News letter

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Material Information

Title:
News letter
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030428081
oclc - 785785040
lccn - 2012229620
System ID:
AA00023276:00009

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

Full Text










YE W S L ET TEBR

P TT
BUPT7TAU OF PLLT TJJANTTIP

UNITED STAIZS D _PAPTI7T OF AGPICULTU ,




N0uber 30 (NOT FO? PUBLIOATIO) June 1, 1933.







The following letter has been received from the Chief of the
Press Service, Office of Information, U. S. Department of Agriculture:

At I 'r. Eisenhower's request, Press Service is
building up a file of information .nd opinions from
various sources on the Farm Act. This material
will be classified under various heads so that writers
and others may conveniently make use of it, The
file will include our own material, as well as newspaper, magazine, farm journal, and trade publication
notarial. T~o will also use anything else that is
available, such as statements by business information
services and trade associations.

It 7ill help very much in building up such a
file to have contributions in the form of publications, clippings or references to rhere the articles
may be obtained.

Employees of the Bureau of Plant Quarantine will please take note of this request, sending such material through this Pureau.






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TEC OLOGICAL DIVISION

Progress has been made during the last few months in repairing fumigation houses along the border, A new roof has been put on
the house at iogales, Ariz., and the end of the house which was accidentally torn out, has been repaired. Lights have been installed at both IEl Paso and Nogales, and it is planned to repair the roof of the El Paso house. A concrete floor has been placed in the generating room of the El Paso plant, and preparations are under way to install apparatus for the use of volatilized HCN in the fuMigation of cars at this house.

A modification of the method of installing thermograph bulbs in cottonseed sterilizers was developed and tested last season under commercial conditions. This method of installation provides for installing the bulb just above the shaft of the screw conveyor, a short section of the blade being removed to allow room for the bulb and to allow the cottonseed to bank up and fill the conveyor casing. The bulb is then surrounded by heated Cottonseed at all times and the plug of cottonseed confines the steam so that the heating is much more efficient and a more even temperature is obtained. This work was done in cooperation with thae pink bollworm project and it is planned to have all bulbs installed in the seed sterilizers according to this method for the coming season.




FOREIGN PLANT QUTARANTINES

RECET ENTOMOLOGICAL IIfTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Dark fruit fly in mamney.--Thirty-four living larvae of
Anastrepha serpentina Wicd. Trypetidae) were intercepted at Brownsville, Tex., in one mamey (Iuamnea americana) fruit in baggage from Mexico.

Ant from Nicaragua.--Specimens of Wasmannia auropunctata Roger were taken at Mobile, Ala., on a banana leaf in cargo from Nicaragua. This tropical ant has been recorded as being established in the
vicinity of Miami, Fla.

Tortricid in bell epper and tomato.--Larvae of Platynota
stultana Walsingham, were intercepted st Los Angeles and San Francisco, Calif., and Nogales, Ariz., in bell peppers from Mexico, and at Nogales in tomatoes from Mexico. This microlepidopteron is recorded from. Arizona, California, and New Me::ico in the United States.









lew record for Puerto Rico.--Adults of Thileurus valpus Lo
(beaaaeid-ae) We1re collected in docaying wood in the fi ld at
Aibonito, P. Re. E# A. Chapin, of the Bureau-o-f Entonology, reports this to be a new record for Puerto nico,

Fruit bud beo.tic in tomato,--A living adult of Conotelus
mexicanus ,'.urrvy (it idulidae) was intercepted at. Nogales, Ariz., in a tomato in cargo from San Bias, Sinaloa, hlexico. It ranges from licxico int rznasdCliona AmonC, its hosts are cotton,
* peach, citrus, rose, and blackberry.

Euopancorn borer from Ita]L.- larva of' nubilalis
}Tbx. was inzecrcepted at Detroit, 1I.ich., in a raci-agr-e of shelled corn in the mail from, Italy,

Scale insects front the P.hillT) ~iese---: emichionaspis scrobleuln l~TTen) (Coccide) was intercepted at San F-a isco on
orchids rcr the Philippines* This repros;-ents the first interception record of this scale insect in our files.

PoEse plant infested with acoccid.--Nwsteadia.'floccos-a
(doeeorYTdocc idaccTva intercepted at Washington,' D. C.,.on a rose
plant in the(- mnail froin Czechoslovakia,

Bamboo infested.-Dinoderus minutus Fabr. (IDostrichidae) was
found at San. Francisco in bamboo in the ir-iail from, TH-.waii and at New
Orleans in bamboo dunnage from India.

Greenhouse leaf tier from lMoxico,--A larva of Phlyctaenia rubigalis Gn, (Pyralidae) was intercepted at 1Nogales, Ariz., in a tomato in carg,,o fjro'-, L'exico. This insect is referred to as the celery leaf tier on outdoor plants. It occurs in Furope, Asia, and North Aierica. In the regions of' cold winters it is chiefly a .-roenhouse ,,est.

Bark beetle from Rrazil.--NumrTous specim-.ens of Coccotrypos rolliniae !iopk. (Scoltide) were intercepted at 'Tashinrton, D. C. with 3-1/2 pounds of palm seeds in. the nitil ficnBrazil@

Leaf beotlro from Paana.-e~sljjh~.nticlollis D~aly
(Chry 'omi daTeTwas Taken at San T-rancisco on .-ananao" in cargo from Panama,

Olive cuttirf= 1'1*!rocco infestoC .--Liviniw specillens of
Phloootribus scarai.aeo i&Ls 71ernard FSnoyidae) ,vero intercepted at Wash int,;ton 1, C;,G, in oli'e cutltiir; s in th'-; e ,:pi-ss- from llarrakcch,










Miner in witloof.--Living larvae and pupae of Phytomyza atricornis Yeigen (Agromyzidae) were intercepted at New York in the leaves of witloof or endive (Cichorium intybus) in cargo from Belgium. This cosmopolitan fly also attacks chrysanthemum in England, flax and onions in Russia, and Sonchus in Yugoslavia. ,

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Diseased peas.--Pea pods from Germany intercepted at New York were spotted with a disease showing only a very few pycnidia, apparently those of Phyllosticta pisi. This disease is reported in Stevenson's manual as occurring in Belgium. The material wasinadequate and in too bad condition for study. Mycosphaerella pinodes was intercepted on pea pods from Brazil and from Japan at New York. This makes a total of seven interceptions of this disease from these countries, New Orleans having intercepted it twice from Brazil last November, and San Francisco a year ago in April and Seattle this February from Japan.

White rust of Brassica.--Albugo candida was intercepted at Seattle on a cabbage leaf used as packing for strawberries from Japan. The only other interception of this disease from Japan was made at Seattle in 1928. New York intercepted the disease on Chinese cabbage from Cuba. Of seven interceptions of the disease, three have been made this year.

Rust parasite.--Carnation rust (Uromyces caryophyllinus) on carnation leaves from Italy intercepted at New York was found to be parasitized by Darluca filum. Although this parasite has a widespread distribution it is not usually very common. The only previous interceptions were from Tasmania in 1920 and Panama in 1921.

Nematode interceptions.--The most noteworthy nematode interception of
the month was a new species of Tylenchus infesting a potato from Brazil intercepted at New York. Caconema radicicola was found infesting the same tuber, which was infected wvth Spondylocladium atrovirens and Fusarium sp. also. The determination of the new nematode as given by Dr. Steiner is Tylenchus sp. (pratensis-like).

A beet from Italy intercepted at Boston bore numerous excrescences up to an inch in diameter. When sectioned these were found to contain numerous egg masses and females in all stages of development as well as a few males of Heterodera schachtii, the beet nematode. The only previous interceptions of this pest were made in 1926 and 1927 in beets from Bermuda.

Nematodes in potatoes included Aphelenchoides parietinus in material intercepted from England at Baltimore and from Norway at Mobile; Tylenchus dipsaci in potatoes from Germany at New York, from Holland at Baltimore, New York, and Philadelphia (2), and from Norway at Baltimore and Mobile. Aphelenchoides parietinus was intercepted in onion from England at Savannah, in carrot from France at New York, and in ginger root from China at Detroit, in addition to the interceptions on potato.






-5


DISEASES COLTrC' D IT Ijr7 7'r-LD

Iris rust ---,!evera1 inteioestinC, ?_,ollec'ed on s-,, cial
material havo been :3erat in reniltly. L.ion,- thc.s_- ,,cro I pe=,iit Puccinia iridis cn
Iris marine and I. lc.ichtlini._3 two s,,ociar classed as rhizoratous iris, and I, histrio, I. histrioidopland I. sindjaronsis, bulbous p?Dcies. All- of thoso'species originated In Asia ITnor or nearby regions but warc iriTlcrtod into California fron Holland. P

I, he a native species of rhizoriatous iris, was found infected in
LO X ir 01 I a #
South Carolina where a breeder was hybridizLnG -, various formo of the species.

Co=,.ercial varieties of bulbous iris found infected include Golden'King
and Thite -,"xcelsior in Calif,-_Tnia, Anton Lauve, Hart Xibbrif,-4, and King of the MUtes in Louisiana, and D. Flaring, Leonardo de Vinci, anC. '7hite Excelsior in North Carolina,,

North Carolina D )artment of pricu ture i-7a ter io 1. the ne .atatode specimens subr-Atted by the Ycrth Carolina Depart1-01ent of _',.[,ricu-_1ture Were t7M lots of narcissus, infested with Aphelenchoirles fragariae,

Para s i! i cal ga. mat er i al, -Some partici larly nice hcrbarium r.,.atcrial of the alga. Cephaleur,,)s virescons on Elal-Dir,,hia ler"ves was receiv(--, d f'ror.1 Puerto Pico and turnc,,d over tc 11r. Stevenoon of the, Bureau of Plant Industry.

Nerine disea,,;e.--BadIy diseased loaves of .7,Terine flen.iosa. alba, 11.
plantii, and the ho biculturall varieties Her EajieSty and FObt, Berholey ,-:ere sent in from California. Me i'aacroscopic and fAcrosco-pic.characters of the disease and pathoe: n indicate, that '.he disease is clue to Stagon( spora curtisii, wbich is known to attack bulbous, plantL other than nardissuc, Wo have not had the disease on Nerine heretofore.

I:Iiscel'_'Lancou::; f iel, c ct i ons, -Othe r f i,-,l r c c, I c c -I- i ons i.n cluderlGloo2.2,c rium spp. on orchids, cacti, and succulents, and I.ellernannia yuccao_ .na on Yucca, all o special )eiTiit me.terial bein",- F-row, in California; Hemileia'oncidii on Oncidi-jir, -ti-pitatum. rocentl-,'7 impo-rted into Hawaii f',ir-on the Canal Zone; and Caconena radicicula on bu.1bo'Lis iri 3 "t'ed.gowcod Holland in 11orth Carolina, the irst report of the roctIcioll- cn this )lost.

APIUL INT_71: =10'ITS BY POT.TS

Interception.-, and,. intr exception rec-)rd,-3 r,: ce-*.ve,"L in TashinEton during April were as folloivrs: Paltir.-ore Pellin6ha.:,. 10, 3orl .-on 13, Brownsville 81, Calexicc 3, OharliF :-ton 2, Chica-o 4, Ccipus C"-Iristi 1, Detroit 6, Dourlas -]a-le Pass 109 El Paso ',')4, C alv" 17.to3 b3 TTidalgo 1; Laredo 11, I.,,Iobj-l(,, 36, 11Iac,) 10, JT(r ; Orloans i:-)qp '11_ :., I'Orl: 2Gbj IoCalcs 942, Norfolk 46, Philadelphia lt^3, Port Arthur Tuan l3q, San 'L7sidro 2, Savannah 22, Seattle 12F ',,"sleta 2. Thayer 2. Of ti-1; toju&I of 2,249 interceptions, 11523 were of insectO and ?26 of difl-eases,










It will be noted that California and Florida ports are not included in the above list. Arrangements may be made to obtain selected data from those States promptly for inclusion in the News Letter. During April, San Francisco interceptions totaled 435, of which 369 were of insects, 57 plant diseases, and
9 miscellaneous spiders, mites, etc. Addition of all California and Florida interceptions would increase the total number of interceptions per month considerably#

HIDING TEIE FROM1 T17 INSPCTOR

In a report received through the California Department of Agriculture which, on a collaborator basis, enforces foreign plant quarantines in that State on behalf of the Federal authorities, there is described the persistent efforts which are being made to evade plant quarantine restrictions and smuggle in Chinese pomelos and sacred lily bulbs.

Chinese residents here prize these products highly for certain ceremonial celebrations, and as only those from their homeland are regarded as having the essential virtues, the demand for them is insistent. The pomelos are excluded on account of citrus canker, and permits to import the sacred lily (narcissus) are not issued because this country is already amrply stocked with them.

The vigilance of the inspectors having discouraged attempts to bring in
these products either openly or concealed among other admissible vegetable shipments, importers have taken to hiding them in other lots of merchandise not ordinarily examined by plant quarantine officials. Thus some cases of "dried lily flowers", noted as much too heavy for such a commodity, were opened and found to contain 30 percent of lily bulbs. Similar lots were found in cases labeled "vermicelli", only a few cases of which actually contained this material the rest being filled with bulbs.

The odor of pomelos having led to detection in several instances of concealed fruit in supposedly other materials, the scheme was adopted of sealing the fruit in cans before inserting it among the manifested merchandise. Practically the only way to discourage this practice is to require the opening and display of contents of every case in shipment where concealment is likely to take place, which puts a heavy labor cost on the importer.

In some cases the importer has tried to avoid responsibility and possible penalty by delaying official entry until inspection was completed. If nothing was found consuiaption entry was made, but if contraband was discovered the entry was made T. and E. to Mexico or elsewhere, which of course was permitted. It is interesting to note that shipments thus switched to Mexico have been found returnin- from that country billed as "household goods". The inspector now circumvents this ruse of the augglcr by requiring the entry declaration to be made before inspection is given, and if the shipment is then found to contain concealed goods of prohibited nature it can be effectively dealt with.







A shipment of Chinese pomelos recently arrived in California by cxpress fron ilwauko, Wis., presumably having come in by way of Canada. Efforts are now under way to block this roundabout channel.
11TT'OU PF LAS 'rI P. 1
U.ERCUS PLANTS IN PASS~I E iS' BAGAGEC

In the last News Letter (No. 29, IPay 1, 1933, p. 5) sunnaries were made of the rlant materials found by inspectors at Now York: on two incoming liners, together with notes on the actual pests found on them. It is not intended to infer that all or even any large proportion of the insects and diseases mentioned were of dangerous character; the examples were cited in order to present a realistic picture of how, on ship after ship, passengers are attempting to bring into this country in their baggage a wide range of plant materials, and that on these plants the inspector is constantly finding a formidable variety of insect life and disease fungi. From such a clear-cut picture of actuality no one could avoid the conclusion that pests of truly dangerous nmtlroe.arejust as likely as not to occur in this miscellaneous array.

Another equally revealing summary of the record of a single ship is here added. The S. S. Saturnia, arriving on April 15 at New York from Italy and the Amores, had in passengers' baggage the following contraband plant materials: Loquat fruit, 28 pounds; olive cuttings, 5; birch twigs, 40; rose plants, 7; rose cuttings, 34; barmboo roots, 2; gardenia roots, 4; grape cuttings, 43; fig cuttings, 12; Irish potatoes, 20; swveetpotatoes, 46; chrysanthemum plants, 10; pear cuttings, 22; apple cutting's, 11; carnations, 7; oranges, 14; apples, 2; pears, 1; lily plants, 4; cherry cuttings, 8; peach cuttings, 2; begonia plants, 1; banana leaves, 2; sage plant, 1; amaryllis, 2; colocasia, 3; myrtle cuttings, 1; geranium plants, 7; rosemary plants, 13; hydrangea plants, 3; terrace ferns in soil, 8; grass clump, 1; squash, 1; pandanus plant, 1; primrose plant, 1; spurge plant, 1; mint clump, 1; pittosporum cutting, 1; loquat plants, 28; fennel stock, 7; unidentified cuttings, 7; cyclamen in soil, 1; loquats, 5 pounds.

On this assortment the inspectors found 2 diseases and 15 different
kinds of insects. At least 31 of the 43 lots were evidently intendod for planting or propagation here.

INJ CTS LNiEST PACKING T:ATERIAL

In the April News Letter of 1232 mention was made of a numerous insect population found in imported straw packing material. Another outstanding
case of this kind is reported by the Washington inspection house.

On December 5, 1932, a shipment from Czechoslovakia containing 90 rose
plants, 5 rose cutting,-, and VO Convallaria pips, :as received in two mail parcels packed in peat mo0, soil, and debris. Fr):at this packing there were collected no less than 70 diffe<.nt smocie of live insets, rnreenig 33 families, and in addition .re were rent any ewu, nyriopols, angleworms, spiders, scr.ioans. a c1 J laik. which were not taken for identification.

Specimens of this tee ine insect population hove been rartially or completely identified. The li t of species is too 1.< to be iven in detail but when summarized by i'a.ilios the list is made xp of: SbaphyliniJdae-, 12 species; Curculionidae, 8; Carabidae, 4; Telopihoridno (or Canthiaridao) 1;









Silphidae, 1; Ptiliidae, 1; Pselaphidae, 3; ScydmaEnMac,1; Gryptophagidae, 1; Lathridiidae, 1; Coccinellidae, 2; Nitidulidae, 3; Hydrophilidae 5; Helcdidae, 1; Chrysomelidae, 2; Ichneumonidae, 1; Diapriidae, 1; Calliceratidae, 2; Ceraphronidae, 2; Scelionidae, 2; Tygaeidae, 2; Nabidae, 1; Miridae, 1; Tingididae, 1; Coccidae, 1; Bibionidae, 1; Adelidae, 1; Pyralidae, 1; Thripidae, 2; Parasitidae, 1; Oribatidae, 2; Bdellidae, 1; Chermidae, l

It is not to be inferred that all this heterogenaousassemblage consists of dangerous species. The case is cited largely to illustrate how a simple lot of packing material may harbor a wide range of insect life. However, it is worth while to add that. 32 of the 70 species mentioned are not recorded as occurring in the Continental United States and that 20 of the species are to be regarded as potential pests.

MO1EYS' FOOD SUPPLY IITESTzED

Ten cages of monkeys arrived in New York on April 11 from Singapore on board the S. S. Steel Scientist. The supply of food kept on board for them included 1,600 pounds of sweetpotatoes and 900 pounds of paddy rice, both prohibited entry here. The sweetpotatoes were found 100 percent infested with the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius;. These sweetpotatoes together with the rice were destroyed by burning, and all debris from the cages was carefully disposed of. As an interesting sidelight on the inspection system it is noted that the.presence of these offending materials was observed when the vessel was boarded at the Rosebank quarantine station and was reported by telephone so that inspectors wviere at, the wharf on arrival to take prompt care of the infestation.

IN0TOW BEETE FOUND IN PAIM SEEDS

Larvae, pupae, and adults of a Cerambycid beetle were found working in the seeds of Phoenix reclinata from Ibadan, Nigeria, at the Washington inspection house April 18, 1933. The beetles were feeding on the hard seeds inside the dried pulp and in some cases almost the whole seed had been eaten. W. S. Fisher, of the Bureau of Entomology, in placing this insect in the subfamily Lamiinae of the family Cerambycidae, makes the following comment: "I am unable to place this species. It is not represented in our collection,
and we have very little identified material from Africa. Five adults placed in collection".



DO E~STIC PLANT QUARANTINES

JOINT CERTIFICATIONT

A ne.w form of joint certificate covering cases i, which the same nursery is affected by two or more Federal quarantines is being used in those nurseries located in both the gipsy moth and Japanese beetle regulated areas.






-9


The purpose is to do away with the practice, ih so far as practicable, of requiring more than one Federal tag on a single shipments The blank certificates read as follows:

1"U. S. DEPARTED OF AGPICUL UR2
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Quara.ntines No. 45, 48
Certified by inspector Io, 23
Issued to
Date ?.'a 11 1933

OID A-T R 5 DAYS
Certificate not transferable"

Names of permittees under quarantines 38 or G3 are provided the certifying inspector by tto Tashington office and he then inserts "138"1 or "63" after "Quarantines No. 45, 48." If a destination limitation applies as, in the case of barberry and white pine shipments, the destination point is inserted on the tag. Transit inspectors are checking on the -use of the certificates and reporting all shipments which bear the joint certificate with respect to any quarantines other than Nos. 45 and 48. Shipments are checked to determine whether any may be moving to destinations other than those authorized. Instances of the use of separate certificates for each quarantine as under the old procedure are also being reported to field officers in charge of the gipsy moth and Japanese beetle projects as an aid in enlarging the scope of the joint
certification work.

Since the aumnary of the State quarantines-relating to the European
corn borer was issued in BPQ-346, revised March 16, 19353, it has been learned that the State of Idaho had issued such a quarantine on February 15, which provides for the acceptance of certain products when certified. Indiana has
placed a quarantine, effective lay 12, which relates to the 2-generation .train of the borer, and the Illinois quarantine has been reiosued. The principal changes in the latter are provision for the acceptance, without restriction, during certain portions of the year, of green corn and chrysanthemums, asters, and dahlias,without old stems, and discontinuance of all restrictions, at any time of the year, on oat and rye straw, celery, hollyhock, cosmos, snd zinnia.

Two State laws bearing on pest control were recently upheld by the
United States District Court in the districts of Nebraska and northern New York, The laws concerned were the Nebraska cedar rust law and a New York law and regulation relating to certification of cattle shipped into the State.

The Bureau of Entomology has notified this Bureau that Brachyrhinus ligustici Linn., a species not heretofore reported in Americahas recently been discovered in New: York. The specimens were collected on raspberry plants.










TRANSIT INSEPECOTION

In view of the extension of the Japanese beetle regulated area in
western Pennsylvania, the Japanese beetle office is resuming the checking of
shipments at Pittsbuin for compliance with the regulations of this quarantine, and the transit inspection service is aiding in starting the work there.

Transit inspection has been discontinued for the season at Kansas City, Omaha, St. Paul, Seattle, and Portland.

W{ITE-PINE BLISTER RUST

The inspection of the nurseries in the blister-infected States whose
owners have recently applied for permits to ship white pines interstate is now under way. The inspection will cover the premises of the 12 nurserymen to whom permits were issued for shipping during the present season, as well as a considerable number of others.

PHONY PEACH DISEASE

Following the revocation of Federal quarantine No. 67, the State of
Georgia oh IMarch 8 issued a regulative quarantine relating to the phony peach disease applying to shipments from other infected States and to intrastate shipments.

The State of Texas, on February 24, cancelled quarantine No. 58 relating to the intrastate movement of host plants of the disease.

DATE SCALE EPADICATION

During the month of April only offshoot and leaf-base inspection has
been carried on in the Coachella Valley. Leaf bases on 140 previously infested palms wore removed and examined for scale, None was found. From observations made so far in this work it wQould seem that the leafbases on the Deglet Noor palms, from which the fronds have been pruned, die back more quickly than those of other varieties examined. In most cases, however, there is considerable live tissue on which the scale might survive.

During this season offshoots or suckers are cut from the palms and set in orchard or nursery form. Planting date seed is not satisfactory as the resulting palns are usually about 50 percent males, and the fruiting and other characteristics of the female palms vary widely. The offshoots are small palms growing from the trunk of the parent palm, usually near the base. When the offshoot has attained sufficient size a large chisel is used to sever the
connection with the parent ralm.

Palms with large numbers of unpruned offshoots are difficult to inspect. Before the offshoots are cut they are severely pruned so that the foliage will not interfere with the cutters. Inspection at this time enables









the inspector to examine the trunk and interior foliage which he could not reach previously.

In Arizona careful scouting was continued during April to locate unlisted palms. It is probable that this phase of the work will be completed there this fiscal year.

In the Imperial Valley in California a small date palm infested with Parlatoria date scale was found on an irrigation ditch bank on a previously infested property. This property was infested in 1923 and in 1924. All of the palms were supposed to have been dug out and the area in dates planted to alfalfa. When the inspector dug out the palm they found it to be one of a number of small offshoots growing from a rotten stump of a date palm. Evidently this palm had been cut off at the surface of the ground when the others were dug out.



JAPANESE BETE AID EUR1A CORCPN BOQEP

Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work

Transfer was accomplished during April of the major part of the contents of the headquarters garage from South Norv-alk to the New Cumberland, Pa., Army Base warehouse assigned for the project's use. Change in the official station of most of the mechanics and garagemen-drivers was also effected during the month. Bulky supplies and machine shop equipment were shipped via freight, while the lighter equipment was moved in connection with trucks driven to their new storage quarters. At New Cumberland, freight cars are shunted onto a railroad siding alongside the warehouse and the consignments unloaded on a side platform having doors leading directly into each of the six bays of the warehouse. Automobiles, supplies, and various items of equipment were also moved from the Cakaont, Pa., district headquarters during the month. Federal maintoianoe equipment previously housed at Oakmont was moved to the New Cumberland warehouse, while State equipment was transferred to State-owned storage quarters in Harrisburg. Everything was in readiness at the end of
the-moTxh for the transfer of part of the office records and furniture to an office to be established in the Frankford Arsenal, at Bridge and Tacony Streets, Philadelphia, and the removal of the balance of the Oakmont office
records to the main headquarters at Harrisburg.

Numerous anall nurserymen and farmers growing limited anounts of nursery and ornamental stock are anong those who bring their stock to the Richmond, Va., public market for sale. Unsold stock is usually returned to the premises where grown. Such of t ese dealers as reside outside the regulated zone require Japanese beetle certification in order to return this noninfested plant material to their premises. To fit this situation a special blanket certificate in letter formi i issued. This certificate conforms to the wording of the quarantine regulations and also prescribes the exact conditions under which the certificate ray be used. While in possession of such a valid











certiTicate, dealers located in nonregulated territory are able to remove their stock in full compliance with the quarantine requirements. Somewhat similar situations have also been encountered in southwestern Pennsylvania in the instance af plant dealers who regularly purchase their stock in Ohio and proceed across the southwestern corner of Pennsylvania to Fet to their destinationsin West Virginia. A similar form of blanket certificate with slight modifications serves to satisfy the quarantine requirement arising from such a situation, and permits the dealers to pass the vehicle inspectors without delay.

Examination of soil fumigation boxes at approximately 70 classified
nursery and greenhouse establishments were during April made by the men of the treating division working from the Trenton district headquarters. These boxes are used for carbon disulphide fumigation and steam sterilization of potting soil. Successful fumigation of soil with carbon disulphide requires a gas-tight container. Concrete boxes of more or less permanent construction require little attention other than an examination to determine that the lids are close fitting and gas-tight. Boxes constructed of wood or roofing paper are more of a temporary nature'and require frequent inspectims to determine warpage of the wood or tears in the paper coverings. Among the items recorded at the time of the inspections were the construction, dimensions, and locations of the boxes, date of inspection, and name and address of establishment, Before beginning the inspections it was necessary to communicate with the various establishments to learn "vhen the boxes would be empty, since it is impossible to thoroughly inspect a b6x while it contains soil.

Despite extension of the borders of the regulated zone and the consequent wider territory within which quarantined articles may be moved without restriction, interceptions of Japanese beetle larvae at road inspection stations increased over April 1932. Seven larvae were lapt year removed from infested plants voluntarily surrendered at road posts during April. This year 12 larvae were similarly removed. Seven of the grubs were removed from soil about the roots of plant material being transported from Norfolk, Va., Baltimore, Md., and Philadelphia, Pa., to uninfested localities in Virginia. Two grubs- were found in hydrangea plants in the possession of a motorist en route
from Norfolk, Va., to Greensboro, N. C. Thvo lots of plants en route from Washington and Pittsburgh, Pa,, to Columbus and 1\ount Vernon, Ohio, yielded one and two grubs, respectively. It is likely that the latter plants originated in the heavily infested area of eastern Pennsylvania, since conditions of infestation in Pittsburgh and Wlashington are not such as normally to result in the infestation of plants of the nature intercepted.

As surveys of nurseries and greenhouses in the territory recently added
to the regulated zone near completion, large numbers of firms and individuals have applied for classified status under the regulations supplemental to Quarantine No. 48. The most notable increase in establishments acquiring classification has been in Massachusetts, where the classified dealers have increased
from 1.53 prior to the inclusion of the entire State to 317 at the end of April. In New York the number of establishments ha. increased from 164 to 271.







-13


Pennsylvania classified establishments have also increased considerably, 72 new classifications having been added to the previous total of 380. Extension of the regulated territory to include portions of New Hampshire and Vermont has resulted in the acquisition of classification by 38 New Hampshire establishments and 11 Vermont nurseries. Extension of the regulated territory in States contiguous to Oonnecticut has resulted in a decrease in the classified establishments ih the latter State, the dealers complying fully with the quarantine regulations having decreased from 188 to 159.

Cooperative arrangements are now in effect whereby, in territory in
which demands for inspection and certification under the gipsy moth and Japanese beetle quarantines definitely overlap, inspections may be made and certificates issued by the gipsy moth or Japanese beetle ins-ector whose field of operations places him in the most convenient position to supply the necessary joint inspection and certification. Inspectors engaged in these joint operations have been instructed in their duties by the appropriate cooperating project and are supplied with a stamp with which they m y.' affix to packages containing inspected material a joint certificate showing compliance with both Quarantines Nos. 45 and 48. Records of the issuance of such joint certificates are furnished to the appropriate field offices of both projects. These cooperative arrangements were effected after a number of conferences between the officials charged with the enforcement of the two quarantines.

Freight shipmentof traps and trap equipment to central unloading
points for truck distribution to temporary storage quarters convenient to proposed trapping sites were largely completed during April. Dispatch during May of consignments to Easton, Md., Richmond, Va., and Akron, Ohio, will complete the shipments to trapped zones from the South Norwalk headquarters. A total of 26,352 traps left South Norwalk for southern and western points during April. Central shipping points and quantities of traps shipped were as follows: Charleston, S. C., 1,188; Charlotte, 1. C., 2,772; Portsmouth, Va., 1,188; PRoanoke, Va., 3,168; 7ashington, D. C., 4,764; Ealtimore, Md., 2,580; Charleston, 7. Va., 3,168; Fairmont, W. Va., 3,960; and Detroit, Mich., 3,564. Appropriate State officials in States in which it is -lanned to start trapping operations before the end of the present fiscal year have been filly informed of the trapping program to be undertaken in their respective State.

Transfer to the gipsy moth project of twio temporary storage sheds
used for housing motor vehicle and other equipment at the South Norwalk headquarters was accomplished early in April. A two-.story 31 by 98 feet, temporary wooden shed, which was reerected ~. th additions after removal from Camrden, N. J., to South Norwalk, was taken apart on April 5, 6, and 7, and shipped via freight to the gipsy moth headquarters at Greenfield, ;ass. Following shipment of the wooden structure, a -orruEater iron shed, 20 by 120 feet, was also dismantled and shipped to Hudson, Pa., for reerection at the headquarterss of the clean-up* work in the area heavily infected with the gipsy moth in Luzerne and Lackawanna Counties, Pa. In addition a number of spray trucks and considerable other mechanical equipment and tools on Lnd either at the New Cumberland, Pa., warehouse or the Springfield, Ohio, headquarters were transferred to the gipsy moth work.






-14


Road inspection work in New York is limited to the activities of four
inspectors vho operate a roving patrol. Pairs of inspeot.ors operate as a unit, with overlapping hours. Each pair is supplied with a car. Starting at a
distant post, the first inspector of the pair gradually works back through different inspection posts until .h reaches a post near his headquarters, where he is relieved by the other member of his unit. Six separate posts near Corning, Millport, Sullivanville, Smartwood, Spencer, and Willseyville are covered by one paii of inspectors, and four posts situated near Skaneateles, Elbridge, Jordan, and Plainville are operated on staggered hours by the other two men. Agent H. H. Lawrence supervises the work. The four inspectors are paid from New York State funds.

Of 14 commercial exhibitors at this year's Baltimore Flower Show, 11 were dealers classified under the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations. With a single exception all exhibits by private garden clubs or individuals were segregated at one end of the building-away from the certified exhibits. Presence of only four possibly infested exhibits among the certified displays .greatly facilitated the work of separating certified and uncertified exhibit material so that the former might be approved for return to classified premises. This year's exhibition was the fourth annual flower show at Baltimore. It was
held from April 25 to 29. The manager of the show and the show committee cooperated fully in the protection of certified material.

Four of the seven New York State nurseries are located within
the Japanese beetle regulated zone. The State-owned.nurseries at Horseheads, Tully, Saratoga, and Greenhaven, within regulated territory, are uninfested, which makesit permissible to certify stock from these localities without further inspection or treatment. For the purpose of certifying the large numbers of trees shipped frol the State nurseries .under regulation, 10,000 Japanese beetle quarantine certificates were furnished to the State Conservation Department for use :by,the ,Superintendent of Forest Nurseries.

Commenting on a recently published book dealing with insects as man's chief competitors, the TrentrOn, N. J., Times, editorially states, "Here certainly is food for thought. It would seem that,if the war on insects is not pushed vigorously, mankind will some day be forced to surrender control of the planet to the winged, crawling species that are even now to be found on every hand. During the latter part of each summer in this section of New Jersey,
when the Japanese beetle gets in full swing, it often looks as though the insects already are on the Verge of victory. In the long run, of course, human intelligence should prevail."'

W. E. Jones & Company, commission merchants of Baltimore, Md., on April 4, through a representative, appeared in the United States District .Court in Baltimore and entered a plea of guilty to an information alleging a violation of the Plant Quarantine Act arising from an uncertified shipment via.Merchants and Miners Transportation Com)any on September 2, 1932, of 355 bushels of apples consigned to a firm in Jacksonville, Fla., A fine of $20 was imposed. Disposition of the case against the comn.on carrier for the transportation of this shipment has previously been reported.






-15


Quarantined fruits and vegetables transported from, the re ,ulated zone
as provisions abo,,.ar6 dining cars operated by the Baltiino;-ro and Ohio IPaiiroad will be inspected anad certified at Baltimoro during the 4-1iuonth period in which the seasonal 6uarantinro on these ar-?ticle3s is effective. Such certification will cover provisions taken on. at Baltimore and also the removal f'ron, regulated
-territory ,of' fruits and vegetables originally oucae.in Chicar and brou -ht into the restricted zone. Ste'zi7ards will be furnished ,7ith the, certificate covering the qunrantined provisions in their dining car,

Information surplired by the Superintendent of' Gre-enhouse-s at Horticultural -Hall, Fairmiount, Park, PhJiladol~ihia, indict 3tos that 227 adult Japanese beetles were hand collected during March ia the prcenhouses connected with Horticultural Hall. :7ost of these brroties 7more found on)r roses, in t-I-e rose Fgreenhouses. This mnber is slightly fewer than thr: total sonby Superintendent Schmmitt Is 'Tbeetlce log" of' 12,32, which shored a catch during March of 275 adults.

Even county jails have been requisitioned as cen'trel storage )I aces fortrap and trap equipment in a number of' M1aryland localities. ThroughI the cooperation of' local pos.ti-mas,,rs, mayors and othIer city officials, free stern .e space has been secured in 24 different communities. '",&ot of' the stora[g-e rooms secured are in rest offices, although li ave been obtained in court houses, State of-fice building's, arimories, city halls, ana fi-re houses.

Information supplied by R. 7T. Leiby, North Carolina 3)tcte -Entomologist, from data cmpilod front. that po,-rtL-ion of the North Carcolina insect survey based on miscellaneous collections of' Scarabaeidao caught in Fed.erally-operated traps in the State during l%):2, largely confirm -the data re,--rhocd Out at South Norwalk on the basis of colet ons of miscellaneous beetles in other States.

Qtotities of' ornaz-ental nursery stocl. are beini., shipped. b7y7 e oer
nurserymen to the Century of I'-rgress Exrosition in Chicaeuo. A singZle nursery in south estern Ccnn.cLt-cut_ has alread-u shipped, under ,jepanese beetle oertification 25 carloads of s L1 c*i- to be used in boeautifyinfg, t.he oxeosition grounds.

Specialize d Corn Porer Activities

After ,, series -,f educ ational nrporarticles r-eleased b- Dr. W. -0 Britten, o- thj.e Connecticut AgiutrlExpoeri;..enw-U Station, ,,urveys w7ere. instituted b temporarily eriployed Conn, cticut'I inf-7o-ctu-rs to determine compliance with the State's corni horer compulsory clean-up law. Under a 1930 Revision of' tho: General Stazioies o Connect~icut it is: provided that the Director of' the Conneticut AgS ''lYoeie t-tct2oxu- Eh~li, isc.-ue and pubtish
rules xa ?uirirg -that "orac1 ow t!nnnt ,r > 3 %nd on which corn of
any kind h,- 1,been Frown- I o a Dcb1 of the yea-r 1f i~ s
growth, pl .: r cause IL, I r-dti i .', i" r~n c ac 60
bury the stubble to a de,,Cho i' cast pii''&-s, oli up or destroy such
stubble or cueit to be ru u rr orn, t1o'dy u nand eac h person,
havihg in his n.; einc~sokshall' nott istor thai. April 10 of the year






-16


fo'lowing that of their growth, completely dispose of such cornstalks by using thooa as fodder or by burning them, and shall destroy or cause to be destroyed, on or before April 10 of each year, all weeds in such areas as may be designated." Twenty-two i ien comprise the clean-up inspection crew. Each is supplied with a car. Tho survey began on April 12 in the southern half of the State, and was gradually extended to the northern tier of counties. Southern Connecticut counties were first visited because. the season is earlier and fariners can get into their fields sooner to dispose of corn residues. Five weeks will be required for completion of the clean-up survey. All roads will be covered by the inspectors in their observations for corn stubble or weeds that are likely host plants of the borer. When such stubble or weeds are observed, the occupant of the property is informed of the clean-up requirements and given an opportunity to immediately clean up his premises. Educational literature, including copies of the law, clean-up orders and circulars concerning the borer are distributed to each grower whose property requires attention.. It is felt that this educational work will have a salutary effect on similar work in the future. Thus far cooperation by the growers has enabled the work to progress smoothly. Supervision of the work is supplied by Agent Y. P. Tohnson, and M. P. Zappe of the Experiment Station force,



'11EXICAN FRUIT FLY

The activities of' the personnel of this project were devoted during the greater part of the month to the application of the first of three proposed applications of nicotine-molasses spray to the bearing citrus trees of the Valley. This is a continuation of the eradication work which was started last summer when the trees of the quarantined area were given two applications of the spray.

Preparations were made to start operations in March, but because of the delay in arrival of necessary supplies, spraying was started in only three districts during the latter days of that month. However, operations were in full swing over the whole Valley during the first week in April. The job was practically completed in three weeks' time. There were a few groves remaining unsprayed after that time, due to the inability of the inspectors to make contact with the owners or because the groves were in process of being watered, dusted, or sprayed. However, practically one hundred percent coverage of all bearing trees was assured inasmuch as there was only one outright refusal to apply the spray or to allow it to be applied. This was in the case of the owner of a small patch Of tteeM in.-ht drIand iseitn. f"Tllacy County.

From the experience gained last summer, a nuisber of changes were made in the dispensing set-up for this application. it was found that a considerable saving in tineo rnd mileage could be made by delivering the materials, where only small amounts were needled, to the groves. The work was concentrated along roads and in restricted areas resulting in savings in mileage, increased efficiency in t1-e use of the hand sprayerpsnd giving inspectors an opportunity to do more supervising of the actual application of the spray. While it was









impossible to clean up a road at one working because of watering, dusting, or oil srrayiunr being done in some of the groves, the system worked exceedingly well.

The successful prosecution of this work required that the inspectors
of this project be on their toes both mentally and physically for the duration of the program. Considerable ingenuity was required in securing the application of the spray to absentee-owned groves, roves in litigation, and groves in which owners were in financial difficulties.

A total of 4,453,226 trees on 13,807 premises were sprayed. Approximately 23,519 gallons of molasses and 1,173 gallons of nicotine were required to spray these trees. Four hundred and eighty three Federal, State, and County owned hand sprayers and 16G privately owned mower sprayers were used in the application.

Trapping was carried on continuously in five districts during the month. The operation of these traps resulted in the taking of 1 Anastrepha ludens
1 A. fraterculus, 7 A. pallens, and 1 Toxotrypana curvicauda.

The operation of traps in Iatamoron resulted in the taking of 11 adult Anastrepha ludens and 1 A. pallens The ludens --ere taken in three separate premises. !icotine-molasses spray was immediately applied to the trees in the four blocks surrounding each of the infested -re, ises. A close inspection for larval infestation of the fruits growing on these premises h'ave negative results. However, dissection of two ofi' the adult fer.:ale flies disclosed fully, matured eggs; accordingly larval infestations in local fruit can be e:pected as soon as the infestation has*had time to develop. Inspection of iLported fruit resulted in taking 343 larvae fro. mangoes and oranges from the States of .,ichoacan, Nuevo Leon, and Toan:aulipas.



THE PIK BOLL7 O :

The original plans fcr the eradication of wild cotton from the Cape
Sable area of southern Florida called for the clean-up of only the most accessible cotton this season. That was comUleted on Anril G, and as the weather was getting quite :arr, and the mosouitoos very bad, the work was discontinued. During that part of the month 63 acres ere cleaned, from -which 20,000 naturee and 3,700 seedling plants were renaoved. There is still a considerable amount of wild cotton on Cape Sable in inance2ssible locations, and also on a number of keys in Florida Rya, which is closely adjacent. It is planned to remove this remaining cotton next season.

The eradicatin program, on the wert coat .: as progressed very satisfactorily. The intensive survey s al .' t.~1 :ast line has resulted in the findize of cotton in much more isolated :ities than was the case last sur mer and fall. Iany shell mounds, on wich in was growing, were located in the mangrove wamps. To reach this cotton it :as necessary fcr the men to wade long distances through water too shallow to permit the use of the boat.










The clean-up in Manatee County has been completed, and at the end of the month there were only a few scattering areas remaining to be cleaned in Sarasota, Charlotte, and Lee Counties. It was thought that these areas would be completed by the middle of the coming month.

On Key Largo tw-o crews have been working most of the mnth, one on the east side of the highway and one on the west side. A total of 69 acres were cleaned for the first time by the two crews, from which 26,712 mature and 13,750 seedlin plants were removed. The crew on the east side of the highway covered a strip of land about 8 miles long, and varying in width from 100 yards to a mile. It was necessary to cover this area very thoroughly, as cotton is being found in rather unexpected places. On the west side of the highway there is a rather dense vegetation, jand this crewr has had to cut trails to locate the cotton. The progress made so far indicates that work on Key Largo will be completed before the rainy season begins.

The examination of bolls from the wild cotton as it is being eradicated has been continued. During[ the month some 1,400 of these bolls were inspected. A heavy infestation was found on a small key locatedin Pine Island Sound about one-half mile southwest of Josslyn Island. Out of 62 bolls examined specimens of the pink bollworm were found in 20, which would make an infestation of about 32 percent. Incidentally, all of this cotton has been destroyed. No
specimens were found. in any of the other bolls examined.

The daily examination of blooms from the cotton plots at Chapman Field has been continued throughout the month. This cotton .has continued to bloom profusely, so that over 1,000 blooms have been examined each week. No specimens of the pink bollwormi have been found since March 24.

The transferring of the cotton plants from the hotbeds to the field
plots in the Big Bend section has been completed. We now have a total of 67 plots, containing about 200 plahts each. The original plans called for about 100 plots, and enough cotton-was planted in the hotbeds to set out that many.
About the middle of the month a severe cold spell was experienced in the Big Bend, and as a result a considerable number of cotton plants already transferred to the field were killed. This made it necessary to use some of the remaining hotbed cotton to replace that killed in the plots. This naturally cut down the total number of plots, which otherwise would have extended over the entire acreage cleaned last winter. Those which we have extend from about
8 miles below Presidio up the river to Adobes, about 20 miles above Presidio, and include the area where the pink bollworm damage was heaviest list season. This gives us an average of one plot to each 37.7 acres of cultivated cotton. Weather conditions have not bern very favorable, but at the close of the month it a..ared that we should have blooms on the trap cotton by about the first of June, while many of the farmers estimate that the first blooms on the commercial cotton will. not be before the first of July.

The delayed planting! date of April 15 in the Big Bend section has been
observed very satisfactorily. As this date fell on Saturday a few of the farrner requested rm7tission to bein lantingduring that w0ek. They stated









that's most of that section receives irrigation water from gravity ditches, considerable time is required to water all of the farms, and, also, as most
of the farmers are Mexicans, and all of them do not own cotton planters, it is necessary that they borrow such equipment from one another., After taking these facts under consideration it was not thought that our program would be interrupted in any way by allowing planting to begin a few days earlier. A number of farmers have recently expressed themselves as being very glad that we had set the delayed planting date, otherwise they would have begun planting
earlier in the month and the cold weather would undoubtedly have doamnaged the crop to such an extent that replanting would have been necessary. By the end
of the month approximately 50 percent of the acreae had been planted in the Presidio section, and only about 15 percent in the remainder of the Big Bond.

Earlier in the season it appeared that there would be.considerable
volunteer cotton to contend with, but as the land was plowed in preparation for planting a considerable amount of this was destroyed; the cold weather killed some and retarded all that was left. It has been decided to leave this volunteer cotton until it develops fruit large Enough to become infested, after which it will be grubbed out and burned, thus making use of it as a trap.

It now appears that most of the cotton crop in the regulated area will be a little- later than usual. Yeath'er conditions throughout the month have been very unfavorable for germination of cottonseed, and as a result many farmers are having to replant. This has resulted in a shortage of select planting seed in some sections. One of the oil mills at El Paso is now cleaning seed which was to have been crushed and selling it to the farmers for planting purposes. This is not choice seed by any mroeans. However, germination tests
have shown it to be in fairly good condition.

The inspection of bollie material collected in the Thurberia weevil area has been carried on at the Tucson laboratory during the month. Approximately 10,500 bolls have been inspected without any weevils being found. However, 4 of the bolls showed indications of having p-eviously been infested.

Laboratory inspection has gone forward at the various other locations without any interruptions. A consideable quantity of material has now been inspected, ll results having been negative to date.



PREVETING SPREAD O'O T0TETS

Good progress has been made in the clean-up work in the heavily infested gipsy moth area in Pennsylvania, a total of nearly 1,000 acres of brush and
dead wood having been cut and burned from the tiLe This work was started in January to the end of April. The eg clusters on trees left standing are creosoted as soon as possible after the brish has beon cut and burned. Several crews of laborers under direct supervision of Foeeral agents have been engaged in creosoting egg clusters in this heavily inf.-sto are., It is expected that creosoting work in all villages in the gen'rlly. infested area will have been completed before general hatching begins.









As this is the season of the year when the fire hazard is greatest, no atte pt is made to burn brush on windy days orwhen the ground cover is extremely dry, Th7ile the condition has been somewhat of a handicap to the clean-up work, it is considered advisable to take these precautions in order to prevent serious damage by fire. W.hen brush is being burned in areas where there is any possibility of fires spreading, a sprayer truck is stationed nearby so that the live coals may be extinguished and the ground surrounding the coals thoroughly soaked after all brush in the immediate vicinity of the fire has been burned. Instructions have been issued to all field men prohibiting smoking in the field during working hours.

At this season of the year considerable time must be spent in looking
up brooks, ponds, and water holes which will be available for use in making up arsenate of lead spray solution when spraying can be done. It is also necessary to devote a great deal of time to locating owners of infested property and obtaining permits froa them for necessary treatment work.

As a result of the scouting work carried on in the Pennsylvania area to April 30, approximately 250 square miles are known to be infested with the gipsy moth. It is apparent that the limits of infestation cannot be reached during the present fiscal year. The greatest spread from the center of infestation seems to be in a northeasterly direction.

Two McCormack-Deering tractors were recently secured from the corn borer project and transferred to the Barrier-Zone area. One of these machines will be used in northwestern Connecticut end the other in southwestern Massachusetts to assist theheavy sprayer trucks to spraying set-ups over rough roads and trails in the mountainous regions in order that infestations located there may be sprayed. Some of the roads and trails are in such poor condition that it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to move these heavy sprayer trucks to the set-ups under their own power.

In the Barrier.. Zone, weather was not particularly favorable for scouting during the first part of April. Also, o,ing to the fact that the frost was coming out of the ground, some of the dirt roads have been practically impassable for automobile travel.

The ortablo weather stations were moved during the last part of April from storage at Greenfield to points in or adjacent to the Barrier Zone, namely, Westfield, Mass., Rutland, Vt., and Berlin and Mlilan, N. Y. These stations are operated in cooperation with the New York Conservation Department each year for the purpose of obtaining records of temperature, velocity, and direction of wind to determine the amount of favorable conditions for wind dispersion of the small gipsy moth caterpillars. These stations will be in operation until after the first of June. Records are also kept during this period by a number of employees of this project of the hatching of gipsy moth egg clusters in various parts of New England. This work is done' in addition to their regular duties. These hatching records are used later in connection with studies of favorable wind dispersion hours which are obtained from the four stations and with the records obtained from other weather bureau stations. Up to M .y 1 no hatching of gipsy moth egg





-21


clusters h,,id b(, in 175 w 7-n-!_,tnd. In tht R, nnsylvania arEa one
Eipsy moth cluster r found hatchir- on kpi-J I le, Up to t'-pril 27 not
nore than five ejZF clustei-s had bc, ,-n f )U.nd h itching ana they were all deposited
14
in she vered placeS favorai le for early oatchin 7,

Owint.: to labor trouhl.e3 t1ne L;hir! ,e:i-t f-)f --anite from tho Parre Vt.
,ractically at r, I- (,ur
stanrls jil iw7, rril.
district hols been 7) U V 1:ers in the
various auarries ; .nd 1. nufacturinf, ,l -Ints j jj and ',bntrc;li(7;r "ave bc%(-,n
on stril-o for ov 'I.r a ro i" sli -t activi :, a, a f( w
places, thc;re. is so jittl,, k-einf; rl,,. ne 11",,at almcsl-l n, t L S 1-(" iliv s ipped out. Attenmt-s are beijj, rZrje -t tr, ir--,,ten cut- t'he L _r 11i f i'i cult ies
but thus fa-- with very little success.

Occasione.1-ly in er.-,,r,-7 ncies, the ilisnectors P?,arin;i cel-tify shi-pment-s --:h-_ Ich .,ay nc ,t b, f-oin,- olit oidE tl-o cuarantin ,c ,i-e -, -r. -the
firs-, step of tf-,,,j_ ri
OVE'!' M 1) u r -'-he recc 1-0 flo'_ (L r 1 C, d s i n 71n,-1,- nd
the inspector in t'--.e T as s district exa_- :L.ed .n L 1 30
4 4
carloads o' grc- u t ; t h at i s wa s -1-0 n ,, V by on, f the,
T. TT
to Concord, Llt',,ou, _,,h th UJI
e first -,%T;s 7, L i e r e
point of origiii, the rail oCd a-, ,,)Iio6. for ins- )ecti )n, as it :n U -L t
some of the2e cars would have t!i rushed t,.) 1.1.r!:,_- pc.',ints ,)f the
generally inf D:--'Urc! area, and as sl-,--,:-,d they desire,' to bo protected so there be no d la-%r in -i(7-:in1,_1 ( is)

Wit h in i -e-.v and -:- Inp r a i ir I t V- 'L i 1-_j) ). "_ 7-1 s f J JU berries d&-,,s not o-p-oar t,,) h,-lVe gail le'd f-*t,1C!lr1q as -a!I o-e
the crop produce r), 1", here cor.6 s na 'P, 'a-c-1 -0 cc._u c t i on al s ici,,.ltivat ; or, i s pr a c t i c e r, in so e s c Ju- i on.,_-, n e e r c, I ov, -'-% u, -1i h I u -_ 11) r - 3 ar c produced in par'1-,*_cu_,,%r1_y for car,!,1131r .. As -fou., rc,- r)rds
go$ there is cne- plant ti,:;n ccf ou1. 1,- Ji-vat ed L-pr,1-,'v,%e.",. t7,-c-7 )f bl.u '--r-ies
1,)ca-'-ed -tt -!- U 7etts
.vitbin the quaraiitined arf a, 11-is -1 _L 1 11
Cranberr,7 EXI e-jn,.- .,nt Stati,7 n. Occasionall-f cutLin ,,s -.r., ta1:on fr, i e cultivat 3d bli_,',: b =y bo, to sectir_)11- )f
and these require

.Zrom a re-ocrt r )cf ived it- il- ev-ide*:,, ,, thla7 of blueberri ,s may b(--: -: practiced cor,.-m ]Irciall,- in: (.'-1,,or s-,ctirn ; of t1lt cunir- T, Is recently 'Uherc an insp ,c-,.ion ( f 100 blu(--;1D,:rry ttj (, shipped to a poinl', outside of t1,Le cjuarantined rera. -or-3 f-= 2 -to
4 feet high ar ). -r re 0.u,,,!- vi!Cls -i-'61, Ei all ,f (,L*ji-*h the
S,.,me (c-'- those bal:1, )f earth qu-te t'- I n. r ,
about 2 1 foet square. Part ici.Tlarly ,,;a,-". n-c--,-.- ,s the
bushes 7jer all obtai-ned fr,,,r- '-!,.nd V 1-1i C' 0 S1
bility th ;t- -the-- 'oo L-fr--te 7

As i -, 1,,*, t
th- prircip:il cra-iberr-- r, 3 2a s
are dc.vc,'Ged o.L' this b1n:mj* T]i.( -1. c i
heavily infe,7t- d 7,-.,ith t*a(-,; i _- I : (- 1 o a 1)
peradthat so,.,e of t1)-ese- ifl-" , t*!A, i-no 1 cat;ad -,o crai-iberry bo? s. Tii --ast ai:--rous luave 1
t, 'n "Cle f C"'n:.-idcrable






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injury to cranberry vines by -the feeding of gipsy moth larvae which have spread to the bogs from adjoining infested woodlands. During certain seasons of the year numerous inspections of cranberry-vine cuttings have to be made as these are shipped to cranberry growing sections in New Jersey, Wisconsin, Washington, and a few other States. The rooted vines are not shipped as a general thing, although occasionally a few are sent in a small order. Usually the vines are mowed off close to the ground, raked up, and packed solidly in cases, crates, or barrels. A- very large number of these cuttings can be placed in each container and if the shipment is of any size the inspection work takes a considerable amount of time as each individual cutting has to be handled and looked over carefully to be certain that it is free from infestation. The cuttings are used to nmake new bogs in other States, or they may be from varieties which other cranberry growing sections do not 'possess and are desired for trial and possible introduction.

Klessrs. Burgess and Crossman attended a conference in the office of the Bureau in Washington and at the National 1Museum on April 6 relative to plans concerning the use of unemployment funds for carrying on gipsy moth work east of the Barrier Zone*

A report received from the New Jersey gipsy moth office indicates that approximately 100 egEg clusters had been found rnd destroyed to the end of April at the infestation discovered in M1 endh am Township early in April. According to the report, approximately 2 acres of 17oodland are infested. It is believed by the State official in charge that the outside limits of infestaStion have been reached. PractlCally all the eg, clusters discovered to date were deposited under rocks and in crevices of the ledges. This area will be
thoroughly sprayed in June.
During the month a large quantity of supplies and equipment was received at and transferred from the Greenfield, Mass., storehouse. Sixteen tons of arsenate of lead, 29 barrels of fish oil, and miscellaneous supplies such as barbed wire, reels, and tools were delivered to various points in the Barrier Zone. Forty thousand feet of 1-inch spray hose was shipped by freight to the heavily infested gipsy moth area in Pennsylvania for the spraying work this season. Approximately 30,000 feet additional hose will be shipped to Pennsylvania early in vay. Preliminary arrangements have been under way in the preparation of material for the assembling cages which are distributed each siuer in various towns in New England and New Jersey. In connection with this work, a considerable amount of time has been spent in washing, sorting, and packing about 10",000 4-ounce bottles and copper cans in which the attrahent for use in assembling cages is stored.