NEWS L'_JTT- '
MYC"AU OF PLAIN T q,T?'A:17TDT7
UNITED STA17S DEPK -'TPTT OF A'ThT'CU7rJT,
Number 35 (hOT FOR PURMICATI10iT) Nlovember 1, 1933.
(The contents of this number, unless specifically stated otherwise, cover the month of September only)
FOP:CIGIT PLAII.T QUIJVKPI_ ILlS
2CI ENTO40LOCJ CAL I1,7=UrC72r P 10 IIS 0F :, 1 C ST
Fruit flyt i oegranate.--A la-rva of the Me::icarn fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew)was intercepted gt Laredo, Tex., in a pomegranate in bat~gage from
17eevil larva in avocado.--A larva of HeiLp.j sp, (Curculionidae) was intercepoted at Nfew Orleans in an avocado seed in ship's oyarters from IFonduras.
Asiatic beetle from apa.--An adult o2f the Lsiatic beetle (Anomrala orientalis Waterho) wjas inte rcep ted at Seattle, M7sh., in a box containing foodstuffs in bagga~e from~ Japan,
Interestinp: hoz-t record.--flruchidius birguttatus (Olivier) (Bruchidae) -~as
intercepted at Philadelnhia in seed pods of Cistus villosus in the mail from Greece. 5. C, Bridrell, of 77ashinrton, D. C,, remarks sflos Ti record is particularly interesting since it is the first authentic record of any Member of the famiily Cistaceae beinr-. affected by Bruchidae."
Bark beetle from_ Panama, --Adults of X77leborus F-,enadensis Hopk. (Scolytidae) were intercepted at I'orfolk, Va., in hardwrood logs in cargo frc,.,i Panama,.
Wireworm in Dotato,--AL learva of Seao-ru aeneus L. (Elateridae) Vwas intercepted at ew YorI.', in a potato in stores from Gerr:". A .Bv ,o h Bureau of Entomology, states that this wire:or-.)- -.hich is not 1lc'm to be established in America, is injurious to field crops in 77U- ope.
Hemip efjl n Cr talarias-11ormidea. ansaaSa (ettmde was collected on Crotalarie. flower stall:s in theo field ut J :anati, P. r,.,
Weevil from. Gerr ,y*--Apion fuscirostro Fab. (Curculionidae) vas intercepted at 7ashin~Gtont D. C., nteseso eit sp. in the Maeil from Germany.
17alnut lo~s infested. --Larvae of Saperda sp. (Cerambycidae) were intercepted at Norfolk, Va., In walnut logs in carrgo from Australia.
Coleofltera arriving from India.--THeterobostrychus aequalis W7aterh, (Bostrichidae) Minthea ruicollis Walker (ytidaeT', and Sinoxylo conAnGrt (Bostrichidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in wood used. fo-r cases' of canned shelled nuts in cargo from India,
Peach and quince infested.--Larvae of Granholitha sp. (Ol-ethreutidae) were intercepted one a aePsTec in a quince in baggage fromlexico, and one
at New,- York ifr a peach in bag ,,aCe from France.
Scale insect from Brazil, -jAs 1 iotus tarmarindi Green (Coccidae) was taken at Houston, Tex., on croton in stores from Brazil.,
______rn o lettuce,--jpoasca deciiens Paoli (Cicadellida.e) was intercepted at Boston' on a lettuce leaf in stos froE: Italy.
Pink bollworm from India, --Peet inoLori. gos syp iella Saund. was intercepted at San Francisco in cottonseed used for packin[g in the mail f5orn India,
I;CPW-LT PATH"IOLOGICAL I11ri17CEPULOHTS OF' IIM-MEST
Rust of swet Pas.--S-7eet pea vines from. Gerrany were interce-pted at New York Avgnist 30 and found to be infected with Uroyespsartnoliedn U. S, Bul. 1366 as occurringf-1 on peas or sweet peas in this country. This is the first interception of the disease.
Nematode. on Erngum.--Soue plants of LKyngiuM foetidum purchased for shipment to the mainlsnd we re ound to be infested with, nenaas when examined by the inspector at San Juan September 7. The parasitid forms found were Aheenchus avenae and Apelchodes bicaudatus. Thiis is our first interception of the !atter Tsnecies, which is riot very coinruion and is usLually found in small numbers if at all.
Lej t 2 of: Veronica. --Veronica sp.* from Canada w7as -found to be infected with Sertoria sp., when inspected at Se-Atle September 14, our first interception of a Sept oria on Veronica.
Pitopolefsot--iosom sp from Scotland w :as found to be infected with2Lf Stoiea ZXittos~n i at New York Septerber 8. This is our first interception of-L this disease, which does -,-ot ar-,ear to have been reported from this country.
Leaf shDot of Yinca.--Our first intercept ion. of SejtoL!A vincae was ma.de August 29 at hie7 York o n Ymca sp. from Ireland,
Disease in banana le, _ves,--hn interes-tin- fLuncus on banana. leaves from
Mdexico, intercepted at Philadelnhia, w-as ;ub itted to 1K-i,-s 2,. 17. Cash, who reports as follows: ? ectria foliicla D. C;. C. ..Mores not sentatc; if this s-~ecies may divide later. Does not agree with any spce fHlypocreaceae found, with
one-celled spores and verrucose perithecia. If these s-orcs are mature it would
be a lI.otarisiella.1"
Aucuba disease.--Our first interception of PhomoPsis aucubicola was made Augu-st 14 at Oeattle on.Aucuba ja_2ica from -Japan.
Clubroot on turisn i--We have hadC several interceptions of Plasmodiophora brassicae recently, our first one from Africa beinc.found on turnips from South
Africa at Philadelphia on September 16.
PepRer disease from Spain.--Our first interception of 00spora lactis parasitica from Spain was made at obile Sepitember 12 on bell peppers.
A12d1fAL RECORD OF INTERCEPTZDU PLANT PETS
The record of intercepted plant pests for the year ending June 30, 1P33, has been completed. It shows a total of. 17,232 interceptions, of which 9,553 are insects and 7,679 are diseases These pests were obtained from 21,190 lots of material, sore of which had no determinable pests and others had several. Last year's list showed 10,970 interceptions of pests from the 17,324 lots of material sent in.
EIDII NG.,C l T ~TF O I T_2 INTSPCTOR
The S.S. Colombia arrived at New York on September 11 with 120 passengers
from Caribbean ports. --Inspector C. G. Latham, who was assigned to the vessel, was summoned by, a customs inspector to inspect sone sour limes and avocados found in the baggage of one of the passengers, and during the examination he saw a shiny individual soap container accidentally co :e open. The soap was carefully wrapped in newspaper and was of such a peculiar shape that a closer examination was made. The'soap"proved to be a mango, and rigid examination of the baggage revealed two more specimens of the same fruit. Two fruit fly larvae were found in the lot.
A NOTE OF AP7PRECIATION
The excerpt below, is from a letter'dated Septemb6r 14, 1933, and. resents a phase of our inspection work not always given due recognition.
The cactus plants under special permit *** have been
received by me, and I thought that once in a blue moon a
bouquet comes to you out of a flock of brickbats. And as
I have good cause to thank you I should show my appreciation
by saying something. The plants in this small shipment were so grateful for the drink of water, in the shape of
wet moss, that although they were received by you, as stated
*** quite dry and shriveled, they arrived here in a very
satisfactory condition. I ain sure that but for your kindness most of them would have been of but little use. Tow
I believe that all will grow, in fact one of them had a new
leaf started on arrival.
BAGGACE CAMIP=S PESTS
Another glimpse of the danger to which this country is subjected by the frequent presence of pests in the a;gage of passengers from abroad is given by the record of examination of baggage from the S.S. Conte di Savo.a, arriving from Italy at New York September 28. One disease aneI 14 insect interceptions were made in this
case, rost of which were from fruit (fig, peach, grape, quince, aple, pear, and walnut). The insects included several scales and several dipterous and lepidopterous larvae or pupae. The lediterranean fruit fly was found infesting two lots of fruit.
IITSPECTO! FIEDS BOA COI:STRICTOr IE BA L ITAS.
Recently an inspector at Baltimore while inspecting bananas from Guatemala found a young snake, a little over 2 feet long, in a bunch of bananas. It is reported that the snake, which somewhat resembled the dreaded ,ater moccasin at first glance, was alive when found and needless to say caused consternation among the colored boys who were handling the fruit; in fact, the inspector had to kill the snake single handed. Dr. Doris H. Coctran, As:i-tant Curator of Reptiles, Hational Museum, reports as follows: "The snal:e is a young boa Constrictor emgorator, a species which is found rather frequently in banana cargoes shipped from Central America."
Bananas have served in the past as a carrier for such animals as lizards,
crabs, geckos, boas, snakes, hermit crabs, frogs, tree frogs, end a rurine opossum, principally frcm sJamaica, Cuba, and Honduras,
Other collections from various hosts have included scorpions, pseudoscorpions, mongoose, ocellated lizard of Europe, giantwhip scorpion, amphipods, tarantulas, numerous spiders, centipedes, millipedes, mollusks, sow-bugs, and a flying fox.
This otley array of strange, interesting, and sometimes dangerous material has been turned over to specialists at the National useum or elsewhere for study and preservation and constitutes one of tlm contributions of this Bureau to branches of science that at first blush would anpear far removed from plant-quarantine work.
INS'ECTION OF FO.IGT :AIL
Nail from foreign countries, particularly the -arcel post, offers a ready
medium accessible to all for the illegal entry of plants and plant products. Consequently, inspection of foreign rmil to determine the presence of prohibited or restricted plant material is of utmost importance. Hail packages are received from points throughout the civilized world and are distributed to the most remote and obscure parts of the United States and, although postal, customs, and plant quarantine regulations have been 'onulated to prevent the unauthorized entry of plant noiterial through the rails, numerous packages containing plants, fruits, vegetables, etc., arrive in the rmails, giving no outwrd indication of their contents; therefore, vigilant inspection by the plant quarantine inspectors is the principal safeguard against illegal entries.
All inspection of mail matter is necessarily cooperative with the Post Office Deniartment and the Custons Service, the l:1ter usually acting as an intermediary betwev n the Post Ofiice De)crt;ent af the Bureau of Plant quarantine.
The joint regulations, approvedd by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Postmaster General, provide a ditribution scheme which designates the post offices to which mail matter of foreign origin shall be fbrwarded for customs examinations and also require that collectors of customs shall dthil representatives for duty at such offices. The distribution scheme for mail-from abroad is found in T.D. 39805. Mail from Canada and Mexico is inspected and disposed of at the border ports of arrival. Under this system, foreign mails either are examined at the port of arrival or dispatched unopened, and under seal, to a designated post office where customs inspection is made. Packages containing'plant material are, in turn, submitted to the plant quarantine inspectors by the customs officials If no plant quarantine-service is maintained at the office concerned, the packages are forwarded to the nearest post office where plant quarantine inspectors are located.
It is obvious that effective plant quarantine inspection can be maintained
only if the customs officials are familiar with the inspector's duties and-are in syra.athy with his work. Only close cooperation between the two servibes can give assurance that all packages of either known or doubtful status conmeto the attention of the quarantine inspectors.
When friendly relations and a helpful attitude.have been thus established, full com-pliance with quarantines ray be secured. Plant material once located may be disposed of, according to its status, by any of four authorized methods. It .may be released; it may be directed to the Inspection House at Washington for further consideration; it may be returned to the sender.; or it may ebe destroyed immediately.
A method that has proved satisfactory and that probably is in general use, is the reference to the quarantine inspectors of all packages containing any plant material. Such packages are examined by the customs inspector and then turned over to the quarantine inspector who makes a thorough inspection and provides for proper disposition of all restricted or prohibited plant products.
All letters are scrutinized, and any that are bulky or otherwise of suspicious appearance are opened for examination. quite frequently seeds and small bulbs are intercepted in this manner.
It is evident that the greater part of the plant material found in the mails is shipped in ignorance of plant quarantines and with no attempt at concealment or fraud, but occasionally packages are encountered that obviously have been prepared with care and ingenuity to deceive the inspectors and smuggle prohibited material into the country. The use of the "dummy" magazine package is an excellent example A few plants are loosely rolled in a magazine; then plugs cut from a tightly rolled magazine of similar apearance are inserted in the open ends of the roll. A wrapper is then pasted around the completed package which gives it the exact appearance of a periodical preparedd for railing in the customary manner. Concealment of'plant material in packages of miscellaneous household articles is frequentl: encountered. Apples have been found crowded into the toes of slippers, and pomegranates have been taken from the center of a bag of feathers. Occasionally a flower bulb will be found carefully wrapped in tissue paper, packed in a small box, and included with an assortment of trivial presents. No records have been corn-
piled, but it is &, arerit that r lant quarantines aie violated by individuals much nore froruently than b-1 commercial firms.
Thle incidental use as pac]-i-nC -,Tterial of prohibited products, such as cotton .7aste, raw cotton, rice hulls, etc., is very7 common, and important interce-otions are frequently made b-1- closely invest i, oti ng nail m ackar-es of harmless appearance* Stich material is .very commonly used as protective --ac king, for. fragile merchandise that -.,ay! be o-" considerable value. WThen valuable 1-e: chandise reqursrpaa~g it is customary to notify the addressee cnd :ivrnit him to rem--ove the objectionable packing#
The inclusion wiv~th merchandise of f eix fruits, plants, or bulbs sent for purelyr sentimental reasons p resents a broad anId fertile field. for caremal search., The horticultural inclinations, as ::ell as the dietaryT habits of the various nations, are demonstrated to a reuarlkable degrec in the am ournt and variety of plant products customarily found in noncormmiercial1 mail ralae.Packages from Italyv and. the Islands of the M'editerranean Sea quite co,,.r-only cont --n fi- or grape cuttings, and edible products, such as olives, oran.-es, figs, cipollini, etc., while parcels from northern Euro-pe m-ore frequently contailm decor-Ative Plants and flower bulbs.
M-aterial intercer-ted in foreir-n n~ail o-,"fers a-n orm),-ortunity for tho stiu dy of plants and plant ,."aterial that right not coime under observation through, h any other channel; thus, much my be learned reg arding the distribution and characteristics of plant pests in remLlote places 7-here no investigations have been made and-, consequently, little is kor rga-rding the native -.plant life. Careful ins-pection and, if necessary laboratory study. of unusual interceptiona ma briw' to li ,1't some very important fact*
In ordinary -procedure, every~ -Lorei!7a, mailiakg is ompened for examination, but wheia the volume beco-mes abnorm-ally jetfor a sh-,ort eriod, as at Christm-,as, a certain amount of judgment is used in passin:-,, unore-ned, ?c:esbel ieve,. to be of an unrestricted nature. ""ritten d eclarations such- as 'ca7k7e "candy", etc., are given due consideration but are not tak-en as ccnc_1,Live, by any means. The odor, shape, feeling, weig,-ht,, and.' gneral a-mroarance are alwnays considered. Diligent cooperative 7worl: by the -lant q7,uarantine inspectors and thi customs officers sha uld bring- to lirht Practical ly a~ll plant material carried in the mails.
DO- r1STIC PIA ThAAYIM2
DUTCh-- _EI2 1TAS.] 001 MrTU_-CE
A conference on tb-e i. ,Itch elm diseo se is bAn., held in 'Iashin!7ton, D. C., on October 26, as the New-s Lett&er iS boin[L, i-ropared. "It seems advisable", the notice states, "that shade trece caxinis.-ions, fo:aesters, Stctte -lant ruarantine officers, and oth',ers interested be given :ZL o-vx)3_tuTnit:, to ddu the sta-,tus of the infection, tbe -arogresa of aupesiecctivities, nteans o- rconin the snread
of the infection to other areas, and the prevention of its permanent establishment in the regions now involved. * At the conference representatives of the reau of Plant Industry will present information as to the distribution and economic importance of the disease, and members of the Dureau of Entomology staff will discuss the insect pests which are the only eriers thus far Inown. * *"
"The disease apparently is being spread locally by abark beetle known
scientifically as Scolytus multistriatus. That beetle reached this country a considerable number of years ago and has been found thus far to be established over a general area extending from the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pa., to eastern Massachusetts," the notice continued.
POTATO WAPT CONT;hNCE
A record of the proceedings of the potato wart conference held at Hazleton, Pa., on July 28, has been prepared for distribution "to make information on the new developments available to organizations of plant quarantine officers, plant patholo. gists, potato growers, and others interested in the general subject.'!
"The principal features brought out at the conference," according to the introductory note, "were: (1) That any hope of starving out the fungus in the goil by refraining from planting susceptible potatoes is becoming more and nore remote; (2) that chemical disinfection of the soil is showing nore promise of both efficiency and practicability, and (3) that those primarily concerned with work on the disease seem to feel that the best policy for the United States to pursue would be one looking toward total eradication from the country.'"
The conference was attended by representatives of the National Plant Board, the Eastern Plant Board, the States of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Mary land, and the Federal Bureaus of Plant Industry and Plant Quarantine, the latter iBureau having called the conference. The proceedings are being distributed throug] the secretaries of the regional plant boards.
MRICAI INSECT FOUND IT SEIiNA
An infestation of a considerable number of carloads of senna leaves which
had been stored in a warehouse in a railway freight terminal at Hoboken, N. J., for 1-1/2 to 3 years, was reported recently by the railway company concerned. The in, sect, according to identifications by the Bureau of Entomology, appears to belong to the African genus Tortilla Cheton., a member of the family Heliodinidae. It is
new to the UTnited States. Hundreds of moths and cocoons containing larvae and pupae were reported as found on an around the bales, About the time that the infestation was discovered, 60 bales from the sare warehouse were delivered to a drug company in New York City. Special inspection of a number of these latter bals was made by port inspectors of the Bureau but they- found that the deliveries consisted of Indian senna in compressed bales, and no signs of infestation were discovered. State officers are ,arranging for the fumigation cf the rest of the senna in the warehouse, most of vhich is of African origin.
Uncertified peaches constitute the principal product involved in violations of the Japanese beetle quarantine intercepted during the ueek ended September 15, on which date the certification requirements on fruits and vegetables were lifted for the season. Some 17 such shipments were found by one inspector at Boston during that week. The shipments were principally from that part of New England which, prior to this year, had not been affected by Federal quarantines relating to fruits and vegetables.
PR01. PEACK DISEASE
The Bureau inspectors aiding the States in scouting for phony peach disease
have comzipleted this work in the environs of nurseries in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, IMississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas.
The State of Illinois has revoked the phony peach disease quarantine which applied to intrastate shipments from Jasper County. P. A. Glenn, Chief Plant Inspector, states that in Illinois they prefer to handle the problem without the use of quarantine measures. This plan is used b7 most of to other infected States.
The Arkansas Plant Board, on October 3, modified its rule "so as to eliminate
special requirements on shipments of peach trees from phony-infected States." Satisfactory inspection and proper sanitary measures will be insured, however, the Board states, through special inquiry before shipping merits arc issued.to nurserrymen in the infected States.
W TE-PINE ELISTER RUST
The season's work on the inspection of nurseries growing 5-leafed pines under rust-free conditions has no,- been completed, and shining permits have been issued for the present fiscal year for 22 premises in the infected States, of which
4 are operated by Federal or State governments, and 18 by private individuals or corporations. The latter are located in 10 different States in regions from Maine to Iowa and as far south as Virginia. Teolve a*nlications for peniit have been disapproved or withdrawn for the reason thct blister rust infection was found or that Ribes were so prevalent as'to'endanCer the pines, and three were tentatively approved where the pines have not yet reached a salable size.
The noncommercial periittees include the Idaho Forest School, lbscow, Idaho, and the U. S. Forest Service nurseries at Haugan, Mont., Ehinelander, WVis., and Parsons, W7. Va. At Haugan, 6 million western white pines, Pinus monticola, are being grown for planting stock on certain areas on national forests in that vicinity. This nursery was established in 1909, and for the past 6 years the Forest Ser, vice and the Bureau of Plant Industry have carried on extensive eradication of wild Tribes growing principally along the stream bottoms.
Circular 40-T (confidential), giving a list of the pine-shipping perittees, has been sent to transit inspectors. State officers in the infected States have also been provided with the list for use in case information is desired as to' sourdes where protected pines may be secured.
Twenty-one permits under the black-stem rust quarantine regulations have
been issued authorizing nurserymen to ship barberry and Mahonia plants of resistant species and varieties to or between the 13 protected States in the Middle W7est. In addition, in the case of several large nurseries, the proprietors are gradually disposing of their susceptible varieties with the intention of arranging for permitE for the resistant forms in future years. Tine of the permittees are located in Ohio, 3 in Illinois, 2 each in Niew Jersey and Pennsylvania, and 1 each in Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, ichigan, and Virginia.
JAPAESE ,TLET AND EUP0FAN CO BOPES
Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work
Trappning for population reduction at known infestations was somewhat extensively practiced this surrier in a number of States included within the regulated territory. Eight hundred and seven State-owned traps set up under the supervision of Harry Horovitz, Superintendent of Field Work, Phode Island Departm:ent of Asriculture, were operated in Pawtucklet, Cranston, report, westerly, East Providence, and four sections of Providence. These were in operation from July 1 to September 16. A total of 45,146 beetles was caught. Of these, 40,006 were caught in Providence. In Connecticut, State-owned traps were set up as follows: Middletown, 99; anchester, 90; Winsted, 88; Putnam, 86. Catches in these cities were 4, 10, 0, and 133, respectively. A total of 314 traps, owned by the State of Delaware, -as distributed at 17 points. During the season, 104-,319 beetles were collected. After observations were made of the infestations along the Delaware coast line resulting from flotations of beetles from the densely infested sections of southern New Jersey, traps were placed at a number of important bay-front communities. These caught 4,222 beetles at Bayview Beach, 35,03888 at Toodland Beach, and 15,844 at the Peedy Point Bridge. The heaviest infestation disclosed was one at Clayton yielding 65,434 beetles. Delaware traps were set on June 22 and were removed Septenber 15. The trapping program at known infestations within the regulated sections of aryland involved distribution of 6,200 traps in 38 communities. These caught 1,439,858 beetles. Of this total, 1,154,254 were caught at a heavy infestation in a rural section near Elkton, and 239,723 were captured at Colgate, a suburb of Baltimore. Operation of 601 traps in the District of Columbia for 12 weeks this summer resulted in the capture of 315,717 beetles. Trapping for control was also undertaken in eight Virginia towns and cities within the regulated area. Total catches of 39',205 were secured in 2,057 traps. Of these,,38,737 were caught at Alexandria. In Virginia and Iaryland, Federal traps were used but the work was performed in cooperation with State officials. For the purpose of determining the degrees of infestation in 15 towns and around several lakes, all in the northern counties of New Jersey, 700 State-ow:ned traps were set. New Jersey's annual suppression campaign continued this year.ith Edg r G. Pox, of the New Jersey Depart -ent of Agriculture, in charge. According to figures compiled by Mr. Rex, an area of approximately 200 square mile5 was trapped. Traps were not placed on each farm as previously had been done, but sections were selected in which a
number of traps of large capacity could be used, In all, 150 farms were involved. There-were 980 traps with beetle containers holding approximately 40 quarts, to-, gether with 300 of the standard sized traps used in this work. This year, heawjvy beetle emergence was from a ueek to 10 days earlier than i4 1932.. Ideal trapping weather prevailed from July 1 to 9, at which t ihe beetles were emerging by the millions. The capture during this week ~as heavy. In many instances the 40-quart containers were filled tothe top within.2 days, At one location, six of the large-sized traps caurkt 65 gallons of beetles on July 6, 7 -nd 8. From July 10 to 16 it was cool and unfavorable for trapping. Favorable trapping weather followed fromra July 17 to 25. From- July 20 on, the balance of the tra-pping season was unsuitable for trap catches. High humidity and negligible viqd led to very poor catches after the letter date. The season's catch in the South Jersey traps totaled 359,845,200, or ?7,261 gallons of beetles. If placed in a single Vile, this quantity of beetles would weigh 47.35 tons. One fortunate feature about the sumer's work in 7ew Jersey is that arpro-,ictely one half ci the beetles caught during the first week in July-were female beetles which had not -yet laid many eggs. Examination of a large number of ferclos caught disclosed that they each contained on the average of 10 nearly mature eggs. here traps were placed on. the windward side of crops heavily infested with the insect, the infestation was substantially reduced and in some cases the crop was saved thLrough the attractiveness of the traps in luring the pests away from the host plants. This was particularly true on small plantings of-sweet corn.
SApplication of lead arsenate to the soil in and about the newly discovered infestation in Erie, Pa., was completed on September 26. These treatments began on Atgust 18. During the 33 working days suitable for the spraying work a total of 50-1/4 acres was covered. This was the first time that such an extensive area has been poisoned at a. rate of 1,000 pounds of lead arsenate per acre. Most of the-'sections sprayed were in the residential area, but some included open lots, factory areas, and yards with tall weeds. One was an open lot used for dumping. Thirteen men were used in the crews doinr this work. Eighty seven thousand three hundred gallons of water were used in washington' the leas! arsenate spray into the
ground. About 3. acres of home gardens were left untreated. These will bc sprayed after the vegetable plants may be removed and the ground 'cleared. When foliage was being sprayed in these areas early this summer, light canvass tarpaulins each containing 300 square fet, were used to cover the home vegetable gardens in the s)ra ed areas. Thus covered there could be no later complaint of anyone getting poisoned from eating vegetables which might have received a negligible spotting of lead arsenate from the spray drift. Bait dispenser cages were also used throughout these sprayed areas to attract any beetles that might be present to the poisoned foliage. The 1,282 traps distributed in Erie nere baited with both liquid and bran bait to doubly assure capture of any beetles in the neighborhood.
Climatic factors have been advanced as possibly responsible for the pronounced reduction in the number of Japanese beetles in the city of Philadelphia and in some sections of the previously densely infested zones in iTew Jersey. This marked reduction in beetle population coincides vith a notable deficiency in rainfall in these sections luring June and July l132, when the egs were hatching to produce the larvae to overwinter and forr this year's supply of adults. Influence of precipitation on beetle survival is also indicated at a number of isolated points
in honregulated territory whre traps have disclosed infestations for the past 2
years. In Cleveland, Ohio, where a 1932 infestation of 9 beetles failed to reap-pear this year, there was a notable deficiency in rainfall during July of last year., In Portland, Maine, however, where 11 beetles were found la.st year and 52 this year, there was a considerable excess of precipitation during July and August 1932, when the overwintering grubs were hatching. In Virginia, disappearance of four small isolated infestations and distinct decreases in four others coincided with unusually dry weather in the State during June and July 1932.
Speedy termination was had of a prosecution recently instituted for a violation of the Pennsylvania Japanese beetle quarantine. The violation involved the
transportation of two trays of pepper plants from Pittsburgh, Pa., to Farrell, Pa., the latter a point in nonregulated territory. The violator, Frahk Marks, of Farrell, was stopped at a road post manned by a Peinnusylvania inspector at Leesburg.
When advised of the quarantine, the owner of the plants informed the inspector that he would return to Pittsburgh for a certificate. Instead he returned but a short distance and then proceeded to his destination via a dirt road which detoured the guarded highways. The same inspector who made the interception later visited Mr. Marksf store and saw the same pepper plants on sale. It was admitted by the violator.that the plants observed were those that were being transported when he was stopped at the road post. An information alleging the violation was .filed by the Pennsylvania inspector before an alderman in Sharon, Pa., on September 9. The defendant at first pleaded "not guilty", but later changed his plea to "nolo contendere". On September 15 a fine of :25 mad costs was imposed by the alderman,
Among the inspection center facilities provided this sunmner for. inspection and certification of fruits and vegetables, probably th'e inspection platform in the Pittsburgh market district was the best adapted to our use. In searching about for an inspection platform in Pittsburgh, an abandoned poultry auction platform owned by the Pennsylvania Railroad was selected as a desirable site. This was secured at avery nominal rental. The frame structure is U-shaped, with ample platform space on the inside for 12 trucks. Entrance and exit lanes were marked on the cobblestone pavement. The platform is entirely covered, and a commodious office is located in the center. It is conveniently located to the market district and to the warehouses of a number of chain stores which require frequent inspection of considerable lots of fruits and vegetables. An early morning blaze of incendiary origin damaged one end of 'the platform while it was in use, but did not affect its usability.
Considerable excitement prevailed at the Philadelphia district quarantine
office in the Prankford Arsenal grounds on September 7, when the powder distributing house was totally destroyed by fire. An adjoining building was also somewhat damaged. Although the Arsenal maintains its own fire department, it Tas necessary to call in the City Fire Department in order to confine the fire to the building ablaze. An investigating board decided that the fire was caused by spontaneous
ignition of tracer sweepings which had been brought from the tracer loading shop and were awaiting destruction in the powder distributing house. It was also reported that the burning building contained TNT, but that the explosive was safely removed before it was reached by the flames
Sco uting of nursery and greenhouse premises heretofore uninfested was concluded in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the northern quarantined States early in
September. Extra'automobile equipment used in this seasonal work was returned to the New Cumberland garage. As a result of this season's scouting, infestations were discovered in 70 property units. Nineteen of these were in Pennsylvania, 16 in iTew York, 15 in New Jersey, 12 in Maryland, 5 in Rhode Island, 2 in Virginia, and 1 in assaphusetts. There are now 2,438 regular plant shippers who comply with the requirements for maintaining a classified status. Five hundred _nd one of these are infested. This is a net increase of 32 infested classified establishments over the same date last year.
Observations in sections from which quarantined fruits and vegetables were being certified showed that adult beetle flight had, by the middle of September, subsided enough to justify removal of the restrictions on these two items. Accordingly, notice was promulgated by the Secretary lifting the seasonal restrictions on the movenrent of fruits and vegetables on and after September 15. As is customary, restrictions on the novxiemet of cut flowers were allowed to remain in effect until 0ctobpr 15., the maximum date provided in the, iules for regulating .th,is commodity. Adult beetles are found infesting cut flowers long after beetles no longer can -be found in fruits and vegetables. Last year the order removing the restrictions on the movement of fruits and vegetables was not effective until September 17.
Host of the infested san( pits in Few Jersey were durin September released from the fumigation requirements applicable during the flight of the adult beetle. During the period of the year in which the insect exists in the soil, sand shippers are required to removee 12 inches of surface soil before the sand to be certified may be dug. This requires th2 services of an inspector to sup-ervise such removal. ,Many of the pit owners purposely withheld shipments until the disappearance of the adult beetle in order to avoid the necessity of fumigating the loaded sand with carbon disulphide. This resulted in in ediate calls for a number of inspectors as soon as the sur:er require 'ents were lifted. Instructions for disinfections also provide that on September 20 nursery stock which has bean growing for 2 years in soil satisfactorily treated with lead arsenate may be certified for movement from the regulated zone. Release of this stock receire. the stationing of inspectors at three large nurseries and the addition of a second nan at another nursery starting shipments from lead-arsenate-treated plots.
Another collection of bait dispensin_ cages will be necessary in order to
recover all of this equipment. Since awroxiately 4,000 of these were distributed in the cities where they were used, many of then were hung in trees and shrubs with considerable foliage. Distributed in this quantity it was impracticable to record in detail the exact location of each cage. recently when it was desired to lift the cages, rang of then were still obscured bir the foliage and considerable separation of the limbs was required before they were disclosed. It was then decided to make another collection of the dispensers after the foliage has dropped and the limbs are bare. Little effort will then be required to gather all cages in sight,
0ngy two Japanese beetle quarantine certificates were required recently to certify 1,000,000 three-year-old Red Pine seedlings shipped from the State of Connecticut to Michigan for use in the reforestation program initiated by the Federal Government. The seedlings comprised two carloads. since they originated in a nursery which had been shown by stnier scouting to be free from Japanese beetle infestation,. no actual inspection was required. These seedlings were grown under
... .. :c \RY
screens to prevent infestation by the Edropean shoot moth. They were also individually inspected by Connecticut inspectors as an additional protection.
"Popular Science" for September contains a somewhat comprehensive and popularly written article on "W7ar Waged on Insects with Lights and Odors", by Robert E. artin. The Japanese beetle trap is prominently featured in the photographs illustrating the article. One picture depicts a ton of Japanese beetles caught in 500 special traps Another shows a trap sectioned to illustrate its component
parts. A third picture shows a trap in operation in a park. :According" to one of the picture titles, the trap "was developed by Departrment of Agriculture experts for use in the parks of Washington, D4 C." Half a column is devoted to a description of the trap.
One luckless fisherman unwittingly brought the wrong kind of bait to the
Japanese beetle road station located at Leesburg, Pa. When stopped at the station at 4:45 a.m. one morning recently, while en route from New Brighton, Pa., to Carlton, Pa., the fisherman was found to be carrying a can of earth containing 51 grubs The earth and grubs were surrendered to the inspector and were later identified at the Harrisburg headquarters as Ochrosidia villosa. The inspector, of course, was not in position to make the determination.
Increased demands for supervision of fumigation of potting soil with carbon disulphide was facilitated by the use of the fumigant injector recently perfected by the treating division. In addition, kits have been constructed, each contain-ing a thermometer, graduate cylinder, tools, and supplies necessary for soil fumi gation. This kit has proved quite convenient, since it protects the thermometer
and graduate, and also contains tools for making adjustments or minor repairs to the injector.
Restenciling of the stakes which mark plots of growing plants in classified, establishments was completed by the treating division during the month. All stakes marking the boundaries of certified, lead-arsenate-treated plots are painted white, while all stakes at the limits of uncertified plots are painted yellow.
Final tabulation of the season's trapping results and compilation of other
necessary data was in progress at the end of the month, in preparation for t.he con" ference to discuss 1933 developments in the Japanese beetle situation to be held ip
Washington on October 24. Coincident with the conference will be held a public. hearing to consider the advisability of extending the Japanese beetle quarantine to the States of Maine and West Virginia.
At the request of officials of the Ninth National Shade Tree Conference,,an
exhibit showing Japanese beetle injury to various fruit, shade-, and ornamental. trees was prepared and sent to the conference, which was held at the New York Eotanical Garden, Bronx Park, Ne7 York City, on September 7, 8 and 9. The exhib-t consisted of Piker mounts, containing various specimens of foliage damage, moq.:, ; -d on two wall frames.
Plants certified from Class III, or infested nurseries during September icreased almost 100 percent over the quantity certified from approximately the emue number of concerns in the corresponding month of 1932. This year 1,338,583 plants
were certified as against 704,262 certified last-year. lTilleteen cars of' sand were fi_,mieated .7ith carbon disulphide durinE, the ontI6, as col:.,,Tar ed with 11 cars similarly 'umigated durin- Septermber_ of' last year,
I "eloval of' trap)s was accorm!-lished dur rng Septer-ber in Tfest Virginia, Virginia, Ohio, Ilichigan, Meline, Earrland, a~i6 the District -ot' Columbira. Traps still remained in operat ion in a ev- localities in IJer Harmpshire, ::'eu! York, Vermont, and in Erie, Pa. ThITaort of" the lifted traps were returned to the JTew Cumaberland, Pa,, warehouse during SOUeeber.
Corn Borer Certification Activities
Some of' the men temporarily rerioved from corn. borer ins-,e ction and certification vrk and assigned to the superisiop. of' Jan~anese beetle tramping as exchange work f'or corn barer ins-r ections performed by the rglar anese beetle personnel concluleC. their su~x.ier's trapping activities late in Septeriber and returned to corn borer certification. During tIh-E;:monthq 174 shipments were certified f'or move;i.-ent to States requirin- Federal certification, :.-ost of' this rx:terial originated in 1Massa'chuosetts and 111e 17:aiashire,
1=0A.; =TIT ,'LY
The second hurricane oi the season struc-k the Valley on the night of~ September 4, and with the e::cpt ion of a gl Jght 1lu11 about daf' icht whnthe center of' the storm passed inland, raged unaba--teCd until th,',e afternoon o-f thl-e 5th. The anemaometer at the W7eathler Bureau at Brownsville registered a -wind velocity of' 75 mi le s per hour be fore be in,,- bl own avway; unofficial estiiriates placed the velocity of' the wind at Flarlin~en at between 100 anrd 125 miles --er hour. 7-1-e storm was accom:r~anied by torrential rains, -it bein,; esti:rrted that be tvreon 1.5 and 20 inches 'ell at }Taxlingen durinC the 24 hours* The storm sewers and natural drainage were totally
unable to ta:,l care of' t'-s water and streets in the town-.s of' Cair:,.ron County were under 7rater f'or several dayrse
Buildin.-s began 'to c ollapse in I-arlingen around 11 o'clock the night of' th-e
4t, ndbyr~rnasthre 7a adyabidn in Cameron CoU.nty that had not been
demolished or that ,7as not in need of~jiajor repairs. T7hile the eastern half' of the Valley bore the brunt of' the stormt winds w7ere strong ernou;gh as far west as' I~ission to up-roof' numerous hou1'cses an~d to -Trech a number of' warehouses and cracking plants. Public utilities, with the exception of na0tiural gCs, went out early th-e night of" thne 4th. L17ho onl>, cormmunications withl the outside f'or a number of' da~ls were by rail -,nd hirghIway.
As sccn as the win-ds begmi, to subside, rel ief' and rescue work ras organized and rescue *parties 7were so nt o10 x to bring, thec injured caid sic7. in to emergency hospitals. The person.m.el and Cui.m of' this-'octwetuedortoti work ar.Cd aeri'orred e::cellent ser-vico .7i1 ~b vr)ny eakb e eaths
resulteC. from the stormi. -,ntrsi rsons were re-)orted to nhave been killed and to have died fronm ex-posure in thec Vllej- and in I'atarnoros3. L,.s -iall death, list
is doubly remarkable in that people wore on the streets all night going to stronger buildings as their own houses wont down. None of the inspectors of the Fruit Fly
Project were injured and the Government equipment suffered only slight irijuryj
Next to the destruction of physical property, the citrus crop probably suffered the heaviest loss. Estimates after the storm placed the loss of fruit at around 90 percent of the crop, or approximately 10,000 carloads. This was a direct loss to the growers of around 4 or 5 million dollars. The packers and em-, ployees engaged in the various stages of handling the crop suffered proportionately
through the loss of tonnage and employment. The shipping season opened on September 1, and a few carloads of Duncan fruit had been cut and placed in coloring rooms prior to the storm. An effort was made to salvage some of the wind-blown fruit from groves which had passed the maturity test, but this fruit broke down badly in the coloring rooms and in transit and the deal was not profitable. A quantity of this fruit was salvaged through the operation of juicing plants in Mission and ilcAllen. The juice from this fruit was exported to England and France.
Trees throughout the Valley were practically defoliated, and in many instances branches were bloun off and some trees were entirely destroyed, A considerable number of trees were killed by standing water which was still in the groves at the end of the month. However, the trees made a phenomenal recovery and by the end of the month had put on an excellent growth of foliage.
The most outstanding event during the month of September was the finding of specimens of the pink bollworm in southern Georgia and northern Florida. On September 18, two living larvae were found in gin trash at the Farmers' Gin Company at Enigma, in Berrien County, Ga. On September 22, one living larva was found in trash at the Brookfield Gin Company at Brookfield, in Tift County, Ga., which is not very far from Enigca. On the day this last specimen was found cotton from the Enigaa territory was also being ginned at Brookfield, as the Enigma Gin was broken down; consequently, it is quite possible that all of the specimens came from the same general locality, On September 22 a dead larva was found in trash at the iiabdison Gin Company at Madison, in Ezdison County, Fla. Additional equipment and inspectors were immediately sent to this area, so that by the end of September 10 gin-trash machines were being operated. In addition, 16 Federal and State inspectors were making intensive field inspections to delimit the infestation. All fields within the immediate vicinity of the Brookfield and Enigma gins have now been inspected, without any further specimens being found. Inspections are also being made in Madisoh County, Fla., and in the irnmlediate vicinity of the oil mills which receive seed from the suspicious territory. In view of the amount of wnrk performed, it is evident that the infestation must be exceedi.:gly light. Som,. of the gins have closed for the season and others have set ginning dates, but it believed that the gin-trash machines can probably be operated until the latter pret of October.
In the regulated area of northern Florida ginning went forward very rapidly
during September. All of the gin trash was put through one of the small hand machines, with negative results. In addition, field inspections have also been made without fiinding any signs of the pink bollTorm. By the end of the month over three fourths of the crop had been ginned, so that no great amount of gin trash will be available for inspection hereafter; however, it will still be possible to carry on field inspections for some time.
The daily collection and examination of cotton blooms from the plats at
Chapman Field, Fla., continued to give negative results throughout Septenber. In addition, the examination of hibiscus blooms was continued, but no specimens of the pink bollworm were found.
Gin-trash inspection was carried on in the Big Bend area of Texas throughout the month. The inspections shog that there has been a gradual increase in the worm population; however, at the close of the month the infestation was considerably lighter than at the same time last season. The largest number of worms found from any single bale was 7,650, Iraediately adjoining this field, and separated by only an irrigation ditch, is another field in which the infestation is very light. For some unknown reason the moths seemed to be attracted to the first field, and apparently they did not move on to other nearby fields. There are only tio other fields in which any large number of worms have been taken from any single bale. Recently several prominent farmers in this area have reported that the field clean-up conducted last fall is showing results in the yield of cotton this season. One farmer expressed the belief that if the insect had been allowed to continue as it has done in the past, he would have trade less than half a crop this season. These men are showing considerable interest over the possibility of fields being cleaned again this fall. In the upper end of the iC Bend the findings have been very light. In the lower end ginnin has not yet started, as it is the practice to accumulate a supply of seed cotton before opening the gin. Information concerning the degree of infestation in this part of the Dig Bend will be available for the next News Letter.
Several samples of trash have been inspected from the heavily infested part
of Hudspeth County, Tex. The largest nuner o worms found in any of these samples was 18, which indicates that the infestation is considerably lighter than last season. Several samples were also examined in the Juarez Valley of Mlexico with the findings about in the same proportion as the first findings of last season.
In the Salt Piver Valley of Arizona folir gin-trash machines have been put into operation. There has been considerable trouble with pickers, some of them going on strike in various parts of this area. As a result, ginning has not yet reached the stage where all of the machines are able to operate to capacity. Thus far all of the first-cleaner trash from all gins in the area has been inspected, and the work has been so planned that the greater part of the best available trash can be inspected throughout the season. A s-all amount of field inspection has also been performed in the Salt Rivor Valley, but no indications of the pink bollworm have been discovered by either method of inspection this season. Gin-trash inspection will probably begin in the remaining. regulated areas durin, the coming month.
A steam pressure sterilizer for treating bales of cotton lint, in lieu of
fumigation, has recently been developed by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The equipment, which consists of a pressure tube to hold one bale of cotton, and made of boiler plate, capable of standing a pressure of 25 pounds, and a 25 hp. upright boiler, was erected at Alpine, Tex., the latter part of August. The preliminary tests were run the first part of September. A representative of the State Department of A~iculture, and one each from the Technological Division and the Pink Bollworm Project, were designated to make the official tests. In each test 100 live pink bollworms were distributed in various parts of the bale 3 inches deep. In the first test the bale was given a 5-minute exposure in the tube under 15 pounds pressure, and in each succeeding test the exposure was reduced 1 minute, the last test being a 1-minute exposure. in all th6 test's all of the worms were killed. As it was too early in the season to secure double seed containing larvae in the resting stage, it was necessary to reave the kernel from the seed, place fresh larvae in them, and seal the seed up with glue. During tpe course of the tests it was suggested that this method might not be sO effective in the case of seed in which the larvae had made their own entrance. Therefore, additional tests were run using lightly infested seed from the previous season which was obtained
from the experimental laboratory. Of course, the number of worms in the seed was not known until after the tests were run and the seed had been examined. It is of special interest to note that the seed used in the 1-minute test contained the
largest number of worms, and, as previously mentioned, there was no survival in any of the tests. Therefore, on September 22, the treating of commercial cotton was begun, and to date over 400 bales have been treated without any difficulties whatever being experienced. The cotton is being given an exposure of 3 minutes under 15 pounds steam pressure. Approximately 70 bales can be handled during an 8-hour day, including the treating anC. loading of the cotton, which is taken from the sterilizer and immediately loaded into the car. Daily temperatures are taken from various bales, and in no case has it been found less than 1500 F., the average being much higher. This sterilization will kill any worms in the outer 3 inches of the bale. It was determined sone years ago that compression will kill any worms in the bale except in the outer 3 inches. Therefore, after the bales are sterip lized, they are immediately sent to a con-pression plant, after which they are free to move to any destination.
A road station was opened.about 1-1/2 miles south'of I1arfa, Tex., at the
junction of the Presidio and Duidosa roads, on September 1. The station is manned by four inspectors and operates on a 24-hour basis. For the present this station
is adequate to tak"e care of the traf ic moving from the infested section of the Big Bend. On September 29, 2 pick-sacks, containing about 1 pound of seed cotton, were intercepted. In this seed cotton 7 living pink-bollworm larvae were found.
Early in October three additional interceptions of infested riaterial were made, resulting in the finding of 3 living and 4 dead larvae. The owner of the material containing the 3 living larvae was en route to a cotton-growing section in west Texas outside the reg-lated area.
PREVETING SPREAD OF M0THS
Early in September work vwas started in selecting men for scouts fror: lists of unemployed secured through the national Peemrployment Service in each of the States where Federal gypsy moth work is to be carried on. Only men residing in counties in which this work is to be done were selected. By the end of September, over 1,400 men had been employed for scouting work in New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania, and in addition, 115 men experienced in gypsy moth work, appointed to supervisory positions, had reported for duty. Because of
the limited boarding a-orldations it tas not possible to employ all men at once, it being necessary to train one group of .en at these schools and then transfer them to the field before a second group could be ta:en care of. These training schools are located where gypsy moth infestations are sufficiently heavy to give them necessary preliminary raining within 10 dans or 2 weeks. As soon as the men have been taught how to locate and creosote egi asses of the gypsy moth they are transferred to regular scouting work.
Althoughf only a limited amount of work has been done in the towns selected
for training schools, reports front the Ver.mont and Massachusetts towns where training is in progress indicate that the infestation there is somewhat heavier than was expected. Thile crews in training schools located west of the Connecticut River in Connecticut have not as yet discovered any large infestations, several of the infestations located to date in Veriont and Mssschusetts cover a considerable mount of territory. These conditions are ideal for training men. By the end of the month practically all of the non in training in Vermont had been transferred to regular scouting and their places filled b-, the second quota to be accepted for work. By September 23, the full quota of 470 men had been enrolled in the Pennsylvania area, one half of these -en coming from Luzerne County and one half from Lackawanna County. Part of this group were assign ed to training schools in the generally infested area and are being transferred to duty elsewhere as soon as they have had sufficient preliminary training to do satisfactory work. The remainder of the men not in training schools were employed clearing brush and dead and worthless trees from the heavily infested area.
Regular scouting work was carried on in southwestern Massachusetts and northwestern Connecticut during the month.
Selectmen and mayors of towns and cities in assachusetts in the area between the Connecticut Piver and the barrier zone have been interviewed to acquaint the proper town or city officials with the gupsy moth work that is to be done in this State with Federal funds, either by ncn employed with IT.E.A.funds or the Emergency Conservation Work funds. This has been necessary in assachusetts because of the State and local gypsy moth organization. Arrangei ents have been made whereby the Federal Covernment will cooperate with the local authorities in planning end carrying on this cork-, it bein- understood thct the town or city will expend its usual ap ropri ation for oth work. The local moth superintendent will examine the ree growsh in the villages and aloe the highays, a, well as tho isolated trees, and :ill tr-at the infestations found. rTo Federal force 7c; Iiig in Massachusetts will scout the woodland areas and creosote all egg clusters : this work to be followed in the spring by spraying at the worst infestations. This
4iflnake possible more intensive work by the local moth superintendent by concentrating the available funds.
The summary of the gypsy moth defoliation survey shows that there was a large increase in the area defoliated in New England this year as compared with 1932. Below is given a comparison of the acreage defoliated in the New England States for the years 19132 and 1933.
ACREAGE OF ACREAGE OF
STAMP iFOLIATIO T 1932 DEFOLIATION 1933
Maine 429297--12 19,718
New Hampshire 43,287 216,669
Vermont 1 2
Massachusetts 200,387 157,003
Rhode Island 376 4,292
Total, 286,395 397,730
There was a very heavy increase in the defoliation in New Hampshire in towns in the central section of the State ex::tending north from Manchester to Concord and the Lake Winnipesaukee district. Although there was a considerable decrease in the total acreage defoliated in Maine as compared with last year, there were many more towns in the State where defoliation was found, and this was especially true of towns north and east of towns having defoliation in 1932. In IMassachusetts, there was considerably less defoliation this season, but here also, there were more towns having defoliation extending towardc the western part of the State. Defoliation was found as far west as Amherst, where 150 acres were defoliated, Amherst being only 20 miles air line from the nearest point in the barrier zone. Only one town showed defoliation in Vermont. Defoliation in Connecticut was about the same as last year. However, there was an area having heavy defoliation on Long Point, Groton, Conn., which presents a dangerous situation in regard to wind spread should weather conditions be favorable, as this infestation is less than 20 miles from Long Island. There was a very heavy increase in defoliation in Rhode Island as compared
-7ith 1932. During the latter part of the sunr:er throughout the entire defoliated area in New England, an unusually heavy deposit of good-sized egg clusters was observed, and unless there is heavy mortality of eggs as a result of winter killing, the probability is that severe defoliation will occur next year.
In August a letter was received through the Public Works Administrator from
a Scout Executive of the Boy Scouts of America, asking for information and possible help in the extermination of the gypsy moth at a Boy Scout camp located in New Hampshire. The letter stated that the trees in thle vicinity of the camp were quite badly infested with egg clusters of the gypsy noth and that they would appreciate anything that could be done to assist them in eradicating the infestation. The executive was informed that it would not be possible for the Bureau to undertake local control work in that part of New Hanipshire but that one of the district quarantine inspectors would do everything in his power to be as helpful as possible, This district inspector visited the scout executive at the camp a short time afterward and gave him information on the proper r.ethod of control. He also visite, the New Hampshire official who is in charge of gypsy moth control for that State and arranged with him for the turningE over of a large drum of creosote to the Boy
Scouts, to be used in treating egg clusters at the camp. This drum of creosote was delivered to the camp by the district inspector, who showed the executive and the scouts present how the egC clusters should be treated6 A letter has been received from the executive thanking the organization for the cooperation which has
been given in helping them to reduce the infestation of the gypsy moth at their camp, He stated that the scouts hac already beCgun creosoting the egg clusters and that this work would be continued during week-ends and vacations until the infestation had been eradicated.
The inspection of wooden reels on which telephone cable is shipped forms a considerable part of the quarantine activity in a number of districts. 1any hundreds of these reels are moved to points outside of the quarantined area each year. A majority of the firms that manufacture telephone cable are located outside of the quarantined area. Reels loaded with cable are shi-pped in to various points, usually close to the location where the cable is to be installed. In many cases the reels are unloaded inuiediately and returned to the cable company that owns them. In past years the cable company permitted these reels to be retained almost indefinitely, but changes in methods of business have talen place, probably because of the cost of such reels, and now the receivers are charged with them and do not receive abatements on these charges until the empty reels have been returned to the factory. This has resulted in the reels being shipped back as soon as possible, and for this reason there is less chance of their becoming infested than in the past. Oftentimes the amount of cable used on a prticular installation does not exhaust the entire reel, and companies rmakl.n; such installations have had numerous reels stored on which srall pieces of cable were kept until a use was found for them. This held reels in storage yards for considerable lengths of time and of course the holding cormany was unable to obtain rebates until they were returned to the owners. One large company located near Boston has purchased a supply of reels for its own use, on which short sections of cable are wTound for storage, so that the reels belonging to the cable company may be returned iLnediately.
The shipment of pult:mood from the -ore northern sections of the quarantined area has not been narticularl- active during the last few years as, in cormon with numerous other materials, there have not been extensive purchases of this comodity. Reports have been received recently which would indicate that there are signs of renewed activity in this type of business and that probably there will be more cars of pulpwood inspected and shipped this coning season than durinL the seasons of the past few years. Because of the fact that some pulpwood cut in the past has not found a ready market it has been stored in piles wherever convenient. These Qles ma have been left undisturbed for several years, a~d it is quite possible thea with renewed activity in this industry such stored pulpwood, some of which ma- be found to be infested, will be shipped. Because o; congetition it is desirable that pulpwood dealers fill orders at a moment's notice. Recognizing this fact several of the dealers in one oi the quarantined districts keep freight cars loaded with pulpwood on side tracks read, to -ove ir.Lediately upon receipt of orders. Such loade' cars are sonetines held on sidings for several weeks and w en o- ': may be moved to any cart oL the country. As the -::ood is free from. infetat- I when loaded on the cars it becomes -necessary to see that there is no tree gro' :w in the vicinity of the sidings, to avoid the o:ibility of infestation 0etaing o the loaded cars. The cars, of course, are not certified until they are actually ready to move.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Illlfll 111111lii IIllll thu MjllrtlIt 111! 1111
3 1262 092416568
Recently a rather unusual shipment was sent from one of the large nurseries in the eastern nart of the quarantined area. This nursery imported last year several tons of limestone from Scotland to be used in constructing a rock garden at the annual flower show held last winter at the Mechanics Building in Boston. After the flower show was over the stone was trucked to the nursery and dumped in the vicinity of the packing shed. The pieces of stone were rather large, averaging about 300 pounds each. The entire consignment was sold for the construction of an English rock garden in Newr York. Although there were no particular signs of infestation in the vicinity of the place where the rock garden had been piled at the nursery, it was necessary to inspect the pieces quite carefully, as each was full of holes, which would have been ideal places for gypsy moth females to deposit their egg clusters in.
During the course: of the investigation into the arcunt of injury caused to
cranberry bogs by gypsy moth larvae, the quarantine inspector who made the investigation obtained information during the suri.izer that a considerable amount of damage had been done to strawberry plantings by such larvae. According to, the information supplied to him by the Massachusetts County Extension Agent for Barnstable County, there were about 500 acres of strawberry plants set out in the town of Falmouth last spring. Many of the plantings 'were in the vicinity of heavy gypsy moth infestations and in numerous cases the larvae migrated from these infestations to the strawberry plantings where -they c aused a very large amount of injury. It was reported that daage was caused to about 250 acres. Of this area, about 125 acres were completely defoliated and the remaining 125 more or less severely ihjured. Of those plants completely defoliated it is possible that the ma jority will die, and many of the others not completely defoliated were so severely injured that it is questionable if they will produce a satisfactory yield in 1934.