NE W S. L E T T E R
BUREAU OF PLANT QuRA.NTINE
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
T ATE R4ANT 7)\R
Number 27 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) March 1. 1923.
Equipment for vacuum fumigation has been installed on the Mexican
border.at f6ur ports. This equipment- consists of a .standard vacuum cylinder of approximately 100 cubic feet capacity, together with a motor driven reciprocal pump of sufficient capacity to exhaust the cylinders in a reasonable.length of time. 'Ihstallations were made at Brownsville, Laredo, and El Paso, Tex., and Nogales, Ariz. They provide facilities for the vacuum fumigation of cotton samples, small lots of grain, and other products to which .this method of treatment is applicable. They can, of course, be used in- vacuaum fumigation with hydrocyanic acid, carbon bisulphide, ethylene oxide, and other gaseous fumigants. They also provide an excellent airtight fumigation chamber for atmospheric fumigation with various gaseous insecticides. It is believed that this equipment will greatly facilitate the handling of small lots of material which can be brought into this country if .treated so that there is no danger of its carrying dangerous insect pests. J..M. Luckie has installed and tested the equipment at all four ports.
The laboratory at White Horse, N. J., has begun sampling of the nursery plots to determine the amount of lead arsenate needed to bring the plots u.p to a lead arsenate content of 1,500 pounds in the first three acre-inches. It is expected that about 109 acres of nursery plots in which about threequarters of a million plants are growing will be sampled the present season.
FOM, I (T 2IN
RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST
Fruit fl in p ears.-Eight living larvae of Ceratitis c ~tata Wied. (Mediterranean truit fly) were intercepted at Philadelphia in three pears in the mail.,from Italy. One pupa of this fruit fly was also found in the paper
wrapper around a pear. When removed from the'fruit, the larvae exhibited the springing habit of this fruit fly, some larvae leaping about 6 inches into the air. One of the. inf'e'ted -pears was, apparently sound.
rit fly'in sweet lime.AAl~i -lav, of. Anastrepha ludens Loew
(orange maggot) was intercepted at-Lared.o, "Tex., a~we lime in baggage from Mexico.
Capdic~um-oods infested.--Fifteen trypeti& larvae were intercepted at Philadelphia in Oapsicum pods ,in itoies- from -India....
Pink bollworm from Transcauc~si': *..,A--larvao.fPectinophorta .moypella Saund. was intercepted at Washington, D. C., with cotto'nseod*-in 'the mail from Transcaucasia, Russia. The cottonseed showed evidence of infestation.
Valonia nut-s infested. galib~t~~landi-um (Giraud) (Cynipidae)
was intercepted at N'ew York in valonia nuts or acorns (Q uercus aegilops) in cargo 'fom rec .4Tky
I~mptro o baan.-Prajisnis -macuplatus Distant (Pera-atomidae) was intercep ted: at -Charl e'ston," S. C'. on banana in cargo' f rom Co sta .Ri ca.
Lea rn _rfom exc-4ylocnistis. sp.. (Lyonietiie CX a itr
pi~t ci ne at Nogales, Ari.,i a le6af of -Cgsja sp.in the -express from Sinaloa, 'Mexi'co.,
Th -ips f rom Tahiti .--Phbocothjrip0s_ sp-* was intercepted at- Honolulu
under* the' calyx ofa, coconu t ir cag rmahitl. J. R.'Watson, of Gaines.ville, Fla:., -comments on the specimen: a.s foll-ows:.. "ban :f in& no- description that Pi ts the s ingle. adu t i a this collection. 1 expect it -is an undescribed species.1
Grapholitba preferred to Ijaspeyresia.--GrajholihA. molesta Busek (oriental fruit moth) was'intei ceptedat'San-rancis co in a pear in ship's stores from Japan. ra-pholitha mole sta is preferre d to Laspeyresia molesta as the scientific name of. this insect.
Insect in sgil padkin,6 of bulbs.--A nymph~of Anisolabis marginalis
flohrn. (earwig) was intercepted at Bellingham, Wash.', in soil packing of lily bulbs in cargo from-Japan. hiarii not recorded from the continental
United State.s...Thrips on s-pruce stems.--Living specimens of Taeniothrips -.in.. (Uzel.) were interce-pt ,ed-at Phil adelphia on spruce. stems in the mail from Germany.' J. R. Watson reports that this thrips is not known to occ&z in the United States.
Le-pidopterous larva in apple.--A larva of Grapholitha sp. (Oletbreutidae) was intercepted at Nogales, Ariz., in an apple in baggage from Mexico.'
New to sience,.'--Me:'N-ave. been informed recently, by L .- A. 1.hitney, of Honolulu, Hawaii, that several specimens of a weevil, which were intercepted at Honoluw,.u ln 929 in, the, seeds of' Giuta travan-corica in oargo from Madras, India, have bpen.tamed by.GuyA. i( Marsh4ll, of *the,-ritisMuseum. Dr. Marshall described them as new to. !a4,-4prce -under. the, -name, Zeugenia gluteae.
In~Jurious s-prin ti.-Onyclitr as aluans L..) (Collembola) was
intercepted at Philadelphia in sand around lily-of-the-valley pips in cargo f rom he Netherlands.. J.- IT. Folsomn,. of--the Bureau of Bntomo-ogy, remarks as -follows eoncrning this insect: -"..f about 2, 000 described speciess of GCoilembola, somie' 40. lare knobwn t&bbe injurious. to cultivated .plants. This ...... ....speci e S on& cf .them. ;l.t ihjures, beans, peas,-,c~idif lower, etc.,
'by, eating roots .'and' stems. uidergrounl." ITt,'has- ruined narcis;si s bulbs in England."
RECENT PATHOLJOG'ICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF I1'TTREST
"Black spo on rose twig.--In examining some rose stems from Holland
-intercepted at, :Philadelhia,_ a small legionn was. mounted.,- cut.-, and,-crushed, at! when examined disclosed -h ra prsoDiloapnrse
' O flizigus caus ing -Ifblack spot. :of --oe ,l eave s S tem in-fe cti ons. by thi s fungus have been reported for relatively few rose varieties,..
Diseased garlic ~from France.--Garlic from France intercepted at Mobile was found to be infected with, Scierotium cepivorum as well as Penicilli-um sp. rot. 'Masses o-f the tiny black sclerotia o -f S. cepivo-rum were .present on a few bulblets only. We-have had two previous interceptions of this disease, both from Italy.
Heliconia. rust from a new. country.--A plant -of 'Heliconia bihai from
Gatemala intercepted at'Philadelphia was found to be infected with Puccinia heliconiae. This leaf rust is not listed as occurring in Guatemala.
Purple blotch of onion from Mexico.--Onions from Mexico intercepted
at flouglas, Ariz., .were found to be disc'oloredbyI~acros-porium porn.- Apparetythis is- the first record of-the disease from Mexico -where it was reported to haVe6zdamaged 50 per cent of the crop.
Additional records of Ieotylenchus abulbosus.--Potatoes from France intercepted at Baltimore were intested with N.leotylenchus abulbosus. A week later a 'imilar' ierce'otion was made at Philadelphia.. These ar-e the first
-interceptions of this-neaa from France.'
Nema intercepted again in ginger..--Ginger from. Chizia intercepted at Boston was infested with Aphelenchoides parietinus. The only previous interception 6f this ..nema in ginget was from China also and made at Detroit.
~~~ -~~-A mel on -ff~' t~h~ t tUae1
phia was infected with uldsporium cucumerinum. The only previous
interception of this disease was on cucumbers from Germany.
Sharp-eyed inspector.--An interception of bean rust (Uromyces g. diculatue) at San Ysidro consisted of two uredinia, the larger sorus being less than half the diameter of a pinhead.
JANUARY INTERCEPTIONS BY PORTS
Interceptions received in Washington during January were as follows: Baltimore 39, Blaine 1, Boston 72, Brownsville 4, Charleston 55, Chicago 12, Corpus Christi 7, Detroit 12, Douglas 2, Eagle Pass 20, El Paso 47, Hidaigo 3, Laredo 12, Mobile 38, Naco 1, New Orleans 32, New York 166, Nogles 106, Norfolk 41, Philadelphia 199, Port Arthur 4, Presidio 3, Rio Grande City 1, San Juan 161, San Ysidro 2, Savadnah 8, Seattle 33, and Thayer 2. Of the total of 1,083 interceptions, 665 were of insects and 418 of diseases.
-RES DISEASES WITH TRESH VEGETABLES
Spinach leaves from Japan intercepted at Philadelphia, and similar material intercepted two days later at Baltimore, reached Washington perfectly fresh and with the fungus Pemos-ora effusa as fresh and sporulating as abundantly as though it were on living plants in the' field. While this
fungus in general in this country where it sometimes causes the loss of hundreds of carloaos of vinach in a single season, it illustrates the plant-disease-carrying possibilities of modern cold storage facilities. The only previous interceptions of this disease were from Japan and made at Seattle. -resu rab3y these !tlantic Coast interceptions came via the Panama Canal an6. T ere er :oute :-: several weeks. Not only is it possible to carry fruits and fleshy vegetabl- and attendant diseases from any part of the world to this country but .ven leaves and their diseases may arrive as fresh and potentially dangerous as though newly gathered.
FRUIT AND VEGETABLE IMPORTS REACH LARGE TOTALS
Records kept in connection with foreign plant quarantine inspection
provide very accurate figures on the volume of fruits and vegetables imported into this country, at least for all those which enter uMder plant quarantine restrictions. From the inspection report covering the year ending July 30, 1932, it is seen that, exclusive of dried or processed materials like raisins, figs, and. dates, there were 98 different kinds of fresh fruits and vegetables imported into the United States d.ritng that period from foreign countries. Of all these commodities 32 werej Orted in amounts exceeding 1,000,000 pounds each, and tLh cotal for all -the 98 reaches the imposing figure of 2,508,423,403 rounds. As a means of. translating these hue figures into err which may be 1r. readi..y comprehe- s., it may be stated that this one y imports amourt 2 0 oands for e er man, woman, and c iL d in the country C f 1,adel n "ary freight V these imported fruii and vegetabl *.d 6fill rYir ly 121,345 sci ca.r. Lmnd this a 2. If carc woule d. sclid tr&a stretching along the t. for a distance f 919
miles. n these figures were taken from a period in which imports fell
much below those of previous years, it is of interest to note that corresponding figures for the fiscal year 1928-1929 show fruit and vegetable imports sufficient to load 147,190 cars, or enough to make up a solid train 1,115 miles long.
THIS APPLICATION UNQUESTIONABLY MADE IN ADVANCE
Application for permit to import nursery stock or plants is' usually made somewhat in advance, but few cases exhibit the forehandedness recently shown by a New England committee. In planning for a celebration-of international historic character, and desiring to include in their ceremonies the planting of commemorative trees, this committee made its application to import these trees a whole year in advance, determined, it would seem, that the proceedings should not go awry because of hurry at the last moment.
SPECIAL CARE GIVEN IMPORTED PLANT MATERIALS'
A long established policy of this Bureau requires that imported plant materials passing through the Washington inspection house shall be accorded the greatest possible care. The need for such care is obvious. Many of the nwerous and varied lots of plants coming through this inspection station on their way from a foreign country to an American importer haVe traveled long distances before they arrive here; they may have been poorly packed; and the conditions in the ship's hold may not have been the best. It might thus be expected that a certain proportion of shipments from overseas will arrive at Washington in a more or less unsatisfactory condition--with contents dried, moldy, heated, or sprouted, or with cases broken, or with the materials within battered and disarranged.
When materials which have suffered en route in this way reach the
importer he is somewhat apt to lay the blame for their poor condition on the inspection service, knowing that the packages were opened for inspection and probably suspecting delay or mistreatment as an accompanying feature.
The protective care given not only to such unfortunate shipments but to every lot of material passing through the inspection house is not primarily intended to forestall unjust criticism but arises from an honest desire to serve the importer. During the time when his property is in the custody of the inspection house because of quarantine necessity, the inspection staff aims to give it on his behalf the most careful and intelligent consideration. The inspection officials fully realize that when plant materials come to hand weakened or devitalized in transit, a little judicious attention may be the means of restoring or at least preserving their vigor, so that when they reach their destination they may still be capable of propagation. Plants which arrive in such unhappy condition, are as a matter of course given careful first aid treatment. If too dry, they are moistened; if cases are broken, they are repaired;t1 packing is needed, this is done; the packing may be reconditioned or may be replaced; and if, as sometimes happens, there is delay in customs clearance, the shipment is held under the most favorable storage conditions available. In all these and many other ways the inspection
STATE PLANT BOAfRD
staff strives to protect the interests of the importer, and it may be added that the service thus rendered is given under the personal direction of an able and experienced horticulturist who has a keen and sympathetic understanding of the peculiar requirements of all sorts of plants.
It is not to be expected that.even the most'willtng effort or the
highest skill could restore faded vitality or revive the dead. The inspector can work no miracles. But as'far as goodwill and experience will go he strives to send on in the best possible condition all plants that come under his care.
The special effort that the.inspection staff thus makes to serve the public must be considered as entirely apart from and additional to the duty 'of inspecting and treating incoming plant materials. The value of this service is most appreciated by those who have imported quantities of materials over many years, and consequently well understand the difficulties that arise in trying to transport tender plants safely across the ocean. The following extracts from letters sent in by a few such men indicate their-attitude toward the existing methods of handling plants at the time of inspection.
"Today I received the four -- The plants all arrived in excellent condition and I wish to express my appreciation of the careful and prompt handling which my plants received, My sincere thanks."
"----------- two or three people have said to me how fortunate it was
that the official in charge of carrying out the quarantine regulations should be a man who takes a personal interest in the plants and in getting them safely through as far as is humanly possible, -------."
I appreciate the dispatch with which you handled my tree
peonies and the consideration you used in not tearing the box to pieces as undoubtedly, with the young tops just started, a great many of them ,d have been broken in repacking."
DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES
Transit inspection was resumed at Kansas City and Omaha on February 15, State inspectors at Chicago, Kansas City, and St. Louis have been reporting interceptions of any violations found, and this cooperation is continued in the spring season. It is likely that similar work will be carried on by a State inspector at Milwaukee.
A synopsis of Federal plant quarantines in effect on February 5 has
-been prepared and is being mimeographed for the use of transit inspectors and others. The work consists of (1) a summary-of the regulations of the various Federal quarantines; (2) an index of articles under restriction; and (3) a
list of the post offices in the regulated areas. Tith this list, it will not be necessary to look up the county in which a post office is located, and the use of the Postal Guide will therefore not be required. This synopsis combines and supersedes the information contained in circulars 26-T and 29-T of this Bureau.
As an aid to shippers and others desiring an up-to-date check list of quarantine orders, it has-been decided to include the effective date of the latest revision or amendment of each quarantine in the "List of Current Quarantines and Other Restrictive Orders,"f published annually in the Service and Regulatory Anriouncements, and also as a separate.
The Eastern Plant Board adopted resolutions at'its meeting last December that "State quarantines regulating interstate business should be discouraged and Federal action taken when the need obviously sxists," and "that the use of the Federal tag to meet such situations[should~be worked out in full cooperation with State officials." The Board stated that "the discontinuance of any Federal quarantine s apt to leave business without the protection of Federal certification, thereby being the occasion of severe losses to legitimate business," and requested the Bureau of Plant Quarantine and the National Plant Board to work out methods for the use, in full cooperation with State authorities, of the Federal certificate for such cases. The resolutions also pointed out that' "multiplicity of certificates of inspection is proving a serious interference with legitimate business and * that simplification should procee. much further, at least to the point where not more than two certificates (one State and one Federal) should be attached to a shipment."
The Van Buren Street terminal postal station in Chicago has recently been enlarged, and distribution of parcel post is now being made at the new building. A system of having plant shipments held out, as heretofore, for examination by transit inspectors is being worked out with the postal officials by the inspector in charge.
NARCISSUS BULB PESTS
A series of conferences with growers and nursery inspectors is being held in the Pacific Coast States during February and March, at which consideration is being given to some of the details of narcissus inspection and treatment methods. Doctor Fracker is representing the Bureau at these conferences.
Final reports of the total number of narcissus bulb inspections made during the past season have been received from officers of the various bulbgrowing States, and the figures are being tabulated for publication in BPQ No. 349.
PHONY PEACH DISEASE
Federal quarantine No. 67, issued in 1929 and revised in 1931, was revoked, -effective March 1. Quoting from the press release,
"In the opinion of the department, the further spread of
this disease can be controlled more satisfactorily by
improved and modified nursery inspection methods in the
various States than by the enforcement of the type of
Federal quarantine regulations now in effect. The department plans to cooperate with the State nursery inspectors
in developing adequate inspection methods."
Since the issuance of this order, the Federal inspectors working on this project have been assigned to cooperate with the various States affected in supervising the culling of borer-infested peach trees, in nurseries which ship peach stock interstate.
During the month of January inspection was continued in the infested areas in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys in California and.in .the vicinity of Phoenix in Arizona. A total of 16,920 palm inspections were made and no scale found.
Scouting revealed 196 unlisted palms, none of which was infested. Of these, 11 had been overlooked during the preceding inspection, and 185 had been planted since last inspection.
One hundred and fifty-eight valueless seedling palms.were dug out and destroyed in the infested areas during periods of inclement weather.when efficient inspection was not possible'.
JAPANESE BEETLE AND EUROPEAN CORN BORER
Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work
Miscellaneous beetles of the family Scarabaeidae collected last sumnmer as incidental captures in Japanese beetle traps scattered throughout Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and the New England States are being closely examined and tabulated by J. S. Silver, assistant entomologist at the South Norwalk headquarters. Among the misr-ellaneous Scarabaeidae trapped.in largest quantities are Macrocactylus subsoinosis, Py2lloph1 a ophi]ida, P. gr acilis, P. graqciis, var. augularis, Striigoderma arboricola, Pelidnota pMunc.ta., Cotinus. nitida, Pachystuthus marginata, P. luscicola, and Euphoria sp. Through a study of the dates on which miscellaneous species of Scarabaeids were trapped
and the quantities in which individual species were captured, it is anticipated that some correlation mAy be found between the date of appearance of the Japanese beetle in various communities and the rate of abundance of closely allied species. Such information would be of material assistance in fixing maximum and minimum trapping dates, particularly in southern latitudes where Japanese beetles are not knownnto exist. At the request of the North Carolina authorities, miscellaneous beetles collected in that State during the 1932. trapping season were recently forwarded to R. W. Leiby, State Entomologist, atRaleigh. Determinationsrof species will be made by State 'entomological workers and the resulting-data used in an index of beetles in North Carolina. Data for North Carolina similar to that now being compiled at South Norwalk for the other States will be supplied to the project by Mr. Leiby4.
One of the men temporarily employed as a trap inspector in Richmond
last summer-was rehired during January and assigned to visit cities and towns in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia, in which it is planned to install traps next summer. At each locality information has been obtained concerning storage facilities for trap equipment. In every case free rental has been secured in local post offices or other Government-occupied buildings, or county- or State-owned offices. '.In.North Carolina traps will be stored in 16 post offices, 2 county court houses, 1 custom house, and 1 building of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. In South Carolina storage space has been secured in 10 post offices, 1 custom house, 1 U. S. Bureau ofFish. series building, and in the South. Carolina State Office at Columbia. Similar arrangements will be made during February in the Virginia localities to be trapped during the coming summer. Signatures have also been obtained from local draymen in each community to informal agreements for hauling trap equipment from the freight station to temporary storage quarters. Approximately 11,000 cubic-feet of space has also been made available by the U. S. Botanic Garden in their storage shops in the southwestern section of Washington, D.C. A set-up of 400 traps, the number that will be distributed in most communities, has been found to weigh approximately 4,200 pounds and to occupy 225 cubic feet. Consequently it is possible for local truckers to figure on the amount of labot required to accomplish the transportation and storage of the cartons of traps and bundles 'of iron rods.
Informational work directed toward supplying all classified dealers
and other plant shippers, postmasters, freight and express agents, steamship lines, interstate truckers, fruit and vegetable commission merchants, county agents, and State authorities with literature concerning the recently revised quarantine and regulations was carried on within the recently extended zone during January. A preliminary edition of the regulations in mimeographed form was early in the month distributed to those most vitally concerned. Sets of the 1933 Shipper's Guide were first assembled on January 24, and mimeographing and distribution of the Guides continued into February. Mailing lists of the nurseries, greenhouses, and plant dealers in the newly added area are being prepared from information obtained -during a recent survey of these establishments. Information concerning the railroads operating in the area as extended is also being assembled, so that all agents of common carriers may be furnished
with literature from which they may acquaint themselves with the restrictions applicable to shipments destined- to nonrbgulated territory. .A limited quantity of colored maps alp was prepared at the South N6rwalk headquarters by spray painting through a prepared stencil card on U. S. Geological Survey outline maps of the Eastern and North .Central States: Poster maps and quarantine regulations were in course of printing. These will be distributed as soon as received from the %Goverbnent.Pri.nting..0ffice.
.A survey of nursery aid greenhouse establishments in eastern and.-central New.York territory recently added to the regulated area was.xnearing. dompletidn.at the end of January. Amogg 156 establishments visited, 14 were found whose business was such as to warrant .their fulfilling t'he requirements for classification under the quarantine rules. Classified establishments formerly under the supervision of the New York City office and now transferred to the jurisdiction of the Syracuse office number 29. In addition, 2 establishments within the previously regulated.area have been classified. Inquiries received at the Syracuse office in'response to infodmativa literature: furnished to the dealers throughout the recently added 6Boe indicate that a few other establishments will later acquire classified status. Canvassing of all shippers and carriers 'in 'sections recently. placed under regulation in Virginia has also been: completed. As a results 60 establishments have received a classified status uider the nursery,regulations. Due to the relatively small amount of nurserystock moving at this time, the inspector..nor-. mally.stationed at Norfolk is working from the Richmond headquarters. Through contact with Port Inspector M. C. Rich, with whom the Norfolk Japanese beetle quarantine office i.s jointly occupied, the Richmond office is able to meet all'requests for certification arising in..the Norfolk isolated zonhe.
For the .purpose of informing the ..public of activities of various governmental agencies in the Philadelphia district, the Federal Business Asso- ciation of Philadelphia last spring and early summer was'allotted a weekly.. period during which Federal activities might. be broadcasted over radio station WIP-WFAN. Excellent results from these broadcasts were reported by.participb.ting bureaus. Through efforts of the radio broadcasting committee, of the Philadelphia association, arrangements were made to resume broadcasting. of Federal activities, under sponsorship of the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce. Commencing October 26, 1932, the period 6.30 to 6.45 p. m. on Wednriesdays over station WFI was secured for this campaign of publicity and education. Japanese beetle quarantine activities in Philadelphia were brought to public attention on January 25 at the stated time through a broadcast by G. B. Stichter, district supervisor of the quarantine in Philadelphik and Delaware Coun,ties, Pa.. Mr. Stichter's talk was entitled "Japanese beetle quarantine activities in Philadelphia." Thirteen minutes were allowed for the talk.
Talks concerning Japanese beetle quarantine and control problemsywere delivered to three organizations during the month. On January 18, Mr. WQrthley spoke on "The Japanese beetle quarantine in -its present status," at the annual meeting of the Connecticut Nurserymen's Association held at Rote l, Bond, Hartford. J. P. Johnson, district supervisor for-Connecticut, detailed.. to the nurserymen the general requirements under State European corn borer
embargoes and quarantine orders for shipmnents entering Canada and those States whose authorities have agreed to accept cuarantined articles from Connecticut under proper certification. Also on January 18, Mr. Stockwell detailed the present quarantine situation at a meeting of the Eastern NUT*serymen's Association held at the Stacy-Trent Hiotel, Trenton, 1T. J. Mr. 'Worthley spoke on the subject o ,f "Japanese beetle quarantine and control in Massachusetts," at a meeting of the Massachusetts moth superintendents and tree wardens held in Boston on January 19.
Further consideration by the Pennsylvania authorities of the Federal Japanese beetle regulated section in'their State, as extended effective January 1, 1933, led to a request that additional territory in the northwestern corner of the State be placed in nonregulated status to afford a .more extensive protective zone between the infested area and the extensive fruit-growing section in Erie and adjacent counties. In compliance with this request, Amendment iNo. 1 to the Japanese beetle rules and regulations was approved by Secretary Hyde on January 13 and became effective January 23. This amendment modifies the boundaries of the regulated territory by removing from the restrictions five entire uninfested counties and parts of two, additional uninfested counties. A second minor change added to the Maryland regulated area an election district Which had been unintentionally omitted from the recently revised regulations.
State quarantine orders paralleling Federal Japanese beetle quarantine regulations effective January 1, 1933, as amended effective January 23, 1933, were promulgated during January by Pennsylvania, Virginia, and New York. Notice of Pennsylvania quarantine No. 22 (Third Revision) and current Japanese beetle regulations were approved January 20, 1933, and became effective January 25, 1933. Third revision 6f the Virginia Japanese Beetle quarantine No. 1 with fourth revision of supplemental rules and regulations was approved and became effective January 26, 1933. New York Quarantine Order Relative to the Japanese Beetle No. 100-g with rules and regulations relating to the control of the insect was approved January 30, 1933, and became effective February 1, 1933.
Early in January it was necessary to rehire for a few days three of the regular New Jersey State per diem inspectors who had been laid off due to the s lack seasonal shi pping conditions. These men assisted the inspectors working from the Glassboro office in examining for Japanese beetle infestation one-half million rhubarb root divisions which were subsequently shipped
under certification to Florida. A few growers in South Jersey also started during January to make shipments of dahlia tubers.
Cooperation was extended to the Post Office Department during the Christmas rush through the loan of two trucks each to the post offices in Norwalk and South Na-walk and one truck to the post office at Stamford, Conn. All these machines were de luxe light delivery trucks.
Climatological data previously 'gathered at Taunton, Mass., will hereafter be collected at Waltham, Mass.... The project-owned thermograph previously operated at Taunton has been moved to Waltham, where it will be tended by one of the employees from the Boston-office.
Specialized Corn Borer Activities
Decision to inaugurate a Federal European corn borer inspection and certification service to assist shippers in States formerly quarantined for this insect in complying with State embargoes promulgated since the lifting of Federal quarantine No. 43, led to the recall from administrative furlough of a number of former corn borer employees. These men early in January began a systematic survey of formerly quarantined territory to determine the amount of certification required by various shippers whose shipments are restricted or prohibited under the State orders. Men conducting the survey were distributed as follows: Ohio 4; West Virginia, 1; Indiana, 2; Michigan, 2; Pennsylvania, 4; New Jersey, 1; New York, 4; Connecticut, 3; eastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, 1; western Massachusetts and Vermont, 1. Although a complete survey is required of establishments shipping restricted articles, especial attention was first directed to large shippers of dahlia tubers, whose shipping season will soon be under way. Of the 10 States which have issued embargoes against articles previously restricted under Quarantine No. 43, Arizona, Georgia, Louisiana, Utah, and Colorado have amended their quarantines to permit entry of the commodities under Federal certification testifying to the freedom of the articles from corn borer infestation. Oregon has arranged administratively to accept Federal certification although the amended quarantine has not yet been received. Provisims are made in most of the other quArantine orders for shipment under State certification of certain products or all the articles formerly under restriction. When the Federal certification service is completely organized the majority of the difficulties now experienced by shippers affected by the State embargoes
will be eliminated.
Removal of the present general headquarters from South Norwalk, Conn., to Harrisburg, Pa., will be accomplished before July 1 next. Large quantities of corn borer equipment are already stored in a warehouse at the U. S. Army Base at New Cumberland, a suburb of Harrisburg. Storage space to the extent of 130,000 square feet has been made available rent-free for project use at the New Cumberland depot. F. G. Winn and J. C. Krysl are now at New Oumberland removing quartermaster and ordnance property to make room for quarantine equipment in the assigned warehouse. The maintenance division of the project will be quartered at New Cumberland. The administrative and office force will
be established in a leased office at 2101.North. Sixth Street, Harrisburg. Trap and motor equipment will move to the fiela from the South Norwalk headquarters and at the end of the season will be returned to the.New Oumberland depot. Coincident with the closing of the general headquarters in Connecticut, the building now occupied at Springfield, Ohio, as.headquarters for the western division of the corn borer will beabandoned and the work in the western section supervised from Harrisburg. Establishment at Harrisburg of the principal headquarters of the combined Japanese beetle and corn borer projects will result in a more centralized location for the administrative and maintenance work and will effect a considerable economy in rental and travel expenses.
County agents and officials of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station on January 13 held a conference at New Haven for the purpose of discussing the enforcement of the State's compulsory European corn borer cleanup law. In December results of previous clean-up campaigns in Connecticut were related by Dr. W. E. Britton, State Entomologist, in a paper entitled "Experience in enforcing compulsory clean-up regulations on account of the European corn borer," read at the meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists at Atlantic City.
Activities at the'Springfield, Ohio, headquarters largely have consisted of preparing trucks and miscellaneous equipment for transportation to the U. S., Army.Base at New Cumberland, Pa., for storage. Twenty-four
* ten trucks and 1--ton trucks were loaded with equipment and driven from Springfield to New Cumberland.' The mechanical shop during January overhauled sixteen -ton light delivery trucks and five 11-ton trucks, as well as compjeting minor repairs on many other cars.
MEXICAN FRUIT FLY
Three adult male Anastrepha ludens and one adult female A. fraterculus were taken in traps operated in groves on the American side of the river 4.uring January. These were the first adults to be taken in the Valley since May, 1932, during which month five adult Mexican fruit flies were taken in the traps. The A. fraterculus was the second of this species ever to be taken in the Valley. In Mexico this species of fruit fly primarily feeds on plums or "ciruellas." Intensive inspection of the fruit remaining in the groves in which the adults were taken and in the surrounding groves gave negative results. These groves were immediately cleaned of all fruit and the trees sprayed with nicotine-molasses spray.
Weather conditions were ideal for field work during January. The
mean temperature for the month was 65.80 F. Not enough rain fell to interfere with grove inspection. Strong winds during several days caused a heavy "drop" of fruit giving plenty of material for inspection. A total of 660 collections containing 2,509 specimens were received for identification during January. The inspection of apparently sound fruit was stressed throughout the month, which accounts for the small number of collections made. As
inspection work decreased on account of harvesting the marketable fruit in many groves, additional traps were placed in operation.' At t e end of the month 1,418 traps were being operated in 154 groves.
"Off-bloom" fruit reached a size where it was readily 'Visible and
there appeared to be an enormous quantity of this fruit on the trees throughout the Valley. Several factors contributed to the setting of this fruit. A severe frost was experienced in March, 1932, just as the trees were in full bloom. This frost knocked off a large amount of the bloom and severely shocked the trees. Many of the growers were financially unable to give the proper watering and cultivation during the summer, with the result that with the advent of the fall rains many of the trees and groves burst into full bloom. This fruit would reach maturity during the summer months when the host-free period is in effect, and accordingly has to be removed from the trees. A number of' growers made good headway during the month in removing this fruit from the trees.
The movement of fruit both by rail and by truck was brisk through January. A total of 846 carloads and 2,072 truck loads were permitted out. Master permits were issued for shipments by truck to 18 States other than Texas. 'Truckers were dealing to some extent directly with growers, but the majority were still purchasing their fruit from packing houses.
A number of cases of apparent theft of fruit were uncovered by the
inspectors during the month. These cases, with the evidence gathered, were turned over to the Sheriff's office for prosecution.
No local infestations of either adults or larvae were foundift Matmores. Only three larvae were taken fromimported fruit. These were in oranges shipped in from Montemorelos in the State of Nueva Leon.
An attempt to reduce the disastrously heavy infestation in the Big Bend of Texas by the same method that was used with apparent success in eradicating this insect from the Salt River Valley, is going to be watchedwith great interest by all those who are interested in the problem. The first step, which is thorough cleaning of the fields, has been completed, 4,106 acres having been cleaned in the area extending from Polvo to Candelaria. Furthermore, drifts along the river were burned, inasmuch as it had been determined that they contained infested material.
N'o exact information i-s at hand at this time regarding the progress of similar clean-upmeasures on the Mexican side of the river, but it is known that such work is being undertaken und is near completion.
Immediately after the field clean-up was finished inspectors made a house-to-house survey of the entire area for the purpose of destroying any
material on hand which might harbor the pink bollworm. In cases where seed cotton was found being used as bedding, fumigated linters were used to replace it. Vehicles which had been used for the transportation of cottonseed during the season were thoroughly cleaned.
The three road stations, located-at Van-Horn, Fort Davis, and Alpine, were closed on January 31, since the thorough clean-up in the infested area seemed to obviate the necessity of further operation. This will result in a considerable saving to the project.
Perhaps the most iirrportant development in Florida since the last News Letter was the discovery of a considerable amount of infested wild cotton in the Cape-Sable district. The presence of-this infestation was determined last June. At that-ti.ie, however, it was extremely difficult to reach the cotton, and there was little danger of anyone carrying out infested material. But now-that roads have become passable in the dry season it has been found that the amount of cotton is quite extensive, and that this district is often visited by fishermen and tourists. -Plans are being made to clean this area of wild cotton as soon as possible.
A survey of' the thousands of keys off south Florida was started early in January by three inspectors of this project, accompanied by an employee of the Bureau of flnt~mology,-using a cabin cruiser. Starting at Key West the party first visited the Marquesas group of keys to the west of that eity and found infested cotton on Boca Grande Key. Thereafter they returned to Key West and proceeded to No Name Key on the Gulf side, surveying the keys which had hitherto been inaccessible. From Yo Name Key they crossed to the Atlantic side and worked in a si milar manner to Miami. Information as to the presence or absence of wild cotton is being compiled, all keys being given a number and located with accuracy on the U. S. Geodetic Coast Survey Charts. It will be some time yet before this survey is completed.
One inspector was detailed to make a very thorough survey north of Hudson, on the west coast, to determine with exactness the limits of wild cotton, which is now known to exist as far north as Hudson. After a few days, however, it. was found that on account of the low tides at this time of the year he was unable to reach many points in the small boat he was using that would be accessible when tides were higher, and consequently this job will be postponed until conditions are more suitable.
Other points of interest which may be mentioned briefly are that inspection of cotton blooms at Chapman Field have continued to be negative; recleaning of Key Largo has progressed with some interruptions; experiments are-under way to determine the value of plant poisons in eradicating wild cotton with a number of substances, including sodium arsenite, but results of these tests are not available; gins in the regulated area of north Florida were thoroughly cleaned after field clean-up of the area was completed.
Wori in th6 reflulz'ted rrer prfoceedd Ouriih' the ~ihhi"t n ntrmtl
'm~e. Iia~nr ctivities 11rve s1c:nJto ,, conisiderrbtle extent, ',;'ny
of the gins having closed for the season. The small amount of field and gin-trash inspection in the Salt River Valley has continued negative, and this is highly encouraging.
On January 13 an infestation of the Thtirberia weevil was found in a
f~el~3miles west of Marana, Pimna County, by inspectors of the Bureau of Entomology who were making their anulsurvey.
Laboratory inspection has continued in San Antonio, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and& South Carolina, with results being negative. On account: of the transfer of a number of laboratory inspectors to Florida last summer, examination of the bolls collected from the crop of 1931 was not completed until January, 1933. It is of particular interest to note that some 3,000 of these bolls, of which examination has just been completed, came from Columbia County, Fla., where an infestation was found this season.
The meeting of the Texas Entomological Society was held in San Antonio on January 27 and 28. Two papers on phases of the pink bollworm situation were presented by members of this project, and a demonstration of scouting methods and equipment was given at the laboratory.
PREVENTING SPREADl OF MOTHS
The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture has secured $100,000 from an..appropriation for the relief of the unemployed, to be used in hiring unemployed men for clean-up work in the area heavily infested with the gipsy moth in Luzerne and Lackawanna Counties, Pa. This work is being carried on under the direction of the Federal gipsy moth project.
Much of the low scrubby growth, common over a great deal of the heavily infested area, is being cut and burned as one of the procedures in the work to eradicate this infestation. This type of work can be performed very satisfactorily by inexperienced men under proper supervision. A system of. staggering employment has been worked out whereby each man will be given an opportunity to perform service for a period of 22 days. Under this plan by the end of June more than 800 men will have been offered temporary emnployment.
The first group of unemployed men reported for work on January 16 and were shown two reels of motion pictures of the gipsy moth work and were given a short talk on the history of the insect in this country, particularly. with respect to the Pennsylvania infestation. A similar talk will be given and 1*ctures shown to each new group of men reporting for work each week. A for ce of approximately 200 laborers will be maintained-from February 6 to June 30 inclusive. These men will not only cut and burn scrubby growth referred to above, but will also creosote egg clusters on the more valuable trees left standing after the clean-up work i's done. They also will assist with the spraying work which will be carried on in the Pennsylvania area. In the spring as soon as the foliage is large enough to hold the spray*' 'It is
gratifying to state that the work done by these men has been very satisfactory for such a largegrbup taken from all walks of life, and they all seem much interested in their work.
Before the clean-up work could be started it was necessary to secure permits for cutting and burning brush from all property owners in the area where such work is to be undertaken. Fortunately a very large percentage of this land is owned or controlled by a few large coal companies who showed a fine spirit of cooperation by granting permission to do necessary clean-up and treatment work. Weather conditions during the month have been excellent for thins type of work, there being just enough snow on the ground to practically eliminate any danger of fire spreading from the piles of brush which are burned. Great care is necessary in choosing the locations where brush can be burned, to avoid danger of fires getting into mines and coal veins.
The Federal employees in the Pennsylvania area not engaged in directing the laborers mentioned above are scouting the townships outside of the heavily infested area. Work to date indicates that there has been considerable wind spread in a northeasterly direction from the main infestation. A small infestation was recently discovered in the township of Jefferson, in Lackawanna County, approximately 15 miles from the center of the heavily infested area. This infestation is approximately 5 miles farther from the center than any other infestation discovered to date.
During the month photographs-were taken of areas where clean-up work is to-be carried on, and it is planned later on to take photographs of these same areas after the brush has been cut and burned to show the advantage of doing clean-up work under the conditions existing in much of the heavily infested territory in Pennsylvania.
The headquarters of the gipsy moth project in Pennsylvania was transferred from 215 Carey Avenue to 46 Carey Avenue, Wilkes-Barre, effective February 1.
During the month A. F. Burgess attended the meeting of the Rhode
Island Association of Arborists at Providence and a meeting of the Massachusetts moth superintendents at Boston, and gave a brief talk at each of these meetings on the gipsy moth problem.
The reports of the State district superintendents in Massachusetts
indicate that the gipsy moth egg deposit is a little heavier than last year, and from various other reports received, it appears that the gipsy moth is more abundant over quite a considerable portion of the infested area than it has been for a number of years. There are pockets of heavy infestation scattered in towns from Cape Cod, Mass., to northeastern Maine as far as Bangor. The infestation in the Bangor region is particularly heavy for that section.
Records which have been obtained in connection with the brown-tail moth infestations indicate that this insect has recently spread beyond the
quArafitine line in several towns in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and heavier than usual infestation has been found in some towns within the quarantined area adjacent to the quarantine line. Arrangements have been made with the Vermont State Department of Agriculture to have the State do a small amount of scouting for this insect in towns in Vermont bordering on the Connecticut River, The State of New Hampshire will be unable to do scouting work beyond the quarantine line in that State, and the money they have will be used for cutting and destroying brown-tail moth webs within the quarantined area where heavy infestations occur. Plans have been made to have the Federal quarantine inspectors scout as they are able to -do so without interfering with their regular duties, the towns in their districts bordering the quarantine line. With this arrangement it is believed that the present distribution of this insect can be determined quite accurately.
During the fall, winter, and early spring quarantine inspectors of
the more northern inspection districts of the auarantire~aema devote considerable time to the inspection of pulpwood. This is- cut extensively in the forests and shipped to paper mills in northern New England and New York. The wood is cut principally in the summer and the bark peeled off at once. The time of cutting varies to some extent with the species of tree, as bark is removed more readily during certain periods, which are not the same for all species. Nearly all of the wood shipped is'peeled etock, as the mills call for this in preference to unpeeled, and also unpeeled wood is very subject to the injurious attacks of wood-boring insects. The peeled wood remains piled near where it is cut or is assembled close to shipping points until the fall and winter season. As very nearly all of the pulpwood is peeled, there would be no danger of transmitting 'gipsy moth infestation through its shipment if the wood was cut, peeled, and shipped with no interval between cutting and shipping, as any infestation which might be on the trees when cut would be removed with the bark. However, as the peeled wood customarily remains in the woods or close to them from the middle of the summer to the following winter, or sometimes for much longer periods, if more is cut than the market will absorb, there is danger-that egg clusters will be deposited on it if there are infestations in the immediate vicinity. From time to time egg clusters are founiid on such wood. All wood shipped to points outside of the quarantined area or from the generally infested to the lightly infested areas is inspected carefully and certified. In normal years the major portion of this wood is shipped by freight in carload lots. Often entire trains of pulpwood cars are moved to the mills. This year, owing to the mildness of the winter and the lack of snow, roads are' in good condition and in consequence trucks can be used to a greater extent than has been possible other years. In some of the inspection districts there are whole fleets of trucks transporting pulpwood. The average load is about two and a half cords, which is approximately- from a tenth to an eighth of a carload.
Numerous materials the movement of which is regulated by the gipsy
moth quarantine may be entirely harmless as regards the spread of the insect if shipped as originally produced. This is true particularly of numerous quarry products which are taken from fresh workings deep in the ground or
which have been subjected to-finishing processes which remove all of the original surfaces. It is true ,also for numerous forest products from which all traces of bark have been cut away. The danger of infestation lies in the interval which may elapse between production and shipping, and the location of storage places for materials awaiting shipment. Then, too, the materials may be free from suspicion because of production methods, but .carstakes, blocking, cratings, and other accessories may be entirely the reverse. It is because of these that inspection does not end with the materials which are to be shipped but must be continued until everything has been examined and the unit is ready to move to destination. Certificates are not issued-by the inspectors until it ,is certain each shipment is complete and nothing more will be added prior to movement. To be certain on this point it is necessary for the inspector to keep the shipment under observation until it starts from the actual 'railroad shipping point. Numerous quarries within the quarantined area have spur tracks over which carloads of products are moved from pi~duction points to railroad yards where they are billed out. Loadings and inspections may be completed at the quarries but certification is not given until the .cars are in the railroad yards. Carloads of stone are difficult to han le on the steep grade, winding spur tracks and the joltings and jars will often break car stakes or blockings, which have to be replaced in the railroad yards. The train crews usually take for these purposes any materials that may come to hand and these have to be examined before certification is given.
The amounts of special materials inspected ouite often vary considerably in different sections depending upon factors which may influence either the abundance or quality of the materials themselves. This applies to a marked extent to natural products which are marketed as gathered without being subjected to any proceeding. Because of somewhat slow growth, areas from which materials are obtained one year will not be able to supply satisfactory amounts until several years have elapsed. For this reason there may be considerable variation from year to year in the numbers of Christmas trees and evergreen boughs which are. cut from any particular section. laurel also is subject to fluctuation in amounts from given sections but in t hirn case the variations are due to quality rather than to abundance. Some years laurel pickers are unable.-to gather salable branches in sections where there is an abundance of the shrubs because the leaves are badly spotted or yellowed. It is not clear just what causes the unsatisfactory condition of~ the laurel leaves. Some attribute the spotting to unfavorable weather conditions. Recently it has been reported that a~large tract of laurel in southeastern Connecticut, from which much laurel has been shipped in the past, has such spotted and yellowed foliage that no shipments will be sent from there.
The almost unprecedentedly mild weather of January with the small
amount of snow has resulted in very little if any frost in the ground. This has enabled two nurseries, one in Massachusetts and one on Long Island, to dig and transplant stock, which has not been possible for years. Unless mnore severe weather later in the winter freezes the ground more than it~ is frozen at present, it is quite possible that the spring season for the shipment of
nursery stock will get an unusually early start.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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Carloads of evergreen products are almost unknown after the completion of the Christmas season, but in January there was an entire carload of evergreen boughs and cut evergreen trees shipped to a landscape architect to be.used as protection for various plantings on an estate.
The producers of white pine lumber maintain that if this is sawed during the. summer months it is very susceptible to- stain or mildew unless extreme care is used in stacking to permit-proper ventilation and drying.. In consequence many of the pine sawing establishments in Maine saw the logs during December and January and stack the lumber in yards where it will remain for from six months to several years before being shipped to market. At the time of sawing or before if possible, the quarantine inspectors make thorough examinations of the vicinities of the prospective storage yards,. and if infestations are found, advise the lumber operators to pile well away from trees or bushes. In some cases it is possible to reduce greatly the dangers of infestation by judicious cutting of tree or shrub growth and by applying other clean-up measures. In all cases where there is a possibility that the lumber may remain in storage for several years, the owners are advised to pile well away from trees even though there may be no infestation in the immediate vicinity at the time. By doing this the danger of the !um ber becoming infested, in the event that an infestation develops in the vicinity, is reduced to a minimum particularly if the owners do not permit bushes or other growth to spring up near the piles.
From general observation' it may be considered that the only use to
which a Christmas tree may be put is to give pleasure-to the younger members of the family and that when this duty is performed it is relegated to the dump with other waste material or destroyed. If such was always the case it might be considered that such trees would be of only slight importance as possible distributors of gipsy moth infestation. Probably most trees which have been decorated and set up in warm houses are thrown away or destroyed,. for after days of drying the needles either fall off or become so dried that they break off if handled. However, there are nearly always unsold stocks of trees in the hands of retailers and in some cities these are collected by the park departments for use in protecting plants or for marki:g recreation areas for winter sports. These are no doubt collected and disposed of later but there is always the chance that they may be left near tree growth and it is vital that they be free from infestation.