IT E 7W S L E T, T 11 P
:13UM _U OF-PLAIT
TED STATE ") 1)"TArTirlIT OF AGPITJYTTJTr'
Ntuaber 34 (Mi. FOR. PUBLICATIOT-T) It 1933o
On Soptetibor '291'Secret,, i y 7'allace announced tho, tran,3fer of. Lee A StronC
from the Bureau of Plant Quorantine to the T'u -eal:t'of- "'rito!' 01de,yj e f fe e October
1, Avery S, Hoyt has boen deiF 13 a
nated Ict-Ing Chef of this ur s, us
A,,dinner given in Dr, llaPlattls 1,onor, re-, Arirc, chief of the Eureau of
Entomology on th occasion of 1-As 70th bi. thdc,.y on Septe,-.,iber 26, a' -the Cosl.los Club, was Largely attended by representLatives of both bure :,uj,
FOTTI (UT PI AlT f-,U &l -1
MMIT I A 1011OLOCT iTS Of ST
Fruit-f']_-Ir lo.rvee in Cuavas,--Larvae of tbo Ccin-.'Ial Ar:3rican fruit fly
(Ap2a r e, Lia str ,a'U-a Schfr,_jr7_iTc" :j in ter.ce-r,-' .ed at. Larc-do-, Tex, in .0-1).avas in ba,-age
and cRrgo from 17jifec'.
Host recoil of interest.--.A.,T:1-1_yeerus cistelirias (K1uG) (.B-ruchidce) ','!ao interce:pted. at -New 'orI: in seeds of Cuaz-uma ull,.A-folia in ba- from, Vei.ezuela.
i G. D d'Twe 11, of Iff c, s h -i n g to n D, C. I' reports as follo-7s: 171iis is a record of ibl'I'to(I troOiC,considerable interest, the host relations of t1his wide7y _1l
A..1ericall species described in 11)2V bein ., tiaviou,, ,ly un'Movin, 6 6 s t :)lant is,
a close nlly of Theobrona (cacao) in t ( fLr,,,ily Otercullaceae, no *.ien.ber of the
famil, knovri to be affected b-r Bruchidae.11
-Scoly 5 ( 3, 1 s (11" rcmal ted to he 1,,he chiof Means 'Elm logs infe7ted. y !U
of spread in "Purope for the 7T ,,In d4 sea-, e, 7!- s nt- r c t ed. at Paltj., ,ovej
Nsw Yorllt N, Y,, New Orleans, Ta., r.rd lorfoll,,, Va.; in carjo -f1-or, Irance,
Other Coleoptera arrivinC with e1r, lc 7s frcm Frar11ciJz, aro 1,11,Ar--dalic ari-71i,7er- i Ceoff.9
Cvrculionidae) Scolytus nultist:L-iatus Ea_-sh (Serl-tidae) 2te1_e,!)4.us h2watzi
BiPhh. (Scolytid.z eT, Ttesias nerra F. (Dertcstidue), bicclo:r 01.
RrL sp. (6e7r- -nbycid nd Uhana-sinus fornicaiius L. (tenebrionidae aa'
(Cleridae).. 'fhe, last-zxra d _-rccies feeds on tlia ol
Scele il coct on willc-T nnj: r (Chll.) (C, (,cidao) ., as interceptod at 7as"An, ;tc.a, D. C.+t On SCiO:_LS CfL.' ij, iensis in t-_, e-. .7)ross from
J!hrips from Nicaram, a. --Dice ictjiri-)s b r e v c,--,, r i,., IL s 1' 3 1 n c t e a t
Mobile, Kla., on banLna debris in car-;j fro.,L, iason, of
villas Flas states that tlii:; species is not 1-_no,7,,n to occur 1-n tl)e Tjnitc! States.
Scolytid from Czechoslovakia.--Adults bf Thamnurgus euphorbia e Kust.
(Scolytidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in a plant of Euphorbia sp. in the
mail from Czechoslovakia.
..Glaliolus thrips from Bermuda.--Taeniothrips gladioli Mi. & So was intercepted at- Boston in and on a gladiolus flower in baggage from Bermuda',
Lepidopterous larvae in an avocado fruit,--Larvae of Stenoma sp. (StenOmidae) were intercepted at New Orleans in an avocado in ship's quarters from i exico.
Thrips on banana debriso--Haplothrips merrilli Watson was intercepted at
Philadelphia on banana debris in cargo from Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico. J. P. Watson reports as follows: "I described this species.several. years ago from specimens taken in Cuba. We have since had it from most of the ,7est Indies Islands, and from the extreme south of Florida." Professor Watson further states that it is apparently a predator as it is usually found associated with scale insects.
Scale insect on croton.--Parlatoria mytilaspiformis Green (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on croton in baggage from Hawaii.
Turnips from iorway infested.--Larvae of Psylliodes chrysocephala Linn.
(Chrysomelidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in turnips in stores from Norway. This is the first record in our files of this insect being intercepted from Norway.
Coccid from Czechoslovakia,--Lecanium coryli (Linn.) was taken at Washington, D. C., on an apple scion in the mail from Czechoslovakia. This is a European species wThich has become established in the State of Washington and in British
Weevil larvae in white turnips,--Lavvae of Ceucorhynchus sulcicollis Thornms. (Curculionidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in white turnips in stores from England.
FECE:NT PATHOLOGICAL INTRCEPTIONS OF ITEREST
Bulb season startso--The fall bulb shipping season has started. One shipmont of hyacinths front France end two from Holland have been found infested with the bulb eelworm (Tylenchus dipsaci) at New York,
iscellaneous nemas.--Relatively few parasitic nemas have been intercepted recently. One lot found at iTew York in carrots from Germany has been determined as Hexameris sp. (probably parasite of soimIe insect). Aphelenchoides parietinus was intercepted in beets from England and in potatoes from Norway at Baltimore. Heterodera schachtii was intercepted in beets fro. Mexico at El Paso.
Garlic disease.--Discolored areas on garlic -from China intercepted at Seattle were found to contain numerous spores of Fusariella sp.
Orchid diseqe, e--A nu-mber of tcrchids arriving in Hawaii from the Philippines Were found, on inspection to be infected with Colletotrichurr orr~hidearurr. This is the first intercep-tion of this-disease from the Philippines.
Yew record for rust0--Cetharanthus roseus leaves collected at Santburce,
Puerto, Ricol .1ere found to bear uredinia of a rust. IAdditional rzter'ia_! was obtained and divided vith Dr. So C. Arthur, whose staff detberrilined the rust as ColecsporiaroS,,cynacew~i. This constitutes a new host anid a new locality record for the rust.
Gladiolus scab from Ohile,--Gladiolus bulbs f rm Ch,.ile intercepted at the :1 ~ Wahngo -n~cto house w~ere submitted to ML7iss Lucia IFcCulloch, who confirmed the presence of scab (Bacterivr. r'rrinatui), on th em.
Au cuba ja.onica disease.--.& diseased lea' collected at 3eattle from a plant of Aucuba japonica froia Japan was submitted 'to Miss E. K. Cash, -7ho reports as follows: L" rcosnaerella sp. (spores simple or 2-cell~d); Possibly Spi~aerulina aucubao Shirai &Hara with spores riot yet 2-13 se-tate. A1;e it esritoni general."
DUTCH I L' DI$ AS IK LOGS3 1POK. 7, IRP
The alarming, situation created by t~le Iiseovery of thae Thtch elm- disease
over a considerable aroa in thU nioso hie7: YorIk City, iuainly in the, Stnte of Yew Jersey, has suddenly been complicated b-; tlie ar:'ival of several shipnents of elm logs frdm Eui-ope, consigned tIUo eastern veneer factories. 7he first shipment of this rzterial during] 19113 arrived JUly 2~5 Subseriuent to thct date other lots have been sent firm Europe, arid in all eight entries, comiprising 69 elrn log,.s, have bea made at Jew York (2); Jorfolk (4); 3utx:e(1); an New7 Orleans (1).
'he developrnont of extensive burlo in teelogs mLes then desir-able lor special veneer use, zand aprarLently- there ic now aft increased po"'ular (!emrand for this typ-(e of veneer in furniture,
Tho t--anr-r of brinGing such log;s to thiis country ',as been am)-arent from the
firt arivl, id hough their entry was not covered by ,ny, exsigc0 aat
every effort was taken to surround these imp)ortations wiPadeqvto~ safe-uards. The urge.-t need for protective ,:ieasura,9 is 'yiell indicated by the fact that in every shipm;,ent, dIl of whi.*ch vere received waith th-"e bar.'- in tact, tLe insoct (Scolyt;us scolytu.s), regarded in Europe as thn:p rificipal agent Jin sprea& ng the uchelm disease, -iwa.s found iii considerable ru-mbers. A:nd the ieril in thsunfortunate combination of host and insect carrier fus further iAJly inten.si-2ied v.hen, cultures
disclosed thne rxesence in at ie, st treof t,70,7 S si.)rients of the wilt fungus
'.he shirmont ariin t Yeii Orleans wz7 rlvon a hot-w .ate.r treat c rt under the direction of 1". T. Dad;for those lot...! conrt-g in rat !>Ioril*o!.I arrai-ielnents were made locallyr by K, 0, ich for the aro e fectiv sufe uard,; L. 17, Scott was able to provide for similar hot--ater trc-at, iLrt frthle s!hi-umem~nt enterinF, at Baltimore; an,-" the .1e17 York shi-Xvents were subjected Githecr toc this hot-water treatmrent or to vacuum fuigation.
It is worthy of note that the importers of-these logs, without exception,
have displayed a most cooperative spirit in this emergency. Without this publicspirited attitude on their part it is doubtful if these safety measures could have been effected, owing to a lack of authority in the Plant Quarantine Act to deal with such materials before official quarantine action has brought them definitely under control.
ITo permits have been issued for the importation of elm planting stock from Europe since April 4, 1927, and all trees grown from stock imported since the earliest inmortations in 1923 have been carefully inspected to assure ,their freedom from the disease; elm seeds have been excluded from Europe since December 22, 1930. When the closely related genus Zelkova was reported to be a host of the
Dutch elm disease it was likewise put under suspicion and was not imported after March 30, 1929,
ROSARIES INFESTED BY INSECTS
Two packages containing 684 rosaries, coming from- Ecme, Italy, were received recently at the Washington, D. C., Inspection House through the Customs Division of the City Post Office. These rosaries were made from e silver-like metal chain on which were strung seeds of Gleditsia caspica. On opening the parcels many lepidopterous larvae and pupae were collected in the paper packing and among the rosary chains. These heve been identified by Carl Eeinrich, of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, as Plodia or Ephestia sp, (?), Although no insect injury wgs visible on the hard seed coating it was very evident, from the frass at the openings in the ends of the seeds, that the larvae had been feeding on the inside. It is doubtful if these tough-coated seeds couldbe injured by this type of insect unless a break occurred in the outer covering. Infestation took place, it is believed, either
after the rosaries were completed, or just after the seeds were prepared for stringing.
INTERCEPTION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM HATAII
A recent letter from A. C. Fleury, as collaborator directing port inspection
work in California, includes some interesting comment on the enforcement of Quarantine no. 13, on Hawaiian fruits and vegetables.
We have been making rather frequent and numerous interceptions
of violations of Qulrantine Order No. 13 on vessels operated by the
Matson Navigation Company. No doubt this condition is partially accounted for by the fact that these vessels now operate in a triangular run, and many passengers from Hawaii who intend to disembark at the second port of call at the mainland are under the impression that it is not necessary for them to consume or destroy
Hawaiian fruits or vegetables until they arrive at the mainland
port where they will disembark. On the other hand, a rather frequent turn-over in the crew members on these vessels may partially
account for this condition,
On one vessel recently five different lots of Hawaiian contraband fruits were intercepted, two of these lots in possession of
the crew and three in tile possession of -assenCors. In the case of one lot rf wateri,lelons, they were found to be heavily infested with melon fl-,,, and in the case of one of mangoes in the room of a passen'r"ar, they were not on"- found infested with the le.rvv.e
of t1le .1edit-erranean fouit flir but pupae of the Eediterranean
fruit fly were found in the berth on which the fruit 77"-s beinE",
carried as T--ell as on the floor, under t"he rugs in the rooni.
ITeedless to sa-y, adequate. and necessary di infection and ot' er
safe 7,iiard -.easures Tere ta'ren to rie-.t this situation.
7e h-ve brou,, U Y U
lt tliese matters frequently, to the attention nf
_. y have al-7a7rs coo-t-erated with the 1--atson Favirration Coi-,r-a_,ry and t", :
us in every way in atte.,'-_-)tJLnE; t-lo rei7uce L. 7 .e nuT.iber of such violarT
tions. rar-c:cnlay-ly on the -,Dart cf tu..eir cr--,:T _,,1; Mbcrs_ The-, 11,11
..iediately discharLe arr rna-iiber of c-I'ow careless'-, cr cr --I they dJ si n a r:, _)ntraband- 2v it s Pecen'. Y c1-_ar[,cd t:--,c c1aie-f sTem-d on ono of t'-1eir lar -c- -!, csels had
been 7,ith t7'_--_ co21,)a1iy fcr t-7er);7--. seven years, h',,ve -no. ted
notices of thoir cT,-,l t1a,-roachout the -,-escell snd _'.ave repeatedly
circularizaC). Liasters, on all t:ieir ves;-3els ca7-iin ; their attention
to the quaran'6ine rec_ulati _,ns,
'T C,! 7 7 r7 T C 1 1 2,() JE] ID,
.,epcrts from 0. 1). De outy, cie.L -s-ector in ti, c B=Tnisv district, follorin[; t'.'ie hurricane of Se-oter]ber 4 and 5, in, -ictate t'-at ncne --f th _-,, border ins-r.)ection force suffered bcdi!7,- *11-IjUry, tiou-h uwa -e to Droperty bcth -,rivate and governmental was considerable. 7he roof of f, indication house at Brm7iisville
was blown clear awa-y, the w"clis c-,--cl--ed, an(.' +1--e lar -e m7inginC, dcors so badlytwisted out c'L sha,,)e t'Lat it is doubtful ii cla-'n be repaired successfulD7 The roof of the, o-f-L ice held, but a storeroom lost its c(-v,,_- rinC and all records and supplies stored ther.,D were .estro7lreJ or C-anaged, The torrential rains accormanied thr, storr:i flooded the district and delarp-d corTiun i cat ion for da ,s, Airplanes -ere unabl, ,, to 1,and on the flooded air,=ts. The two Governrnent cars were bogCed do vi -he fftL :i*36 -tion house wher- the- were stored; :.:r. Dopu 7 1 m.-in car had the to- ) sheared of-i b T a -fl- n,, roof, Ln tl e tor of I.:r. S-- an' s car was caved in by fallinS debris,
74 t 1l Vao f=il'_; -tion ho,,ise oi:-t of c o 1'. T. i S C 10 IT I T)1 ,ns wero beinC, r.aade next day to pi-pe -as into incominE cars as a te.,l-ncr -r7,r r. -,eans cf 1AI2 rL4gation,
11r. Dej.uty ,-Iivqs the follo -Tin,-: vi-vid picture cf tl o storm.: 11onda-, afternoon I ras advised that tle be 1,arl, ror.ate. was
fallinF ra-oidly and by 3:30 when t,--- cha.-ge of shifts at the
bricl,,, e !as to )e riado it hz i("l fallen to c nd I ordered the rien
on dut-,- to tell tieir relief not to stay at t,-.- bridc -,es. I am
told t]lat barometer finaLiv re,.,c'ded 117:(3q. durinL, the lull thct
)recede(l t,Ao blcvT back -nd tha Q t
t t1,3e (-oached a velocity of 135 iniles aa hour. I hi- Lo-T thct -.--as so strong; tl'i-.t it
uosse6. heavy, tiles of .'-' of ;- -,,,- house as if tl- ,ey Were Cuturm leaves.
T"lley vio,,f_,d 'j,*ail and 'nroak ,-!ith a r-Iotallic sound that .vas constantly re.-_4ndin!- -ro of t1no noise ."aaard in a .hocti r.E- Lalljery.
The storm startedLabor Day morning at 11 when a strong wind
sprang up out of the northwest bringing with it a blinding rain.
The rain came down in such torrents that objects 50 feet away could not be recognized. Hom then on the wind steadily in-reased in velocity until 1:30 the next morning when it gradually
lereased and there was a lull for about 2 hours. At 4:30 in the -orning the winLd returned, this time out of the southeast,
and it blw at gale and hurricane velocities until 1 in the afternoon, making a total of 26 hours that it stormed. The wind
gages at both the local weather bureau and at the air port were broken. It seems that the anemometer at the air port was the last to go and it was registering the wind at 90 miles an hour
when it went off. From 11 pim. on until 1 p.m. the wind was so
strong out of the northwest that it sucked two windows out Of the
leeward side of my house.
The first hurricane we had was mild compared to the one we
just ex perienced. 'The latest one lasted twice as long and did
i any times more damage. The strange part of it was that strong
brick buildings like the high school would have whole corners
or a story blown off of them while some of the Idexican shacks would remain intacto I think that it was all a question of a wind break It appears that nothing could withstand the fury
of.the wind where it got a clean sweep at an object. The
whole northwest corner of the hospital t1.at stood off by itself
was caved in. The wind was so strong that it would pick up the mud from the street and hurl it through- the air. There was but one life lost in Brownsville as far as I have heard,
and there was one boy who had both legs crushed off by a flying roof, but in Matamorns I have heard as high as 120 persons were
killed. It will take several days for the people of the Valley
to get their bearings.
DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES
On the recommendation of the Bureau of Plant Industry, the situation with
reference to the strawberry dwarf has been called to the attention of the nursery inspectors of the various States with the suggestion that the presence or absence of the disease in nursery plantings be considered in connection with the issuance of nursery inspection certificates. The various regional plant boards have also been asked to give such consideration to the situation as seems appropriate. It is reported that there is a very high percentage of dwarf disease in some strawberry plantings and that the available evidence indicates that the planting stock was almost certainly infected before shipment. The Bureau of Plant Industry
states that while the economic importance of the strawberry dwarf disease is still
sorlewhait uncertain and nay depend partiall-7 Cli weather co-iiditions, they believe it to be' of' sufficient i'otneto warrant greater attention than has been given. to it by nursery inspectors in Vie 'nast. There is a D e-)artment publication (Circular No,. 174) cn the subject entitled, "Field Observations on the Strawberry Dwarf."1
MITOI-_LKT PI=E-SHOOT 110'=
It is reported that damage caused by thie European pino-shoot moth (Phyacicnia buoliana) is be-o1izv, more serious in the :4,.ew 7nglarnd States ancL Now hv7 and that nursery infestation is- comlicatin,,,y the proble:. Accordinc:-, a s'-ecial conference to consider the situa-ticn was held on Se'i:te~lrber 10, at Nqew. Haven, Conn,, having been called byr tnae Bureau of Plant (urtioat tlhe reo'uEst of the L'cstern Plant Board, Injury from the fall brood cf larvae was eyma Ained on the -nine tlwi~cs in, tha~t vicinity and there was o-.portt'nirty to rma1ke field observations a-- to the economic imrportance of the -pest, he principal subject,- discussed :,er,3 thec best methods. of inspecting nurseries t~o deternine thle -oesencc of theo insect, anrl the policies to be adoptci. for DrevenDtin6g thle spread of the -post and. su-ppres 2mg- infestation,
=cL.YCID BOMMS IlN BM'C0
The discovery of live s'-ecii-me-ns of Cerarnb-cil). borers in bax-boo ocnkins
sticks -at a nurse I -7 in 1Ye'- York State iZ2 re-oorted b:y Dr,, F,. D. Glasgow, Entcomologist of that State* Thec srecimaen.s w~ere tcntativel iedenti -fied, Dr.- Glasgcw reports, as Nioa "jrcata Bates, said to be a -ist of banboo in eastern Asia. The Ton.king stici: had come to the -nursery -irom a company in -hew 'York17 City in two shipments of 1,000 sticks each, eid it is renortod that the insects were found in both shi- ,me:nts. Incluiries are bein- rmade w ithin thle Depart..ent as to any avail able data concerning the in-sect.
D TTCH "U. DISEASE
The number of trees- fol-nd infected with. the Dutch elm disease in N-%ew Jersey and Nezw 'Yor1 waz reported by the Bureau of Plant Indu.stry to have reached about 398 in New J~ersey and 15 i' Kew Y.ork by Se tel"1er 15. Tho center of the infection is .,i Essex County, 1. J,, with a few. trees s"101JIIC the dizea:_e as far weot as Bound Brook and New Brunswich, 1. Jo, and as far east as "Thite Plains, Eye, Port
Yli[gton, and Lynbrook, r- Y,
Transit inspection activities will bcl- res1Umied, it is expected, the iat-Ger part of Septem~ber, at St. Pauil3 0,,.aha-, Council B'luffs, Kensas City7, Porotland, Seattle, and S okane, wit> Feder'al inspectors at each of those points, and the
foceatCh-ao is beinj, strengthened with- the assctdance of State insp,-ectors ci' Illinois. It is honed that State ins'-nectors may also- be available for work at St. Louis, Kansas City, Council Pluffs, Lnd 17ilwau ko_,O
A shipmennt of Gladioli frer., Hart fow _d, Corn~,jc Wero infested with gladiolus th.'ips, was recently reuport-ed by eno) the-l',ston imn-_p-ecto~s*
BLACK STEM BUST
During the recent inspection of nurseries in connection with applications for shipping barberry and Mahonia plants, the inspector learned that such plants in an Ohio nursery were being grown from imported seed secured from certain dealers outside the protected States& The fact that the seeds of these plants, as well as other parts capable of propagation, come within the provisions of the quarantine, had evidently escaped the attention of the shippers. Accordingly, they were provided with information from this office as to permit requirements for shipping into States which are being protected from the rust by barberry eradication.
PIONY PEACH. DISEASE
The inspection of nurseries and their environs for the presence of phony
peach disease has been completed in the States of Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, and Texas. While full reports of the results have not come in, it is learned that there has been some spread of the disease in northern Alabama. Many of the infections found there were justemerging from the incubation period, however, and it is felt that the condition will yield to prompt and thorough eradication. The force of three inspectors is now starting work in South Carolina, Oklahoma, and Illinois.
The State of Tennessee recently revised the regulations applying to the
phony peach disease, to extend to infected areas outside the State, and to include
certification relating to the peach root borer.
WITE-PIE BLISTER B-RUST
Two U. S. Forest Service nurseries in which white pines are being grown for reforestation purposes, are among those for which permits have been issued under the provisions of the blister rust quarantine. One of these, the Parsons Nursery, Parsons, W. Va., was established "to bring the Monongahela (National Forest) back to productivity and to reforest almost 40,000 acres of devasted lands." This national forest protects a part of the headwaters of the Monongahela, Kanawha, Potomac, and James Rivers, end offers excellent possibilities for timber production and recreational purposes. While native red spruce will be the major crop, according to the Forest Service, white pine will also be planted on the forest, and other coniferous trees will be raised in srall numbers for experimental purposes. An annual production of 500,000 white pines is anticipated. Shipments from this nursery have been made during the present year to the George Washington and the Unaka National Forests, the former in Virginia, and the latter in Tennessee,
Another Forest Service nursery for which a permit has been issued is the one at Rhinelander, Wis. Three million white pines are being grown on land donated for the purpose, and the nursery will supply trees for reforesting denuded areas on lands purchased for national-forest purposes in Wisconsin and in the nearby portion
The procedure for including white pine permits in the joint certification
plan was completed during the month. The joint certificates will show certification under Quarantine No. "63" with respect to those nurseries in the gypsy moth regulated area which also have pine-shipping pennits. Only two such nurseries in
that area have received permits this year, For shipments between the New England
States and 'Ne7. York, where control area permits f~rom the States ri' destination are required, the joint ccrtii'icatO 7-ill read: 1163 Contr. Ar." and notif'ications as to all such control-area certificates issued by the ETypsy moth1 ins',,octors will later be sent to the Q)lant quarantine offiicers of' the States of, destination. Joint ce:tii'ic tes -are used only in cases in which inspec"Uors are assigned to the nurseries tp oertii'y indivi 'dual shipments, and are not use d in *cases such as the Class I nurseries in the Japanese beetle regulated a-rea to whi'hl certificates, are supplied -.-Lonthly,
DATrJ SQAT2- ERADICA'I2ION.T
A survey of the date i'zlantin, ss in the Ccachella Valley is in progress.
Each palm is bein- inspecteC) but only i'onthe ground, no ladders locing used. The reports turned in by the inspectors give the palm., census by age anid also the condition oft' he plantings for inspection, thus indicatingtho necessary work to be done durin" the winter.
Th'',e reports f'om this survey sho'-i I- Great di22 -erence ir. the plantingSs as
contrasted wTit1h those turned in in 1929. There arie no seediinC, jungClos in the infested area and vUry few outside this area. 1M"ost of thc -rthless seedlings have been duS out and, destroyed. The --rowers h1rave .eea, doing consi derable pruning, and most of the offshlocts have teeni rem.'oved fror *ithe w,1alm:s or have had their foliage cut back.i: This means that few Gardens arc diiffLicult to inso ect, and the possibility of overlookin,' scale is lesse-ned. There is a larq e increase in the acreage since 1929, an2 an increase in the height of' palmis0 liony palms whiich could be ins-pected entirely rcrn the g-rcund in 1229 no7 requir,3 ins'-ection from. ladders 14 feet or more in height. Han-y palms ,annot io7. be inspected fror,- 20-footu la-lders.
In t'Arizona all plantings of stanCdard variety ralms are boin- inspected.
Mo1st of the palr,,z rere bD-ought in fro-.m- the Coacholla Valley as offshoots, in so.-,e cases from nronerties that w ere -,raeviously in-fested eron which scale was found. later. Due t7) the, physical structure of the offshoots, it is q uite prssible the sc-ale mirV1. -t exist on pcrItions of then which could not be observed by, ordinary ins-oection, that is) on the leaf-bases u-nder the h ands oi' fiber. Such -in infostation mright escape observation for 42 or 3 years under certain conditions.
E7'cli~raivc- Japaneso Poetle 'Jer1
As noted from a number of re7spaners -:'ri-,ted 1n sections heavily. infested
by the Japanese beetle, active ca :'Tair~as desi'nd to reduce Japanese beetle populations to a mininum were sponsored this sui-nxer by a q.'U'.bur of civic or-,anizations and municipal officials. Arion~g those active in orGanizing this s9,umaer' s cardpaicns
have been The Kiwanis Club and Park Department of Perth Amboy, N. J.; The Woman's Club of voodbridge, N. J.; The Landscape Service of the Citizens Unemployment Committee of Mount Vernon, JT. Y,; The Spotswood Garden Club, Spotswood, No T.; Supervisor of Public Works, M. Andronico, Hackensack, N. J.; Troop 87, Boy Scouts of America, Earrington, Nf. J; and Postmaster Lester Quigley, Manville, N. J. Probably the most energetic of the campaigns was the one sponsored by the Kiwanis Club of Perth Amrboy. Their campaign was launched on August 2. The Kiwanis Club, three of the theaters of the tovmn, the emergency Relief Colmittee, and the Perth Amboy Hardware Compan-y cooperated. The hardware store was the headquarters for turning in the collected beetles. Ior every pint or more of beetles brought in by boys and girls, a pass to one of the local moving picture theaters was issued. Three thousand five hundred passes were given out. In this manner, nearly six million beetles were collected within a period of 2 weeks. According to the chairman of the public affairs committee oif the Kiwanis Club, the whole project exceeded the Club's expectations. They had no idea that beetles would be turned in in the quantities they received. After the first day they were obliged to call for help. The Emergency Pelief Comittee of Perth Amboy cooperated by rfirnishing men to take care of receiving and recording the collections. In addition to the passes to the theaters, the Kiwanis Club offered weekly prizes of 2 and "1 to the two children turning in the largest quantities. Considerable publicity was given the campaign, since the secretary of the Club is city editor of the local Perth Amboy paper. Supplementing the local campaign, the Park Department of Perth Amboy operated traps, which caught about five and one half barrels of beetles. Children were permitted to collect the beatles in the parks, but were not allowed to empty the traps. According to the Director of Parks, they received a very good lesson on the destructiveness of the beetle, since in one flow-er bed alone, before they had a chance to cope with the situation, the beetles literally "ripped the bed apart."
The severity of the storm of August 23 is illustrated by the experiences of the trap inspector at Annapolis, 11d. Rain started on Monday, August 21, 2 inches falling, that day. The following day there was but a small amount of precipitation Late Tuesday evening the wind. changed to northeast and a 30-mile-an-hour gale started to sweep across the bay. IL1l day Jednesday the rain fell in torrents and the wind increased to 55 miles an hour. Wednesday morning the trap inspector received word that the tide was coming up over the breaLkwvater at the Naval Academy. He went to rescue the traps in his care, and had to wade through 2-1/2 feet of water to where the traps were set up. The wind was blowing so hard he could hardly keep on his feet. Three traps were removed from their position, but four could not be found since they had been blown over and were covered with water. After the storhad subsided on Thursday, the remainder of the traps was located, although the water was still 8 inches deep at that point. One trap had blown through a tennis court fence. Practically all of the traps on the Naval Academy grounds had been blown down. At the State House grounds, three of the traps had been blown over, and one was beneath a 50-year-old locust tree which had been felled. At another point the water was still 4-1/2 feet deep near the bay and it was impossible to tend the traps in that locality. rour other t-raps were found under fallen trees in the town. All standing trans were clogged with small branches or leaves. Many homes and all gardens were ruined. According to report, this was the worst storm in the history of Annapolis. hile en route to Upper Marlboro on August 25, it was necessary for this inspector's machine to be towed through a section of road flooded by the Patuxent !iver. The State Roads Commission furnished a free towing service through 2-1/2 feet of water. On the return trip, the inspector had to wait
2 hours for a tow through the flooded area. A somewhat siilar condition was experioence( with trays placed in Potomac Gardens in the District of ColIumbia. In the Gardens,the traps were covered with water up to the baffles. A number of them were washed over and drifted away with the strong current.
In N ew Jersey, during August, 700 State-o:ned traps that had been used in
determining degrees of infestation in 15 towns and around several 1 les in the northorn counties were lifted. ursery and greenhouse scouting crews covering uninfested nurseries and greenhouses in North Jersey were dismissed on August 19. During the month, crews picked up 56 beetles or the premises of 10 commercial shippers; and 43 beetles within 500 feet of 11 additional e-stablish ients. As a result of the season's scouting it has been necessary to change the classification of 15 establishments. This ill result in additional regular atory work in the territory served by the Ruthcerford office. Supervision in the Eutherford district heretofore largely has been over Class I, or uninfested premises, There has been very little cut flower inspection work in ITew Jersey due to the are; cnditions for this commodity. No berries were umigated at the Hoamonton berry mrhet, and only 80 crates of blueberries were tiigated at Yew Lisbon. Thle peach crop of the State was so small that markets inside the regulated zone absorbed nost of the crop at attractive prices, although over 4,000 bushels were certified for movement to nonregulated territory. Early in Au(ust outside markets were still attractive for Lima and strin,?g beans, resulting in the certification of over 15,000 bushels. Visits to commercial packers of adpples and each con.inued. Certification of peaches was granted on the basis of satisfactory handling of the fruit in the course of grading and packing. Overhauling of a dozen beetle separators subject to hard usage during the bean inspection season "ill be made shortly.
Soil treatment with arsenate of lead in Erie, Pa., began on August 22. By the end of the month 12 acres hud been sprayed at the rate of 1,000 pounds of the poison per acre. Two high-powered spraying outfits were used, one for applying the insecticide and the other for -raslinC it into the soil. Eleven men comprise the two spraying crews. Applications at the 1,000 pound rate will be made at the sites of all trap finds outside the 1932 treated areas. Excet ions are being made in the case of vegetable gardens, theground in which will probably be sprayed this fall. Experimental results obtained by the Bureau of Entormology indicate that treatment of the soil and turf at this dosage -ill establish a condition toxic to Japanese beetle larvae for a period of over 5 years. Twenty-one tons of arsenate of lead will be applied before the Erie treating is cor.leted. Effectiveness of foliage spraying work performed during July is attested by a published statement released on August 17 by the Erie municipal shade tree ccrrission to te effect that "Citizens had an exceptional opportunity to watch the rapid amd efficient work of the high-powered equipment used by the Federal De-) rtment of Agriculture against the Japanese beetle, Erie ;,ith its trees needs such equirnent. Public opinion can stress the need of an apo-ropriation for its purchase br the parks department. It can be used in parks as well as on streets."
As he was about to leave the farm iprodcts inspection platform in Baltimore at the end of his tour of duty on Saturday -or-in, August 12, Insrpector William penner heard a woman scream., Looking aco-oss 'te st : eet he saw an old lady running down Fallsway Avenue shouting for 2omIeone to "Stop thot thief." Wom the middlJe of the street the inspector saw a colored man with a -ra sweater turning the next
corner at.-,J-ped He halted an arbc ngtruck, jumped 'aboard, an. 'told, the
driver to..go in_ the dqire 'ction he had la'st seen th-e; -hegr_,o. Afte~l' a chase of~ fiveblocks, -the truck overtook two fast fleQing negroes, .both with -ray sw,,eaters, After passinr- the :laein', vaen, the inspector jumped off~ the truck ona the run and from, behind a lar e, truck parklled at the curb. emerged to catch both negroes in his ELMS. He g,-rabbed "beoth Tby their 6ollars. The .t'ro negroes denied -kanwledge. of' any7 thef~ts but after ,,cedn-- a. short distance tov./ard a' police bo.x, the larger ne.G-ro dropped a pocketbook frorn hit.s w~aist. This was r'ecovered by a passer-by attracted by the -sci~l-Co. Shortl~r tklereafter two policemen ariived and relieved the. insapector of' the cul>..rit-sQ Later the two captives wore indicted by the -,rrand jury. They wvern tried on Ailrust 23. B3oth pleaded Cguilty and were sentenced to 6 nmoiths, in -the house of corr ection. The.-pair is also wanted for burglaIpry iin Virginia.
Canvassing of~ farmers, c.state owners, 'ty residents, and tuperintendents of golfs course -parks, and cerieteries was undertaken durinCg the rniths of July-an4d, August3. in an ofort to deter-Mine ex-,renditure's for- control of' the JTapanese beetle and actual losses firor crop destruction by the insect. -Only two men were avail-. able for assignm ,ent to f\ill-tirie work on the 'canvass. NTuerous inspectors, of the, New, Jersey personnel devoted t 'o.. thie survey all of' their tirae not occupied by regu.lar routine duties* The survey -was deasign'ed to. 1)rocure signed statements -from individuals showingh-- defix~ite, accurate, and.'consorvat"-ive losses o~r control coats. Interviews and corre.~mcndence were confined to individuals in -a aDxea ex.hibi-tiig, continuous J-apanese beetle dcamage. Conditions. reprosen'tative of~ the degree of~ injury to -be f oui:.d throughout thie entire zoneC of continuous darnia[ge were selected., Information conceexning e-reelocalized injury by thie insect wias discarded, In.!. definite or questionable data were also omitted from the -final tabulations. ,As a result of the canvass, there is now availabl e an abundance of authenticated evidence of Japane se' beetle s injury to various crops, to,-e ther with rel iable -costs of protecting from destruction various scjtil farrm. Co, a well as turf and. follw
ag~e in parks, -cemeteries, residential blocks, estates, and Cgolf coursesw1,t the end, of August., 130 men furnished by emn-_~enc-7 relief boards were emnloyred on various phases of Japanese beetle quarantine and cdyntrol ebtivities. Four meon in Pennsylvania and three in Maryland were engaged 'in -inspection. of qua-raf tined fruits and vegetables, Tigh~t workerss were as3igned to *n'mintenancp work at the New, Cin-berlend, Pa., garage. Eleven men were :eitployed as road ins rectors, on the~ Peiuisylvania-West Virg,,inia a-id Pennsylvania-Ohio S -tate lines. Three scouts were enEgaged .n surveys of nursery and grcen).ou.-e cstabl4,shnents in Pennsylyania., ,The' remaining welfare wrorkfers were engag-,d in trbnping work in tUou.ns and cities outside the -regulated zones, Of the latter employees, 6? w~ere employed in Ohio, 34 in 71ov Yrr,7 15 in Perns-y--,vani a, 1-1 in Michigan, '13 in West V!rina 5 in-JNew Hampsh.-Ue) cnd 3 in V7erriont. Many of these %;ere attmewres Arrangements
for furnlishing this 7,elfare labor uoua1l lviexe nade with the chairiuan of welfare work in the respective county in which the activities.17ere performedd, In a few cases the State Frmploymient Oi 2A'ce selected Vale men,. Actuial contact with the men assigned to th1,e project ILYs matained through thie chairman in chexEge of the welfare work in t1he, co,-mm uity concornad.
Protection of Japanese beetle traps often reqi,,res considerabl-e in-Lgenuity or, the part of trap inspectors. rjacently a tram ins-pector in~ a Mgaryland cornunity whiile tending his route found a number of trains missing. Inquiry of local
resi,3(,,nts -developedthe info=_tinn that tlle 11ad been
ta -,en b-,T rtiei,,ibers oi' an organization that was Imaving a mention in tI,, to,,,!n, There r.,,ao no dof:Liite proof cf thi.-, however. In ar. effort to recover sor, ie, if not all of the traps,$ the ilis-pector inserted a r.otice in tio loc ,l paper to thk effort tha't the traps were Governr ent yroporty and would bq of no u86 to anyone as tha season for beetles vra-- nlmoOt ,,,ver. Ti(.,, notice also stated that if the traps were not immediately returned the ones v1jo 1jiSapp-opria4Ued them .7ould be liable: to prosecution, .On the morning, following, 11,,o publication ol' t'he notice, tllne inspector found that the traps had been returned, alt'hoLie;h thoy 7!ere not replaced in their orif inal positions, A, o.-L, 1his tr :.r su-,,),,,ly showeCl all traps accounted
Removal of traps created oiitside t* re-;ulE .te(a zone in North Carolina and Virginia ,ma in pi-orxess duTi ,, AuLust. The f.'el traps stil rernining at two lo_,jr711n6 OX,
nations in Soutl Carolina at thc he ;.ionth were 1i fted on Auf;ust 2 and
.15, respectively, TraT ) rei. oval vms accompli3lhed. 1,To-i"th Carolina betreen Aur ust 2 L nd 1'9*. Trap -, still rertmined in o.Terat-ioji in 1:7 Virginia ecrm-uat tho, eiid of the month, but these. .-re scheel-iled for liftia,,,:; ear y in September, All traps operated fol- a period of 30 days i-n 1-arylaiid were collected and shipped back to tln'e ITer Cur. iborland stcra,., ,e Marehouse dur,', ing AugList. Bemoval of the 60-day traps began on 21, cmd i,;- is anticipated. that they Will all be
collected, packedt:md returned to 14ew Cur.,Aerland by September S. Active traps are still being nmintainea in hon-rer'lulated territ-ory in .'e,17 Fai lps,.iira, Vem;iont, 1e,-7 Yb: kt -Ohio 'Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.
0,11,August 5, the Philadelphia Public di-voted a fuill paLe of -its rotogravure pictorial section to a ,eries of se-% e-l photo,,,ranhs illustrating various phases of the Japanese beetle quarantine Trovl: in llhilad .IpIni.a. Those included a photograph al beetles balled oii apples, the Phila(Ilel-olma f:L- uit mid ve. tablebe inspedtion platforra, bm ins ,-_)ector examining a trap in the j '.ranl-ford Lrsenal grounds a scene in the DocI7, Street produce iiarl,'et, picture of ban anas beinp; unloaded fron a ve-sel, an orchard scene a scout e-xamininG a true for beetle ini- -,stationt and an indoor scene at tl-),c Philadelphia -Iist-ri t office at Franford. In r ddition, three phot%-ra-.)hs were include several act-ivities at the 11oorlostown, K. 0., Japanese beetle research laboratory olfl' ',-he 7 ureaLt of Entoziology. Also or August 6, at 8:30 p.m.f Leicester K. Davis', radio reporv-or fo:o thc 'Piblic Led!ner, broadcasted a talk on the "Japanese Beetle ,uarantlinell ov Dr station MiLT.
At the invitation of the su,.)erintondent of the Citizens Conservaticii Ca.-,,p at Hiantic, Conn.,, Poi Johnsong in change of the coop-,rative Stat, ,, &-u! lederil 11apanese beetle and Euroj:oan corn borer 7rorl: in Conrecticut, visited the C. C. C, cam1p on Angust 23 and supplied iniorr ia';icn concp,- TinC- tl-e t,.-,U ii-ects. Posters we:t e also finishedd concernin,3 t.116 life history and control imoasureo practiced for these tro insects as well as foT 'L1.,e Cypsy It wa.- t_(;ar1ied th t the officers in
char(,e of the c-m'.p vre i-astri,,-ctinr tho Gf tb corps in control information rhich 7Till be o-" Zener.-l 2.ntrrG--,t ilr ( om-.ectinn -!ith thcir -)re6ent wor.I: and of assistance in conservation worl'1 upon thuir re' Xara to home cc7:mn.Ltie--*
Umusually r i k.1; "L ood markets in 1,1id,,ves tern Ctates fo-, stri-C ,%.nd Lima bea!.IS -X07n
im"southern New larsey anft'easto rn Penrts- lvaiila, whioli --,,csulted iii tlio ina,.,ectio n I 1 0 !,
and certification of lc.rise quantities (-f th,-, ,: vel-etables for carload move,,Ient fror the reFiilated territory, wero a-'Utribu -Ied by tho shij, ners to C;roi_ ,jt conditions e arl-
in July which affected almost all Western and Southern States. The Century of Progress exposition is also believed to have created an exceptionally high market for these products in Chicago.
Scouting of nursery and greenhouse establishments in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia was completed shortly after the middle of the month and the approximately 50 temporarily employed men engaged in this work were dismissed. Surveys of uninfested classified establishments will continue in
the more northern regulated States until various dates in September.
While adult beetles are in active flight, carloads of sand or soil to be shipped under certification from infested sections must be fiuigated with carbon disulphide at a dosage of 1 pound, or 350 cc to 1 cubic yard of soil. Most of the material fumigated in this manner consists of sand which must be loaded in tight box cars. In fumigating sand loaded to a depth of 3 feet, two series of holes are required, one 18 inches in depth and the other 2 feet deep. These holes are made 18 inches apart, the first series beginning 9 inches from the edge of the car. A crowbar 2 inches in diameter, marked 18 inches from the end, is used to make the deeper holes. A funnel inserted in the end of a rubber hose is used to convey the fUmigant to the proper depth. Surface holes are staggered between the deeper hole and the entire row completed and covered in one operation. This procedure require measuring of each dose in a graduate, and pouring it from the small container. Such constant pouring in the confined space above the sand frequently causes great discomfort to the operator, especially on warm days. Care is also necessary not to step too near the deeper holes before the disulphide is applied. Another disadvantage of this method is the constant destruction of the rubber hose, which, dissolv by the fu.migant, swells, and soon clogs. Fumigation of a carload by this
method requires approximately 2 hours.
Carload fumigation has been considerably simplified by the use of an injector devised by V. A. Johnson, of the treating division. The body of the injector is made from 1/2-inch brass pipe, 36 inches long. A piece of solid brass
rod sweated on the end and machined to a cone shape forms the point of the injector Four small holes, 1/32 inch in diameter, drilled 1-5/8 inches from the tip, provide exit holes for the fumigant. The top of the cylinder is threaded and fitted with a 1/2-inch brass cap. A center hole in the cap is drilled for the plunger rod. This rod is 36 inches long, 3/8 inch in diameter, and is threaded from the bottom to within 9 inches of the top. Two nuts are screwed on the rod so that the length of the stroke nmay be regulated. Screwed to the upper end of the plunger is an automobile gear shift knob, used as a handle. The lower part of the rod is turned down to 1/4 inch and. threaded for a push and pull leather plunger. Hand holds projecting from either side of the upper part ofi the cylinder are provided by a brass collar placed just under the top cap, in opposite sides of which are screwedbrass rods 1/2 inch in diameter and 4 inches long. Another brass flange, 1-15/16 inches in diameter and 13/32 inch thick, is placed 18 inches from the exit holes to act as a depth guide. The latter flange contains a set screw to permit its adjustrient to any desired depth.
For use as a guide in marking out the relative positions of the holes, a collapsible measuring stick has been constructed to take care of the width of a freight car. Marks are etched on the stick 18 inches apart for one row of holes,
ano, two strap iron guides at either end provide for measurerrient bet,1-e,:)n rows.
In practice it has been found that two injectors may incst ad7anta*c Oous1y by used in fu:,ii3atin( a carload o-" sand. Thc, new procedure consistc- of placinG t1ie raeasuiin,- stic'- at ono end (3f the car f-.,r the, first series of" holes. A bucl,..et coataininr- 1: so t' at it is
carbon disul-phide' is -olaced near the center of the stic'
convenient t o i ns' I)ectors working on either side. A--,"ter' careful re-ulation to dro-v,7 u the exact ar,,ioiuit of carbon disulphides the injectors are char, ed b t1a c
tips in the fcim-.,,, nt an! nulling oLit the plun'-f"r.rods" a1e injectors are then pushed by means of the hz nd holds into tbe to the re:iuire denth :.nd the liquid ejected. Their are thie., refilled -ui tij-) T)oints just bu--ied for, the surface injections Each inspector cor plates one lial-f c row, afte: which -the 17Basuring stick is advanced 18 inches eiid the nroc(_ dul-e -14e a,.,ted. T-'y this ; -.etlod the tine required. to f)-uiigate a car is redliced ar-pro:.iTictoly one .alf. Ins-jectors using,
-the injector.-, can stand. erect, I -onos of car' on disalnhide bein ,, heavier thLn air are not near* so amioyinl- e.2 when contin,_i, 111 r-sasurin,", Cf t -,e liruid is required, at nose level. T Ts e of t J-e cve- _-, 7,,xiod. o!' sev -ral months has sho--Tr. that in
every case the corre t dosc- ,,,o is rcleosef at- t,,o rro-ner 7 1. Koles iirade b-, the injector ore qiite, s.;i1-ll oasil ,- covered.. The iiew instru,,-,ent hc s -nroved to be efficient, labor spxi:i, r and c ndlcive to fewe-, ill T hysicr.l effoct5 to onerotors a lyingop ho Seventeen carloads of sand 7oere fumiGat.-a b me,-Las of injectors durin ', the noiith of Au, ust.,
Corn aorer Activities
Specirieno of t'-,e Euro7:,ean -crn boier received from _-.. "I. C'hqmbers, State 1-ntorzqoloList, odison, throuE,.,-,, D. J. Cafir ,7,1 in chLr:-e cf t:ie corn borer field laboratory of the _"ureau of at Tol_ :'or C-io, ind.fCate th,-,t corn borer
lcrvae have been _-ucorered this saasor by b-,- the Stlate of "Tiscon.-in
in the follo7iti- areas: Tornships of Liberty-Grove) Sevasto-)al, and SturCeon B,-,y, in.Door County; towns"Aips of 7eCt K.ewaun--e !,-Ind Cailtuon, in 1,'e1,-iauiee Ccuiity; tC7,,nship of '1 -,o rivers, in 11ariitoroc County; of in"31,,cbo.,:yLn Ccwity;
Township of Calumet, in ::Ton d du Lac County, to--,nsi _, of (,e-n_antc-,-.,n, in Co lnty; Itownship of 11o, ,uon, in Ozauhee Cni:,nty; tow.-Isiips of Grtanville and. 'J Til-%raukee in 11ilwaukee County; tovi-laohip of Caledonia, in IacJLno Pount,--, cm,.J. o-.,nsllips of Somers ai,.d PleasE nt Prairie, in Lenosha County. Infestat-ic)ns h,--;,e previouslyy b- efound in flanitowoc, SIU;boyr :an. and Racine Coi;31ties. Otherwise, t)-a collectio3,s indicate first-recoa d -finds in the re.-) -ctive 2ou)tiDs. 77it'h t.u exception -f the ri to Coil e s, 1 f i- st-r r f" nd s re in infestationsin Fond du Lac; aiO d (, C d
towliships bo-_.-de::-ir ,, Late or conti ,,ouo i-o co,-,,3tal to ,7nshJ!')s festetions were disc.(.-v-.rad in the nort!.ei %*,ioot cnd sorthei ni7, st townsl.i, on the lakes indicatlinL, a wide range T i,.fe,,ta, ic.i alon ., t,ae f:,crite
Federal certification ,to coi,.-Oly witIL State -xro-rear. cc,--n borer qu, rartines ,uere corfir_6d. -T)rircirally to thc ro- stern contrr,.l rjreas. 1.11 bcails chii ped irom southern :,Ow Jerse.- -,r'd en-stern Pe-.ns-,l7r-3- Ja to tatc;, :L-e(:uirin C,)In borer inST)eC4,ion' eertifie,-t, t t! ee'le certific
:Lo cer -,L--d a" sare, ti.,.e 1':Tal ,.ne e b 11
tion was Franted. Inspectors -7'-,o ofo i. h,.ve hr,- ,,n 70r,-inL, e--clusively on ,cornborer in -Ipecti -,n -!orl.: in O iic,.# West Vi. C;j.,Aiej I Ldia*n,-, and wore reassigned to srorvise -a7)ane_-e bee-lie t-,:,jiT 11 rrii
activities in t lcir arcco,
is in excian-o fo7- &T- equal amount of tii.,e devoted to cori. bcrer 11-srcetion -,,o r k by the re,-T.1 ,r Japanese b(-+,ctl(, 1)orso-nc1 in 11 e,-: Jerse-,r and C onnc c t i cut
MEXICAN FRUIT FLY
The work of the Mexican Fruit Fly Projedt was seriously interrupted by a tropical hurricane which struck the Valley on August 4. This part of the Gulf Coast has been remarkably free from these disturbances, none having occurred since about 1370, when the village of Clarksville at the ,cuth of the Rio Grande was destro'ed The velocity of the wind at Brow7nsville was about 70 miles per hour, but decreased rapidly to the westward, being only about 40 miles per hour at Mission.
It was estimated that about 90 percent of the fruit in the Brownsville district was whipped from the trees# while in the Mission district, at the other end of the Valley, only about 2 or 3 percent was blown off. Considerable damage was done to
buildings in Broiwnsville and to plate glass windows and signs as far west as ercedes. Traps which were in the trees were damaged to some extent and quite a number were lost. Rains which accompanied the hurricane made the groves impassable and as soon as they were dry the attention of the inspectors was directed to the remcval of the fallen fruit. This resulted in a considerable lessening of the trapping operations during the remainder of the month.
Following a survey of the damage done to the fruit, the Federal and State Departm ents recommended that the fallen fruit be disposed of by either regulation burial, by piling in Atrrows in the middle of tree rows and covering, or by throwing to the middles and double discing. This latitude in the disposition of the fruit was granted in view of the financial condition of nany of the growers and the fact that the fruit was still immature.
Through agitation by a number of growers end others, the Director of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation of Texas authorized the use of laborers from
that organization in the cleaning of the groves. It was realized that to be effective the destruction of the drop fruit would have to be accomplished quickly The direction of the P. F. C. labor was turned over to the inspectors of this project, and for the few days during which the laborers were able to work, they made good headway in disposing of the fallen fruit. How~v;r 3eavy rains occurred which interrupted their work. Further, an election : held on the 20th au-torizing the issuing of $20,000,000 in bonds to be used in r-i.ef work in Texaso Pending the outcome of this election, the Federal authorities had notified the State that no more funds would be advanced unless the State approved these bonds, For that reason the State officials were conserving the funds on hand and allowing work only to those actually in distress, which cut down the supply of labor needed for the clean-up work. All R. F. C. work in the Valley was stopped on the 25ths when only about two thirds of the fruiit had been disposed of. 'The burden of the clean-up work was then thrown on the growers who made very good headway the remainder of the month.
The operation of traps on the Texas side of the river resulted in the taking of 5 adult A. ludens, 106 A, ser entina, 9 A. _llens, and 2 A. fraterculus. The ludens were taken in a grove at Mercedes and in two groves at Weslaco. These groves were thoroughly s-prayed with the nicotine-molasses poison.
Of particular interest was the identification of a number of adult flies reared by the Mexican inspector at Matamoros from peaches originating in Ramos Arispe, Coahuila, exico, as A. serpentina. Larvae from this same shipment of
peaches showed all the characters of ludens. This is the first record of A. ser. pentina being reared from peaches and establishes a new host for this species. In I'exico serpentina is considered as an enemy of mameys and sapotes.
Preparation for the harvesting of the largest crop ever produced in the
Valley was well under way by the. end of the month. Additions were being made to a number of packing plants and quite a few new plants were being erected. It was estimated by the industry that around 15,000 carloads of frlit would be shipped this season. Preliminary maturity tests showed that quite' a bit of the Duncan grapefruit and navel oranges were ready for harvesting.
Gin-trash inspection has been continued in the area below San Antonio to and including the lower Rio Grande Valley. On the whole, working conditions have been
satisfactory, and i.ore material has been examined this season than ever before without any signs of thA pink bollwor:i being found. Ginning was largely completed by 'the end of August. The machines were therefore moved to new areas east and northeast of San Antonio.
Permission was secured to operate the two machines in Mexico, and one of the mobile machines was set u'p at iatmoros, opposite Brornrsville, where six gins are 'in operation. Due to the practice of shipping seed cotton into Hatamoros in railway cars, the men were able to secure samples of trash from many -different localities. Ginning goes on almost continuously, hence rains did not interfere with gin-trash inspection at this place as much as in other locations. One of the small hand machines first began operating at Nuevo Laredo, Mexiec, which is opposite Laredo, Tex. Some cotton is also shipped to this point for ginning, therefore trash was very plentiful. This machine was later moved to the Don Kartin Project, which is soime 60 miles from the border. There are some 25,000 acres of cotton on this project, and with three gins operating there was plenty of trash'. Aside from the boll weevil and leaf worm, insects were very scarce. All trash inspected by both of the above machines gave negative results.
Inspectionsof the 1933 crop'have been begun in the Southeastern States. In northern Florida and southern Georgia both field and gin-trash inspectirsare being carried on, while in Nississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina only gin-trash inspection is now being performed. The results of all inspections have been negative to date.
The daily collection and examination of cotton blooms from the plats at
Chapman Field, Fla., wore continued throughout the month, with negative results. From time to time okra and other hibiscus blooms have also been exanined. On August 23, two pink bollworm lrvae were found in hibiscus bl6oms. The plant on which the insect was found is a hybrid, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Immediately after this finding, two inspectors began an intensive examination of hibiscus blooms,
and at this time 10,000 have been inspected without finding any firther specimens* It would therefore appear that there was no general infestation in hibiscus.
During the month an inspection trip was made down on the Florida keys to see
how much growth had been made by wild cotton seedling and sprout plants since the clean-up work. Sprout plants were observed along the road on the extreme lower end of Uppei Matecumbe and on Lower Matecube Keys. Only three or four plants wer
found tOb riig h ra i rt aetyhvny three most four pth s rt
found to be fruiting, the great majorityy apparently having made most of their growt] since the rainy season began. The plants where sodium arsenite was applied last fall were also inspected. -It was found that where the solution had been poured around the roots of the plants t"ey had not been killed. In cases where the base of the stalk had been bruised beire the solution was mlied, the plants had been killed. Plants that wre sprayed witnh the solution merely shed their leaves and put out new7 Growth. It is therefore a-pparent that in order to kill the plants, the stalks will have to be bruised in some manner before the solution is Epplied.
The trap-plat work in the Di- Bend of Texas was brought to a close on
August 18. At this tiie only three of the plats were being used, and these continued to show higher infestation than the adjacent fields. Boll counts made in the fields indicated that the infestation was increasing, so that there seemed to be no particular advantage in continuing the plats. Bloom and boll inspections made at random in various fields throughout the Presidio section have shown a light infestation. On Augiust 25 the first cotton of the 1933 crop, consisting of 5 bales, was &ined at Presidio. Fromn these 5 bales, 1-1/2 bushels of gin trash obtained was run through one of the small hand machines, and resulted in the finding of 683 pink bollworms, or an average of 136.6 woIms per bale. The first ginning of the 1932 season was from this some field, and from 2 bales, three fourths of a bushel of gin trash contained 2,321 pink bollworms, or an average of 1160.5 worms per bale. This is a reduction of 83 percent over the 1932 season. On August 30, one half bushels of trash was obtained from 2 bales from another farm,
from which 673 specimens were taken, or an average of 336.5 worms per bale. The first bale from. this farm in the 132 season resulted in the finding of 922 pink boilnTorms in the one half bushel of trash obtained. This siiows a 77 percent reduction over the 1932 season. From the above results it seems that the control measures enforced in the Big Bend have made a considerable reduction in the worm population.
The inspection of material collected from fields in the Salt River Valley
of Arizona, before they were plowed under, has been completed. In addition, green bolis from all parts of the area hive been inspected during themonth, rthout any signs of the pink bollworm having been found. Toward the close of the month a few bales of cotton were ginned. All of the trash was collected and run through one of the small machines with negative results. It now appears that ginning will be well under way in this area by the middle of the coming month, at which tie it is planned to put four gin-trash machines in operation.
A considerable amount of material from the 1933 crop has been inspected in
the Thurberia weevil area, without any signs of either the weevil or the pink bollworm being found. Investigations have also been made to determine just how near to the eastern plantings of cultivated cotton Thurberia plants are growing. However, some further investigations will be necessary before this can be obtained
acuratelyr. It is of intl ,rest t,, note that the Thurboria p]'oants are no-7 blooming
rre 7usey, nd there are prospects for a hoavT crop of' bolls. 7oovils have already beC-un rin~nd have started to attack the buids oznd sr-all bolls. It will be
sormc time,. jet before gi-nning gets under .,ay in this area. Only oneo gin vrill be operated again this season, and they will naturally wait until a considlerable aimoiunt of seed cotton has a ccumulated before beginnin;- operations. It is molanned to use one of the small gin-trash maac. irnes in this area
PREVW "IiG SPIRL2AID OF UTMS7
Begular scouting work was re.3umed durin- -the month in the barrier zone in IMassachusetts, and Connecticut. In the Pennsy,,lvania area a:Jproxiirmtely 175 local laborers continued wi;th thr,. -xor]k of clearirfg s'urouts and s.,-,l1l brush from the infosted territory cut over dunn',- theo fiscal year 1933. On Aug2.st 21, scoutinc- 7as started in thL lowlands aln~the banks o-l- thco Siisqcuehlimina and Lackuwanna Rivers, but on account of flood conditions which resulted fr-om the heavy raiLn, it -as found necessary to tenmporanil-%r discontinue scoutin- after only a- fow daysv ,.ork. At one tiine the water in these rivers -as 20 feet above t'he lu,7 ato iark.
Effective August 16, under the -ITational Indu~tria l 1Pecovery Act, fthnds
a-iountinf- to Q2',O?, 20 2 90 were allot-teq to t'-., bureauau of P-lait '.uarantine for -yrsy moth work. This money is to be exixnded iii Vermiont, "lassachu-setts, Connecticut, New. York, and nennsyrlvania. Scoutinr,, is to be car-ried on in Koa Zn lad Ih barrier zone and east of the zone to thje Copnncticut _--'iver, the northern mart o f Few York State in Clinton County,, acmc. in Pernns-lvania. *Tr a r.oitl started in securinE 2,en for sunervisory positio-ns on th-is -roiect,.all such poositions beinj filled by -men experienced in' gms- noh or.:. 'These man, 'to getller with the re,7ular suprer-visor,,- mrsormnal, will train and. direct a force of about 1,000 men to be secured through the Nat-ional -iee.inmlo'-Mont Service in each State where Federal jgypsy m-othl work has been authorized, One of the first steps taken wms to establish locations for training schools, as very, few men. -ill. have had previous experience in such work and Most of thorn wiill ha-ve to be taugh- torcgizh n
sect in the various stages of its life history a-nd how7 and whore to look for it. These training schools a::e bei-u -established. in Connecticut2 assalise.hstts, southern Vermont, and in Penrsylvania, whore t'Uhe gypsy moth is plentiful in wocdian( An important factor inlctn training schools wa,.s the neGcs--it-T of securinboarding facilities for such a hIare number of m~n at c-, near these locations Upon completion of a short trailing period the nen will be as: einblerl in crows and assigned to various -prts of the territory for re,;i:l-r ;coutii< 'ork
The gypsy moth program in thei neoncy Con,-servation. camps, is being- devoled~ rapidly, but there -ill bu no duplication of thei -'yorak conducted under the National Industrial Recovery Act. Dun>-, .'u. usta averag-e of 150 men weroe n-g god o n gy-psy moth work in tho COC.C, camps in Connecticut a-nd Ve-rmont, and good proress
is~ bein mdo. ItU has been di -i-icult to secure ,.,in for gmymt eki hs
caraps as so fmany are engaged in construction w,,ork and various capduties. NO
gypsy moth work has as yet been started in camps in Massachusetts, but foremen are to be appointed to these caemps early in September.
A total of 6,737 assembling cages have been placed this season in States as follows: 1,823 in 54 towns in Pennsylvania; 1,893 in 49 towns in Connecticut; 1,212 in 29 towns in Hassachusetts; 703 in 17 towns in Vermont; 1,081.in 26 towns in New Jersey; and 25 cages in Canada (put out by Canadian officials), A large number of male gypsy motI have been caught in Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. To the end of the month 61 male gypsy moths were caught at 30 cages in 15 towns in Pennsylvania; 461 male moths at 271 cages in 34 towns in Connecticut; and 136 male moths at 43 caGes in 11 towns in 1assachusetts. One male moth was caught in a cage in New Jersey, as was mentioned in the September News Letter. This makes a total of 659 male moths caught at cages up to the end of Auigust. No moths were taken at cages in Vermont, and no report has been received of any catche being made in Canada, By the first of September work was started in removing the cages, but reports were still being received of a few catches of male moths.
For several years from reports received from employees of this project,
State officials, and various other sources, there have been indications that gypsy moth infestations.were building up in woodland areas in many towns not r.iore than 20 or 2w miles from the eastern border of the barrier zone in I.assachusetts, Connecticut, and southern Vermont. This year, several serious infestations have been found in this area east of the zone. In lIbssachusetts, infestations have been found in Westfield, Hatfield, andAxLnherst. The.infestation at Hatfield is located on a large white oak tree in a field in level country. As this tree is to 'be cut down and sections of it used as I-art of the State exhibit at the Eastern States Exposition, it was decided to make a rough count of the egg clusters, and it' was found that there were nore than 5,200 new egg clusters on this tree. $gg clusters were also located on tobacco plants, stones, and debris nearby. At .Limherst, an area of approximately 150 acres is generally to very heavily infested. The infestation is on high elevation in growth consisting of. gray birches, pine, and other species averaging 25 to 30 feet in height, and is ideally situated for wind spread regardless of wind direction. The towns of Westfield and Hatfield are between the zone and the Connecticut River, the infestation at Westfield being ap-. proximately 15 miles and the one at Hatfield about 20 miles from the zone. Although Ariherst is situated on the east side of the Connecticut River, the infestation existing there is only 20 miles air line from the nearest point in the zone.
In addition to the infestations referred to above, serious infestations are khown to exist in Erving, Mass., Hinsdale, N. H., and Rockingham, Vt. None of these infestations are more than 25 miles air line from the east zone,line. At Groton, Conn., approximately 30 acres were defoliated this year, and an additional 200 acres showed evidence of feeding. The gypsy roth infestation conditions at Groton are the most serious to exist in that State since infestation was first discovered there.
Observations have been made during the month of the amount of injury to
cranberry bogs by gypsy moth larvae in the Cape Cod section of Massachusetts, which is the center of the cranberry growing industry in this State. Many of the owners of these bogs have been interviewed. for estimates .on damage caused by gypsy moth larvae. It was found that in soei cases, where serious infestations of the gypsy moth existed in the surrounding woodland, heavy losses resulted from the drift onto the bogs from surrounding woodland. In some places the injury was so severe that
there will be very few cranberries harvested from the affected areas. One small bog, approximately 5 acres in extent, which yields normally about 00 barrels of berries, has so few berries on it now that it is practically a total loss. Owners of these bogs have adopted an extensive spraying campaign anid in some instances, where surrounding woodland areas are under their control, have cut out excessive tree growth aid underbrush in areas surrounding their bogs and have sprayed other trees to reduce the infestation. Bogs in the infested areas have been sprayed two or three times and so-ectimes more with arsenate of lead, and in some cases these spray programs have served to save part of the crop.
It has been noticed from time to time that more publicity is being given in the Hew England newspapers to the gypsy moth ad the damage it causes.. Considerable attention has been iiven to the serious injury to trees caused by the gypsy moth in the Cape Ccd section of Cassachusetts. Although the gypsy moth is present in the western section of the New England States, the insect has not as yet caused sufficient damage to arouse intense interest of the general public in this area. The August 13 number of the Sprin field Sunday Union and Pepublican carried a full page write-up of the gypsy moth project, relating the history of the gypsy moth in this country and the work that hlas been carried on to prevent the spread of this insect. The article described clearly and interestingly all phases of the control and eradication activities of this project and contained several illustrations of the work. It is believed that as a result of this article, many people hitherto
rather unfamiliar with the gypsyr moth will have a clearer understanding of the work that is being carried on to prevent the spread of this pest.
The importance of inspection of freight cars to prevent the spread of gypsy moth infestation was made very evident this month -hen infestation was found on a considerable number of these cars on a railroad track which had been :bandoned for general traffic in Cumberland, R. I. A total of 344 cars were stored on this abandoned line extending over a distance of about 4 miles. These cars are to be repaired and placed in service as soon as possible, after which they may be moved to almost aiy point in the United States. A total of 217 new gypsy moth egg clusters were creosoted on these cars, most of the clusters being on the wheels and iron work of the cars. Apparently caterpillars had crawled from nearby areas where small tree growth was rather heavily infested and had found shelter from the sun under the cars as they stood on the tracks. Four hundred and fifteen egg clusters were creosoted on the rails and railroad ties. Considerable difficulty was encountered in creosoting the eg clusters as many of the wvheels on the freight cars were hollow and egg clusters had been laid inside of them. In order to creosote these egg clusters, it was necessary to spray the insides of hollow wheels with the use of a suction pump end pov:er spra; nozzle. rhe hand pump ras worked i2 a bucket of creosote outside the cars by one inspector ond the spray hose handled underneath the car by another.
A number of years ao a survey was made to deterl-in t' possibility of gypsy moth infestation being, carried on railroad cars that micht be stored on sidings. It was determined ac that ti e tW t practically all the sidin where cars were held did not have trees gro in nearby. However, durin the last few years a considerable mileage of railroad tracks has be n abandoned in How Enwland for regular service and on some of these trac s surplus cars have bon stored. The movement of freight cars has been very greatl: curt iled during te de ression
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but many are now being put back into service. Contact has been made with railroad com-panies in the quarantined area and their cooperation secured. .,All sidings where cars are stored are being inspected and if infestation is found, treatment will be ap-lied before they are permitted to move.
The district inspector of the Bangor, aine, district, while taking gypsy moth defoliation records in some of the towns which were assigned to him in the Bath, Maine, district, located a moderately heavy infestation of beech scale in the town of Wash ington, Maine, which is located in the extreme northwestern part of Knox County. According to this observation the infestation extended over a considerable area. It is about 4 miles from a heavy infestation of this scale located in the town of Liberty, Maine, which was discovered by men from the Gypsy ioth Laboratory at Melrose Highlands, Mass.
Scouting for the satin moth egg clusters in towns just outside of the present satin moth quarantine line .in iNew England was completed in August The only towns outside of the present quarantine line that have been found infested are one in New Hampshire and eight in Taine. The trend of the spread is toward the northeast parts of Maine2 the farthest tovn north being Houlton, which borders New Brunswick, Canada.
The fall season for the shipment of nursery stock usually begins sometime in the middle of September. At first, shipments are few and it is not until about two weeks later that the r eal bulk of the shipping starts. This year one of the nurseries located in a northern section of the gypsy moth quarantined area adopted
a new method of advertising, and if successful results are noted they plan to use this method more extensively in the future. If such proves to be the case, it will serve to increase the amount of inspection and also to make the beginning of the inspection season considerably earlier than in the past. From their list of old customers they selected 1,000 names. To each person on this list they sent a copy of their latest catalog and included with it a small blue spruce. All of these went to points outside of -Lh quaranted area, and therefo e iG was necessary that each tree be inspected and ach package certified. If Lhis custom should spread to other nurseries it will undoubtedly result in a veiy ml.ch increased amount of inspection, as most of the nurseries have large mailing lists composed of individuals and firms to whom catalogs are sent.regularly.