NE WS LETTER
BUREAU OF PLANT QUARANTINE'
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
"" TATL PLANT -(A ...
Number 28 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) April 1, 1933.
CENTURY OF PROGRESS EXHIBIT AT CHICAGO
-The Bureau is. now preparing a contribution to the Century of
Progress Exposition to be held in Chicago during the period June to September. This contribution will form a part of the Departmental exhibit which proposes tooillustrate the outstanding ways.in which the Department is of service to the countryl The Bureau sectio6 wII'tale the form of an open booth. On the side walls of the booth the methods used in combating Mediterranean fruit fly and pink bollworm will be portrayed. Eradication of the fruit fly will be.pictured by a succession of lights indicating the increase of infestation in early months followed by decrease as eradication methods became effective. Featured in the pink bollworm exhibit will be the "electrical inspector'.' and the mechanical device for sorting pink bollworms out of gin trash. On the rear wall of the booth methods employed in preventing spread of gipsy moth and Japanese beetle will be presented, topped by a moving strip of pictured plaques, well lighted,'showing various means by which importations from abroad are kept free from pests.
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES
RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST
Fruit fly puparia on apples.--Two puparia of Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Mediterranean fruit fly) were intercepted at Providence, R. I., on two apples in baggage from Italy.
Mediterranean fruit fly from Europe.--Larvae of Ceratitis capitata
-ied. were taken at Philadelphia in oranges in stores from Italy and Spain.
Thrips on orchid.--Dichaetothrips williamsi Karny was intercepted at Honolulu on a leaf of Oncidium spolendidum in cargo from Guatemala.
J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., remarks as follows: "I believe this is the first time Dichaetothrips williamsi has been taken since it was described. This has been reported only from Guatemala."
Weevil in packing.--A living addiilt of -Brachyrhinus porcatus Hbst.
(Curculionidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia in soil and moss packing of yew cuttings in the mail from Germany.
Iris bulbs attacked by thrips.--Brgmatothrips iridis Watson was intercepted at Washington, D. C., on iris bulbs in cargo from the Netherlands. J. R. Watson states that apparently this insect feeds.on the bulbs. as well as on the growing part of the iris,
Spruce cones infested.--Larvae of Ernobius abietis Fabr. (Anobiidae) and an adult of Gastrodes abietis Linn. (Lygaeidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in spruce cones in the mail from Germany.
Weevil in radish.--Larvae of Ceutorhynchus sp. (Ourculionidae) were intercepted at New York in a radish in stores from Germany.
Thrips from Albania.--Haplothrips dianthinus Pr. was taken at Philadelphia on dried herbs in the mail from Albania. This -is-the first record of this thrips being intercepted by inspectors of the.Bureau of Plant Quarantine.
Hemipteron from Panama,.--Dinocoris tripterus Fabr. (Pentatomidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on bananas in cargo from Panama,
Peach twig borer from. Morocco.--A larva of Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Gelechiidae) was intercepted at Washington, D. C., in a bud on a peach tree in the-express from Marrakech, Morocco. This is a European species which has been widely distributed throughout the world. It has been present in this. country for many years. The work of the larva is similar to that of the-oriental fruit moth (Grapholitha molesta Busck).
Oak galls from Lithuania.--Living specimens of Diplolepis quercusfolii (L.) (Cynipidae) were found at San Francisco in oak galls in baggage from Lithuania,
Weevil in sugarcane.--Larvae of Diaprepes spengleri L. (Curculionidae) were taken in sugarcane in the field at Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Sugarcane pest.--A larva of Chilo loftini Dyar (Pyralidae) was taken
at Nogales, Ariz., in sugarcane in baggage from Bamoa, Sinaloa,.Mexico. This moth, which was originally described from this host in southern Arizona, is a major pest of sugarcane in western Mexico.
Spruce cone moth intercepted.--Larvae of Laspeyresia strobilella L. (Olethreutidae) were taken at Philadelphia in spruce cones in the mail from
Germany, The eggs of this moth are laid on the young green cones. The larvae breed in the cones,
RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST
Scab on cucumber.--Another interception of Cladosporium cucumerinum was received during the month, this one being an infected cucumber from St. Vincent, Lesser Antilles, sent in by Boston. (See last month's'News Letter, pp. 3, 4)
Galanthus disae from'DenMark;--A Galanthus bulb from Denmark intercepted at Detroit was found to be badly infected with Botrytis ghlanthina, the first interception of this disease from Denmark.
"Disdased Spanish orange.--An orange from Spain intercepted at Baltimore was submitted to the Bureau of Plant Industry for determination of the unusual disease. The determination came back "Septoria citri (?) or very losee" S, citri is reported to occur in Italy but apparently is not known to occur in other countries.
Botrytis interceptions increase again.--Last year it was noted that interceptions of Botrytis sp. increased markedly in March. (See page 5 of the News Letter for May 1, 1932.) This year interceptions of Botrytis sp. showed an increase beginning about the middle of January. There was 1 interception of Botrytis sp. on January 1, and no more until January 13. There were 9 interceptions of Botrytis sp. from January 13 to January 22, inclusive. In February there were 22 interceptions of this fungus, more than double the total for that month during all preceding years. These 22 interceptions came from various ports as follows: Boston (1), on onion from Holland; Charleston
(2), onion and carrot from Germany; Mobile (1), turnip from England; Nogales
(1), green pepper from Mexico; Norfolk (3), cabbage from England and onion from Holland and Italy;.Philadelphia (14), yam from Cuba, brussels sprouts and cabbage fromni Denmark, cabbage (3), carrot (2), parsnip, potato, and rutabaga from England, banana leaf from Mexico, cabbage from Spain, and carrot from 'Sweden.
Nematode intercentions.--Among the nematode interceptions determined during the month was one of Tylenchus pratensis in potatoes from Spain, the first interception of this parasite from that country. This interception was made at Seattle but was followed in a few days by similar material from Baltimore. Parasitic nematode interceptions by ports were as follows: Baltimore
(4), Aphelenchoides parietinus in singer from Japan, Tylenchus dipsaci in potato and in carrot from Sweden, and Tylenchus pratensis in potato from Spain; New Orleans (1), T.. di-saci in potato from Germany; Norfolk (2), T. dipsaci in potato from Germany and from Holland; Philadelphia (5), Anhelenchoides parietinus in ginger from Japan, A. narietinus, Aphelenchus avenae, T, dipsaci (as well as Spondylocladium atrovirens, Fusarium. sp. and secondary organisms) all in one potato interception from Germany, T. dipsaci in lily of the valley and in potato from Germany, and in onion from iHorway: Seattle (1) Tylenchus
pratensis in potato from Spain.
Mildew'of green peas. -A c6isi.'ibe 'huibe~ fo--shipments of green
noeas coming through Nogales from Mexico have been found to be infected with :Erysiphe polyii.n _-Although this: mildew is rather wideszprga& 'j;fl its distribution and-is common'on green peas .in this country' unde,fa-vorable conditions, this- *is the first time it has been Intercept6d dxn this.2ihsti andy-the first time from Mexico. The same fungus was found on string b qans coming through El Paso.
FEBRUARY INECE3ON Y PORTS
Interceptions received in Washington during February were as follows:, Baltimore 22, Blaine 4f; Bosto-n'15)4, Brownsvflle-.ll, Buffalo l,.Calexico 5, Charleston.28, Corpus Christi ill,- De trot 10, Douglas 89, Eagle Pass l14,- El Paso SO, Galveston 3-, Hidalgo 1l, Laredo 7 Mobile 38, Naco .4, New 'Orl'eans 3)4, New York 212, Nogales 212, Norfolk 69,TPhilaidelphialil9, Port -Atl-ur )4, Presidio 2, Rio Grande City 1, San Juan 173; San Ysidro 3, Savannah -4, Seattle 20, St. Paul 2, ari.d Ysleta 2. Of the total of 1259 interceptions, 761 were of insects 'an d 497:of 'diseases. .It will be rioted that in Spite of the shorter month 'interceptions showed an increase'over, the number for January.
DISEASE FUNGI F'OUN~D ONRICE STRAWV PACKING
About 15 to 18 sheafs of rice straw were received at tbe Inspection House on January..4, 1933,) as packing in a shipment of, Castanea seeds tnrmported by the Department an orgiatn in Shntn Prvn6 Qhina. Many
blighted panlc1-s were f o-a d with the shriveled grain oi un~filled'lemmas adhering. A carefT.11 examination of a few of these panicles..,revealed the presence of the f oilow ir g un-7iPhoma ~Ir~rmEll & Tracy JDescribed from U. S.
Phyllo.:ticta glurn,-arun (il 1 Tracy), M-4yake.
HeL n ~t1usporlun oryzae 'Van Breda de Haan. Present in U. S.
Phae o rbharria oryzae Miyake. Not reported in U. S.
DIoi. ,ryzae li~ake. Not reported in U. 'SO
Rob-iVL.A-rq-Ua cavarae-Togniii. Not -previously- reported Qn rice.
The notes on the presen~qqeor absence of 'thrEe uhngi it, the United
-Statqs are based. cif4o4 :e, ot h~.ofte~gio ot
.irica anL U ,Y bua 1l ti~c 1 aLKJ -'o,11 the' 46tr! l.a suitable
fqr hev,*tWJ.L,.-,i* .Crch, <'m IF,- c i-to t-1-1,jr.-o7 variouz f un'. i on single
lemrmas- I o+Iii' 4ou I eric c~~h~ !~ne~~r by '11r Shear.
J. A, Stevenson has, exam .nelib-Vme ---n n Phaeosphaeria
SHIDING THEM FROM THE INSPECTOR
(From letter from Paul Thomas, Collaborator at Jacksonville, Fla.)
Frequently in the inspection of foreign mails with the customs inspector we find plants and plant products concealed in bundles of newspapers. The plants or plant products are placed on the inside of a bundle of newspapers and are then tightly rolled into a bundle giving the appearance of 'being only a bundle of old .newspapers. Bands .are* placed around these bundles with the address of the party to whom they are going and unless an inspector is rather curious would probably be passed without inspection. Interceptions of this kind are rather frequent from Cuba :nd the West Indies. We are very fortunate at Jacksonville in having a customs inspector who is very much interested in our work and it is largely through his efforts that we are able to make this particular kind of -interceptions.
DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES
A number of modifications- have been made recently in the embargoes relating to the European corn borer which were formerly placed by several Western and Southern States. A summary of the regulations of all the various States with reference to this pest has been issued by this Bureau (BPQ 346, revised March 16, 1933)o
WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST
Permits to saip 5-leafed pines from the blister-rust infected States have been issued to 11 nurserymen. The permits provide, in many instances, for movement into other infected States, and in other instances, for movement into all States except seven Western and Southwestern pine-growing States in which the blister rust has ,not'been found.
NARCISSUS BULB PESTS
Conferences were held on March 4, March 6, and March 7,. at Sacramento, Calif. ; Portland, Oreg., and Seattle, Wash., respectively, at which growers, State Inspectors, and representatives of this Bureau discussed various details connected with narcissus inspection.
DATE SCALE ERADICATION
Two infested- pa1ms 'wdre-foundin the Irbperial Valley during the month of February. One, a date palm, was discovered on an abandoned subdivision. This plantingwai ffrst dfid6infeste'd in'July 1931.' i -tht'-time the palms were bushy and overgrown with weeds and brush, making inspection difficult. .The planting has been prine and the growth around'th nm l t down so that inspections effective. The other wasa anary IslIhd palm growing near a planting 'of seedling~ 'dates -found infsted in Jul~ l930. This' alm was probably lightly- infested at that time ad 6veriodked. The a nary n Intalms are more difficult to ilispect becausK the fronds 're- siffe 'than those of the date aid cannot ~e manipulated so easily to look at both sides-fom different angles. The infestation 6 this palm, alth6ghh eavy, as do.fined almost entirely to two or three leaves. 2
In tne Ihelle Vallky intensive indpecilon o previusfy infested palms was begun. Most infeted landingss were discover rd beforee therd was much spread and consequently there are a comparatively small number of palms that have been treated. The-standard-treatment consisted in defoliating the palm and running the flame of a gasoline torch over the trunk aid leaf stubs. The bases of the leaves are large and succjqulent, and about l1 inches are protected by several ba so'f:be.r. :-T2 heat:of the torch does not penetrate this fiber, and should there be scales beneath it, they often survive. The unexposed portion of the leaf-base .al'so rendains alive, often several years after treatment. There is some danger of the scale developing on the leaf'-bses of "th6 infested Trnds removed and reaching the foliage of the palm, 'tu.t this dimiishes as A ases dik back' The-'greate'st danger is 'th development of offhootS or suckers from the infested'area;which fur'ith folia'ge for the infestat ion and a chance to -spread to nearby palms '
The individual infested palms are being inspected and where thought
necessary the fiber and leaf-bse e are' emoved, In some cases the bases are
cut back to live tissue, leaving solid bases which may be used for a foothold in pollehatinhg. 'g In some cases 'permission is given' to dig the palms out, which i uha'lly easier than trunk pruning.
JAPANIESE BEETLE AD EUROPEAN CORN BORER
'Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work:
Labor-saving devices' design'ed'and constructeda'by mechanics empli'yed in the maintenance division at South Norwalk are proving of considerable assistance in the numerous operations required to renovate Japanese beetle traps purchased prior to 1932. Several of the operations involve straightening the funnels and riveting them to the baffles. Straightening of the rolled edge
at the top of the funnel is accomplished after paint inside the funnel has
been removed. Usually the baffle, which in most cases has been soldered to the funnel during manufacture, is removed. Many of the baffles so soldered become separated after a few seasons' use of the traps, while'others become so loosened as to be easily removed. The machine used in straightening the rolled edge of the cone is composed of a die made from a circular piece of steel containing a bead on the inside edge. Above the die is poised a hollow cylinder punch which has a groove cut in its faco to match the bead in the die. 'The hollowness of the punch permits the operation to be performed even with the baffle attached to the funnel. By means of a rack and pinion driven by a hand wheel, the punch is forced down upon the funnel, thus restoring a uniform rolled edge. The downward force and speed of- the punch is such' as'to cause it to sharply rebound to its highest position, where the hand wheel is locked in position until the next funnel. is inserted and the wheel again revolved. In preparing the separated, paint-free baffles for
riveting to the straightened cones, a foot-operated punch and die press is rigged to cut a V-shaped notch three sixteenths of aiin inch wide and five
sixteenths of 'an inch deep at a point three eights of an inch from the bottom corner of the baffle widg. This operation is repeated on each of the four wings of the baffle. Baffles thus cut, are then placed on a ring and disc 'device" which twists t1he small corners 'of the baffle wings below the V-shaped notch into a position exactly to conform to the angle of 'the funnel to which the corners are to be riveted. This latter machine consists of a rigidly mounted ring in which is fitted a movable disc. The inner face of the ring and the face of the disc are angled similarly to the funnels into which the baffles will be inserted. The upper surface of the disc is also at an exact depth below the upper face of the ring. Four bars machined on the upper s'Urface of the disc are spaced to permit insertion of the notched baffles. Slots in the ring opposite each bar permit the straight, baffle corners to enter. Pressure on a foot pedal causes the disc to revolve about 2 inches, As the portions of the baffle below the V-shaped slots move from the slots in the ring, l1ps are bent to the angle of the funnel. Additional slots in the ring permit easy removal of the lipped baffle. Baffles bent in this manner are then assembled with straightened funnels, and the combinations move to a foot-operated punch press'for punching of a 1/'-inch hole through the bent lip and the funnel. In constructing a press for this purpose, it was necessary to remove part of the die bed to allow space for the baffles to come near enough to the line of travel of the punch bar. A 12inch steel bar was rigidly fastened to the press frame to act as a support for the funnel and holder for the die. An L-shaped bar bolted to the punch bar extends the punch out in line with the die.' In operation, the funnel and baffle assembly are slipped over the die until -the rolled edge df the funnel strikes a stop bar bolted on' the funnel 'support." This places the metal lip over the die. Operation of the foo% pedal then pierces a hole through both baffle lip and funnel. The finishing operation with the baffle-funnel assembly is performed on a specially made riveting machine,' the punch and funnel support of which have been altered similarly to the press used in piercing the holes. 'Rivets are fed through a hopTer to a hand-revolved drum; from
which they feed to-,a track which inverts them and emptTes,them into a: tube, which in turn delivers the- bQttom rivet to-a- elideI Atthe qomp etion of each riveting operation the slide: is pushed :forward -so that the rivet is in a position under the punch.- The baffle and-.funnel ,combipation-.-is hen placed onsthe, support bar- so that the inverted -rivetlisinsarted-,throug the -hole in the funnel and lip of the baffle. A %fQrward push on .thp foot -pedal causes
the rivet slide to ,return to position.and the punch todrop. and hea the rive SEach of the four lips is thus riveted to the funnel., The asse~blesare then ready for-painting. : i
Two machines have also been constructed to facilitate the btting of correct lqngths of wicksfor the bait jars and for filling-the jar' with the correct quantity of liquid bait. Before the lengths of -wick are' it, corks through which a .--inch hole has been bored are strung on a 25-yard"length of soft cotton wick. With the knife in the upright position, one cork-is fed through and set in a slQt which hold.4~ it while the wick is pulled through to a stop block. A push on the foot pe4al., and the knife is brought down in a forward shearing motion, cutting off a 5-inch length of wick. or the purpose of filling the small 1Lg-ounce glass jars with exactly 30 cc q geranioleugenol bait, a dispensing valve was devised. The essential portion of the apparatus is a solid bras- cylinder, on opposite radii of which 1.AnclT holes were bored and the entire :cylinder cut off at a length-which left pach of the 1-inch holes with a cubical content :equal to that of 30 cc of the -iquild. This cylinder is inserted in a shell, and close-fitting top and bottom plates are fastened with screws to the .shel,. .Through a hole in the center of the top is inserted a crank for revolving the.cylinder. An entrance for a feed .tube leading from an inverted. 5-gallon can -s also bored in the radius of the top plate to correspond in position with-either of the holes in the cylinder. On an exactly oppOsite radius :of the bottom plate is bore-d a hole into which a drain pipe is pressed. Immediately above this. on the. top. plate is a' small hol, to act as an air vent. A shut-off valve on theasupply ican iso cla'sed when the apparat us is not in use. The cylinder is vertically mounted. A
-turn of the crank brings one of the .cylinder holes beneath the feed Sie, thus filling it with:liquid bait. Air- displaced by the liquid bubbles up into the supply tank. A half turn of,. the crank brings the measured 30 cc of
-bait over the ,drain pipe and the liquid empties into a glass jar placed beneath;,. The jar.r ests on a. perforated drain so that-, any drip while changing jars may be collected in a pan beneath the table. Simultaneous with the emptying operation, ,the opposite hollow cylinder is filling with the -bait, so that bait bottles.may, be fillQd, s quckly as they ca be ,f illed wi th liquid, removed, and an-empty bottle placed under the drain, The filled .bottles are then tightly covered with tin screw caps and are ready for packing. The final device constructed for-facilitating the work with, the trap equipment is a drill and, temleate table. Coyers.for wooden boxes in which will be shipped to distant points thw project 's 56,000 trapa are interchangeable. These covers will be fastened to the boxes by meant- of-three screws through each of the end cleats. The drill and template arrangement is for the purpose of boring holes for these screws. Two drill presses are lined up
opposite one another and* are belted 'together so that they may-both be 'Dowered by a one-third hp el~ectriic motor. 'Feed levers' were .removed and pulleys shstiiuted. Around each pulle r is placed two' turns .of flexible cable, one ena fastened to thee *Pulley and the, other to a f oot pedal. 'Another" flexIb'le cable is similarly fastened t.o. the pulley but in re~rerse oirde'r nd: the ther' nd'attached, to a spring,, Thq wooden box top to7 be 'a 1 :r 1: ~is id: under *steel templates beneath.-Ieach d rill both templates beIhig tt a6id d, to asliaing carriage. 'Ofpo~ite. templates.,for the -holes at etth 4r6iend of 1the box tops ,rbovig~at u.nder. the drills by sliding the carri~.ga h.. fitad back. stows. Ter letempolate must be pushed under th~e diill*by the pqrato ,r without .any s to p blo*0ckc. In~ech..case, whqn-the drXls &red rectly aovb'the templates, pressure QA~ the foot pedal lowers
both ~ ~ ~ ~~1 1.'11 .t a n~om4phTe pressure on the -pcdal is removed, the'singq.ca-dse the drills to raise so that thae carriage -may be. moved to aniotlir' positidn or' the box top removed after the three..holeas have teeqn bored.
Upon request of the floral decorator in charge of supplying plants fbr-#6bsels' of the G'race'L.ne, th e.New York City off ic e o n -February 15 c~rtlfie&d 235 potted: plants wh~ch were fued~or decorative, purposes in the p~lm.court 'and- c-.ub room of>the S.' S.' "Santa. Lucia" ,on. the ship's mnaiden vbybge'on' Feb ruary 19 eni rokite* from ,New York, to. Havana, Pana-:ma, San Franciid6, and Seattle. '.The "~Santa-'Lucial 'is Identical with three. other-,ships recei-tJy' bomplete'd by the Gra ce' Lin Ithe, "Santa )Rosa, 111Santa Paula,,"- and RS6 nta 2ldnia. '.'The'voyg out, of the. lat ter ship will occur in April.,
*Th@ 'our new, "Santa& steamships a re the first Ame rlcan-vessels to. have all outeidb statefo'om's with private baths* Planits cprtified-for use on the "Sant& Ludiali were grown' inIcertifi d gree houses. Certification without tredtmdht wag'thei'"efore permissibl e. -English ivyAae nia au
ret'ndezis)!**rench'heAther, palms, and ferns comprised the plants certified. Since the round trip from New York to Seattle'occupies six weeks, considerable renewing of decorative plants is necessary on the return trip of each sf. En~ route the plant's are subject to a clim~atic change of from. zero to tropical temperat-ures, *hich results in thq. death, of. some of the species.
* tse',b -'ome" 'or the passengers~ of -thie f lowdr 'oxes and pots 'as rece-ptacles f or-cgan.t'&tts-fi 'iga'ette ashes 'als'd adds to plant mortality. Necessity fbr -obtainingJapai~ds'e beetle certification for plants transported -on coastwlse ships touching dornistic ports' outside the regulated area was f orcefully brbuglit to the at-tentio'n of s6teaLmship 'officials-recently when a State quar .ntine inspector i*n San Fran'ci'sco requi ,red the. captain of another vessel .otrow v' b6ard soechrysanherui plants, 'vhich'aparently were transported to that port in violation of California's embargo against host-Tdlants from formerly quarantined European cor'n b~orer infested,.territory.
Geranidl and'ueln quantities'. suf ficient for, t)e summeqrlstrp
*p1ing requirement 'Were 're'e**fved at 'the-South Norwalk headquarters -early. In 'Feb ruary. ,B ids e pent' *n W7ashingfon on December 2 1932, f or 2, 330 bounds of gerani-ol and 233- nouns of eugenol. Each bidder was reurdt
submit 3-ounce samples of the 'chemicals they priposed-'to supply, 'Sdven samp1L!s of geraniol were analyzed by--VF.' W. M,6tz'gei', 6t the Bureau 'of Entornblogy* labo rat ory,,'Yoo rest own, IT. :J.,, for. specific graeV'ity, 'prtse'nce of aldehydes, -and.'solubility in alcohol. Mr. Matzgir alti-made oifa'dtory tests, ..ince odor is ai imnroortant c'ongi-de ratioti in de-termining the va-lue of .the thomical as a beetle attrahlent. Only after considerable ex-oerience in handling.geraniol in large -quantities .ma'y the 'pnroner~ od6'tl'be. r ea.i'.ly ide~itif iddf rom dif ferent samiples. Dr.. P.'A,. van -de-r Yeulin'. of Rutgers -Un~.ve-rty,
determined the' optical rotation's 'of the samples. Oth er Ispecif 1cationig, in the bid require a certain boil',ng range,- total alcohols' -is gerdfniol,, and residue after distI'llation. Bids on ge'raniol'"ranged- from $l'#4d to .-$1.6)4 per pound. The sample. submitted by -the lowest h-idder did. not* coiiforif Vo sei fications with respect to odor. The next .lowest was, deficient in the. optical rotation requirement. The award was mae, to the third lo*.est bidder -whose
-product-, quoted at $,49' per. pound, met all requirements. .. ids for eugenol J.S.P. ranged from $1.40 to $1,55 pet~ pounds The award for this &hdmical was
made to the lowest bidder.
Interviews with cut' flower dealers and: operators of fruit and getable commission houses in Cumberland,'Yld., disclosed that th ere are four produce' houzxes in-the dit4 that' -supply farm 'products to towns in adjacent nonregulated territory in 7Maryland. and-West Virginia.~ There-ar-e also a number offlorist shops which make p Lr-el-pos.t shipments of cu flowers'to
points .outsidpv. the re~ulatea section-, Since Cumnberland and. vicinity comprise a,semi-isolated infested. zone in western Mdiryland, it m~ay be' ncessar ''to
stationan inspector in that locality duriig the -seasondi quarantine on cut flowers and- -,ertain fruits and&'.vegetdblesi.. Several nuarse'ry'and greenouse establishments in Cumberland have arranged to'acquire classification.' Visits to establishments, in Aiinapolis and ether: newly regulated territory on-the eastern shore of 1,,.arylAnd have also resulted in tie. addition of a nuniber of dealers to -tha ',classified list..
'Estimaites' of cost of 'applying an attractivee, poisonous spray to' shade arnd ornamental trees in Laurels' Clate a"Elkton, Md.'Wr ae n~bu
ary:16;, 17, and 1'S by Pr, G., S.- Langfdrd, of the -Marylanid kgrliult.ral Experiment Station, Colle-ge Park- and W. F.' Wi.lsh,,'of* the 'Oakmnh, Pa. district Japanese beetle qu'arantine he~Adquarters. A survey on these dates 'to s ecuretrce counts and spx~aying estimates was pi~rf@.rmed at the request-of Director ~IB., Symons, of *the M aryland Extensi'on Service,- and Dr. E, N., Cory, S tate Entomologist. Mai'yland- authorities have under'-oonside ration a -cmaign of suppression. somewhat similar to that staged by'the B'ureau 'last summer in Zrie, Pa.:
At the.-request of County Agricultural Agent Ward of Onondaga County, NS., Y., J4, H., Harman,' in charge of the nearly' established quarantine office at Syracuse, on Fe~bruAry 6 de'Sc-rib&e. the Japanese beetle quarantine lind-'qautro1 activities to, thas.Onondaga. County V&ekbtable Gr o7'rsf Association at' a- meeting held in Syracuse.:., Among the facts elicited in the discussion following
Mrv Harman's talk, it was learned that considerable bagged sweet corn is trucked from Onondaga County to points in nonregulated territory, particularly to Rochester and Watertown. Large quantities of flats containing aster, snapdragon, and other floweringplants catbbage~, tomato, and pepper plants also move to noninfested sections from the Syracuse district. These quarantined articles will require certification under the Japanese beetle regulations.
Officers of the Federal Business Association of Pittsburgh, Pa., made a .sur.Yy. and report: on the availability of space at Greensburg, Pa., for use by this Bureau. Ore spae' c 'e obtained in the Post Office'without charge,
and garage space for.the storage of motor vehicles may be had within four city blocks of the Post Office.
Further conference was had at South Norwalk on February 7 with Messrs. W. A. Mctubbin, of the Washington headquarters, and A. F. Burgess and S. S. Crossman, of the gipsy moth project, in consideration of plans for the gipsy moth'and Japanese beetle exhibits at the Chicago Century of Progress Exhibitionr Tentative sketches of the proposed exhibits have been prepared and furnished to Mr. McCubbin, who is systematizing and coordinating the displays for the various units of the Bureau.
Japanese beetle bait is advertised in the scoring and summer 1933 catalogue of one of the national mail order houses. The description of the bait states that it is "Effective in combating one of the most destructive oests, ..the Japanese beetle." Directions for using the bait are enclosed with each package., The bait is sold in quantities of approximately 21, 6, and 14 ounces, at, 210, 390, and 694, respectively.
Effective February 1, 1933, 0. KX. Courtney,-who has been associated with Japanese beetle trapping activities- since April 1929, was transferred to transit inspection work with headquarters at Philadelphia, Pa.
Secialized Corn Borer Activities
The survey of shippers of cut flowers or entire plants of chrysanthemum,
aster .dahlia, or gladilus in the formerly regulated European corn borer infested territory continued during the month with 22 men scattered throughout the 13 States affected. Uncertainty as to the season's volume of business made it difficult to obtain frim many of the dealers definite information as to the number of shipments of the articles mentioned that would move to the States of Arizona, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Oregon, and Colorado. These States under'their European corn borer embargoes permit the entry of restricted articles only under Federal inspection. At the completion of the present survey, territories in which the volume of Federal inspection is sufficient to warrant the assignment of an inspector will be mapped out and the inspection service thus organized on the basis of actual requirements.
MP ICAN. FRUIT,)FLY
No' sp6dir'nen's '6f the. Iaeiicifi fruit f ,ywei e tak-ea otn...the Am6rlq -side 'of th d '61 uring I le 'ruqry,. Of .6pni31-derable, Int.erestt,_. owever.,,-was,
th, 'a"ture in a:. t a.sLt.re tina..:..: Th .p,-- specier.-., of
rap dt an-odA 't An' "SA
f ruit f ly' coftumo*nly f66dS on sapofes"..in Mexico. So far as is imo w*n t is'is thefirst of th z sneciep, r;ver takea.,in the,,aontinent&l. United 'States, ors rp the m1pnth
ergies c the',ins* ct re dey
ated. largely during
to 'cohtatting' the kr dwers' dhd4rging the rpipi4l of any sca ering.-,fruAt remainihg i n 't he 'grove's and of*the off-bloo fi It. Practically all--g;,qvjVa had some of this-latter fruit, and many had a kull crop o October and Xovember bloom. The _r s7.)onse of in removAng, this. fruit, was excellent.
Na tural 1-7 146 r e. spTe who;,()bje'ot6a q,4ite, strenuously to the remoya .'of
-fruit and othb 's'wanted an 6xtelnsion tQ allow t;to ripln,:
caIly all' had-removed the b'' month,.,.. Some few abs qjute ly
it' ,yt.e end ofth
re sed'to:take the fruit*6f:6.,.and More drasti.c,,measurqs.w1l,1 be necessary in
these cases aft6t t' h e oi3e ning. of ."the, hos't'-f re.e. period.
.L the'end of the
The commercial crop of fruit N7as well cleaned-un by
month. The movement of f ruit Ao market Tas -orderly th.rou ut February without Ah6 2ast minute rush t1i.at' h,6Ls-"oc6urr-ed 'in past years. -Th ,% v 4s -4uo,- I n .0me measure to he fo*reQdst of the ro t ServIce on -the,,7th that, the
0 t 1 1,
1. on, the n1jEZh.t of the th,
.'ature. would probably drop to, 15, or 'ZO. 9 As-... result ;Of warning 6very', vailible' ia *6) er :in'* the Valley. was,put
grovei': by the packers' and gr&rers h'a' iv'eis t I 'f ru it proximate ly,, R
Ag . .. Ala. 2.5. carloads were harvested on the 9th and qt1h.'. The tem-Perature went down*to only 290 for a short time and no.a-o-qreciab.le dam I ge:-to'e. .ther fruit,.-or trees re'D Ahe end 'of th6,,An* t ckerst-,v.Qre, reporting difficult-y eat i ng f ia t
A total of 47 master permits,.were-iss, Ie l,-,for the Interstate shipment of fruit by road-ve i'c'lle. The fr-dit c6v6'ed' by these permits, went to 19 States.
tr'*eei* 'w''e"re in'L f_4l'bjooni by the* end.,of February,,andi.ndiqatIoni.3.. pointed p of 'f i-ui t next s a' as,
to- e heaviest* cro.. e qoia, the VL 11 e ever Ci#bt 6-! 6 est imat os'.O*f 'the,". cro'py4ried f rom 12 ,000 o 2Q 000,ocars... -.E ye j ., t,,wo-,year0 id, t iee s, we*r,*e white wi b.10.0m*_* It wiii.'I ,e,.,im-oos.sib,,Ie,,,for--th.e.,, tr.ee.s.ct-o- -carry
th6" f ru t that is bein e IP C% 0q...
140- io ctil Infestdtioxis rere, f und'int X, atamo"*.ro-s,,during, February. Larvae Were 'taken-from imported'aiangoeis'.and' -5XrQm, ma o.es,,an.d 9,-f om
Mexican officialshaVe t'jgt. the, movement to
5a va S
b6iter'points vill-be prohibited riN, he coming. season.
The survey-of the.keys off :the coast of south Florida with the chartered.cabin cruiser was discontinued on February 13. During this pArt of the month the Ten Thousand Island group.was .covered; also that portion of the west coast beginning with East Cape on Cape Sable and ending with Cape Romano and Goodland Point. It is very gratifying to know that comparatively little cotton was found.on the keys in the Ten Thousand Island group. Most of the cotton found along that part of the west coast covered, occurs along the river banks on the mainland. A complete report on this survey is now being prepared. The keys on which cotton was found are being accurately located on U. S. Geodetic Coast Survey Charts,
.Mention was made in the last News Letter of the large amount of infested wild cotton in the Cape Sable district. The. removal of this cotton was begun on February 20. As this area was somewhat isolated it was necessary to secure laborers, transport them there, and make arrangements to house and feed them while the work is being done, These details were all worked out satisfac.torily, and at this time there is .a crew of some 50 laborers at 'work. The cottQn occurs along a marl prairie which varies in width from about 200 yards to one-half of a. mile. At the close of -the, month some 76- acres had been cleaned., and at this rate it was estimated that this particular strip would be completed within about six weeks. To complete the program in that section there, will then remain to: be cleaned the cotton growing along the. canals and some in two other locations.
S The recleaning of Key Largo, south of- the mainland, is progressing
satisfactorily, some, 7 acres having been gone over during the month. During this.. clean-up careful ,inspectionsare-being made to- see that no new, colonies are overlooked. In some cases it is necessary to cut trails through the dense hammock, the men staying about 25 to 50 -yards apart. As a resujt;tf this careful inspection several new colonies were discovered and the plants removed. The largest.of these new colonies-povered some 1- acres, and:contained approximately 4,000 mature and 1,000 seedling plants.
The recleaning on the west coast is also going forward-satisfactorily, some 60 acres having been recleaned ,andnew colonies. covering about 15 acres cleaned for the first time, In connection with this clean-up one inspector is using a small boat with an outboard motor to inspect keys lying just off the coast and also along the coast line where it is inaccessibleI by car. As a result of this scouting by boat six ne, colonies have been located covering an aggregate of some .10 acres.
S The daily collection and examination of blooms from cotton plots which were left at Chapman Field as a trap,whas been continued. The plants have been blooming quite profusely throughout the month, over 1;000 blooms being examined each week. The results were all negative during February. However, on March 3, a larva was found in one of the blooms. The last finding before
this was early in October.
A letter received from the Mexican Agricultural Inspector at Ojinagaj il.exido, iinder e t atetv VhaA, all of thb f ie ld -planted to
ddt of F-6bituaty 1 1.61 -s s,
:cdttdn havo now."beeri' cleanbd.,,.'A-' isi"W Vey "t'aAd"Af t*'.f V1116' 61-dari-'Ib .. W64 -',c 6 mp, 1 e t e d indicates -Chat it ioa carried thdrou e a 'so stated
t1i-p t "the 1-i7o'Id b6' 'glad to: doonera o, theit t'
6 V f 'C"j* dumsfiiic6s in
ce r ry i n -, out the- r6mai'nde r of the plans mdde f o i, the --kd 56 nd 'ar*eai' !'
'In 6;oniiectloft #i-th the '.B e nd bieari-Vo, a, raeAer unutua:l situation v!as -d:*is oVereA in, the Pres'idio tITO
.c A- 'f ld'of about
acre's* r hich-was n6t'-planted to' c6"tt6ri'--l st-4e, s6ri 'iras*'f 6und--t6- have considerable stub cotton on it, and also a number, o f--, blunteei seedl ings.'- Thi s gro ,vth was very scattered. About an hour's examination of b.ollso.from this
'field- re s ilted in thle f1riding of t 'reb larvq e, tiT6* 6T re*rb-' al.ive. This c in voluh' e' cc
i-e'ld','.hi' h i-a s 'the,",onl-,r -one f ou-fid- b c 6n ta te r tton: frotA the 1931. crot, ras immediately. cl6dn6d.
Three ho.tbedb have 'b -bn cbnstruc't e'cf, at' ?reei dl atton is to .'be grown. It till be' considerably i n d:va-ride of A6 rri in' -6ott7o:h -6r'op in the Bi' Bend, wil-1 Aato r 'be'
hd' trans-planted -t &I the ;f idld -a'nd'uied- '-as a' trap f or
moths' to de )osit thelt eggs. The bl6omii'wili tken- be "6olle*ct*e'd- & ily a nd destroyed The 'seed: have Already be6h plA hte 1n-tw61 o-f :the "beds and" 6ie 'coming v7,a to'a 'good tand'. -The ihird bed Is iiea.' i'ng c;ompl et ib n- and cottbn-will be planted-Irl',thit irb-ry*shortly.,'.'
The various regulatory activities have progressed as usual for this
season, ofthe" year.".'.I-n the 'Salt 'Rive ,Ar i' oha- the"'cot ton crop was s' bn*operdting
somewhat later -and. duringthe month zft6's-t of th gin -have, 76e steadily; hoi1,everj: most of them have notv.--t6mplotea th'd The
oil mills -throughout. the area* have.--also J'ust.-about corftpleteid'; the'-ctushing ,6f -seed.'' -There will be-a staill'.'axn6unt of actl,tity."dt the compresses throughout thb. spring.-andsummer months, as: some cottonig Alwdyt, 16ld to-kill'late shipping.orders.
Inspections for the Thurberia weevil were carried on in the Tucson area throughout,.the month:,howe rer no spedimeAs havei'.'beo- ftuhdAince the original.infestationrdported-in the la9t lewg Le t't e r. '.'A c d M3 i de i b 16, amount of bollie materizelhas been collect-edl and'the ifispectio'n ofthis material
Laboratory inspection at San,-Antoriio', Al-pind, -and 721, Pa'so Tex., and in the various Southern States in which men are-located, has Veen carried on during the month. At the El Paso laboratory cottonseed samples are being inspected, andgreen bolls or-bollii material at 'the other 'places. All re-sults, -during Februaryvrere negative.
PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS
The recent finding of two gipsy moth egg clusters on white birch fireplace wood recalls to mind that during the last four months a total of 36 gipsy.moth egg clusters have. been creosoted and removed from three different shipments of such material. The three shipments were made from the gipsy mQth quarantined area in Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, and were consigned to individuals in New York City and vicinity. The small white birch logs present an attractive appearance in modern fireplaces and are used more for their attractiveness than for fuel. In all cases the logs were shipped in bags or boxes. Two shipments were by express and one was by truck. The fact that the'wood is not immediately burned as ordinary fuel and that the egg clusters become broken and scattered in burlap bags or boxes which are
cast aside, presents considerable danger.
By the last of.the month there were some indications.of activity'in
nursery... shipments, and stock was being moved from some of-the nurseries, particularly in Connecticut where a large amount is in storage and can be packed and shipped before the frost leaves the ground.
The district inspector-of the Portland, Maine, district has inspected, certified4.under quarantine 45, and issued specially authorized permits for several of the shipments of poplar cuttings sent by the Oxford Paper Company of Fryeburg, Maine, from the experiment forest nursery at Roxbury in the same State. The poplars from which the'.cuttings were taken were developed at their experirmental.,nursery for the purpose of obtaining disease-resistant varietiess which would produce higher grade paper, and the cuttings are being sent for experimental purposes to various forest experiment stations and arboreta. As Roxbury is within the area quarantined on account of the satin moth it was necessary to obtain special permits authorizing shipment of these poplar cuttings.
The district inspector in the Manchester, Conn., district has reported that. one, of the large nurseries, located in his district has perfected a machine for packing the roots of roses and other shrubs individually in peat moss'to whrei pan food has been added. This method of packing was devised espe6 ially fc. a-,artment store trade, and it is claimed that the roots will be kept in sais-. ry condition for weeks, despite the dry atmosphere of stores where tbe .!.nts-are to be sold. It is not expected that' this method of pack~g w-;.l (,hanjge inspection methods, although there are possibilities that it may hava some bearing on other regulations where the removal of soil from plank is a xrequiremnt before shipping. -If this process is satisfactory, soil can be taken from the roots of Dlants, which can thten be repackcd wiith the mixture, thus overcoming objections which might be raised to the removal of the soil.
Although the four different types of materials requiring inspection and certification under the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth quarantine regulations
are defined as evergreen, forest, nursery, and quarry products, it is not generally realized how much they dovetail with each other as combined shipments. When evergreen products are mentioned one thinks only of Christmas trees, evergreen boughs, or mixed greens. However, in connection with Christ.mas trees alone we have every year an average of 300 cords of maple, birch, and.spruce lumber to inspect in the form of 14-foot car stakes that are fresh cut from nearby woodlands, with the bark left on. These stakes must.all be individually inspected before the cars are staked for loading. Operators sometimes include in carloads of Christmas tres a number of.balsa, spruce, or mountain ash trees dug with the .roots.to set- out as.nursery st.ck. The inspection of mixed greens, in addition to the greedy itself, cals for inspection b'of strips of birth bark and woo .,for making rustic baskets. Shipments of quarry products, in addition to th?.,tone or marble, include various types of car stakes, woqod for blocking, ad., eating. Nursery stock shipments sometimes include rustic fencing, bird housess., cedr posts, and fresh cut birch and oak wood, used for braces in packing cases of nursery stock. Also volcanic rocks are sometimes included in nursery stock shipments for rock garden material. So far as forest products are concerned, various types of materials are combined with nursery stock, evergreens, and quarry products, as already mentioned. .With the various combinations of.products intermingled in single shipments it would be difficult to name any one of the four types of materials as more dangerous than another, as gipsy moth egg clusters are found on all four products. It is the location in regard to-exposure to gipsy.moth infestation that makes t hem more or less dangerous,rather than the type of material itself. The recent findings of gipsy mo'th egg clusters on products in what is designated as the lightly infested quarantined area of Maine shows there is a gradual building up of gipsy moth infestation and the danger of quarantined products becomiAg infested is correspondingly greater.
During the month photographs were taken of white pines which were defoliated last summer in a reservation in the southeastern section of Massachusetts. In this reservation there are many acres of woodland which had an excellent stand of young white pine from 3 to 12 feet in height which had been encouraged during the last few years so that it would take the place of the
favorable hardwood food.plants of the gipsy moth as the latter are thinned out 'in developing a more 6ipsy-moth-resistant type of growth in this reservation. Much of this young stand of pine is already dead, and as the young.trees .have not been successful I refoliating, it is expected that a considerable number of them will not survive the coming summer. The result is that most of the care given in encouraging this young pine growth during the last few years has been lost by a single defoliation caused by the gipsy moth caterpillars last summer.
During the month a force of approximately 200 laborers was maintained in the Pennsylvania area, these men being furnished by the unemployment relief boards of Luzerne and Lackawanina Counties and paid by the Pennsylvania State Department of Agriculture. The majority of the laborers employed on clean-up work have had little or no previous experience in the use of axes,
scythes, and other field tools, and therefore require very close supervision) particularly the new group of men reporting for wor.c each week. Very good progress i's' being made in cutting and burning worthless brush, dead, and decayed trees, etc., in the heavily infested gipsy moth area. The Federal employees not engaged in supervising these laborers have been scouting in townships outside of the heavily -infested area.
During the month several employees of this project were bitten by dogs while scouting in the Pennsylvania area. These are practically the only ex.oeption' to the whole-hearted cooperation extended to our employees from all parties with, whom ihey have come in contact in the infested area.
Charles M., Emerson, a district quarantine inspector stationed at Hartford, Conn.,'was retired on January 31, 193, after having reached his 70th birthday. He is the first employee of this project to be retired on account ,,of age. ..Mr. Emerson -as first employed on the Federal gipsy moth project on November 1, 1911, but prior to that time he worked several years on the gipsy moth project of the Massachusetts-Department of Agriculture. Upon being employed on the Federal project he was first engaged in scouting work, but on November 25, 1912, he was transferred to quarantine and inspection work, and continued as quarantine inspector up to the time of his retirement.
Realizing that lighter spraying apparatus was desirable for treating infestations of the gipsy moth, particularly those located in inaccessible places, considerable time and thought has been given since the fiscal year 1925 to designing a demountable power take-off for installation on the chassis of light trucks which would make it possible for the motors of such trucks to develop high pump pressures for high pressure spraying work. In 1927 a patent was granted to A. F. Burgess on a demountable power take-off, which was successfully used for several years where pump pressures not exceeding 500 pounds were required. This power take-off was designed primarily for a planetary transmission type of truck not now being manufactured. Since that time a second demountable power take-off has been perfected which makes it possible for the motors of light trucks (approximately 2 tons capacity) to develop sprayer pump pressures up to 1,000 pounds per square inch. A patent was granted by the U. S. Patent Office to Messrs. A. F. Burgess, H. L. Blaisdell, and W.; H. Campbell on this power take-off on February 7, 1933. The invention covered by this patent may be used by or for the Government for Governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon.
Chassis formerly employed for spraying purposes were of heavy type in order to obtain the required engine power and had the transmission gear box mounted 1"amadah "i.e., at some distance to the rear of the engine. On these chazuis the power take-off is located on the drive shaft between engine and tranfm4sion ih order to provide a higher driving zpeee for thc power takeoff whe:- -lte truk -L moving forward at a lc*i poed, as In rotitude spraying. Spraying -q-ipment mouni;ed on these chassis is necessarily c1 o'some on account of the length of wheelbase and weight of chassis and is difficult to
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 09245 0898
hahdle- oi .'.the- pb6r roads*land t &Ijt f re que nt ly: -a neo'unt e re d iir f or-a -t* work.
ype : of chat i i t, wh-i h'- has zo e'tb btell'...Placed The high-poWer,'light, 6i&t t s 0 n y
--oh".th'a' ma ket 'makeelt Pdttib16'to. jp ovld*e Anich, lighter'-&hdmore e&tily handle d'eqiaipment for highw- -cret: sprayit 6 ,' thestnlatw Ch6tsis are all designed rith the tranftission- ear's 61otei up t"'theehgine, io-that it is impossible.tP attach a power take-off between engine and transmission.
A -simple f orm of 10ower. take; of f. can. on1y:'be,'&pplied:-to the -driv6 shaf t in .the rear.of the transmission. Solocated:the. -speed of -the tower., takii.,tff is necessarily extremely slow rhen.thetruok is-being1rivenatslow speed along theroad under its own porer4 at, in roadside.spraying.- High.;-power spraying machines used for both roadside and forest spraying or any otlier auxiliary apparatus the p6rrerand'speed req-t irements*of*.whichv;,Iry over a
wider rdngeithan.-can7be taken dare of by a'-single, speed drive -from, the power take-off require a-driv h iscapable of being'read0,,.t e--speed:
ily changed. 1he-combInation of the power.take-:.!off and counter-shaft drive, which ras designed and for rhich patent wAs.,granted provides such a drive
witho it introducing additional complio ,iti6ns-,in.-"eonstructioh.
-Light-weight high-power spraying machines equippedwith this power take-off are giving very satisfactory results.