growing season or 12 months from the date of planting after entry into quarantine before being released therefrom: Provided that the Director my~ from time to time, by notice published iUn the Gazette, authorize the introduction without a permit of such nursery stock as he may specify in that behalf in the notice.
19. Every consignment of potatoes introduced into New Zealand shall be accompanied by a health certificate which shall include a certificate to the effect that the diseases yellow dwarf virus, ring rot (Corynebaoterium se eonicum), potato wart. .(,yn Ytrium endobioticum), potato nematode (Reterodera rostochiensib), and Colorado potato beetle
(L~e~tincts gM t ) do not occur in the place of origin, that
the potatoes are reasonably free from soil, and that the consignment is packed in clean new packages not previously used for w purpose or are in authorized used containers. A permit In advance from the Director is required for the use of used containers which ma be allowed for tubers imported for consumption purposes;
Provided that seed potatoes may be introduced only under permit by the Director under conditions he thinks fit, including a condition requiring their detention in quarantine for a period of 12 months or for one growing season before they are released, and also subject to quantity limits of 2$ pounds for any one variety in any calendar year by one person, and to being packed in new containers.
(NOTE: The widespread distribution of one or more species of the abovementioned diseases and insects in the United States makes it impossible for domestic potatoes to meet the certification requirements.)
20. Seeds (except kinds shown as prohibited in paragraph 1) may be imported from any source, subject to the following conditions:
(a) Every consignment shall be accompanied by a health
(b) The health certificate for every consignment of corn,
sweet corn, or popcorn seed shall include a certificate to the effect that the crop from which the seed was obtained was inspected by an authorized officer of the appropriate
Department or service performing the functions or duties
relating to horticulture in the country or place of origin of the seed, that no bacterial wilt (Xanthomonas stewarti)
was found in the crop, nor has this disease been previously
recorded on the area on which the crop was grown, and that
the seed was treated for the control of boil smut (Ustilago
zeae) and brown spot (Physoderma zeae-mgydis) prior to shipment with an organic mercurial seed treatment or some other
effective method of treatment for those diseases, to be
stated in the certificate.
If the health certificate accompanying a consignment of corn,
seed does not include a certificate to the effect that the seed was treated against boil smut and brown spot, as above
prescribed, the consignment shall be subjected to such
treatment at the port of entry.
Should the place of export of any seed, except for corn,
sweet corn, or popcorn, be other than the country of origin
of the seed, the health certificate required to accompany
such an importation may be signed by an authorized officer
of the country from which the seed is exported.
(c) Seeds, Forage Crop: The following seeds must have the
stated percentage of each consignment stained with a red
coloring matter and be accompanied by a declaration certifying that the consignment has been stained as required, using
a coloring matter which is either an alcoholic solution of
saffranus or a specially prepared and effective fluid seedstaining dye:
1) Alfalfa 10 per cent of seed in each package
(2) Cockefoot 5 0f It 0 if I t
3) R yograss 10 if i if 11 11it
) White clover 10 If H i
These regulations apply only to packages of seed which exceed
28 lbs. in weight.
Oats, barley, wheat, and other grain may be imported without
restrictions. (Seeds Importation Act 1927,)
21. No person shall introduce into New Zealand any soil, sand, clay, earth, whether by itself, or on or around or with any plant or plant material, or as packing in any form, or as ballast for any aircraft, ship, or vessel, or on or with or adhering to any goods whatsoever, except with the consent of the Director and as otherwise provided in these regulations (see pars. 17 and 19 for soil on vegetables and potatoes)Provided that clean sand may be used for ballast for aircraft, but if so used, or if any soil or earth is used as ballast for any vessel, it may not be discharged in New Zealand without the permission of a plant quarantine officer,
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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