News letter

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Title:
News letter
Physical Description:
Serial
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

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Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030428081
oclc - 785785040
lccn - 2012229620
System ID:
AA00023276:00025

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

Full Text


















Number 19 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) July 1, 1932.
<^ ^ ^ STATE P T BOARD
/ NEWS LETTER "


BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE






Number 19 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) July 1, 1932.





TECHNOLOGICAL

The work on installing new doors and repairing the car fumigation
houses located at various ports along the Mexican border is proceeding rap-
idly. Contracts have been let for the installation of the new type of slid-
ing door in the houses at Brownsville, El Paso, Eagle Pass, and Nogales.
These doors are of steel in one piece and weigh about 1,800 pounds apiece.
They are suspended from roller-bearing hangers which travel on steel tracks
and are so constructed that in the last inch of travel they are raised one-
half inch and all four edges seal simultaneously against heavy felt gaskets.
The lifting and sealing of these doors is accomplished by a powerful lever
cam action by which a man weighing 150 pounds can exert a pressure around
4,000 pounds to raise and seal the doors. This type of door was designed es-
pecially for these heuses and has proved to be very satisfactory in the houses
where it has been installed and tested.

A ventilating system is being installed at the Nogales house for re-
moving the hydrocyanic acid from the house after fumigation. This consists
of ventilating ducts, 32 inches in diameter, from the roofs of the two
chambers connected to a large multivane fan, having a capacity of 11,000 cu-
bic feet of air per minute, which exhausts into a steel stack 80 feet high.
The air in the fumigation house can be changed in 14 minutes, and a thorough
ventilation of the house for one-half hour exhausting the gas 80 feet in the
air, will disperse the hydrocyanic acid so that it can not be detected.

The house at Eagle Pass is being extended and repaired, new steel
door frames being installed at the rear of the house and new steel sliding
doors at the front entrance.






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FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

New to the National Museum.--Callosobruchus sp. (Bruchidae) was in-
tercepted at El Paso, Tex., in chickpeas TCic'er arietinum) in the mail from
Spain. H. S. Barber and A. G. Boving state that this seems to be an impor-
tant form and more material would be appreciated. It is new to the National
Museum collection.

S/ /Gladiolus thrips from Australia.--The gladiolus thrips (Taeniothrips
/ gladioli M. & S.) was intercepted at San Francisco on gladiolus corms in the
mail from Australia. This thrips attacks gladioli in.the field-and goes into
S"stoiage ivith the corms. It occurs in several localities in this country.

Coffee leaf miner in Puerto Rico.--The coffee leaf miner (Leucoptera
coffeella Guerin) was found infesting coffee leaves in the field at Adjuntas,
Puerto Rico. This lepidopteron is a serious pest of coffee.

Scale insect from Ja.pan.---Phenacaspis dilatata (Green) (Coccidae) was
intercepted at San Francisco on palm.in quarters from Japan. This or a
closely related species was taken on mango from Java in 1930.

Lacebug from Argentina.--A living specimen of Gargaphia subpilosa Bergi
(Tingitidae) was intercepted at New York on a peach in cargo from Argentina.
This represents the first interception record of this lacebug in our files.
It is not recorded from the continental United States.

Coccid on aucuba.--Phenacaspis aucubae (Cooley) (Coccidae) was inter-
cepted at San Francisco on aucuba in quarters from Japan. This scale insect
has also been taken on aucuba from Japan at Honolulu and Seattle.

M ne. in Lima beLn_ leaves.--Specimens of Agromyza inaegualis Mall.
(Agromyz:..-.)i were fovi in u.Lrta bean leaves in the field at Rio Piedras,
Puerto Ric. In "'.ns:ta.. Pr o-iorjensis," George N. Wolcott lists Vigna
repenF, s wiell as Lima beayns, as hosts of th.s blotch miner.

Mareti .rSe stoks i.nfested.--The sorrel cutworm (Acronycta rumicis
L.) was inttrepted at San Fr. .icsco on Manetti rose stocks in cargo from
France.

Scalq :nsect f om the Oriemnt.--Aspidiotus cLyptoxanthus Ckll. (Coc-
.,c.idae) was int' rc.... t .s.,in on, D. C., on C(osi-ana acions in the mail
from China. T1:- ,cale i.n,ect has been intercepted previously on Castanea
sp. from Japan se.u oi w.cinj.x from China.

~Cotton p._,cs" l frum .J. g.lgn.--An adult moth of the Egyptian cotton bol'l-
worm (Earias ~r'slia Ba-yv.) was intercepted at Honolulu Hawaii, in packing
material in the mail from Ceylon. The larva of this moth severely injures
the bolls a!d squares of cotton. It is reported from several localities in








the Eastern Hemisphere.

Coccid on alm.--Hemichionaspis dracaenae Cooley (Coccidae) was inter-
cepted at San Francisco on palm in quarters from Hawaii. This represents the
first record in our files of the interception of this-scale insect.

Tenebrionid from Central America.--Paratenetus tibialis Champ. (Teneb-
rionidae) was intercepted at Mobile, Ala., on banana in cargo from Guatemala.
This beetle arrived with bananas in cargo from Honduras in 1930.

Scale insect on coconuts.--Phenacaspis inday (Banks) (Coccidae) was
intercepted at San Francisco on coconuts in quarters from the Philippines.
This coc'cid has also been taken on coconuts from Hawaii and on palms from Guam
and Polynesia.

Thrips onHibiscus blooms.--Frankliniella cubensis Hood (thrips) was
collected in the field at Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, from flowers of Hibiscus.
J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., makes the following statement concerning
this collection: "I believe this is the first report of this insect from
Puerto Rico, or any other place, except Cuba."

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS.OF INTEREST

Rust on garlic tops.--The dry tops of some garlic from Brazil, braided
to keep the bulbs in bunches, were found by an inspector at Philadelphia to
be heavily infected with a rust. The rust is a Puccinia, and teliospores
were found, so it may be possible to determine the species.

Orchid disease.--A disease on leaves of Cymbidium from India was found
in a shipment when it reached the inspection house in Washington, and was de-
termined as Septoria thelymitrae, a disease listed by Stevenson as occurring
on leaves of Thelymitra aristata in Australia only.

Rare nematode found.--A specimen consisting of Emperor narcissus leaves
apparently infested with Tylenchus dipsaci was received from Puyallup, Wash.
Careful examination of the entire specimen failed to reveal any T. dipsaci.
Both CGehalobus sp. and Acrobeles sp. were present, and a single specimen of
what appeared to be Pathoaphelenchus demani was found. P. demani was described
from specimens infesting bananas and has been reported on grass in Holland
since that time.

Botrytis interceptions during ay.--Interceptions of Botrytis continued
to be rather frequent during May, including specimens on c.oconut from the
Philippine Islands, papaya from Panama, iris from Washington, narcissus from
Long Island, N. Y., and Washington, peony from Ohio and Oregon (3), rose etem
from Italy, onion from England, France, and Spain, rutabaga from France (2),
and turnip from Belgium and Sweden.

Sclerotiria interceptions increasing.--Interceptions of Sclerotinia sp.
have shown some increase during May and include specimens in carrot from Bel-
gium, Denmark, and France, celeriac from Sweden, garlic from Argentina,







-4-


rutabaga from England and Sweden, turnip from Brazil and England, and water-
nut from China.

Violet root rot.--A diseasedrutabaga from England intercepted at Phila-
delphia had a growth of sterile mycelium and the bright violet color charac-
teristic of Rhizoctonia crocorum, the violet root rot which is widespread in
Europe and is known to occur in this country.

Pathoaphelenchus changed to Aphelenchoides.--A letter from Dr. G.
Steiner, Senior Nematologist, states that those species of nema recently
placed in the genus Pathoaphelenchus must be given the name Aphelenchoides,
which was published by Fischer in 1894 and antedates Cobb's genus Pathoaphelen-
chus.
It is suggested that interception records be changed to accord with
this ruling, which Dr. Steiner hopes is final.

NOTES ON BEAN INSPECTION IN PUERTO RICO

Richard Faxon, Associate Plant Quarantine Inspector stationed at San
Juan, Puerto Rico, submits under date of May 3, 1932, the following notes on
the past season's inspection of beans on the island, with reference to pod
borer and Lima bean scab:

Fundella cistipennis was usually present in small numbers in Lima beans
that were being shipped to the States, and a rather heavy infection of Elsinoe
canavaliae was found in practically all of the shipments.

In previous seasons Etiella zinckenella appeared to be more prevalent
than Fundella, but this season the situation was reversed, as Fundella larvae
were found more frequently in the pods of Lima beans than either Maruca testu-
lalis or E. zinckenella. The infestations of Fundella cistipennis were light,i
the highest being 3 per cent found in a hamper from Isabela. It was found to
be present in shipments from Loiza, Vega Baja, Arecibo, Isabela, and Adjuntas.
Fifteen collections were forwarded to Washington for determination and many
more could have been sent from other shipments. E. zinckenella was found in
only three shipments of Lima beans and four of gandules.

Maruca testulalis was difficult to find until January, 1932, and the
later infestations in Lima and string beans and gandules were usually light.
This was particulrrly true of gandules as only one interception was made in
cull pods at Arecibo, although hundreds of boxes were shipped to the States.
Practically the only serious infestation in Lima beans was found at Cidra,
February 26, 1932, where 11 per cent of the pods in a 3-acre field of bush
Limas were infested with Maruca larvae. Sixteen collections were sent to
Washington for determination from beans grown at Loiza, Rio Piedras, Vega Baja
Arecibo, Isabela, Cidra, and Cayey.

The pod infection of Lima beans by Elsinoe canavaliae varied from 5 to
100 per cent. Forty-three interceptions were forwarded to Washington in con-
trast to one sent the previous season. The infection was 25 per pent or over






-5-


in 15 of these cases. Leaf and stem infections were also common in our col-
lections of material. The disease was well distributed over the Island,
being present in shipments from Humacao, Loiza, Rio Piedras, Vega Baja, Are-
cibo, Isabela, Adjuntas, Yauco, Ponce, Cayey, and Cidra. Apparently the past
season was very favorable for the development of the disease, as there was a
great deal of rain up to the middle of February. After that date there fol-
lowed a drought for over 60 days at Loiza, and the Elsinoe almost disappeared
from plantings there but continued in other districts where the drought was
not so severe.

SPECIAL-PERMIT IMPORTATIONS TREND TOWARD SMALLER AMOUNTS
AND INCREASE OF MAIL SHIPMENTS

From the records supplied by Table 40 of the Annual Report for 1931,
a bit of simple calculation demonstrates that since 1920, when Quarantine 37,
the Nursery Stock, Plant, and Seed Quarantine, became fully operative, the
average number per permit of plants, bulbs, etc., imported under special per-
mit has shown two high points, one in 1920 snd one again in 1926. The average
number per permit authorized entry in 1920 was approximately 35,000, which
average dropped rapidly in ensuing years until by 1925 the average plant im-
portation per permit amounted to only about 8,000. When the entry of narcissus
bulbs was brought under special permit in 1926, the average number per permit
rose abruptly to about 56,000, only to drop again in succeeding years until in
1931 the average was about 6,000. The indications are that the 1932 average
will be about 3,000 bulbs or plants per permit.

Several factors are no doubt involved in this noticeable trend toward
smaller importations. Although since 1925 thu actual number of permits is-
sued each year has varied only within narrow limits, yet a steadily increasing
number of these have been for importation by mail, which, of course, involves
smaller lots. Success in building up domestic stocks of the main standard
varieties has also tended to lessen the larger importations of many popular
ornamentals, so that the newer and more costly foreign productions comprise
more and more of the bulk of special permit introductions, with these expensive
novelties coming in smaller numbers. The gradual lessening of quantity limits
and the removal of well-established varieties from the authorized list to les-
sen pest risk have also influenced the situation somewhat, as well as the tense
economic conditions of the last two years.

Whatever the proportionate effects of these various factors may have
been, the records indicate that the gradual reduction of imports to the basis
minimum needs of the country is being rapidly accomplished.

HIDING THEM FROM THE INSPECTOR

W. W. Wood, Plant Quarantine Inspector at Detroit, reports that on May
15 a customs inspector, in the course of examination of automobiles arriving
from Canada, found about three-fourths of a bushel of corn on the cob concealed
under the hood of one motor car, with some few ears held in the drip pan. The
corn was seized and destroyed.







-6-


CIPOLLINI BRINGS NEW INSECT

Shipments of cipollini (Muscari comosum), imported from Europe and
Africa, are at times found infested with the greater bulb fly (Merodon eques-
tris) and other insects. In a recent shipment of cipollini from Morocco en-
tered at San Francisco January 20, 1932, a number of larvae were found, which
on rearing proved to be largely Merodon, but among which occurred a specimen
of Exosoma lusitanica. This latter species was first intercepted December 20,
1929, and since that time it has been intercepted 57 times in cipollini from
Morocco and once in this host from Italy. Dr. A. G. Boving states that E.
lusitanica is a potential pest closely related to the genera Diabrotica and
Phyllotreta.



DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES

The plan recently suggested by the National Plant Board, under which
compliance with State plant quarantines would be required for the delivery of
plant shipments moving by parcel post and providing that the shipper of plant
material would release the Post.Office Department from all responsibility for
any action which might be taken with respect to the shipment in relation to
such quarantines, was recently taken up by members of the Administration with
the Division of Classification of the Post Office Department. The latter
pointed out difficulties involved in a recognition of State plant quarantines
owing to the variety and lack of uniformity of State orders. The waiver plan
was also felt not to prevent the public's adverse reaction to the loss of
apparently uninfested plants shipped in good faith and refused at destination.
If a unified program of State quarantines could be worked out and adopted by
the various States, the Superintendentof Classification felt that such a pro-
gram might be made the basis of a Federal order by the Department of Agricul-
ture. It would then be in such form that the Post Office Department might co-
operate in its enforcement.

Gladiolus thrips, Taeniothrips ladioli M. & S., which has during the
last year or two proven seriously injurious in New York, Massachusetts, Ohio,
and other eastern States, has recently been found.infesting gladiolus corms in
Washington, D. C., and vicinity, according to a memorandum received from the
Bureau of Entomology. Abrief survey by Bureau entomologists among local grow-
ers and dealers resulted in finding infested corms at two Washington stores
from which many lots had been purchased, and an infested shipment had just been
received by a local grower. Experiments to find improved control measures will
be undertaken this year at the Bureau's laboratory. An effort is also being
made to determine whether or not this is a foreign species of thrips introduced
into the United States.






-7-


TRANSIT INSPECTION

A tentative proposal that transit inspection be set up at Jacksonville,
Fla., during the latter part of the summer, was discussed at a conference held
in Washington on June 1, attended by Dr. J. H. Montgomery, Quarantine Inspec-
Str of the FLorida State Plant Board, and by representatives of the Division
of Classification of the Post Office Department and of the Plant Quarantine and
Controt Administration. It is expected that the work will be carried on co-
operatively by the State Plant Board and the Administration.

Transit inspection is being discontinued at St. Louis at the close of
June, and the forces at other cities are also being decreased.

A package of dahlia tubers refused at the post office window at Spring-
field, Mass., on May 25, because no Japanese beetle certificate was attached,
was later brought back by a different person who declared the contents as mer-
chandise or dress goods. The postal employees became suspicious and notified
the transit inspector at Springfield, who intercepted and returned the ship-
ment. This is but one example of the excellent cooperation extended by the
Post Office Department in preventing uninspected plants from being moved out
of the infested areas.

Inspectors enforcing the Japanese beetle quarantine at Philadelphia
have been obliged recently to intercept over 4,000 cabbage plants, with soil,
consigned by one shipper located in a part of Virginia infested with the Jap-
anese beetle. The shipments were consigned to 17 various addresses and were
turned back in transit. It has not yet been learned in Washington whether the
shipper had failed to have the plants and premises inspected or had merely
failed to attach Japanese beetle certificates.

WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST

As a basis for applying such measures as may be necessary to protect
the white pine stock in the Maryland State Forest Nursery from infection by
white-pine blister rust, a survey of the surroundings to locate currant and
gooseberry plants was made during the latter part of April by Mr. L. W. Hodg-
kins of the Bureau of Plant Industry. Mr. R. A. Sheals of the Administration
accompanied Mr. Hodgkins during a part of the survey. No wild Ribes were found
within 1,500 feet, nor were any cultivated black currants found within a mile
radius of the nursery. Information concerning a few cultivated red currants
and gooseberries found within the 1,500-foot zone was turned over to the State
authorities for such action as might seem advisable.

NARCISSUS BULB PESTS

Federal Quarantine No. 62 was amended effective June 20, as the result
of a conference held in Washington on March 28 to consider the revocation of the
quarantine or revision of the regulations. "The amendment," the introductory
comment states, "eliminates the requirement of fumigation on account of lesser






-8.


bulb fly (Eumorus spp.) infestation. The certification of bulbs as free from
infestation is also authorized on the basis of the warehouse inspection where
the planting has not been examined during the growing, season, provided-the
Plant Quarantine and Control Administration issues a special approval %f that
procedure based on evidence of an intensive inspection of the bulbs in storage
by inspectors competent to discover eelworm infestations in such dormant bulbs.

"The specific designation of treatment methods is removed fromnthe
quarantine regulations themselves-and will be issued in the form of adminisr,
trative instructions. This change is made for the purpose of rendering the
regulations more flexible and more easily subject to modification when further
research work results in the development of improved methods."

BLACK-STEM RUST

A revision of the lists of species of barberry and Mahonia which are
susceptible to black-stem rust, and those which are nonsusceptible, iS.being
completed by the Barberry Eradication Division of the Bureau of.Plant Industry.
An outdoor garden to test the susceptibility of the various species has been
started by the Bureau at Bell, Md., to supplement greenhouse experiments car-
ried out elsewhere,

PHONY PEACH DISEASE

Examination of the environs of peach-growing nurseries was .started in
Georgia and Florida about June 1. Under the phony-peach disease quarantine,
nursery stock. i certified for interstate movement if no trees infected with
the disease harve been found within a mile of.the premises for the preceding
two years. One or more large nurseries are arranging to insure.compliance
with the certification requirements by seeing that there are no peach trees of
any kind growing within a mile of the nursery blocks. In such cases the nur-
serymen purchase such few mature trees as are found already growing within a
mile of their premises or make other arrangements for disposing of them. The
first work-of the inspectors consists of checking on the surroundings of nur-
series which have made arrangements of this kind.



DATE SCALE

During the month of May, routine inspection was continued in the infest-
ed area in the Coachlla Va laly. Mar.y of the recently infested gardens were
inspected anc nc sc.ale c.ii'. Tnn sct'cn-by-seztion survey was discontinued
because of hot .-"ib.r until ll. !.l of tho infete.it area and most of the
border zone Ya: boen co.'ered. Inspection wes interrupted for two or three days
and. 270 abandoned y'eoalig pa.lms were dug out. Very fevr abandoned palms diffi-
cult to inspect now remain in the infested area. A group of fan palms ranging
from 15.to 55 feet tall, which were infested in 1930, were inspected.and no
scale found. This group of palms is on the Southern Pacific Railway Station







-9-


grounds mingled with other trees and shrubbery and in many cases near build-
ings. The inspection is done from extension ladders, the men wearing safety
belts so that both hands may be used to manipulate the leaves. One of the
inspectors shifting his position on a palm accidentally unsnapped the catch
on his belt and dropped about 25 feet to the hard adobe soil beneath. He
lit on his feet, breaking five bones in one foot and one in the other, and
wrenching his back and knees. Prompt medical-attention was given him and he
will soon be able to move about some on crutches. His feet will be in casts
for several weeks, however.

In the Imperial Valley, section-by-section scouting is being conducted
to locate unlisted palms in the infested area. The inspection of fan and
Canary Island palms on infested and adjoining properties was completed.
Routine inspection of all varieties of palms in the infested area was begun,
*and a scouting inspection was begun in the uninfested part of the Valley.

At Yuma, Ariz., the section-by-section survey was completed and the
inspectors stationed there-transferred to Phoenix. While considerable inspec-
tion remains to be done, continuous inspection is not necessary, and the work
will be handled from the Phoenix headquarters.

At Phoenix a.final survey and inspection is being made in some of the
outlying territory. In Arizona there has been little evidence of the spread
of the Parlatoria date scale except by the movement of off-shoots.




EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND JAPANESE BEETLE

Specialized Corn Borer Activities

The State of Connecticut continued its corn borer clean-up campaign
throughout the State and the.work was practically completed during the latter
part of the month. Good cooperation was received from the majority of the corn
growers. Twenty-two inspectors were employed on this work for an approximate
period of five weeks. Those farmers refusing to cooperate were given a definite
date to have the work completed, and those failing to finish the work within the
specified time were prosecuted. It has been necessary to carry but six cases
into court. The work of rechecking will be completed a~out June 15.

Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work

Bait mixing began at the South Norwalk headquarters on April 28. Five
men were required over a period of 12 days to mix 1,150 cans of bait, each con-
taining 33 pounds of the material. In the mixing process, the more fluid liquid
ingredients of the bait, consisting of geraniol, eugenol, glycerine, and water
were first placed.in an uncovered cylinder and thoroughly agitated by means of a
motor-driven mixing machine having an aluminum shaft and push-pull propellors.






-10-


Hot water from the water heater was used. As soon as the mixer revolved at
full speed, the molasses was added to the other liquids. During the mixing
of the liquids, these fluid ingredients were heated to from 1060 to 110 F.,
by means of a gasoline blast furnace placed directly beneath'the mixing cylin-
der. The propellors of the agitator near the bottom of the cylinder'prevented
burning or scorching of the molasses. Twelve minutes were allowed for thorough
mixing of the liquids. The liquid portion was then drawn off by means of a
spigot at the bottom of the cylinder and added to the bran which had already
been placed in a gasoline-driven tilting paddle-type plaster mixer. The heated
liquids coat and penetrate the bran more quickly than do cold mixtures. The
heating process also shortened by three minutes the periods required for mixing
of the liquid ingredients and their final combination with bran. The latter
operation now occupies 12 minutes. To facilitate the mixing operations, the
tilting plaster mixer was mounted on a raised wooden platform. Bags of bran,
scales, barrels of molasses, steel drums of geraniol, eugenol, and glycerine,
and a constant supply of hot water were conveniently grouped about the plat-
form. Marked measures and pails for the liquid ingredients were beneath the
appropriate spigots. Each batch of bait mixed contained 8.26 quarts geraniol,
26.455 ounces eugenol, 7 quarts water, 6.44 pints glycerine, 21 quarts molas-
ses, and 82.67 pounds bran. This quantity is sufficient for a single baiting
of 500 traps. At the conclusion of the final mixing, the mixer was tilted and
each batch dumped onto a shallow wooden trough, from which the bait was scoop-
ed into tin containers. Each can was filled and tamped down until the 33-pound
weight was reached, Air-tight pressure covers were used to close the bait cans.
Each container was then placed in a separate fiber-board carton, the date of
mixing stamped thereon, and the finished product stored ready for freight ship-
ment or truck movement along with the traps to field operation points. The
quantity of bait mixed makes a total of nearly 19 tons for use during the com-
ing trapping season.

State supervisors and section leaders throughout the Japanese beetle
and European corn borer areas met in conference at the South Norwalk headquar-
ters on May 5 for the purpose of discussing seasonal work soon to begin through-
out the quarantined and adJacent territory. The greater part of the discussion
related to the organization of the trapping program which this year will replace
all scouting as heretofore performed outside the .rgulated area. Field Inspee-
tion by scouts this year.will be confined to surveys in classifiee nouseries
and greenhouses within the regulated environs. State suparvisorv will be re-
sponsible for the distribution of traps and the direction of the trap inspectors
working in their respective territ6ries. A rather extensive 30 and 60-day trap-
ping program has been prepared, starting in Florida and gradually-working north
as the anticipated beetle emergence dates in the different latitudes warrant
trap placement. The Majority of the traps will be used twice during the season
and some of them will possibly see service in three localities. It is the ob-
ject to trap as many cities and towns as possible with the available trap supply,
scattering the traps approximately 300 feet apart throughout the communities in
order.to cover as much territory as possible. In the larger cities a higher
concentration of traps will be located in the vicinity of freight yards, steam-
ship piers, parks,and other sections which experience has shown to be the most
likely places for infestation establishment, Present at the conference from






-II-


the South Norwalk headquarters were Messrs. L. H. Worthley, E. G. Brewer,
H. N. Bartley, 0. K. Courtney, J. P. Johnson, C. W. Stockwell, R. W. Sherman,
and H. B. Ward. State supervisors and section leaders called in for the con-
ference' included W. C. Armstrong, T. M. Cannon, R. S. Clifton, W. E. Cranston,
J. K. Gould, G. K. Handle, W. F. Walsh, and C. H. Zimmer.

Initial outdoor finds of adult beetles were made on May 6. On that
date 2 specimens were picked up in a vacant lot in Norwood, Pa. Later the
same day, 4 beetles were found on roses in the center of a lawn near a green-
house establishment in Holmes, Pa. Leaf skeletonization indicated that the
beetles had been present for a number of days previous to their discovery.
On May 7, 4 beetles were found on rose bushes along a trolley road at Holmes.
The rose leaves on which these specimens were found also showed evidencesof
beetle feeding. The latter location is about 400 feet distant from the above
greenhouse, in the vicinity of which last year's infestation was extremely
heavy. On the 'same date, 2 adult beetles were collected from ivy growing on
the side of the building of the University of Pennsylvania Botanical Gardens,
Philadelphia. This was also a badly infested spot last summer. On May 16,
Dr. Henry Fox and four employees from the Japanese beetle research laboratory,
Moorestown, N. J., accompanied one of the inspectors from the Oakmont quaran-
tine office to the sites at which beetles had been found on May 6 and 7. At
the Holmes location along the trolley road, 6 specimens were collected, and
49 additional adults were taken from roses and spirea growing alongside the
greenhouse in that locality. Five beetles were also taken on the same day on
huckleberry and aronia growing in the Norwood vacant lot where specimens were
first found on May 6. While these adults evidently emerged from open ground,
they had apparently overwintered in protected spots, which accounts for their
unusually early appearance. The first adults found in the open last year were
collected on May 23.

Chemical manufacturers in the regulated area, in a number of instances,
have arranged to substitute cinders for the sand ordinarily used in the bot-
toms of crated acid carboys. The sand used acts as a buffer base and is also
valuable as absorption material in the event of breakage. The firms still us-
ing sand for this purpose obtain the same under conditions which permit its
subsequent certification when accompanying shipments destined to unquarantined
territory. Fine cinders appear to be as useful as sand for protecting the
carboy shipments. A number of firms have substituted this material rather
than obtain and keep their sand supply under certified conditions. Cinders are
not subject to Japanese beetle infestation, so are not covered in the quaran-
tine regulations. In addition to sand used by acid shippers, it is the regular
practice.of the railroad companies to place a layer of sand on the freight car
floor for a few inches, surrounding each crate of acid. This is also done with
many other commodities, such as barrels of iced fish, likely to seep through
and cause damage to near-by shipments in the car. In the heavily infested area
much of the sanding of cars is performed when the consignments are reloaded at
Philadelphia freight transfer points. Philadelphia freight officials conform
to quarantine requirements in purchasing and handling sand for use in this man-
ner, so are accorded certification much after the fashion of a certified nur-
seryman. STATE PLANT BOARA







-12-


T. M. Cannon, representing the Plant Quarantine and Control Adminis-
tration, addressed a joint meeting of the Hartford Florist Club and Hartford
County Funeral Directors at the.Hotel Bond, Hartford, on May 10. Both the
European corn borer and the Japanese beetle quarantines were explained in de-
tail.

On May 3, three roving Japanese beetle inspectors started checking
movement of products under regulation from Hampden County, Mass., and during
the following week this was augmented by the addition of nine permanent sta-
tions being operated along the Connecticut-Massachusetts borderb Stations
were also opened during the week of May 1 on the New York-Vermont and New
York-Massachusetts State lines. Although many interceptions of quarantined
material were made, no Japanese beetles were found.

In the New York area, additional equipment and personnel were added
and all stations started operating on a 24-hour basis on May 13. Five Japan-
ese beetle grubs were found in soil at these New York lines during the month,
the shipments originating in Pennsylvania and New Jersey and destined to
points in New York State..

The reduction in the number of products under regulation as set forth
in the Japanese beetle and European corn borer quarantines now effective has
reduced inspection work greatly. This fact, together with the poor market
conditions, has made possible the carrying on of inspection work with fewer
inspectors. The nursery business as a whole fell off ,considerably and ship-
ments during the month have been largely local.

Necessary inspection and certification of young plants of chrysanthe-
mum, aster, dahlia, and gladiolus on May 1, because of the European corn bor-
er quarantine, increased the field inspection work at some points, particularly
on Long Island.

Trapping activities in May included the.distribution of 400 traps each
in Jacksonville, Fla., Savannah, Augusta, and Atlanta, Ga., Charleston and
Columbia, S. C., and Fayetteville, Raleigh, and Wilmington, N. C. Eight hun-
dred traps were placed in Charleston, S. C., and 400 traps were scattered
throughout Florence and Sumter, S. C. These traps were placed on various dates
from May 2 to 31. Placement of 2,000 additional traps in Washington, D. C.,
was also begun on May 23. T. C. F. Cronin, formerly of the Boston office, has
been detailed to Washington to supervise trap operations in that city. Five
trap inspectors will be engaged in tending the Washington traps. Messrs. M.J.
Kelly and H. B. Ward, of the South Norwalk headquarters, and J. K. Daley, for-
merly connected with corn borer activities in New York City, are in the field
organizing the trap work'in the southern-cities.. Mr. Kelly started operations
in Florida in April and gradually worked north. Supervision of the traps in
Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina has been assigned to W. R. Walton, Jr.,
who has been detailed to that work from the South Norwalk headquarters. When
trap operations progressed as far north as South Carolina, Messrs. Ward and
Daley were placed in the field to assist in the expanding activities.







-13-


Results of analyses of lead arsenate treated nursery plots in classi-
fied establishments were made available to the project by the toxological
division during the month. In turn this information was furnished to the
establishments from which samples had been analyzed, in order that the re-
quired amount of lead arsenate might be added to the surface areas to raise
Stheir insecticide content to the prescribed dosage of 1,500 pounds per acre
Sin the upper 3 inches of soil throughout the plot. According to treating
instructions, the additional lead must be incorporated with the soil' before
SJuly-1.. Plants growing in plots so treated for two successive years may be
dug and shipped under certification, on or after September 20. Stock from
plots treated for the first time by July 1 are not eligible for certifica-
tion until October 1. Lead arsenate applications and mixture of the material
with the upper 3 inches of soil are performed under the supervision of an in-
spector, who prepares detailed maps of the treated section and properly marks
-the same with appropriate stakes..

At the invitation of M. S. Yeomans, Georgia State Entomologist,
Mr. Worthley, on May 23, gave a talk on the Japanese beetle and European
corn borer activities to Georgia extension workers and a number of interested
officials and individuals. The meeting was held in the Henry Grady Hotel at
Atlanta. All county agents of the State were called in for the occasion. In
addition to discussing control measures for both insects and replying to numer-
ous questions asked by the extension men, the two c-orn borer films, "Uncle Jake
Wakes Up" and "The Corn and-The Borer," together with the reel entitled "Stop-
ping the Japanese Beetle," were also shown. En route to Atlanta, Mr. Worthley
conferred with the Maryland State officials at College Park. In conjunction
with the Georgia trip, visits were made to the trapped areas in Jacksonville,
Fla., Savannah and Atlanta, Ga., and Charleston, N. C.

Determination of larvae removed from plant material surrendered during
May at Japanese beetle road posts disclosed 47 Japanese beetle grubs intercept-
ed while en route to uninfested territory. Twenty lots of plant material among
those left at road posts were found to be infested. A lot of 28 shrubs en
route from Union City, N. J., to central Pennsylvania, yielded 9 grubs. Five
grubs were removed from a number of plants intercepted while being transported
from Fayetteville, Pa., to Pittsburgh. A single azalea plant surrendered by a
moftrist driving from Philadelphia to Johnstown, Pa., was found to contain 5
grubs. Soil accompanying 8 plants in possession of a motorist 'from eastern
Pennsylvania destined to LeRoy Lake, Ind., harbored 4 grubs. A Philadelphia-
to-Pittsburgh-bound motorist also surrendered a number of plants later found to
contain 4 larvae. Infested plants destined to four Ohio cities were among the
interceptions.

Wooden inspection tables on which farm products may be inspected have
been constructed at the South Norwalk headquarters and delivered to points at
which inspection centers will be established upon the opening of the quarantine
on certain farm products effective June 15.

While it has been possible on account of the reduction in the types of







-14-


farm products under quarantine to curtail the personnel assigned to this
phase of the summer's activities at the older established farm products in-
spection points, any such reduction in force is offset by the fact that the
movement of quarantined farm products is restricted from the entire regulated
area, whereas last year's regulations restricted the movement of these arti-
cles only from the generally infested area, permitting their free movement
from the lightly infested area which comprised a considerable portion of the
now single, continuous regulated area.

Curricula have been prepared and instructors secured for the annual
school for inspectors to be held in two duplicated sections from June 1 to 3
and 6 to 8, at the New Jersey district headquarters at White Horse. The
toxological divisionb chemical laboratory will be used as a class room. Lec-
turers are largely drawn from the Moorestown, N. J., Japanese beetle research
laboratory and from the permanent Japanese beetle quarantine force. Those in
attendance this year will not be confined to the New Jersey personnel but will
include such of the permanent force from adjoining States as can be spared for
the time necessary to attend the classes. As in previous years, the opening
session of both sections will be addressed by New Jersey Secretary of Agricul-
ture William B. Duryee.

A number of roadside stands located near the District of Columbia-
Maryland line are selling uncertified evergreens,and perennials, some of which
appear to have originated in the densely infested Japanese beetle area. Since
a considerable quantity of this possibly-infested stock might logically be re
moved to suburban Maryland points by purchasers transporting their plants in
ignorance of the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations, a number of road in-
spectors have been stationed on the principal highways leading from the Distri
into Maryland. These men have been successful in turning back for certificat
quantities of uncertified stock and in warning truckers and others against
transporting uncertified quarantined articles into uninfested territory in
Maryland. These inspectors were first stationed at the District line on May

A good stand of smartweed is in evidence on the acre plot seeded to th
attractive beetle food plant on the grounds of the White Horse,. N. J., headque
ters. Only two of the six Philadelphia vacant lots cleared and broadcasted w
this seed show fair germination and are making good growth. The other lots,
to their having been used as dumping or baseball grounds, have had most of th
surfaces so badly packed or have been in such constant use as playgrounds that
no opportunity has been afforded for smartweed growth. Late in the month all
rubbish and stones were removed from the Philadelphia lots so that several the
sand potted smartweed seedlings grown in coldframes at White Horse may be set
out to furnish the beetle's food supply in the summer's smartweed*arsenate of
lead-trapping demonstration.

Unusual interest in Japanese beetle trapping activities was recently
evidenced by a crew on a booster engine in the Seaboard Air Line freight yard:
at Jacksonville, Fla. The booster travin was stopped for a few minutes to per-
mit a trainman to run across the yards and inform a trap inspector that a tra







S-15-


which had been set up two days previously was full of beetles. Examination of
the trap disclosed a small quantity of miscellaneous beetles, but no Popillia
;japonficA,*

Economy is being practiced in the .use of Japanese.beetle certificates
so that the present supply will last unil July 1. Certificates being printed
for use during the next fiscal year include a number of changes which will re-
quire the abandonment of the present.type. A supply of. the now used certifi-
cates sufficient only for the needs during June is on hand.

"Numerous requests are being,received at the Oakmont, Pa., office for
information on the treatment of sod for the destruction of Japanes.e beetle
grubs.

Baltimore's new Post Office and Court House Building at the corner of
Calvert and Fayette Streets- will be officially opened on June 3. Office space
'has been assigned in this new Federal building for the Baltimore Japanese
b eetle ^quarantine office, .which now occupies leased quarters at 301 East North
Avenue. Officials in charge of the formal opening of the new building ask to
have a representative of the quarantine..office in attendance at the new quar-
ters with a Japanese beetle exhibit so that the activities of the project may
be explained to those present at the opening festivities. Removal of the
presept Baltimore office to the new quarters will be effected before the be-
ginning of the next fiscal year.




S '" XICAN FRUIT WORM.
fi; ,) ... : , ': : *
S' The operation. df some 5,600 fly traps resulted in the taking-,of 5 adult
Mdxican fruit flies on the Anerican side ,of the Rio Grande during May. These
flids were taken in four groves, three of which had previously been reported
as infested.- No :infestatiQn had been previously reported from the ether grove,
Swhich is located about 61 miles from..the nearest previously reported infesta-
tion. Fermenting malt was used principally as the bait in the traps; however,
:severA1 other, attrahents, including fermenting, corn-meal, blackstrap molasses,
pynthetic orange extract, and. fresh fruit juices%, were tried out.

I... ,addition to the Anastrepha ludens taken in-the traps, 181 adult A.
pallens were also taken. The population of palrens seems to have decreased
considerably since, with a considerably larger number of traps in operation,
the take of pallens showed a decrease of 536 adults from the number taken in
April. This fly seems t'o occur wherever the La Coma plant grows. Larvae were
taken during the month as far wqst as Zapata and as far north as Raymondy ille.

Mangoes reaching the Latamoros market are found to be heavily infested
with larvae of the Mexican fruit.fly,. All fruit reaching Matamoros is examined
by th MAexican"'inspector before being released from the express :office. Any







W16-


fruit which shows evidence of being infested is confiscated and after being
inspected is destroyed. From 362 mangoes confiscated on arrival, 1,447 larvae
of ludens were taken. This procedure seems to be fairly safe since onlyl9
larvae of the fruit fly were recovered from fruit which was released.-to.the
merchants after examination. Sixteen larvae were taken from oranges reaching
Matamoros during the month.

The operation of traps in Matamoros resulted in taking' two adult Mexi-
can fruit flies during May. One of these was taken in a trap-baited with stal
beer, and the other in a trap baited with orange extract. Upon fihding these
,specimens, the application of poison bait spray was immediately inaugurated in
the four blocks surrounding each.infested premise.

The inspection of locally-produced fruit in Matamoros continued to
give negative results. The number of ripe sour oranges on the trees is de-
creasing rapidly. The fruit on the two trees of white sapotes are fully ripe
peaches are beginning to ripen, and the guavas are about one-half ripe. No
infestation was found in any of these fruits.

A total of 2,033 specimens were identified during the month. These
were taken in 202 collections, Of these, 1,743 were specimens of Anastrepha.
Only those specimens .that might be mistaken for Anastrepha, or that are of
rare occurrence, are submitted for identification. Considerable difficulty
has been experienced in keeping ants out of the traps. Ants and spiders are
particularly bad in destroying flies caught in the traps.

The shipment of sterilized, fruit held in the Valley was completed dur-
ing the month. During the shipping season just ended approximately 8,000
cars of fruit were permitted out of the quarantined area. Of this amount
approximately 23 per cent was transported by truck. While the majority of
fruit hauled by truck went to points in Texas, Oklahoma, and Lsuisiana, a num
ber of truckers made regular trips to Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, and other
States. A larger percentage of the fruit would have been hauled by truck had
it not been for the closing of the Southern and Western States-to all but ste
ilized fruit during the' latter part of March.

A considerable amount of unsterilized fruit is still held in storage i
the Valley. This necessitated the maintenance of.the road.traffic inspection
stations during the month. The Rio Grande City station was carried on as a
mobile patrol, part of the time being spent on the ranch reads and part on th
main highway. No deliberate attempts t:o evade the quarantine were encounterec
during the month.


' PINK BOLLWORM

The work of removing stub or volunteer cotton from the two infested
areas .i the Salt River Valley of Arizona is now well under way, At a confer
ence helJd at the Governor's office on May 12, final arrangements were complet







-17-


and on the following day the Governor issued an emergency proclamation
appropriating $9,50Q for this work. This fund will serve a twofold purpose--
the removal of stub cotton and alleviation to.a small degree of the condition
of unemployment in the Salt River Valley. -The Governor has insisted that
only bona fide citizens of Arizona of at least one year's continuous resi-
dence shall be employed, with preference being given to men who have depen-
dents, and in so far as possible residents of the districts affected. At
first it was planned to give each man one week's work, but due to the large
number of persons registering for employment, it has been necessary to reduce
the time to three days.

On May 16 the clean-up was begun in the Laveen area, and completed at
the end of that week. Approximately 500 acres were cleaned. The following
week work was begun in the area southeast of Chandler. At the close of the
month over 600 acres had been cleaned in this area.

Inspectors went over many of the fields before they were cleaned and
removed all squares and blooms from the volunteer plants. So far some 2,000
squares have thus been collected and examined without any traces of the pink
bollworm having been found. Squares on the volunteer plants are now becoming
more numerous, and when the clean-up is *ompleted a rather thorough inspection
of the area will have been made.

Certain fields have been selected in various localities of the Salt
River Valley in which to watch the developments of planted cotton. The first
squares were noticed in two fields about the third week of May which had been
planted in late February and early March. It is thought now that the cotton
will be far enough advanced for field inspections to begin about the middle
of June.

The first pink bollworms of the seavon were found in the Big Bend of
Texas on May 25. A number of stalks of volunteer cotton were found in an
alfalfa field which had been plarted to cotton last season. A few of the
stalks were beginning to fruit. About 50 squares were inspected and-2 small
larvae were found. Further inspections are planned, but in all probability
the alfalfa will be cut tofore the majority of the plants reach the fruiting
stage.

During the month, 154,825 green bolls were inspected at the San Antonio
laboratory with negative results. These bolls had previously been collected
in 8 counties in Alabama and 18 in Georgia.

At the El Paso laboratory 582 1-pound samples of unsterilized seed
were inspected. Specimens of the pink bollworm were found in five samples
from DonaAn. County, N. Mex., and seven from El Paso County, Tex. The latter
part of the month the inspection of samlples origins.tiLi. outside of the regulated
area was begun. A total of 330 samples from Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Texas were inspected, with negctive results. These samples were colleeted dur-
ing the past winter and shipped to El Paso.








-18-


The inspection of unsterilized seed samples was begun at the Alpine
laboratory during the month. The first samples inspected were from the
heavily infested Big Bend area. From 521 pounds of seed inspected, 1,111
pink bollworms were taken, 296 of which were alive and 815 dead. One es-
pecially interesting fact was noted in connection with the above inspections.
About 42 per cent of the specimens taken from the Ochoa seed were alive,
while only 9 per cent were alive in the Presidio samples, the same amount of
seed being inspected from each locality. In seeking an explanation of this
it was found that the Ochoa seed was collected on December 11, while the
Presidio samples were not collected until December 31. If there was a corres-
ponding difference in the dates the cotton was picked, the Presidio specimens
would thus have been exposed to weather conditions almost three weeks longer
than the others. Samples from the lightly infested districts were also in-
spected. Tho results were negative for the Midland, Tex., district, but two
specimens wore found in samples from the Pecos Valley--one from New Mexico
and one from Texas. Some of the samples collected outside of the regulated
area were shipped to Alpine. After completing the inspection of samples from
the regulated area, the samples from outside the area were begun. The re-
sults were negative, 62 pounds of seed originating in the States of Arkansas
and Tennessee having been inspected.

In a previous News Letter it was reported that all of the oil mills
had closed for the season. During the month it was discovered that some of
the stored seed at the Las Cruces, N. Mex., mill was beginning to heat. As a
result this mill was forced to run about two weeks in order to take care of
the heated seed. The heating began in the center of the building, and was
not discovered until a large volume of the seed had become affected. It is
thought that a load of wet seed was dumped into the building, its condition
not being noticed at the time of unloading.

The progress of the Thurberia plant and weevil survey in southeastern
Arizona has Leen very satisfactory. Two plant colonies in'the Black Hills,
in Final County, wer'e fcund to be infested with weevils during the month.
These plants wero f'rr reported a number of years ago and they have since
been inspected on several occasions, but no infestations were found until the
present ones" The infestations are in two different canyons on the western
slope of Black H'unta-.o which is a part of the Black H.lls Range. Observa-
tions indicate thai tler1 will undoubtedly be a very large carryover of live
weevils in the ulant col]riHs thus far found to be infected. Conditions are
favorable for an early lv rence, as most of the plan',] ore now making rapid
growth, with bu;s a-iread c. iraiing to appear. In th i. connection it is in-
teresting to not(e Th-t n co-tton will be planted at Eloy this season; also
that no voluanteer ;owVh hao been noticed in any of last year's cotton fields.
It will b' bt- all tr-t veeviis were found in cotton in this locality last
season for th`e tiLb-ec time.

Ii








-19-


PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS

With the exception of a crew scouting in Sheffield, Mass., and another
working in Canaan, Conn., scouting work in the southwestern portion of Massa-
chusetts and the northwestern part of Connecticut, in the barrier zone, was
concluded by May 31. Scouting by the 40-foot strip method was continued dur-
ing the moAth in Vermont. It is expected that this work will be continued un-
til the close of the current fiscal year. Thirty-four agents, who were engaged
in intensive scouting work in Massachusetts and Connecticut, were transferred
to Vermont. By the first of June, there were 7 crews scouting-in Vermont dis-
tributed in the following towns: Danby, Orwell, Shoreham, and Wells.

Up to and including May 28, there has been found by the Federal force
in the barrier-zone area of southwestern Massachusetts and northwestern Connes-
ticut, a total of 67 infested sites aggregating 885 new gipsy moth egg clusters.
The towns infested in this portion of Massachusetts are New Marlboro, Otis,
Sandisfield, Sheffield, and Tyringham. In Connecticut, the barrier-zone towns
infested are Canaan, Norfolk, North Canaan, Salisbury, and Warren. The farthest
infested point in the barrier-zone area this year, in relation to the New York
State line, is approximately 15 miles east of it. Salisbury, Conn., borders on
the New York State line.

All of the egg clusters found this year have been treated with creosote.
In addition to this, chopping of undesirable trees and brush and clean-up work
have supplemented this treatment at some of the'infested sites when the oondi-
tions surrounding the infested area warranted it.

The first gipsy moth egg clusters were observed hatching this year on
May 2. Hatching became general about May 9 and the maximum hatch otcurred about
May 13. These observations were made in several places east of the barrier
zone.

The month of May has been a very busy one on this project. Additional
help was engaged for temporary work to assist in the spraying program planned
for this season. Ten crews .of these men were engaged in erecting temporary
barbed wire fences to inclose areas that are to be sprayed. These fences give
the fullest protection possible to the property owners, who signed spraying.
permits, by preventing live stock from grazing on the poisoned foliage. Unused
cart roads or trails were looked over to insure that they were in condition to
support the weight of the sprayer trucks that travel over them to reach the
most advantageous locations in relation to the area that is to be sprayed. Six
trucks, equipped with coummercial bodies, have been trarsferring hose, arsenate
of lead, fish oil, and other spraying supplies from Greenfield to temporary
storage points in the infested barrier-zone area in Massachusetts and Connecti-
cut. All the sprayer trucks, completely equipped with repair tools and spraying
appliances, have been driven to the operating locations in the field. These lo-
cations are in the infested areas of northwestern Connecticut and southwestern
Massachusetts. Nearly 132,000 feet of high pressure 1-inch spray hose was de-
livered to various points in the field. This hose has been laid out at the







-20-


various infestations found this year. On several occasions over a mile of
hose has been laid in order to spray the infestations. The laying of the
hose to spray the infestations found on Canaan Mountain in Connecticut was
an arduous task. Ordinarily a length of spray hose, which is 50 feet long,
and weighs approximately 55 pounds with the couplings attached, can be read-
ily carried by a man. In places on this mountain it was a slow and persever-
ing job for a man to carry a length of hose up the mountainside in account
of the steep elevation. On several occasions the men had to crawl on their
hands and knees. Although the mountains in this vicinity range from approx-
imately 1,000 to 1,500 feet or more above sea level, the climb to the summits
is very steep. The peaks loom up abruptly from the roadside. Rattlesnakes
infest these mountains and seven of these venomous reptiles were killed by
one crew. The largest specimen killed measured approximately 5 feet in
length.

All preparations were completed in May so that spraying work in the
infested portion of the New England barrier zone will start on June 1, weath-
er permitting. By June 6 it is expected that all of the spraying equipment,
which includes 2 model AA Ford sprayer trucks, and 26 heavier sprayer trucks,
will be in operation.

In addition to these sprayer trucks, there were four machines loaned
to the New York Conservatian Department for spraying work on Long Island. En
route to the latter place, one truck sprayed the infestation found this year
at Rye, Westchester County, N. Y., which consisted of six new egg clusters.
Another truck sprayer en route to Roslyn, L. I., treated the infestation of a
a single new egg cluster discovered near Creedmoor, Queens County, L. I. At
the end of May, the New York Conservation Department was spraying in North
Hempstead and Oyster Bay, Nassau County, L. I. This Department also carried
on scouting work in Washington and Rensselaer Counties in the north central
portion of the New York State barrier-zone area.

A supply truck transferred to Greenfield practically all of the sup-
plies and equipment owned by this project that were left at the storehouse
in Bound Brook, N. J. This substation will be clqsed on July 1.

The weather has been very favorable for field activities during May
because there was very little rain. The lack of rain, however, is responsible
for a dangerous forest fire hazard which exists now in New England and New
York. The States of Maine, New Hampshire, and New York have closed the woods
to the public until conditions are improved. This fire hazard has become so
menacing that the gipsy moth employees were instructed to refrain from smoking
and to omit carrying smoking materials and matches with them while engaged in
work in the open until further orders.

To supplement the scouting work which was concluded during April in New
Jersey, it is planned to put out approximately 3,000 assembling cages before
July 1 in about 70 townships. Most of these townships are located beyond the
area that has previously been scouted for the gipsy moth. The assembling cage
is a raw edge tin can without a cover or bead and measures 2-5/16 inches in







-21-


diameter and 1-1/2 inches high, outside measurement. All of the seams are
soldered and the cans have a -round bole one-sixteenth of an inch in diameter
punched on the side opposite to the seam, 1 inch from th6 bottom.

In order to avoid the necessity for increasing the'personnel in New
Jersey, all of the preliminary work connected with this measure was begun
soon after the middle of May so that these cages will be in working order
prior to the time when the male moths are in flight. The assembling cage
tins were nailed to the trees and the. tanglefoot which surrounds them was
smeared on. All necessary notes and maps showing the cage locations were
prepared. This will simplify the process of finding t'he cages at later dates
when baiting and inspections of them are made. When the area involved is
caged in this manner, it will only be necessary to place the male gipsy moth
attrahont into the tin. This is accomplished by saturating a wad of absorbent
cotton from a vial of benzol which contains approximately 30 posterior abdom-
inal ends of unfertilized female gipsy moths. Before clipping the posterior
abdominal ends of the female moths, they are held for about 24 hours after
emerging from the pupae. This increases the attracting power of the material.
After the cotton i.s saturated, it is placed inside of the tin, which is then
inverted to prevent as far as possible the entrance of rain. Owing to the
fact that the gipsy moth reaches.the adult stage earlier in New Jersey than
it does in New England and because there are no gipsy moths known to exist in
New Jersey, it is necessary to use an attrahent prepared from collections made
in New England during the previous year and which is held over in cold storage
at a temperature of about 320 F.

Much of the area covered in May in placing the assembling cages was
situated in the New Jersey pine belt. This section is in the south central
part of the State and south of the area scouted for the gipsy moth in previous
years. It is very difficult to operate an automobile off the main traveled
roads in this regior because there are many unimproved roads here which are
mostly sand. Innumerable sand roads do not show on the blueprint maps. This
area is also unfamiliar to our employees as no work was ever carried on in
these townships by this project and it is sparsely settled. In some sections
of this pine belt area, where the sand roads are located, it is necessary to
paint arrows on'the trees at the junctions of the roads so that the cages can
readily be found again .

In view of the fact that New Jersey is now considered free from gipsy
moth infestation, the State gipsy moth quarantine, regulating the movement of
materials likely to carry the insect, was lifted on May 4.

On Long Island, there were 385 lots offered for inspection. These con-
sisted of 5,110 trees, 9,844 shrubs, 36 vines, 13 boxes and 1 bundle of nursery
products,,and 25 pieces of stone. This is an increase in the volume of inspec-
tion required in May over the previous month. All of this material was certi-
fied for shipment as none of it was infested with the gipsy moth.

The quarantine records of this project showing the actual number of gipsy








-22-


moth egg clusters creosoted and removed from material presented for inspection
in New England do not indicate the full value of protection given to States
outside of the quarantined area. This was illustrated by a recent lumber ship-
ment from Saco, Me., to Long Island, N. Y. In this particular shipment 134,000
feet of lumber were inspected. The lumber was transported by truck from numer-
ous lumber yards to the docks at Saco to be loaded on a boat. Only four truck
loads of this lumber were infested, eight gipsy moth egg clusters being creo-
s*ted and removed. The remainder of the consignment was taken from yards that
were free from gipsy moth infestations. The district quarantine inspector was
familiar with conditions at the different yards where the lumber was located, I
and by cooperating with the shipper, was successful in having most of the
134,000 feet of lumber taken from yards that were free from gipsy moth infesta-
tion.

Acting upon the advice of the quarantine inspectors, dealers in stone
and quarry products, lumber, and sawmill operators pile or store their products
in the open as much as possible where there is the least possibility of the
material becoming infested. Brush, which might be infested and is located near
stone quarries and lumber yards, is cut by the owners. Crating material is
selected or purchased from points outside of the quarantined area and stored in
accordance with the above recommendations. Usually long-distance shipments are
then -selected from materials stored under conditions that are very unfavorable
for gipsy moth infestation. Local shipments within the quarantined area are
chiefly chosen from material that is stored without regard to the possibilities
- of its becoming infested from near-by growth. The gipsy moth quarantine does
not regulate the movement of products likely to carry infestation that origin-
ates inside the quarantined area for shipment within the same zone.

It is only by close cooperation with the shippers, a full knowledge of
the quarantined district, and the quarantine itself that these precautionary
measures are brought about by the district inspectors.

The 'handling and selling of nursery stock by department stores causes no
special difficulty' from a gipsy moth quarantine standpoint unless the storei
are located near a quarantine border line. The.stock- is: sold and delivered gen-
erally for local plantings within a radius of a few miles. The cash-and-carry
trade is mostly local. Occasionally, however, customers will order shrubs or
evergreens to be sent to their summer.homes by parcel post.or express*

Hartford, Conn., is located on the border line of the generally infested
gipsy moth quarantined area, There are a number of department stores here that
sell nursery stock and make deliveries. This past season, during April and May,~
over 2,000 orders of nursery stock were inspected and certified at the depart-
ment stores in Hartford for d'elivery'to points west and south in the lightly in-,
fested quarantined area. A small number of express and parcel-post shipments
-were also inspected and certified. Each day the orders of stoek to be delivered
by the stores are assembled in the shipping departments and the inspectors ex-
amine them there.







-23-


The continued drought during May resulted in the closing of the wood-
lands so that the inspection and certification of collected native trees and
shrubs in southern New Hampshire was brought to a close. Six carloads and a
considerable number of cases and bales of collected stock were inspected and
certified in southern New Hampshire during April and May. The material was
collected and dug in the woodlands and pastures, then assembled at sheds
owned by the collectors, so that inspection and certification could be made.






















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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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