NE WS LE T TER
BUREAU OF PLANT QlA JJTATIAF[T AN} BOARD
UNITED STATES DEPAPFT1N OF AGPICULTURE
Number 31 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) July 1, 1933.
BUREAU OF PLANET QUARATINE'S EXBIT AT CHICAGO
The following comments on the Bureau of Plant Quarantine's exhibit at the Century of Progress Exposition are taken from a recent letter from one of the Bureau's inspectors stationed in Chicago.
I was interested in noting that the majority of people,
passing during the three-quarters of an hour while I was there, made complimentary remarks about it. While the lights on the Florida map were on and flashing, people would stop to find out
what it was all about, some staying longer than others. One elderly gentleman who seemed to be very much interested in the
exhibit as a whole, unsolicitedly made the following remark,
"Very good exhibit." Then, of course, I agreed with him.
That portion of the exhibit which consists of a moving
group of illustrations displaying series of products uninfested
and infested approaching the inspector also came in for its
share of attention.
The geraniol mdor from the Japanese beetle sectioned trap
on display at the exhibit I found was attracting humans in the same manner that leads Japanese beetles into such traps, only that the humans were able to walk away after bending over and
taking a good smell, finding out for themselves what is so attractive about the Japanese beetle trap.
I found the exhibit to be beyond my expectations, and I am
sure that much good will come of this display in an educational way because it is very evenly balanced, briefly tells the story,
and just enough motion, I think, to attract and yet to be instructive.
TE CMTOL0GICAL DIVItIQOT
The analysis ol' the soil in the plots of' CrorinC plants, plunGin&2_ f:-rFmes, and heeling-in-areas, treated under the Tapanese' beetle quarantine re~u1ations, has been completed. These analyses are made in order to determine the amount of' lead arsenate necessary to betapplied to brin- these areas up to 1,500 pounds lead arsenate f'or the first three acre inches. There were in all 392 plots of' growing plants, 317 plunging frames and 34 hee"Ling[--in-areas analyzed. They required the analysis of' 872 samples in duplicate, IncludinL the plunginG frames and heelinG-in-areas, there w7ere 743 plots, of' which 362 required retreatment. A total of' 3,358,271 square feet out of' 5,726,153-square feet was found' to need such retreatm-ient, if' these areas involved were to rei-ain in a cairtif'ied status. The an~unt of' lead arsenate recommended f'or this retreat. ent amounted to 27,684 pounds. Analyses were made of' plots in 22 nurseries, 1 of' which was in Deleware, 13 in 'New Yersey, and 5 in Peimjsylr-ania. In riakin-, the analyses, approximately 13 tons o f so il were handle di In addition. to the official analy ,ses reported above, 43 nursery plots, which were in a certified status in 10D32 but 7.7hich were not retreated that season, were analyzed to determine the amount of' lead arsenate present, so that if' they were to be retreated in l~3tbe amount necessary to brine them to 1,500 pounds in the first three acre inches would. be known*PECMTT T'7101, OLOC-ICIL I CPI13O T7:
___________ea orui c--Liviie larvae of' Ceratitis Ca~tata
,Vio. were intercepted axt hicago in an'c oran-o intei'0 'onIay
Gelechild f'romiI'Iexicoo--Larvae of' Gnorimoschena 1i~nel 7alsin~ham
rwere intercepted at _1Togales, Ariz,, in tomatoes in cargo fro.i KIiexico. Thi s i s the first record of' this microlepidorteron bein-, interce-pted by ins-.ectors of' the Bureau of' Pl1ant Q-uarantine. Peppers are also recorded as being attacked by this gelechiid in 1Hexico and the Lnerican Virgin Islands.
Scal insect :roia Ger-ciiany.--Ortheziola veldovsk;L Sulc.vras intercepted at 17,ashington, D). C.,v on- rose -plants in ex-press from~ Germany. The coccid.w7. taken on a rose bush front, Belgium in 19,22, and with moss aad soil about betclonia roots from Austria in 1923# It is not known to occur in the Continental Unfited States.
Cacao beans infested.--Araecerus fasciculatus De G, (cof'fee-bean weevil) was inecpeat San Fra~ncisco in cacao boam 77,10obroma cacao) in cargo from Africa. 7 T. A. Back and 146o To Cottons in Farmors' Bulletin 1260$ states "This weevil is found in i,-ianyr coun-t ries w&nd is extremely abundant in the Souathern States, where it breeds in driocl fruit, cofleo ber2riess cornstal" s, cornt and the seeds anO. seed pods of' an a_1ho_-st endless variet:r o:,- planlts."
Fink bollwrorm from thle Baharas,---A livirf: 7'arvc. of' Pectinophora gossypiella Saund. w.as intercept ted at 77ashirngton, Do C., i a cotton seed from a shi-pinent of' five bolls in express from~ Great Incxgua Islan-d, Bahazmas.
pmiteron from Argentina.--An adult of Le bglossus chilensis Spin. (Coreidae) was found at New York on grapes in cargo from Argentina.
Scale insect on croton.--Parlatoria crotonis Dougl. (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on croton in baggage from Hawaii, and at Philadelphia on the same host in ship's furnishings from Nicaragua. This coccid has been recorded from the United States on Oswanthus frrans at New Orleans, and on croton in greenhouses in Connecticut and Massachusetts,
Cosmopolitan ralid from Cuba.--A living larva of Etiella zinckenella
(Treitschke) (Lima bean pod borer) was intercepted at New York in a Lima bean pod in bargo from Cuba. This cosmopolitan pyralid infests beans, lupines, peas, wild vetches, and the seeds of locust.
Coccid name placed in synMonymny.--According to Harold Morrison, of the
Bureau of Entomology, Lepidosahes c bidicola Kuwana, as mentioned on page 2 of the News Letter for May 1, 1933, is a synonym of Lepidosaphes tuberculata Malenotti
Aphid from France.--Mjacrosighum jaceae (Linn.) was intercepted at Boston and New York on lettuce in stores from France. This aphid is not recorded from
the Continental United States.
Broad-nosed grain weevil from Panama.--Caulophilus latinasus Say
(Curculionidae) was taken at San Francisco on bananas in cargo from Panama. E. A. Back and R. T. Cotton, in Farmers' Bulletin 1260, state, "This weevil is occasionally found in Georgia and South Carolina and is widespread in Florida, where it is
a serious pest of stored grains."
New kocalitr record.--A larva of Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Chrysomelidae) was intercepted at New York in a turnip in stores from Italy. This is the first record in our files of a larva of this leaf beetle being taken in turnip from Italy
Scale insect from St. Kitts.--Aspidiotus diffinis Newst. (Coccidael was intercepted at Boston on a fruit of Couroui ita ianensis in baggage from St. Kitts, Lesser Antilles.
Argentine ant from Argentina and Italy.--Iridomyrmex humilis Mayr. was intercept'd at New York among plants and soil in baggage from Italy, and at Washington, D. C., in the stem of a plant (Ceiba sp.) in express from Argentina. This ant, the first appearance of which in this country was at New Orleans in 1891, is a serious garden and household pest in the Gulf Region and in California.
PJCENT PATHOLOGICAL INTIECEPTIOTS OF INTEREST
Yunier rust.--Gymnosporangiuxa koreaense was collected from Tuniperus
chinensis from Japan in quarters of one of the boats docking at Seattle. The host
was first determined as Cupressus sp. from the small fragment available, and the specimen was referred to Dr. F. D. Kern, who monographed the genus Gymnosporangium. The characters of the rust were such that Dr. Kern said the host must be yuniperus chinensis. Comparison of material verified this. Frequently host plants are determined by their diseases, leading to the saying that, "Fungi are better botanists
Another nema intercepted.--A yam from Japan intercepted at Baltimore was
found to be infested with Aphelenchoides tenuicaudatus, our first interception of this nema.
nematode in dahlia.--Dahlias from Belgium intercepted at Philadelphia were infested with Aphelenchoides parietinus. The only previous interception of this parasite in dahlia was in material from France.
Diseased pepper from Java.--Chili peppers from Java intercepted at Philadelphia were infected with Cercospora sp. possibly C. capsici. There was insufficient good material for reference and study.
More nematodes in potatoes.--As indicated in the May News Letter, page 4, interceptions of Tylenchus d isaci in potatoes were unusually heavy the first quarter of this year (22 interceptions). Interceptions of this pest continue to be heavy, 14 interceptions on potatoes having been made during the month covered by this News Letter. These were distributed as follows: Trom Belgium 2, intercepted at Galveston and Philadelphia; England 1, at Boston; France 2, at New Orleans and Philadelphia; Germany 7, at Baltimore, Boston, Galveston, New Orleans
(2), New York, and"Philadelphia; Holland 1, at Seattle; Sweden 1, at Baltimore. In addition to the foregoing interceptions of T. dipsaci a potato from Argentina intercepted at Boston was found to be infested with Aphelenchus avenae-and Aphelenchoides p2E.etinus.
Colchicum smut collected in Delaware.--In addition to a dumber of samples of Tylenchus dipsaci in special permit bulbous iris and narcissus, we received during the month a collection of smutted Colchicum plants from Delaware. C. born. mulleri, C. byzantium, C. giganteum, and C. seciosum were the species found infected. The smut is Urocystis colchici. All of the material was turned over to J. A. Stevenson who verified the determination and added the material to the
HRY IIITCEPTIONTS BY! PORTS
Interceptions and interception records received in Washington during Hay
were as follows: Baltimore 45, Blaine 6, Boston 75, Brownsville 87, Calexico 13, Charleston 35, Chicago 1, Corpus Christi 7, Detroit 5, Douglas 2, Eagle Pass 19, E21 Paso 49, Galvestoni 41, Houston 15, Laredo 21, Ebbile 23, Jaco 19, Hew Orleans 195, New York 165, NoGales.583, Norfolk 43, Philadelphia 254, Rio Grande City 1, Roma 2, San. Juan 221, San Ysidro 4, Sasabe 1, Savannah C, Seattle 42, Cf the total of 1,992 interceptions 1,433 were of insects and 559 of diseases.
TITE PLkT SAEEGUJD r7GUT.ATIOIS
The plant safeguard regulations may be regarded as a modification of existin quarantines for the express purpose of accommodating certain features of these rather rigid measures to accepted trade practices and usages, while at the same time providing for the essential element of all quarantine procedure,- safeguarding this country against the introduction of foreign plant )ests. Theoretically we should have little or no official interest in plant products coming to our borders and either leaving again for some other destination or merely passing over our territory to another country. The pest risk in such naterial is the affair of
the place of destination and is no concern of ours, except in so far as these materials are likely to drop their pests in our lap in the short time they are wit us. It is here and here only that the plant safeguard regulations come into effect. They are intended to protect us, and are to be applied only to the extent that will guarantee such protection. These regulations have been drawn entirely from this point of view. The inspector is charged with the responsibility
of determining in each ease whether, for a variety of reasons, any lot of material should be surrounded by safeguards. If no safeguard measures are needed either on account of its harmless character or because the material is already being kept in satisfactory isolation, the regulations are not invoked; but if there is pest
risk present and in the opinion of the inspector there is danger of the material being taken ashore or of escape of pests from it, he is empowered to impose such safeguards as will be least burdensome and yet secure protection. There are a number of methods that he may employ for different types of material and for varying conditions, choosing for each situation the one that best suits the ease. These regulations have been purposely drawn on broad lines in order that through the good judgment o- the inspector safety from pests mnay be attained with the least possible disturbance to trade usage. In applying his judgment to each case however, the inspector is guided by a statement giving the policy and general instructions that the Bureau wishes to have followed. By thUs avoiding the establishment of a fixed routine procedure which would likely be onerous and unjust in many cases, the Bureau hopes to obtain all needed safety from pests with a minimum of restraint to carriers, travelers, and importers.
Material turned over to the Bureau of Plant Industry herbarium during the month included Ceuthospora lunata on PRhododendron praecox from Holland; Gnomonia setacea and Gno-nia -sp. on BeTa (aleTT leaves in packing from EnglandT ercosora sp. on rilla racemiflora from England and Caconemra radicicola on
Doronicum sp. from Holland; all collected at the inspection house in Washington. In addition to other less interesting materials the following material mentioned elsewhere in this issue was turned over to the herbarium: Puccinia iridis on Iris spp., Cephaleuros virescens on Malpishia gLabra, Stagonospora curtisii (?) on varieties of Nerine, and Gymnosporangium sp. on Cupressus sp.
FOREIIGN PLANTS SENT IN iEWSPAPEP ROLLS
In the News Letter of April 1, .933, (no. 28, p.5) cpmment is made by Paul Thomas, collaborator at Jacksonville, Fla., on the subject of plants imported in
newspapers, rolled up to simulate a bona fide newspaper parcel. Mr. Thomas adds this further item on the subject in a letter of Tune 5:
On May 29 a parcel post package was referred to this department by the custom inspector on mail inspections. The package
consisted of a bundle of newspapers rolled tightly together giving
the appearance of containing no plant material. On inspection
the package was unrolled and was found to contain an assortment of
citrus leaves infested with scale and blackfly and citrus scab.
Specimens were taken and forwarded to the State Plant Board at
Gainesville for identification. Report by G. B. Merrill showed
infestation of Aleurocanthus olumi Ashby, Le idosa-hes beckii
(Nerm.) anid Sphacelcma fa'N7cettii. The packafGe _cdrginated in
Costa 7.Pica and mas a dressedJ to*Los An!-e es',Caib
Ma.,x lUKi1'uk) Plant quarantine Ihspector, -t Philadelphia:, Pa,, is appar
entlyw convinced that in the case cited below' someone on board w-as trying to elude the penetratinE eye of 1 '. Wells: 1"P-eference 'is hers rede to Philadelphia interception no* 176t13, tai-en by A. B. Wells, Three 6.ead larvae of Liatrerha spo were found in trio irioes out of 10,s fromi Cuba, placed in the, r.eat refric;ra'o by the crew of the Ger. 33. 7irnnetou, which arrived at Deep 77ater Point, "IT.j-., yesterday afternoon.
"Twenty of these mangoes were in a carton formerly used for butter and the other six were scattered about in the corners of the refrigerator* room. The ap pearf~ce of the fruit, as 7ell as that of the larvae, would indicate that they were only recently placed in the freezer 7ith. the intention orL hidingc theru fr~om our inspeto"
PASSIXT7.7S ME,"TG I1NF2_ST_2D .17UT
Is examination of the bag-age of passengers coimainS i n on transatlantic
liners from abroad, to determine the -resence of plant materials likely to carry pestsl a m ere perfunctory proced'rne? In the baCgga-7:e of passeng-ers on board thae SS Sixla, arriving at Providence, P., Is, from H1editerranean ports on April 14, there were found by the pla.-t quarantine inspector:, C apples, ?7 oranges, 4 E~'ape cuttings 5 fig cuttings, 17 tuberoses, 12 sweet limes (Italy); 13 oranges", (Algeria); 23 oranges, 1 piece of sugarcane (Portugal); 13 sweetbpotatoes, (Care Verde Is,); -24 t.nonasp. fruits, 20 -,-iecies suc7rcalne, 50 locjuat Sruits, (11adetra Is.); 17 oran-Ges, 10 pounds siweetpot at oe., ), pui)xpking 15 dahlia tubers, 130 lqlquat fruits, (Azores}; 24 Grape cuttings (Greece).,
In one lot of the loquat fruits from the Azores there were found 63 larvae of the M1editerr'anean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, and in another lot -from_ the same source 12 of these 'Larvae occurred. Loouats from the 1U.adeira Islands also contained 23 larvae of this insect, anrd three larvae toe Cmall to be definitely assigned to this anacies were ta2%en from a-pivle6 from Italy. All the S lots of orwives yere affected by scale insects.
DODC-STIC PLM _7 j1~hjjl,,icL
The Supreme Court of the United 'States on 1M1 y 8 affirmedl the decis ion of the 13. S. District Court for the *1Jorthern Di,-trict of Nerv York, in, the case of Mintz et al,,v, Baldrvin$ no. 760, anproving the leCga7lity of an animal q *uarantine order to Fuard aGainst Bang' seae It 71,- held that Jor Yorl'k Corvaissioner
Baldwin's order requirin,:-, official ce-_-tificration A'. cttle b, h t.eo~oii was not in =4fIlict with the ceiunierce 'clause of tio 'constitution nor p ith those Federal statutesi which, to acertaln extentt, undecrtoo]k to regulate 'e the interstate shipm.-ent of cattle., The Courxt found that 'thero vias an sniJ :ierfC
between the scope of these acts and the scope of the Plant Quarantine Act of 1912, in that the latter (at least prior to the 1926 amendment which the Court did not mention) covered the whole field of interstate plant transportation as a means of spreading plant diseases, while the animal transportation acts, cited, do not cover the whole field that they deal with, but rather disclose the intention of Congress to allow the enforcement of State measures, subject to those limitations which are embodied in the Federal acts, cited. Extracts from the District Court decree which the Supreme Court has now upheld were sent by this Bureau to the plant quarantine officers of the various States on April 20, 1933.
Through the courtesy of members of the Bureau of Agricuitural Economics at Chicago, arrangements have been made whereby they will provide transit inspectors at that point with information as to shipments of fruits and vegetables arriving from eastern States. Such information is secured daily from railroad and express stations. This cooperation in passing the reports on to transit inspectors will facilitate the checking of cars containing apples, peaches, bananas, berries, green corn, and beans, for certificates to show they are free from Japanese beetles. Such certificates are required during the period from June 15 to October 15 on
shipments. from the regulated areas,
Observations are being made at the Chicago Municipal Airport to determine
whether mail and express shipments from the eastern States are moving in compliance
with Federal plant quarantines, and also to determine whether Japanese beetles appear to be riding on or in such planes.
The importance of Pittsburgh as a point for checking shipments for compliame with the Japanese beetle quarantine is shown by the fact that 32 violations were found in 8 days' work, The Japanese beetle office resumed the checking of shipments at this point on May 20, and the transit inspection service aided in starting the work,
An instance which shows that postal clerks are checking more closely on parcels of plant material offered for mailing was recently brought to attention when it was learned that two stamp clerks at the Ferry Street Post Office in
Pittsburgh recently refused, in one week, 18 uncertified shipments of plants, which, if accepted, would have been shipped in violation of Federal quarantines,
It has been necessary recently.to return to shippers a number of consignnnents of uncertified herbaceous plants, originating in-those parts of the New .ngland States, particularly Massachusetts, which have not prior to this year been involved in the Japanese beetle quarantine. Many such shippers while accustomed to securing certification of woody plants under the gipsy-moth quarantine regulations, have not heretofore been affected by quarantine requirements relating to
ITE-PIml BLISTER RUST
The inspection of pine-growing nurseries whose owners have applied for
shipping permits under quarantine no. 63 has been completed in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania, and the applications are now under consideration. The Bureau of Plant Industry assisted in the work, The Division of Blister Rust Control, of that bureau, is responsible for carrying out preliminary Ribes eradication in cooperation with the States and the owners# After that is finished, the
Bureau of Plant quarantine determines whether the nurseries have cominlied satisfactorily with the quarantine requirements.
DATE SCAI MRADICATION
During the month of May inspection in the Coachella Valley was confined to offshoots to be cut for planting in the nursery or in the field. The offshoots
grow from the trunk of the palm and in the opinion of most _roers'lessenr the amount of fruit produced. Unless the prospective price of the offshoots is enough in the judGment of the grower to offset the loss i.n fruit production and yield a profit the small offshoots are removed cnd destroyed. The mature offshoots are removed for sale or for increasing the grower's acreage. Kany of the offshoots are planteo6 in nursery rows to develop roots before planting in the field.
In the Salt Piver Valley in 'Arizona a careful section-by-section survey to locate unlisted palns was completed this month. This survey was begun in December 1931, and was carried on as the other phases of the work permitted. This type of survey has now been completed in all districts. Some areas in the infested districts are bein' rechecked.
Inspection of the city of Yu ma was begun during the month. The inspection on city lots is nuchslower and difficult than in the gardens. Also information on the origin of the palms is rore difficult to obtain because so many of the city dwellers are renters.
JAPANESE D=TI AIMD UOPEAhI COKT BOFE
Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work
Transfer of office furniture and equipment from South Norwalk, Conn. to
Harrisburg, Pa., and a corresponding change of official station of practically all
appointed personnel were accomplished b, the end of i:ay. Iotices were mailed to interested State officials and ether correspondents advising then that the South Norwalk headquarters would be closed on and after May 24. Remaining at the South Norwalk headquarters after May 31 were a stenographer, automobile mechanic, and watchman. Motor vehicle equipment in South Norwalk at the end of the month consisted largely of trucks which will be removed froll the former headquarters garage prior to July 1 for use in transporting crews, scouting, nurseries, and greenhouses in New York and Connecticut. The new Harrisburg headquarters are located in a portion of a two-story stone office building ,t the corner of Sixth and Maclay Streets, which location is approximately 1.1 miles directly north of the Pennsylvania State Capitol miand Hfarrisburg business district. From the business district of the city the office is reached by >eans of the Sixth Street trolley line. Headquarters'telenphone number is Harrisburr 4-0116. The project's motor vehicle and maintenance equirnent is housed at the few Cunberland General Depot of the U. S. Army. The warehouse is 7.9 miles from the Iarrisburg office and
5.6 miles from t.e Harrisburg business district. The H ow Cumberland trolley line from downtown iarrisburg, only runs to within 2.1 miles of the !iainten nce depot. The new maintenance headouarter* telephone number is Harrisburg 7187, extension 62* LI RY
TATL PIANT BOAPU)
Coincident with establishment of new Pennsylvania district offices at
Frankford (Philadelphia) and in conjunction with the mrain field headquarters at Harrisburg, a redistribution of territory under the several offices was made. Eastern counties assigned to G. B. Stihbter, district supervisor, comprise Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Lehigh, Monroe, 1ontgomery, Northampton, Philadelphia, and Pike. Remainder of the regulated territory in the State is under the supervision of J. K. Gould, district supervisor located at Harrisburg. Extent of the regulated zone in the State required a further subdivision of the western division. Accordingly, a suboffice, with IMi. J. Kelly as field supervisor in charge, has been established in the post office building at Greensburg, in Westmoreland County. From the Greensburs office, inspection and certification service will be rendered in the counties of Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Cambria, Clearfield, Fayette, Greene, Indiana, Jefferson, Lawrence, Somerset, Washington, Westmoreland, and the regulated portions of Butler and Clarion counties. Removal of the personnel and equipment under the supervision of G. B. Stichter from 0ahmont to Frankford was accomplished on ay 2 and 3. Fairly conmodious and well-lighted quarters on the first floor of a frame building on the Frankford Arsenal ground have been provided for the quarantine district office. Partitions have been erected and shelving placed as needed for the work. Watchmen guard the gates at the entrances but permit those on official business to enter, Removal from Oakmnont to Harrisburg of the personnel assigned to the supervision of T. K. Gould took place on Mlay 16. Notices concerning the establishment of the Greensburg suboffice were forwarded to interested .shippers on Mlay 31. quarters at Greensburg have been secured in a room on the second floor of the post office building, formerly entirely occupied as an Army recruiting station. A partition will be erected dividing the room into two offices, thus furnishing space for use as quarantine headquarters for the extreme western Pennsylvania section.
Farmers of Cumberland County, in southern New Jersey, have requested from the County Agricultural Agent information as to the practicability of delaying their corn planting to avoid adult Japanese beetle injury to the silk at the time of pollination. The beetle's greatest damage to corn is due to the feeding on the silk, wPaich in turn prevents pollination and formation of kernels. Heavy larval populations are known to be present in certain Cumiberland County sections, and the growers are naturally anxious to assure themselves of a g6d corn crop in spite of the adult beetles that will emerge. Conference with officials at the Niew Jersey Agricultural College and the research laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology at. Moorestown, N J., has resulted in recommendations by the County Agen to towers in the county for delayed planting. In delaying th)ie corn planting date it is necessary to be certain that the corn is in the ground early enough for the crop to mature before frost. To lessen this risk, use is recommended of varieties with a shorter growing season than those now largely grown in the section, Consequent slight reductions in yield o- the varieties with shorter growing periods, it is believed will be much less than the destruction of the crop by the beetle when plantings are made in accordance with the regular practice. Two varieties with short growing seasons have been recommended that require approximately 112 to 115 days to mature. Planting of either variety from June 5 to 15, delayed dates, should bring maturity between September 28 to October 8, which in normal seasons would be before the first frost. Approximately 50 days are usually required from planting time until the corn is in silk. Late planting would probably extend this intervening period somewhat. Silking of delayed planted coin would therefore take place about Aur3ust 6 to 16. Since the heaviest feeding period of the adult beetle
extends from approximately June 25 to August 30, it is evident that corn in silk, when the beetles are on the wane, would escape a considerable amount of feeding to which it would be subjected were the heaviest silking period to coincide with the dense flight of the insect in July and early August.
Larval interceptions at road inspection stations during May far exceeded those of either of the past two years. Seventy-two Japanese beetle grubs were removed from plant raterial with soil voluntarily surrendered by motorists at the border patrol posts. Daring a similar period in 1931, 11 grubs were intercepted, and during 1932 movement of 47 larvae to uninfested territory was prevented, Infested stock intercepted originated in PhilLdelphia, Pa.; Camden, Trenton, Bordentown, and Princeton, N. J.; Wilmnington, Del.; Baltimore, Md.; ,;ashington, D. C.; New York City; and Guilford, Conn. Two lots of stoc- containing a total of 6 Japanese beetle grubs were enroute to points in ITebraska. Ten grubs in a single clump of violets were intercepted while- being transported to Cincinnati, Ohio, while a similar number of larvae were removed from soil about the root, of two arborvitae being moved to Hurt, Va. In all, movement was prevented of 26 grubs into Virginia, 13 into Ohio, 7 into Test Virginia, 6 into Nebraska, 5 via a circuitous route to Rhode Island, 3 each into lorth Carolina, Illinois,and the unregulated portion of Pennsylvania, 2 into I'chigan, and 1 each into Tennessee and the u1ninfested portion of New York. Road inspectors are now provided with raw carbon disulphide and galvanized iron cans in which soil removed fro:i about the roots of surrendered plant material may be fumiCated before disposal in the vicinity of the road station. Intercepted soil is dumped into covered galvanized iron cans and fAraigatiom made
when the cans are nearly full. Sufficient time is allo-rTod to elapse for a complete kill before the soil is dumped. This procedure makes doubly sure the kill of any larvae which iay escape observation when the soil is examined for grubs. Treated soil is usually used in landscaping to improve the appearance of the -post.
"Grass plugs" are anonE the most recent articles to be presented for inspection and certification under the'Japanese beetle quarantine regulations. It has
not been unusual for field offices to be called upon to certify for movernent from the regulated zone grass sod which has been grown in uninfested sections of the reg.
ulated territory. Recent introduction of "grass plugs" was the first article of this nature brought to our attention. "Gras- plugs" are 1-1/2 inch cubes of creepPing bent sod, cut from a field of creeping bent turf or from sod grown in flats in a greenhouse. Planting instructions call for thorough working of the ground, freeing it from weeds, and its fertilization before the plugs are inserted. Spading to a depth of four to six inches is recommended in the case of lawns to be completely replanted or newly established. Cross-checkir of the preparedC soil into 12-inch squares is then performed ahd a hole large enough to accomodate the plug dug at each inter -ction of the cross checking. The plug is then inserted with the crass side on the ground level. Soil is tho .firmed around the sides of the plug and the top also tamped down. Feavy watering of th e newly planted lown is required, together with sufficient additional wateriX's to eep the ground bist until the atolons from the plugs have made complete coverage of the area. It is claimed that a good turf rmy be produced in front ton to twelve weeks ii wateri:nr and fertilizing instructions are :ollowed. 2ollin, of the sod or at least foot tairping of the plugs is suggested before any mcing is done. Spread of the runs ners is said to discourage weed growth so that weeds are 3C! eliminated. i 7 strain of grass is not recommended for densely shaded lawns. "Grass plugs" thus far presented for certification have all been :rovn in nonregulated territory, so
that there is no question regarding their compliance with the regulatory requireme nt s.
Inspectiorg of classified screened greenhouses in the Philadelphia district were made during the last week in May. Observations were made to assure that ventilator screens and screens over frames and growing cages were intact and
beetle-proof. Quarantine regulations require that ventilators, doors, and all other openings in greenhouses and coldframes on Class III, or classified premises in an infested zone, be kept satisfactorily screened during the period of adult beetle flight. Greenhouses screened with bronze or copper fly wire require a
minimum of attention on the part of the greenhouse owner and usually remain intact for a number of years. It is ~necessary, however, to examine the screening
very closely when muslin or mosquito netting is used. Such materials must also be replaced or extensively repaired each year. Huslin in addition interferes with ventilation of the greenhouses. In the Philadelphia section there are 367,45 square feet, or 8.44 acres of screened beetle-proof greenhouses or other enclosures. The glass-enclosed area in 130 greenhouses comprpise 34,045 square feet of this total. In 25 coldframes 17,300 square feet are included, and an area
of 6,000 square feet is in the form of a screened cage in which hydrangeas are gror Another inspection and report of the condition of the screening will be made just prior to the sunraer regulations, which become effective in the Philadelphia distric on June 15.
Seasonal Japanese beetle trapping activities began on May 27 with the
placement of 764 traps in Charleston, S. C. On May 31, traps were distributed in
Beaufort, Fairfax, and Waterboro, S. C., 39, 50, and 45 traps, respectively, being operated in these communities. An inspector has been assigned to each of the two trap routes in operation. By May 31, supervisors were in the field and set-up crews in readiness for coipleting trap distribution in South Carolina and commencing the work in North Carolina early in June. Four set-up crews, each consisting of a field supervisor, 3 truck drivers, and 3 laborers, will be engaged during June and July in organizing the work in the Carolinas, Virginia, and West Virginia. AE the routes are established they ill be turned over to local trap inspectors. A route supervisor will be assigned to each 10 routes. Three carloads of traps,
destined to Easton, id., TDichmond, Va., and Akron, Ohio, dispatched from the South Norwalk garage early in May completed distribution of the trapping equipment to cer tral distributing points. With the e::cention of a shall quantity of traps on hane at the New Cumberland, Pa., depot, all traps are in storage at points convenient to
the trapping sites. Traps at New Cumberland will be moved by truck to several cities to be trapped in Western M.1aryland.
Purchases by several Class I dealers of uncertified nursery stock from infested premises of a Class III establishment recently resulted in loss of their preferred Class I status and reassignment to Class III. Class I establishments, or premises on which no infestation has been discovered, in common with all classified dealers are required to restrict their purchases or receipts of nursery and ornamental stock, sand, soil, earth, peat, compost, and manure within the regulated area to articles which have been ce-tified and the certificate must accompany the articles when moved. Neglect on. the part of the -lass I dealers concerned to limit their purchases to stock elic;ible for certification and the placement of the possibly infested stock on their premaises left no alternative but to withdraw their preferred status, These purchases were made at a dispersal
sale held by a nursery in the infested zone of eastern Pennsylvania. An inspector stationed at the nursery during the sale noted the purchases and furnished the information on which the classification changes were based.
First results of analyses o;,soil samples collected in lead arsenate-treated nursery plots and coldframes were available in April. Receipt of tabulations of the results obtained in the analyses continued throughout May. Reports on only a few treated plot remained to be received on May 31. Upon receipt of the data, the information was in turn transmitted to the nursery concerned. Retreatment requirements necessitate application before July 1 of lead arsenate in sufficient quantity to restore the treated plots or frames to the prescribed dosage of 1,500 pounds per acre. After surface application of the lead arsenate, usually made with a hand-operated fertilizer distributor, the poison is thoroughly worked into the soil for a depth of 3 inches& Plants grown in such treated plots or summered in treated frames are eligible for certification in the fall, since the poisoned soil is toxic to Japanese beetle larvae.,
Additional educational work was performed in the recently opened Syracuse, N. Y., territory when J. H. Harman, district supervisor at Syracuse, on May 10 talked to nurserymen and greenhousemen operating in Schenectady and vicinity.
The meeting was held at Schenectady under the auspices of County Agricultural Agent Clarence Johnson of the Schenectady County Farm Bureau, The talk covered
the life history and habits of the insect, measures evolved for its control, and quarantine regulations designed to prevent its spread. 7,estions asked at the conclusion of the talk indicated considerable interest on the art of the nursery-p men in the program designed to retard the spread of this insect.
Although first outdoor finds of adult beetles were this year made in the
same location where they usually are found, adults were not observed until May 15, nine days later than last year. Two beetles were found on rose bushes in the center of a lavwn near a -reenhouse establishiraent at Holmes, Pa. This location is apparently so well protected that beetles overwintering in the ground are among the first to emerge. Since the rose leaves showed evidence of considerable feeding, adults had probably been present for several days.
Closing of the main headquarters at South Norwalk, Conn., necessitated
transfer to another station of the inspector who supplies inspection and certification in Fairfield County, Conn. Shelton was selected as a point centrally convenient to the greatest number of classified nurseries and greenhouses regularly requiring inspection service, and the district inspector hereafter will operate from that town.
Preparations were nade and spraying; crews and a supervisor were in Laurel, Md., on May 31 in readiness to begin cooperative spraying operations to be performed in a number of Mjaryland comunities. Approximately two weeks will be required for completion of the work in Laurel, after which foliage on the heaviest infested premises in Elkton will be sprayed.
Decline in quantities of nursery stock .and other quarantined articles
shipped has not permitted proportionate reduction in inspectors supervising this work, since most of the regular shippers continue daily shi-nents under certification, although the individual lots are frequently smallr than in previous years.
Biology classes in several high schools in Philadelphia during April and
early May studied the life history and control of the Jabanese beetles Teachers obtained publications on the subjecto maps of the infested zones, and the loan of
mounts of the insect from the Oakmont* Pae. district office*
Ren'a! of inspection platforms and surveys of fruit and vegetable shipments from the regulated zone were among the preparations made during May for the seasonal quarantine on certain fruits and vegetables which rill becoine effective June 15 And continue until Ocetober 150 unless lifted at an earlier date*
Probably the last shipment of nursery stock to move under Japanese beetle certification to the Century of Progress Exposition at Chicago was a carload of cedars shipped from Connecticut early in Mayo
Inquiries directed to the Harrisburg field headquarters and.to various
district offices in the heavily infested section indicate an increasing interest
in the measures rhich nay be taken to prevent Japanese beetle brub injury to lawns*
Specialized Corn Borer Activities
4 .More or less regular routes have been established by the inspectors engaged in Federal certification to conform to State corn borer quarantine orders, so that periodical visits my be made to the establishments which are frequent shippers of quarantined articles. Majority of the articles shipped for which the type of certification available through the Federal inspedtors is required consist of chrysanthemum cuttings or plants and dahlia tubers. Practically all of the survey and educational work required at the inauguration of the corn borer inspection service has been concluded and the activities reduced to routine inspection and certification of daily shipments.
Enforcement by the State of Connecticut of their compulsory corn borer
clean-up law continued during May with indications of completion of the survey early in June. Twenty-two inspectors, each supplied with a car, gradually extended their survey activities to the northernmost counties of the State.
1XICAT FRUIT FLY
As reported in the last News Letter, the first of three proposed applications of nicotine-molasses spray to the bearing trees of the Valley was practically completed during the last days of April. Only a few straggling groves, for one reason or another, remained to be sprayed during the first days of M1ay. On the completion of the first application, the knapsack sprayers were assembled in the various districts where they were cleaned and repaired. All equipment was overhauled and everything placed in readiness for the second application. Excellent weather conditions prevailed through the first application and on into May. This situation broughlup the question of the proper timing of the second application to secure the best results* At a conference in Washington of State and Federal leaders, t was decided to start the second application on the 22ndo
The second application got off to a much better start than the first, since the growers were not occupied with other pressing jobs and could start spraying
immediately upon receiving materials and spray~rs. DuIrinc, the first 5 days between one-third and one-half of the material for the second application was issued, A heavy rain fell on the night of the 25th, and rainy weather continued through the 29th, preventing any further work during the month. From 2 to 7 inches of rain fell in the various districts. This was of untold value to the growers since many trees, particularly in the dry land sections, were on the verge of death from the lack of water.
Inthe interim between applications of the spray, the inspectors were engaged in making a count of the trees planted during the past year. A tabulation of these figures showed that a little more than a half million trees had been set in orchard form during the period from April 1, 1932, to May 30, 1933. No count was trade of the replacements in older groves. Of interest in these plantings was the fact that the great majority were made by individuals rather than by the development companies as has been tho case in the past. This was accounted for by the overproduction of nursery stock, enabling growers to got trees at practically their own prices. '-ary took advantage of these conditions to round out their groves, to replace dead or poor trees, and to plant additional acreage. Due to the general business conditions, land companies were content to hold what
they had without expanding to any great extent.
Traps were operated continuously in five districts throughout the month and in the others during the time between sprays. The operation of the traps resulted in the taking ofct adult fruit fly in a previously uninfested grove at Mission on May 1. This grove was Limediately given a-second application of nicotine spray.
As was expected, a larval infestation was found in locally-grown fruit in Matamoros in the early part of May. The infestation was found in fruit of Sarg'entia gregii growing in a patio in which a number of adult flies were taken during April. A close examination was made of fruit growing in neighboring yards with negative results, and since traps operated in these other yards had also given negative results, it was deemed necessary to remove the fruit from the trees in the infested yard only. Through cooperation by the Mexican inspector and the owner of the property, this was done, Despite the fact that adult flies have been taken practically every month and thht considerable infested fruit reaches the markets in Matamorost this was the first larval infestation to be found since October 1952.
The shipment of infested mangoes from the southern part of Mexico to border towns is a difficult problem to handle and is a continual source of danger of reinfesting Valley groves despite the control measures that are carried out on this side of the river, All mangoes shipped from the infested regions are supposed to be examined before shipment end all wormy fruit culled out. It is inspected again on arrival in Matamoros. About 3 days are required for the shipment of fruit from the State of Michoacan to Matamoros. In many fruits the infestation has not developed to the point where it is externally evident on arrival, and accordingly they get on the market and into the purchaser's home before the worms are discovered and the fruit thrown out,
The trap-plot cotton in the Big Bend, which was temporarily-cheqked by an
unusually cold spell in April, has made much better progress than -ywas expected, The cotton on 7 plats was blooming with an average of 7 or 8 blooms per day at the close of May. Since then blooms have developed on 41 other plats, leaving only 19 plats that have not reached that stage. Until all the plats are set with blooms the entire crop from each plat will be collected daily, examined for infestation, and destroyed. To date 1,412 blooms have been examined, yielding a total of 37 pink bollworms, with only I worm to an infested bloom. The infested
blooms came from 10 of the plats, with the La Junta farm leading in the percentage of infestation. It was on this farm that live worms were found in the soil in its preparation for the planting of cotton. While the commercially planted cotton in that section has grown rapidly during the past few days, several squares being noticed in some of the fields, the plot plantings have a lead favorable to the, trapping of a large percentage of the early emergence of the worm, thereby reducing the seasonal population which would normally develop.
In other sections of the regulated area the crop is late, due largely to
unfavorable weather conditions at the usual planting date. Considerable replanting had .to be done. The oil mill at El Paso sold to the farmers in that section some 400 tons of cottonseed, sufficient to replant about 25,000.acres. Due to continued high winds in that section the acreage replanted had to be again irrigated to germinate the seed.
The eradication of wild cotton on the west coast of Florida, north of
Naples, has been completed. At the proper time this area will again be'thoroughl5 covered to assure that no plants were overlooked. The eradication is still in
progress on the north end of Key Largo, where a small crew is employed. Weather conditions have been favorable to the work, and consequently unfavorable for mosquitoes, which is unusual for this time of the year.
A small gin-trash machine is bein g constructed at the San Antonio shops for use in trash inspection in northern Florida, southern Georgia, and other sections desired to be covered where cotton is sparsely grown and the gins are fe*, small,
and far apart. Under such conditions the use of the larger machine is not practicable, for the reason that it requires too many trucks and too long a haul of the trash to keep the larger machine in operation. The machine now being built is designed to be operated by hand, and is light enough to be handled by one man, who will transport it in a truck over the area to be inspected. In this way one person can examine the day's run of trash from a small gin in a very short time, thus reducing the cost of inspection in such cases. This will also nae it possible to examine the trash while it is yet fresh from ginning. The larger machine will continue to operate in cotton areas where its capacity can be reasonably supplied.
Another new type of machine has also been built in the San Antonio shop for the purpose of cleaning cotton fields. The cleaning of cotton fields in connection with our eradication program has been a tedious and costly operation. Although it some instances the stalks have been cut and raked by machine, by far the most labodous and expensive part of the task has been the picking of the debris of cotton particles that have fallen to the ground. Our machine is constructed to
gather this material and deposit it in a container which will be dumped at intervals and burned, and will thereby reduce the major portion of clean-up costs. A more detailed account of this apparatus will be Civen in a future news- item.
PRVENTING SPAD OF ~OTES
Cutting of worthless brush, dead and decayed trees, etc., which has been carried on in the Pennsyrlvania area since January -as discontinued shortly after the first of June. Approximately 1,225 acres have been cut by Federally supervised laborers employed by the State of Pennsylvania since this work started. Although hatching was Seneral during the first week in May, as the weather was rather cool, a large percentage of the newly hatched caterpillars remained on or near the clusters and it- was therefore possible to do efficient creosoting to and includinC May 15. It is estimated that more than 1,850,000 egg clusters have been destroyed in the Pennsylvania area by cutting and burning brush and by creosoting work carried on there this year. Over 25,000 burlap bans were applied to trees in the heavily infested area during the month.
Foliage in the Pennsylvania area had developed sufficiently so that spraying
could be started b- the end of May. Trenty-five machines are now being used for spraying. Some of these sprayers, filled with clean water, follow these trucks and are used to wash the spray solution from buildings in residential sections where trees, shrubs, etc. along the streets and in the yards surrounding these buildings are sprayed. Arsenate of lead spray solution, particularly where fish oil has been addcled, cannot be satisfactorily washed off buildings, fences, etc., after it has thoroughly dried. Although the field supervisors in immediate charge of spraying have warned owners of cattle, sheep, and goats not to allow these animals to graze in the areas sprayed, some ofc the owners have not heeded the warning and these animals, particularly the goats, nay be seen grazing in such areas. However, no report has been received of animals being affected by feeding in the sprayed area.
One of the preliminary phases of the spraying operations, which required a great deal of' time du-i n May, wavs the securing of' srayin permits. Much of the area to be s rayed is in thickly settled residentiOl districts, and it was necessary to secure a written permit from each owner or tenant Df pro-ertr. By the middle of the month, from 10 to 14 agents with the assistance of an interpreter were engaged in securing these per;nits, -nd rore than 6,000 permits were obtained up to the time this work was discontinued. Very few proorty owners or tenants refused to sign permits after the work" was oxlained to them, but in the cases of refusal a State notice was served on the property over or tenant b-r a full tine employee of the Pennsylvania De:,rt1:ent of A'riculture requiring the owner to spray the property himself within 5 days. This State e!:ployee exaines those properties as soon as possible after the tt a llotted the prc:perty o::ners or tenants to do necessary treatment work has expired, to determine whether or not the properties have been sprayed. If necess~ay treatment world: h s not been done by the property owners or tenants, employees of this activity acting as agents of the State enter the properties ad do necessary srain work. The State employee who served the
notices is also' present when the srrar.ng work is done. Th men used for dragging the hose are eraloyed by the St.ate De'nartuent of Ariculture.
Sixteen power sprayers were transferred during May from the Japanese
betle-corn borer headquarters at New Cumberland, Pa., to the gipsy moth staff at Wilkes-Barre. At the close of the spraying season they will be returned to New Cumberlande
Scouting work was continued in the barrier zone during the month. Some of the men were temporarily employed in fencing the areas to be sprayed. A large quantity of barbed wire, amounting to approximately 3 tons, was removed from around infested locations sprayed last year and returned to the Greenfield storehouse. This wire was removed as soon as possible after it was determined that this property would not have to be resprayed this year. Over 50 laborers have been employed to assist with the spraying to be carried on during June in the barrier zone area, and they reported for duty on June 1. Fifteen sprayers were moved to the barrier zone during May, and spraying was started in the Massacliusettg section on June 1 and in the Connecticut section a few days later.
Two sprayers were driven from. Greenfield to Long Island where they are to
be used by the NTew York State Conservation Department in spraying infestati6ns there. Spraying was started by the New York tate force on Long Island and-'in thi New York portion of the barrier zone on the first of June*
There has been a great deal of activity at the Greenfield storehouse during the month, due to the rush necessary to get' the large fleet of motor equipment int( the field preparatory to the spraying work. Before being driven to the field the sprayers must be tested and thoroughly checked, after which they are equipped with necessary tools, nozzles, and supplies and then delivered to the points where spraying is tto be carried on. There has been a constant movement of hose, arsenate of lead, fish oil, and other supplies and equipment to points in the barrier zone in northwestern Connecticut and southwestern M1assachusetts, and to Pennsylvania. There has been a total of over 60,000 feet of hose transferred to Pennsylvania for the spraying wQrk there. Approximately 23,000 feet of hose has been transferred to the Masnachusetts section of the barrier zone and 23,000 feet to the Connecticut section. The two sprayers transferred to Long Island carried 11,00 feet of hose. Three roadsters with slip-on bodies have been fitted up as service cars with a full complement of tools, vises, and supplies or parts commonly required to make repairs and adjustments on sprayers in the field. Two mechanics with service trucks will be located in the Wilkes-Barre area and -aother will service the s-raying machines in the barrier zone area throughout the spraying season. These ien can also make necessary minor repairs and adjustments on any of the light motor vehicles being used in conjunction with spraying.
A total of 23 1-ton canopy top convoy trucks and 22 1/2-ton trucks have recently been transferred to this activity from the corn borer storehouse at New Cumberland, Pa. Part of these were kept at Wilkes-Barre, Pa., and the remainder delivered to the Greenfield storehouse where they were later distributed to variouE points in the field. The convoy trucks are being used for transporting men engaged in spraying and most of the 1/2-ton trucks have beau assigned to men on scouting or quarantine work.
An unusually heavy infestation of canker worms has been reported in the area on Long Island under State quarantine on account of the gipsy moth. Considerable feeding is noticeable in woodland, and lawn trees, shrubs and flowers are also infested. Numerous larvae of this insect raay be found where spraying has not been done. Undoubtedly, some of the people residing in this area will attribute this
damage to the gipsy moth for they have heard rore about that insect in that locality 4unrhing.the last few years.
During Hay,scouting was continued by the Hew Jersey State force around the gipsy mraoth infestation in Mendham, and it is believed by the State official in charge that the infestation is confined to an area of about four acres. Arrangements were made for this office to a ssist the State of _Tew Jersey in exterminating
this colony and the one found nearby in the township of Randolph. As the State lacked funds with which to purchase arsenate of lead, fish oil, hose, tree tanglefoot, etc., this office has furnished thome materials. A high power spraying machine operated by a Federal employee, has been transferred to New Jersey for spraying during June. Tanglefoot has been aIplied to the trees at the infestation to prevent the newly hatched larvae from crawling into the trees to feed and then being spread by the wind into the extensive wooded areas surrounding this location. By May 31 approximately 3,300 gipsy moth larvae had been killed under bands of tangjlefoot. A heavy infestation of canker works also exists there and the State oTficial in charge reports that much of the foliage will be eaten by these insects before the trees can be sprayed. It is necessary to comb the tanglefoot daily, otherwise the canker worms and their webs caught in this sticky material, fonm bridges over which the gipsy not larvae can crawl andc reach the foliage above the tanglefoot bands. It is planned to spray an area of about 75 acres which will afford a generous safety zone around the infestation. Spraying was started on June 1, and it is estimated that a weeh to ten days will be required to complete this work. The spraying will be followed in July by the distribution of assembling cages for a number of miles around thec infestation.
As has been previously mentioned, rattlesnakes. are prevalent in sections of the barrier zone in Connecticut and :Iassachusetts, and many of these snakes are killed by the' crews during the summer months. Rattlesnakes are also prevalent in the Pennsylvania area where work against the gipsy moth, in cooperation with the State of Pennsylvania, is beinL conducted. All supervisory employees of this project are provided with snake-bite outfits, and instructions have been issued as to the action necessar- in case of snake bites. The most effective method of protection is to iwear thick gloves, stout boots, and leather legings whenever practecable, as snake bite occurs most often on the hands and lower portions of the body.
A field supervisor has reported finding dead leaves on the ground at
Sandisfield, hss., showing a residue of arsenate of lead spray. This area was sprayed last sea,3on wjith arsBrnete of lead to which had been added fish oil as an adhesive. Th i':'i' il~ :L es the adhesive properties of the fish oil, and
for this reason it <:ant bA Da. in all places, especially in pastures which often must be used for forage later i;L t'ie season.
The four weather sttIo which arc o erte in cooperation with the 1e: York
TLhe four weather '71 .. .. Ch ar .... ..d V a d :3 r
Conservation Depart ient each spring pt Westfield, :ass., Dutland, Vt., and Brlin and 1ilan, N. Y., were disco.,iued early in June, cn the weather instruments returned to storage in Greenfield
Annually, during the period frou a week to taen days before memoriall Day, in
various section ofo th a wea!,
various sections of the quarantield area ship)irents o:f cut lilacs are insPected. In many sections of Hew n,,;z nmjd, lilacs plcntd years .ago near ccuitry hones have spread so that they now form leve;e clumps which produce many blooms. :arly in the blooming season agents for No- York floral concerns travel throughout 1ew .ngland
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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buying the blooms to be shipped to the New York market for Memorial Day trade. It is possible to collect a very large number of these blooms which are packed in wooden cases with crwked ice so that they may arrive at destination in satisfactory condition. Usually the cuttings are about 18 to 20 inches in length and there may be as many as 3,000 or mre blooms packed in a single case. With the ice, these cases are quite heavy and this year the average was about 250 pounds
per case. The inspection of a case of these blooms takes a considerable amount of time. It is decidedly improbable that gipsy moth egg clusters will be found on the short sections of stem cut with the bloom; the danger lies in larvae being present, as sometimes the lilac bushes front which the blooms are taken are not far from infested sedtions of woodland from which gipsy moth larvae may be carried to the lilacs by the wind. Considerable care has to be exercised during inspection in order to avoid damaginE the blooms and it is also necessary that the work may be completed as rapidly as possible so that there may be no wilting before they are packed with the cracked ice in the cases,
As a general thing, boards, shingles, clapboards, and other wooden
materials used in the construction of residences are taken directly from the saw
mill and are entirely unexposed to gipsy moth infestation. For this reasons although shipments require certification, it is not necessary to give piece-bypiece examination. In sone cases, however, it is desired to have structures resemble those which have been erected many years ago and in the production of the materials attempts are made to approximate the less standardized manufacturing processes under which the old-time materials were produced. Because of the nature of the final production, it is often necessary to make complete inspection before certification of such shipments. Recently there was a sizeable shipment of rustic clapboards inspected &t one of the points in the more northern section of the quarantined area. These clapboards were produced from rough lumber, and the saw by which they were cut had its teeth set so that the final appearance of the clapboardswas the same as that produced years ago by the old-time up-and-down saw used for such purposes. The edges of these clapboards were left som what rough and sections of them had the original bark adhering.
In the past there has been a considerable demand for woven wood fencing for use on estates. This fencing; material was made from, cleft, straight saplings bound with wire. The individual pickets were close together and were nt finished so that the fence when erected provided a close screen of a rustic effect, Such fencing was imported from Europe almost exclusively. Lately, some firms located in the quarantined area have been producing a rustic fence material of tho same general nature constructed from small spruce trees. The individual pickets do no have the bark removed and therefore it is necessary to have each one thoroughly
inspected before shipment is permitted.