News letter

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Material Information

Title:
News letter
Physical Description:
Book
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Plants -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: no.19 (July 1, 1932)
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased with: no.43 (June 30, 1934)
General Note:
"Not for publication".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030428081
oclc - 785785040
lccn - 2012229620
System ID:
AA00023276:00005

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Succeeded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Succeeded by:
Blister rust news
Succeeded by:
News letter

Full Text






AE LAN .BOARD



E EW S LE T T ER


BUREAU OF PLANT QUAANTIVE

UNI TED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE





Number 25 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) January 1, 1933.





TECHNOLOGICAL DIVISION

The disinfection of cotton lint by passing it between iron rollers of sufficient size and under sufficient pressure to crush any seed or bare pink bollworm that may be present in the cotton is b,$ing extensively used this season in the lightly infested portion of the pink bollworm regulated area. The'roller equipment which was developed by the gin companies is of three types, all operating in essentially the same manner, and differing only in minor details. The rollers are of steel, approximately 54 inches long by 8 inches in diameter, and .tle complete equipment weighs about 1,000 pounds. Heavy springs keep the rollers in contact and provide the compression which crushes the seed passing through them. The assemblage is placed between the accumulator and press box and takes the cotton in a thin bat from the condenser. Careful tests have shown that cottonseed passing between these rollers is crushed to a thickness of not more than .035 of an inch and the rollers are so placed and guarded that all cotton must pass through them to get into the press box. The roller system of sterilization has been applied to 12 gins in the El Paso Valley, 3 in the vicinity of Roswell, N. Mex., and 11 in Arizona. All these installations were inspected and tested by Messrs. Luckie, Johnson, and Hunt, together with inspectors of the Pink Bollworm Project in these districts, and are doing effective work. This method of sterilizing the cotton lint takes the place of fumigation and compression in the lightly infested area.






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FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Mediterranean fruit fly from Portugal.--Twenty-two living larvae of Ceratitis capitata Wd. were taken at New York in a sour orange in baggage from Portugal. Larvae of this fruit fly have been intercepted twice previously from Portugal, once in loquat and once in pear.

Apple maggot in hawthorn fruits.--Twenty-nine living larvae of
Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh were intercepted at Laredo, Tex., in 23 hawthorn fruits in baggage from Mexico.

Fruit fly in baggage.--Thirty-nine living larvae of Anastrepha sp. (Trypetidae) were found at New York in 22 guavas in baggage from Puerto Rico. The 22 fruits were 100 per cent infested.

Potatoes from Mexico infested.--Larvae of Epicaerus cognatus Sharp (? (Mexican potato weevil) were intercepted at Laredo, Tex., n'potatoes in baggage from Mexico. This weevil was taken five times in potatoes from Mexico in 1923, 1924, and 1925.

Thrips on heather.--Frankliniella intonsa (Tryb.) was intercepted at Philadelphia on heather in the mail from England. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., reports that this species, which is not known to occur in this country, is common in blossoms in Europe.

Ortalid in coconut.--Scholastes bimaculatus Hendel (Ortalidae) was
intercepted at Honolulu inside a coconut shell in cargo from Tutuila, American Samoa.

Thrips from England and Scotland.--Frankliniella intonsa adusta Uz. was intercepted at Philadelphia on heather in the mail from England and on dried flowers in the mail from Scotland. J. R. Watson remarks that this thrips, which is common in flowers in Europe, does not occur in this country

Scolytid from India.--Coccotrypes bassiaevorus Hopt. (Scolytidae) was intercepted at Washington, D. C., in 'seed of Phoenix reclinata and P. 1ylve~ tris in the mail from Calcutta, India.

Thrips from England.--Thrips discolor Hal. was intercepted at Phila delphia with heather in the mail from England. This represents the first record of this thrips being taken by inspectors of the Bureau of Plant Quar antine.

Scale insect on fig branch.--Ceroplastes rusci (Linn.) (0occ'i.de) was intercepted at New York on a fig branch in baggage from Italy.






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Weevil from Scotland.--A larva of Ceutorhynchus ericae Gyll. (Curculionidae) was found at Philadelphia on heather in the mail from the Isle of Islay, Scotland.

Weevil on banana.debris.--A living adult of Conotrachelus cristatus Fahraeus (Curculionidae) was intercepted at Charleston, S. C., on banana debris in cargo from Costa Rica.

Tenebrionid in orchid.--A living adult of Gonocephalum depressum
Fabr. (Tenebrionidae) was intercepted at San Francisco in an orchid plant (Phalaenopsis sanderiana) in cargo from the Philippines.

Thrips from Germany.--Lispothrips crassipes (Jab.) was intercepted
at Washington, D. C., on Eunhorbia bupleurifolia, E. captiosa, andE. 2pseudogiobosa in the mail and express from Germany. J. R. Watson states that this species does not occur in this country.

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Canna rust collected in Puerto Rico.--A canna leaf collected in the field at Mayaguez, P. R., was found to be badly infected with Puccinia cannae which, according to Stevenson's manual, is often very destructive.

Funeral wreath carries plant diseases.--A funeral wreath from Germany was the source of several interceptions from Philadelphia, including a mildew (0idium sp.) on oak leaves and a leaf spot (Phyllosticta sp.) on maple leaves.

Lilium auratum in bad con&ition.--A large shipment of Lilium auratum from Japan was found to be badly deceyed'when inspected at Vancouver, B. C., by the representatives of this Bureau. Samples sent to Washington were found to have a combination of Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., and Fusarium sp. Rots by Penicillium and Rhizopus following injury are common, but the status of the Fusarium, which was very much in evidence in these bulbs, is in doubt.

Euonymus shot-hole leaf spot.--For some time the inspectors at Seattle have been sending in occasional specimens of Euonymus leaves from Japan which had small holes with thickened suberized margins. The cause of this shothole effect is as yet unsolved. Some twigs with affected leaves which were in excellent condition when received had a few spots with the excised tissue in place. One of these bits of tissue bore a few spots of Cercospora sp. A similar shot-hole effect is produced on leaves of Prunus spp. in the State of Washington and elsewhere by Cercospora circumscissa. The Euonymus twigs were placed in a moist chamber but the Cercospora failed to develop. Pestalozzia sp. developed elsewhere on the leaves and spread over the shot-hole lesions.

Nemas in lily of the valley elusive.--Lily of the valley pips sent in from New York from a number of shipments appeared similar to those suffering from nematode infestations, but in most cases it was not possible to locate









any parasitic forms in the material, and when found they were very few in number. It is believed likely that in some lots in which no parasitic nemas were found infestation had existed.

NEW INSECT GENUS FOUND ON ORCHID

It not infrequently happens that in the course of inspection an entirely new species, or even a.new genus, is discovered on plant material coming from foreign countries. Such a case occurred recently in connection with an orchid importation. A single plant of the species Phalaenopsis sanderiana arrived-from the Philippines at San Francisco on October 5, 1932, and the plant quarantine inspectors there took from it an insect specimen which was forwarded to Washington for identification. This insect proved
to be -a new genus of the family Miridae-, probably closely related to the existing genus Pachypeltis. A majority of the numerous genera of the Miridae are plant feeders (leaf bugs, plant bugs), while others are of predacious habits.

TYLENCHUS DIPSACI IN SPRECKELIA BULBS

Tylenchus dipsaci was found present in a shipment of 500 Spreckelia
bulbs at the Washington, D. C., inspection house on November l1. These bulbs otherwise known as the St. James lily, originated in Holland. The infestation appeared to be general throughout the lot, as all.bulbs examined contained nemas. Dr. G. Steiner, of the Office of Nematology, who confirmed the preliminary-identification by D. P. Limber, states that this species has not previously been recorded on Spreckelia in America, and that the only previous report of its occurrence on this host was from Holland in 1920.

As noted by Mr. Limber in the course of inspection, the infestation was frequently heavy in individual bulbs, and was characterized by reddish streaks in the.white tissue of the neck, which streals may often be seen
without cutting the bulbs. In the leaf deficit :.spilthels" are fDund as in narcissus. The symptoms s within the bulbs are also of the ringed type met in narcissus, the rings being pink or red. Brown or black-colored tissue may occur, in which nemas are present, but this is apparently a later stage in which oxidation or fungus decomposition has taken piace.

CHINA INJAUGURATES QUARANTINE SER.ICE2

Through a request for information on quar3oiine affairs we learn
that the National Government of the Republic of Chrina is establishing a plant quarantine service which will endeavor to deal with the spread of Tests within the Republic as well as to guard against their entrance from other countries. IT is to be expected that as this Ladi:.iis rat{on gets under ,*y i will be of considerable value to other nLions by acting as a clear g aoUse for information on the insects and' diseases of China, knowledge of which has heretofore been much too scanty.





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NOVEMBER INTERCEPTIONS A LO0W RECORD

November interceptions dropped to an extremely low figure, the total being 592 as compared to 921 for October. The drop would have been much greater except for an increase of 95 interceptions from San Juan. No interceptions were received during, November from Buffalo, Calexico, Columbus, Corpus Christi, Del Rio, Douglas, Eagle Pass, Fabens, Galveston, Houston, Naco, Norfolk, Port Arthur, Portland, Rio Grande City, Roma, San Ysidro, Sasabe, or Ysleta. Other ports sent in total interceptions as follows:, Baltimore 10, Bellingham 11 ,Blaine 4k, Boston 27, Brownsville 1, Charleston 45, Chicago 2, Detroit 5, El Paso 17, Hidalgo 2, Laredo 9, Mercedes 1, Mobile 26, New Orleans 44, New York 56, Nogales 3, Philadelphia 192, Presidio 2, San Juan 123, Savannah 5, Seattle 16, and Zapata 1.

Some inorts do not appear to be averaging more than one insect and one disease interception per month for each ins-,ector. This seems to be much lower than it should be. We understand that one reason for this low record is that some inspectors do not report common insects and diseases. Many inspectors are able to determine much of the intercepted material correctly, and it is unnecessary to send in specimens of each interception under such circumstances. The form 1{o. 279 should be filled out and sent in for each such interception, however; otherwise our records are incomplete. On the other hand, it often happens that additional diseases not in evidence at the port have developed sufficiently to be recognized by the time material reaches Washington.

In order that we may present an accurate picture of the condition of plant material reaching our ports it is necessary to have data that are as complete as possible. When the flow of material lessens, an opportunity is presented for a more thorough inspection of all material, with a chance of finding something new and possibly important.

In any event it is suggested that each inspector takce stock of the possibilities of finding pests in the material he inspects, analyze these possibilities, and make sure that he is making the most of his opportunities
in every phase of his work.

HOW I14SECTS TRAVEL

Many people who come into slight contact with plant quarantines have the impression that the pest risk on which quarantine action is based is but a highly theoretical affair. This attitude arises largely from the fact that the mere cursory examination sometimes made by the average person fails to reveal anything which he would recognize as a -pest. It takes training and experience to find such pests, and a careful examination is needed to assure the freedom of any shipment from uzyv*elcome insect passengers.

While the majority of imports of fruit, vegetables, nursery stock, and








other materials capable of carrying insects and diseases may be found by the inspector to be free from important pests, the number of incoming shipments on which insects or diseases are found is quite impressive. The following case indicates how an ordinary, perfectly innocent-looking package may be a
veritable hive of pests.

Four packages of orchid plants sent by an exporter in Colombia, South America, to an-American grower, were brought in last October and were given the usual inspection at Washington, D. C. The plants had been well packed in dried leaves. RHw many insects may have wandered out from these packages it transit from Colombia it is hard to say, but when examination was made herE they still constituted almost a little insect menagerie. Here is the passenger list: 9 different species of ants; 5 distinct kinds of beetles; 5 species of cockroaches; 2 moths; 1 cricket; 1 predacious bug; and 1 insect living on decayed matter.

Some of the species contained in the shipment can, of course, be classed as undesirables; but apart from any question of pest status this importation presents a striking example of the manner in which an endless array of foreign insects might enter this country if quarantines were not maintained. And we venture to say that neither the grower to whom this lot was consigned, nor any casual observer, would have .seen much to attract his attention in th* shipment, even with its swarm of 24 different insect species.

It is perhaps needless to add that these orchid plants were well fumigated and the packing replaced by excelsior before the shipment went forward to its destination.

HIDING THEM FROM THE INSPECTOR

D. E. Gower, of the Detroit office, reports the interception there on November 25 of 315 tulip bulbs which the owner was attempting to smuggle from Canada, concealed back of the cushions in his car and wrapped in a number of paper bags. The owner's story was that the season was late and he wanted to avoid the delay in planting that would be involved in complying with the regulations. This story sounds well until one recalls the awkward fact that the proper Canadian inspection could be had at Windsor at any time, and that equally prompt arrangements for a permit could be made at Detroit. A fine of $6.90 was imposed by Customsand the bulbs were held for destruction.

ANOTHER CASE OF CONCEALMENT

This time it is mango seeds, placed in the parcel-post mail in Hawaii for dispatch to an addressee in California. Although the contents of the package had been described to the postal clerk as "preserves," and the package itself bore the statement "Mdse-preserves," it was found on examination by the plant quarantine inspector in Hawaii to contain mango seeds. Closer scrutiny by the inspector disclosed the presence in the seeds of three living






larvae of the mango weevil, on account of which mangoes are excluded by us froma large part of the World. This shipment was in violation of two postal regulations designed to.aid quarantine enforcement--it was falsely marked, and was also without the inspection certificate required in connection with all plant materials accepted, for parcel-post shipment interstate.

ARGENTINA SENDS INSPECTORS TO EXAMINE AMERICAN APPLES

Through arrangements made by eastern apple growers and exporters, two accredited representatives of the Argentina Department of Agriculture have spent the months of November and December at the port of New York inspecting apple shipments destined to their country. On December 3 these representatives began a 5-day visit to the apple-growing sections of Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia, and also spent some time at Washington. They were accompanied on this field trip by E. R. Sasscer and W. A. McCubbin, of this Bureau, and also by P. 0. Ortiz, of the New York office, who acted as interpreter on scientific problems.

A request is now being made by the exporters concerned, with the backihg of the eastern apple growers, to have this Bureau send two inspectors to Argentina; in the hope that by appraising the situation there and by making a point-of-origin inspection for insects and diseases, the risk run by importers here of having their shipments refused on account of infestation will be in some measure reduced, thus resulting in freer buying from Argentina and a consequent greater inducement on the part of that country to take more of our products, particularly apples.

THE DETACHED VIEWPOINT

The plant pest problems which affect this country may often be seen in their truest perspective on those rare occasions when we can free ourselves from personal and local bias, and in the role of innocent bystanders view their development in some other part of the world. Here is a timely illustration.

Austria, as reported in the International Bulletin of Plant Protection for October, 1932, has just recently discovered San Jose scale in her midst, the first reports having been made in the autumn of 1931. Following this disconcerting development strenuous measures are now being taken there to eradicate this much-dreaded pest. Trees known to be infested, are unhesitatingly destroyed, being drenched with gasoline and burnt on the spot. HCN fumigation is also being tried out. The Austrian authorities believe that the infestation was started by nursery trees brought into the country from Hungary, where this scale has been known to exist since 192g. They further suspect that the pest may also have a wider distribution in Europe than is known at present. Consequently the Austrian government now prescribes that all deciduous trees and shrubs coming into the country must be inspected before shipment, and must bear a certificate stating that they have been given effective HCN fumigation.




PLANT ARD








Hungary is also becoming concerned about this pest, which is known to be present in at least two districts, and compulsory control measures have been set up under organized State supervision. This organization also supervises export fumigation and certification. Hungary is in doubt as to where her supply of scale came from, since she has never had any dealings with America in the matter of nursery stock. She hints, however, that, introduction on fruit being improbable, her infestation.probably cqme in on cuttings and nursery products imported in considerable amounts from another (unnamed) European country into which San Jose scale had been introduced from America undetected.

Post-mortems are distasteful in quarantines, but if some of our native critics of quarantine matters would strive to analyze. to the full the little foreign happenings cited, a process which could be undertaken with fitting detachment, and would then bring their conclusions back into our own count-ry't affairs, we 'might expect them to exhibit a more correct attitude toward current exclusion measures.

Incidentally one may surmise that both Austria and Hungary, as well as the other unnamed nation, are at present inclined to express their feelings in the matter in the same old sad, sad words: "If we only had----f"




DOMESTIC PLANT QUAPRANTINES

TRANSIT INSPECTION

The recent interception at Boston of a white pine and two juniper trees moving from Canada into the United States in violation of Federal plant quarantines is reported by Mr. McNerney. He also reports the finding of a gipsy moth egg mass on a crate of rough slabs containing laurel wreaths. Five such crates were moving to Boston frbm a point in the infested area in New Hampshire. The egg mass was removed and destroyed.

Reports of 154 shipments of nursery stock and other plants and plant products moving without State nursery inspection certificates attached are received from the Chicago office. These were seen during approximately a 2-month period and 'each was promptly reported to the officers of the States concerned. The parcel-post shipments of this nature are being reported to the Post Office Department as infringements of the postal regulation'requiring a State nursery inspection certificate in shipping woody plants. The number given does not include those which also constituted violations of Federal plant quarantines.

The European corn borer quarantines of the various States have been
summarized by the Bureau and the compilation has been published as BPQ--346,






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dated December 10. Twenty States have issued such quarantines since the revocation of Federal Quarantine No. 43, according to the records of this
Bureau.

Graphic illustrations of the shipments found in violation of Federal
plant quarantines during the fiscal year 1932 have been recently worked up on outline mans of the United States. The maps show in a very interesting manner the large number of shipments which would have reached the different States, in fact every State in the Union, without having met the safeguards required by the quarantine regulations, had not the interceptions been made.
A separate map, showing the points of origin and destination of the shipments as well as the places where they were intercepted, was made for violations of
each quarantine.

An analysis has recently been made of the number of plant shipments
inspected at various interception points for each violation found. The average for the United States for each of the four fiscal years just past is as
follows: Number of
Shipments Shipments
Year Inspected Violations Per Violations

1929 507,060 679 714
1930. 1,003, 413 11114 901
1931 1,092,883 2,311 473
1932 1,652,996 2,981 554

There is considerable variation at the different stations. In general,
inspectors located near or within the area regulated under a quarantine covering a wide variety of products find more violations to the number of shipments examined than inspectors located at greater distances. The stations where the
largest number of violations were found in proportion to the number of shipments checked are listed below in ranking order:

1929 1930 i931 1932

St. Louis Washington Albany Shreveport
Ogden Baltimore Boston Boston
Omaha Indianapolis Atlanta New York
Portland Atlanta New York Atlanta
St. Paul Chicago Washington Washington

PHONY PEACH DISEASE

A public hearing at which consideration was given to the extension of
the phony peach disease quarantine to parts or all of the States of Missouri and Oklahoma as well as to several localities in Arkansas, Illinois, and Tex< as where new infections were found last summer, was held at Memphis on December 13. Various modifications of the conditions governing the issuance of






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permits were suggested, and the question of the possible discontinuance of the Federal quarantine was brought up by a number of those in attendance* Active interest in the entire subject was shownvm and the discussions continued until 4:30 p. m. Forty-two persons were present representing nursery interests, State quarantine organizations, and the bureaus of Plant Industry and Plant Quarantine. The States represented were Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas.

WHITE- PINE BLISTER RUST

The State of Vermont has given official notice under date of December 6, 1932, of the establishment of white-pine blister rust control areas in the State. It reads as follows:

"NOTICE OF ESTABLISHMENT OF WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST CONTROL AREAS

By authority of Section 432 of the General Laws, I hereby
designate as White Pine Blister Rust control areas all parts of the State of Vermont within 900 feet of any stands of White Pine
either natural or planted and the area within 1,500 feet of the
boundaries of the State Forest Tree Nursery at Essex Junction.
The planting of either currant or gooseberry (Ribes spp.) bushes within these control areas contrary to this section is subject to
the penalties imposed under Section 434 of the general laws.

(Signed) E. H. JONES,
Commissioner of Agriculture,.
December 6, 1932. Montpelier, Vermont."

The Federal white-pine blister rust quarantine makes provision for the protection of States having such legally-established blister rust control areas, by requiring that anyone shipping currant and gooseberry plants into such States shall first secure control-area permit tags and attach them to the shipment. Such permits are issued by the State quarantine official, who is also designated to act for the Bureau of Plant Quarantine. Under this procedure, the State is able to prevent Ribes from coming into areas Where their planting is prohibited. Other States which have established'such areas are: Connecticut, Idaho, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, and Rhode Island.



DATE SCALE

During the month of November the Martinez district in the Coachella
Valley was inspected and no scale found. The last serious outbreak of scale was found in this district in July, 1929. The last scale found in this district was in September, 1931. No scale has been found in the Coachella Valley









during the past 12 months.

In the Salt River Valley ir Arizona one infested palm was found, the
first in two 'years. The palm was first found infested in 1927 and treated at that time. Evidently not all the scale was killed and it developed on the leaf bases behind the fiber where it could not be found by ordinary inspection and no leaf-base work was done'., When an offshoot or sucker grew out 6f the base, green material was available for the scale to settle on and it was readily discovered.

In the Imperial Valley four Canary Island palms which were found infested in'June, 1932, and defoliated and sprayed at that time, showed scale -during November. The palms were heavily infested when found and some scale had settled in the bud where they were inaccessible to treatment. As the bud unfolded the scale was exposed. Due to the rapid growth of the bud, the scale can be eliminated by spraying and cutting off the infested leaves as they unfold.




EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND JAPANESE BEETLE

Specialized Corn Borer Activities

State quarantines restricting the movement of articles subject to European.corn borer infestation, or embargoes prohibiting the movement into the State's concerned of host material, have been promulgated by twenty-one States since the lifting on July 15, 1932, of Federal Quarantine No, 143, on account of the European corn borer. States against which the quarantines or embargoes are directed are those included in the revoked Federal Quarantine No. 43, namely, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania* West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana. State quarantine or ,embargo orders or proclamations have been issued by Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, GeQrgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

Inventory of corn borer equipment on hand at the Springfield, Ohio, headquarters was .in progress preliminary to removal of the property to the New Cumberland, Pa., Army Base for storage..

Exclusive Japanese Beetle Work

Diggings to determine larval presence in the six poisoned plots in
Philadelphia used during the summer in the smartweed-trapping demonstration were made from October 214 to November 14. Rain caused practically a week's interruption in the digging operations. Six hundred and eighty-seven holes, each 2 square. feet in surface area and 6 inches deep, were dug 20 feet apart






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throughout the plots. These diggings were also extended to cover the surrounding untreated area for a distance of 20 feet beyond the poisoned sections. All larvae collected were sent to the South Norwalk headquarters, where deter-mination of species wts made. Of 3,573 larvae collected, 3,207 were identified as Popillia japonica. Although these plots with one exception were treated with lead arsenate at the approved dosage of 1,500 pounds per acre, it is not surprising that grubs were collected in the quantities noted. The original condition of the plots did not permit the small amount of plowing and harrowing done to put the soil in good tilth. None of the plots contained fertile soil. Many of them contained mixtures of concrete, gravel, rock, cinders, plaster, ashes, and various kinds of rubbish and debris.- This was a first-year treatment with lead arsenate and no further cultivations of the soil were made. Most of the soil plots baked and packed hard, and in general the work did not permit sufficient stirring of the plot to thoroughly incorporate the poison with the upper 3 inches of soil. Conditions in the Philadelphia plots were not at all comparable to those in a nursery block treated in accordance with the quarantine fumigation requirements. In nursery treatments, the soil is invariably friable, mellow, and fertile, with good drainage and humus content. It is cultivated frequently and kept in good tilth, so that the upper 3 inche of soil are maintained with a constant toxic dosage of lead arsenate. Similar diggings made on October 12 in the treated demonstration plot on the grounds of the White Horse, N. J., district office resulted in the collection of 27 larvae from 60 holes, each covering 4 square feet. None of the larvae collected proved to be Japanese beetle grubs. While the field in which the demonstration was staged at White Horse was decidedly unfertile, it did approximate nursery conditions more nearly than the plots in Philadelphia and therefore yielded fewer larvae, none of which were Japanese beetle grubs, although 633 ,35 beetles had been caught in the traps in place on the plots from June 29 to August 20.

:.In the case of nursery properties under single ownership andrnragement, .but represented by parcels of land widely separated, quarantine regulations permit independent classification- of such parcels as either Class I (uninfest-, ed and subject to minimum restrictions) or Class III (infested and subject to strict regulation). Thus the finding of one or more beetles on a single nursery plot of an establishment comprised of five widely separated fields affects only the one infested section. During the month a number of large uninfested nursery establishments on the lower Del-Mar-Va Peninsula have been mapped and the individual farms recorded as independent units. Divided in this manner, records are more easily kept of summer scouting operations in and about the various separated units, and classification records are in readiness for adjustment if and when an infestation is discovered on any one of the independent units. Also permissible under the regulations is the subdivision of a unit nursery property for the purpose of assigning a certain portion of the unit to Class III and-the remainder to Class I. "Split ciassification," as this is commonly termed, is permissible only in the instance of recent and scanty infestation limited to a portion of-the nursery unit.






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That portion of the subdivision for 500 feet-beyond the point where an infestation was discovered is assigned to Class III. Such Class III section or sections must be clearly marked by boundaries of a permanent nature, such as roadways, fences, streams, or rows of trees. Before any nursery may be granted "split classification," the property concerned must be carefully mapped to scale by inspectors familiar with the premises. Records of infestation on the establishment and in the general vicinity are entered on the map. Permanent boundaries of the Class III section are then determined for at least a 500-foot radius from the point of infestation. All records and maps are then submitted for approval by the*Chief of the Bureau, decision being made on the merits of the individual nursery concerned. Reclassifica.tions on this basis were pending during November of four nurseries in sparsely infested sections of southeastern Pennsylvania,

Tentative trapping schedules prepared for the summer of 1933 contemplate.66,000 trap placements. This will require that 10,000 of the project's supply of 56,000 traps be used twice during the season. There is nbw on hand standard bait, consisting of bran, molasses, glycerine, eugenol, and geraniol sufficient for operating 25,000 traps next summer. This bait was mixed last May. Experiments conducted at the Moorestown, N. J., laboratory have determined that year-old bait kept in sealed cans loses none of its potency. In the remaining 41,000 traps will be used liquid bait consisting of a mixture of 1 part eugenol to 10 parts geraniol. Thisliquid bait was extensively tested during the past beetle season by Fred Metzger, of the Bureau of Entomologyts laboratory at Moorestown. Results of the experiments have justified the adoption of the liquid bait for use in the project's extensive trapping operations to determine spread of the Japanese beetle in cities and towns in nonregulated territory. Liquid bait is volatilized by means of a wick inserted through a tight-fitting cork into a 1.g-ounce clear, round glass jar. As now planned, 1 ounce by weight of the liquid bait will be Tlaced in each bottle and the jar closed with an air-tight tin cap. Before racing in the trap, the
cap will be removed and the cork containing the wick wi 1 be inserted. The Jar thus filled and corked will then be placed in the r(. 1r perforated bait tray, where its dimensions are such as to permit it to Cf i snugly .without slipping. A few of the Isvantages obtained thro :Ch the I :f liquid bait are the ease of trans-corti:vr the liquid bait and ith it bit- the trans as compared to the tranS o station facilities required. for I:- ling large ~uantities of the bulky b:an o t, and the further fact that iarid bait volatilizes at full strength as 1~on as any of the essential oils remain in the glass jar, whereas the bran bait decreases in strength some time before it is practicable to replace it with fresh bait. Invitations were distributed late in the month for bids on 320 gross of the clear, round glass jars. Caps, corks, and wicks will be purchased separately. Jars desired are 1-3/4 inches in diameter, 2-3/4 inches high, with a nech opening of 1-1/16 inches.

Discontinuance of all vehicular inspection stations then in operation
in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania wras accomplished between November 9 and 26. Signs and other equipment were first assembled at Hagerstown, Md., and









later trucked to the South Norwalk headquarters for storage. Inspectors- stationed at the posts were reduced in numbers on November 15. Stations on the border of the isolated zone surrounding Norfolk and Portsmouth, Va., were closed by November 12. Two stations guarding exit roads from Washington, D. C.,.and adjacent regulated territory were abandoned on November 21 and 26, respectively. Posts on three roads leading from western Maryland were closed late in the month. Of the seven stations operating in Pennsylvania on November 1, two-were discontinued on November 15. The remainder continued in operation until their abandonment between November 22 and 25. Closing of the stations required in a number of instances hauling away of considerable dirt used to fill in about the post and to improve the appearance of the inspectio stations. Booths used at these stations were temporarily stored near each post on private property, the owners of which offered free storage space for the small wooden structures. In arranging to move to temporary storage an unused booth located at one of the Pennsylvania posts closed last August, it was found that Hallowe'en revelers had upset the booth, although no damage was done. Late in the month, booths which had been used at New York State road posts-last spring and which have since remained near the original posts were loaded aboard trucks and delivered for storage at the Army Base at New Cumberland, Pa.

Specimens of foliage and fruit from a tree supplied the Oakmont office during the adult Japanese beetle feeding season by the owner of an estate at Rosemont, Pa., and which were in turn forwarded to the Japanese beetle research laboratory at Moorestown, N. J., served to confirm previous reports concerning the lethal effect on the Japanese beetle of the silver bell tree, Halesia carolina. An instance of the paralyzing effect of this newly-reporte host plant previously came to the attention of the Moorestown laboratory late in the summer of 1931 through officials of a Trenton, N. J., bank. It was stated that beetles in apparently large numbers had been killed after having eaten the foliage of a tree growing in the rear of the bank building. When al investigation was made it was found that the tree had been cut down because o: building operations on the site. Specimens were obtained, however, of a near. by tree which was said to be of the same species. This proved to be the silvi bell tree, but no definite evidences of feeding on the foliage were observed. Receipt from the Rosement estate owner of the specimen showing apparent characteristic beetle injury with the statement that it had killed beetles feedir4 upon it, served to confirm the silver bell tree as a host having lethal or paralyzing effects on the Japanese beetle similar to those observed for years when the insect feeds on cultivated geranium (Pelargonium),

Tentative schedules have been prepared and are already in operation of administrative furloughs to be taken by field employees whose duties are of such a seasonal nature that by doubling up with other employees the limited amount of nursery and greenhouse supervision during the winter months may be cared for without undue interference with movement of stock subject to certification. Usually about two million plants are certified during each of the most severe winter months, while over twenty million plants are certified






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during an active shipping month in a normal year. This contracted demand for certification has always permitted reduction of the personnel to a minimum skeleton force during the winter, but this year's shipping conditions are such as to permit alternate administrative furloughing of most of'the skeleton force of appointed employees.

Release by the Department of a news article describing results of planting weeds to' determine how their growth may affect later plantings of tobacco serves to confirm results obtained in last summer's attempt in Philadelphia to obtain good stands.of smartweed by gathering the seed and broadcasting it the preceding fall. Very poor stands of the weeds were obtained on the planted plots, although in some cases other weeds grew abundantly. In describing the weed experiments in connection with the tobacco crop, it is stated that "Weeds apparently thrive on opposition. Although the weeds grow readily under natural conditions, they did not grow so readily when they were planted. There was difficulty in making some of the planted weeds grow at all." Last summer's experience with smartweed proved it to be no exception to this finding.

After November 30, immediate supervision of quarantine operations in Hartford and Tolland Counties in Connecticut will be transferred from T. M. Cannon to J. P. Johnson, district supervisor of Connecticut with headquarters at New Haven. Agent G. W. Burke, working under Mr. Johnson's direction, will assume charge of quarantine operations in these two counties. Mr. Burke's address will be Box 123, Hartford, Conn. Mr. Cannon on October 21 moved his office from Hartford to Springfield, Mass. He has assumed charge of quarantine operations in western Massachusetts. Office space has been provided for Mr. Cannon in Room 429 of the new Post Office Building in Springfield, opening of which took place September 26 last.

Among the oddities which require Japanese beetle certification prior to shipment from regulated territory is a mixture of soil, peat, and humus used as a medium in which to ship Enchytrae, or small white earthworms said to be choice food for goldfish. A number of individuals within the quarantined zone propagate these worms and ship them to distant points. Since the breeding operations require very sterile conditions of the soil, the peat mixture is %ubjected to a heat treatment of 5200 F. for one hour before the Enchytrae are introduced. This baking is quite sufficient to rid the mixture of any stages of the Japanese beetle that might be present and enables certification of the product without further treatment.

Cooperation on the part of a number of express agents recently has
prevented the delivery of contraband material known to be travelling in violation of Japanese beetle quarantine regulations. Transit inspectors stationed in New York City have intercepted one or more pieces of lot shipments of uncertified quarantined articles. The remaining pieces of the shipments in the rush of express transfer operations have escaped observation and proceeded to their destinations. Telegrams' from the South Norwalk headquarters dispatched to the receiving express agents have resulted in the return to the











shippers of the pieces which escaped detection by the transit inspectors.

Although but two lots of infested plants were intercepted by road inspectors during November, each of the lots contained eight Japanese beetle grubs which might readily have started infestations had they reached their destinations. One Philadelphia motorist surrendered three infested evergreen trees, which he intended to move to Lynchburg, Va. Another motorist from the same city while en route to Charlotte', N. C., was intercepted with two potted plants containing grubs as above noted. Both infested shipments were surrendered at the road inspection station near Woodbridge, Va.

Inspection of cut flowers in the wholesale cut flower market of Philadelphia during the effective dates of the quarantine on this commodity, June 15 to October 15, inclusive, resulted in the removal of 1,432 adult beetles from cut flowers certified for shipment to firms and individuals outside the regulated zone. Three inspectors were assigned to the work during this seasonal quarantine.

While personnel was available, surveys were made in unregulated portions of Pennsylvania and Maryland in order that data concerning nursery and greenhouse operations might be available to cover such territory as might possibly be included in any extension of area to be effected in the near future. Surveys of similar establishments were also made in the cities and towns last summer found to be infested in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts.

Office space for the Virginia district office, recently established by H. N. Bartley, has been rented in the Broad-Grace Arcade Building in Richmond. Miss Gayle St. Clair, clerk-typist, was transferred from South Norwalk to Richmond, effective December 1, to perform routine clerical work at the newly opened district headquarters.

Preparation was in progress during November of a paper entitled "Economic Status of the Japanese Beetle in 1932," by Messrs. Worthley and Stockwell. The paper is intended for presentation at the December meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomology to be held in Atlantic City, N.J. Mr. Stockwell will read the paper.

Information was compiled early in the month for use by the Chief of the Bureau in supporting the Department 's appropriation request for "Preventing Spread of the Japanese Beetle" in the hearing before the Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations.

Eleven items of office furniture owned by the State of Pennsylvania.
were recently transferred from the Calanont district headquarters to the newly established gipsy moth office in Wilkes-Barre.







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MEXICAN FRUIT PLY

The first application of poison bait spray to all host-fruit trees in Matamnoros was completed on November 25. This bait was applied to 6,244 trees on 619 premises. The second application was started on the 27th. Two laborers were used in applying the bait-to the trees. Seven-foot extensions of
-Inch pipe were fitted to the nozzles of 3-gallon pressure type sprayer tanks in order to apply the spray as a mist to the foliage of the tall sour orange trees, which could not otherwise be reached except with the aid of a stepladder. The use of the extension resulted in an excellent application of the spray. Very little opposition to the spray work on the part of the citizens of the city was encountered; some few objected at first to the application of the bait, but after having the necessity of the work explained by the Mexican inspector, allowed their trees to be sprayed.

Three adult flies were taken on the 9th in the traps operated on the premise in Matamoros on which a number of flies were taken last month. No other flies were taken in the 205 traps operated on the 7)4 other premises on which traps were operated.

The fruit arriving in Matamnoros from the interior of Mexico has shown a very light degree of infestation during the past two months. It will be recalled that no infested fruit was recovered in October, that being the first month to elapse with no infested imported fruit being recovered since a full-time inspector was assigned to Matamoros in 1929. Only four imported oranges were found infested during November. Bight larvae were taken from these oranges, which originated in Mlontemorelos, In the State of Nueva Leon. Whether the absence of infested fruit in Matamoros is the result of climatic conditions at the points of origin, control measures carried out by the growers, or closer culling at the time of shipment, is not known. The four infested oranges were contained in shipments of four cars of bulk oranges from
Montemorelos.

Excellent weather conditions prevailed throughout the month for grove inspections. There was not enough rain to interfere with field work and the weather was cool enough to be invigorating. Two light frosts occurred during the month which damaged tender vegetables somewhat, bitl it ,-qs not enough t o injure the c11t ru s. Gro ves wvere f ound t o I- c -' 1c 21l r ts, 7 !-1 !7 condition, it being necessary to withhold only 137 "grO ,, cirancesl" c 7,059 inspections made. Due to the light crop and excellent weather co--Iditions prevailing during the month, the trees held the fruit well and there were remarkably few "drops" or windfalls.

The Falfurrias road traffic inspection station was completed and 2)4hour inspection service was inaugurated on the 9th. The eronlof this station is composed of four inspectors. The station a' Rio Grande City was opened on the 2nd writh one inspector on duty. This station controls the old









Military Highway which follows the river up to Laredo. Very little traffic leaves the valley over this route. A mobile patrol was put in operation on the 23rd covering the ranch roads leading out of the valley to the northwest. This patrol was put on in response to the numerous reports of fruit being stolen which reached this office during the month. No trucks were encountered using these roads during the remainder of the month.

Truckers and the public generally have been well educated in the requirements of the master permits on commercial shipments of fruit. The use of these permits requires the inspectors to answer many calls after office hours. During November, 727 calls were made between 6 p. m. and 8 a. m., and on Sundays and holidays. Packers are as considerate as possible in rushing their loadings so that they do not have to call on the inspectors at later hours than necessary.



PINK BOLLWORM

The intensive field inspection program in northern Florida was continued as long as there was sufficient material in the fields to make the inspections advisable, which was most of the month. Practically all fields in the counties under regulation, and a large percentage of the fields in the adjoining counties, were inspected. The gin-trash machine was also continued in operation in counties outside the regulated areas as long as there was sufficient trash. When the gin-trash machine and field inspection were discontinued, several inspectors began work in the laboratory at Miami examining material which had previously been collected. No pink bollworms were found by any method of inspection during the month of November.

Seed from the regulated area of northern Florida has been allowed to
move to designated oil mills in southern Georgia to be crushed under close supervision. In lieu of sterilization such seed has been fumigated with carbon bisulphide after being loaded, and is milled directly from the cars. A number of farmers, however, desired to retain some seed for planting and other purposes. In other areas planting seed has always been sterilized unless procured from areas not -.nder regulation. The gins in this area are not so modern, sAd none of them had steam available for sterilization. Therefore, a sterilizer was built in the mechanical shops, in which the heat is supplied by generating steam in a coil witL a larrge blowtorch. This machine was mounted on a triler and sent to the Fin at Lake City, Fla. where a very excellent job. of steriiing the seed is nov oeing done.

Upon c letin of the field inspection program the clean-up of cotton fields withir a5. mile _.adius of the two infested fields in the regulated area of Florida was beg h. The method of cleaning these fields consists of picking
all balls, locks, etc., from the stalks,, in addition to gathering any which have fallen to the ground. Because of poor cultivation a number of the fields







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contain a rank growth of weeds, grass, et c.- which makes the cleaning somewhat difficult. There are some 350 acres to be cleaned, and at the end of November 210 acres had been cleaned. This clean-up will probably be completed within the next two weeks.

It will be recalled that during June and July all wild cotton was removed from the keys over which the road to Key West passes down to the first ferry. Since that time a considerable number of seedling and sprout plants have come up. Many-of these sprouts came from small roots left in the ground during the previous Clean-up. It has been estimated that there is now approximately one-eighth as much cotton as in the beginning. Some of the seedlings which came up early in the season are now 3 or 4 feet high and beginning to fruit, Therefore, it was considered advisable to reclean these keys immediately. This work had been completed on two of the keys and a portion of a third at the close of November. In a few instances small colonies of plants were found which had been overlooked during the first clean-up, and, of course, these were removed during the present clean-up,

The clean-up of fields in the heavily infested Big Bend area of Texas is progressing very satisfactorily. In this area the method of clean-up consists of cutting and piling the stalks, then picking all material from the ground and burning the entire mass. At first hoes were used to cut the stalks, but later machetes were substituted and found to be much more satisfactory, as less material was shattered from the plants during the process of cutting. Since the laborers have become used to the machetes a man can cut and pile stalks on an acre a day. There are approximately 3,000 acres to be cleaned, extending from Ochoa, about 20 miles above*Presidio, down to Polvo, about 20 miles below Presidio. This does not include the entire Big Send area but only the most heavily infested part. At the end of November some 700 acres had teen cleaned. In the beginning only surplus labor was used and 'the work was not pushed so fast, so as to give 'the farmers a chance to get their cotton picked. Most of the picking has now been completed, and with additional laborers added the clean-up is progressing much faster.

The possibility of infested material being washed down the Rio Grande
.by floods was discussed in a previous News Letter. Early in November a number of inspectors began examining various kinds of drift along the river to cet rmine whether or not this had happened. Each man was ea.p;d rzth a small short-handled rake, which was found to be very useful in tearing apart the .large masses of debris. Examinations were made along the river front on the American side from a point about 5 miles below Eagle Pass northward to Langtry, which is a distance by road of approximately 125 miles. The most intensive work was done from the routh of Devils River southward, to a point about halfway between Del Rio and Eagle Pass. Several cotton stalks, bolls, and small seedling plants were found in the vicinity of Eagle Pass. It was learned that some 300 acres of cotton in Mexico, up the river from Eagle Pats, had'been flooded, and 60 or 70 tons of seed cotton washed into the river. Since no






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cotton products of any kind were found above the Mexican fields, it seems almost certain that the plants found in Eagle Pass came from the Mexican fields and not from the Big'Bend area.

Gin-trash inspection has been completed in the old-er regulated areas, with the exception of the Salt River Valley of Arizona, where the results are still negative. The results were also negative in the Tucson area of Arizona and the Midland area of Texas. In each of the remaining areas specimens were found, there being a consid-erable increase in the infestation this season in the Big Bend area of Texas, and a small increase in the upper part of the El Paso Valley of Texas. A-general infestation exists in the other areas, but is somewhat lighter this season.

Gin-trash inspection has been completed outside the regulated areas
except in western Arizona, California, and Lower California. With the exkception of the infestation in northern Florida, no specimens have been found this season in any new areas. Green bolls, bollies, and seed samples have 'been collected in the various cotton States, and the inspection of this ma-, terial will probably be begun during the coming month.




,PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS

All scouting work in the Pennsylvania area was discontinued on I\ovember 4, the agents being transferred to southwestern Massachusetts and northwestern Connecticut, where they took up scouting at sites of old infestations and at locations where male gipsy moths were caught at assembling cages last summer. The few supervisors remaining in Pennsylvania have been plotting in on maps areas where considerable cutting and burning of the food plants of the gipsy moth will be necessary in connection with the eradication work there.

By the middle of November all agents and a few of the supervisors regularly employed on scouting and control work were temporarily transferred to the inspection and certification project to assist in the Christmas tree inspection work, which can not be handled by the regular inspection force. The inspection of Christmas trees started somewhat later this year than usual, but by the end of the month the inspecti on work was at its peak. The inspection of carload lots was rapidly being completed and several carloads were already shipped. One of the first carloads to be moved was consigned from North Clarend-on, Vt., to Omaha, Nebr. Gipsy moth egg clusters have been found on Christmas trees in two towns in Maine.

During the first part of the Christmas tree inspection season this fall the whether was fine and no difficulty was experienced in the handling of trees. Toward the latter part of November there was some snow, followed by rain and cold-er weather. In consequence, numbers of the piled trees were







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covered with snow and ice, which rendered inspection extremely difficult. Particularly in northern Vermont and New Hampshire the roads were in poor condition and in some places were covered with ice which made travel quite dangerous. In the fall of 1931 the Christmas tree operators were bothered considerably because of warm weather, which caused the trees to shed their foliage. This year the weather has been cold and wet in most places, which
kept the, trees in.good condition but interfered to some extent w'tith the rapidity of handling.*

Inspection of evergreen materials to be used in the manufacture of
wreaths, centerpieces, etc., has been continuing without interruption since the start of the season. Many tons of these materials have been inspected. At the larger evergreen manufacturing plants it is necessary to assign several inspectors for this type of work., Evergreen materials are gathered as needed and it is usually necessary to examine several tons of materials each day in order to enable the employe 'es to have sufficient material at hand. Among the materials examined are branches of "red berries," Ilex verticillata, and bayberries. Both of these are used in considerable amounts, particularly the former. In the inspection of either, careful handling is necessary as the berries are'easily broken from the steins, and for this reason only small amounts are insDpected at one time, being then taken directly from the hands of the inspector to the worktables where they are prepared and
inserted into the pieces being finished. From late in the summer until after Christmas, district inspectors, especially those whose districts include towns along the seacoast, are called upon to examine numerous packages of bayberries, most of which are sent by noncommercial shippers to friends or relatives. Outside of a few manufacturers of Christmas greenery *there are apparently no persons engaged in the commercial handling of bayberry. Branches from this shrub covered with the grayish berries are shipped from many places. In the early history of the eastern section of this country the settlers utilized bayberries as a source of wax to be used in the manufacture of candles. Candles prepared from other materials have taken the place of bayberry candles except for ornamental purposes.. In the Cape Cod section of Massachusetts there are one or two factories specializing i n making candles from bayberry wax, but outside of these the making of such candles is principally a home industry. Such candles are sold quite extensively in novelty stores and others dealing in decorative articles. Considerable care has to be exercised in inspecting bayberry twigs in order to avoid breaking off the berries, and also to make certain that they are free from. infestation. In heavily infested sections the gipsy moth feeds to a considerable extent on bayberry and where egg clusters
-are abundant they are'very apt to be found on bayberry branches.

From time to time the inspectors in the various districts are called i~on to examine special shipments of selected wood intended for use in f irePlaces. These shi-pments are usually irade by individuals who have summer Places in the country, who cut fireplace rood on their own properties and later send it to their city homes. Because of the origin of such Oood, it is






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always necessary to examine it thoroughly, particularly if it is shipped from sections where the infestation is severe. A report was received from the Plymouth, N. H., district to the effect that 32 gipsy moth egg clusters were found on a shipment of selected birch logs sent by a property owner to
his winter home in New York.

With the exception of a few specially selected specimens it is only rarely that deciduous shrubs are shipped with earth surrounding the roots. The inspector of the Wakefield, Mass., district reported a short time ago the examination of 2,600 collected low bush blueberries, each one of which was shipped in a sod approximately a foot square. Particular care was exercised in regard to this shipment as both the shipper and the purchaser desired to make certain that the plants would survive.

In the past on numerous occasions it has been reported that various antique or historic structures have been dismantled and shipped from the quarantined area to other sections of the country. Recently an old house
was shipped from western Massachusetts to a New York destination. As it was desired that this structure, which was over 150 years old, be erected in its new home exactly as it was on its original site, every portion was removed
carefully and marked. The framework was of handhewn oak put together with wooden pins and apparently was as sound as when originally erected. The materials were sent to destination by truck, and while of course the framewrork, inside fish, etc., d.id not require inspection, all outside portions were looked over carefully before shipment was permitted.

There has been an endeavor this fall to improve and add to the series of photographs of activities connected with the inspection of evergreen materials certified at this time of year. Cloudy and dark weather has interfered with the obtaining of a complete series of photographs, but it has been possible to get a number of very excellent pictures taken in lots from which evergreen boughs were cut, and also some pictures of baling machines, and piles of boughs and bales awaiting shipment. Photographs of Christmas tree cutting and inspection have also been secured.

At one of the nurseries in eastern Massachusetts which claims to have direct descendants of the famous Washington Elm, one of these descendants was inspected and certified for shipment to the United States Minister to Bulgaria. According to information received, there is to be a Washington bicentennial exposition held in Bulgaria shortly and at that time the United States M!1inister to that country plans to present the Washington Elm to the King of Bulgaria during ceremonies connected with the exposition.

In southern Connecticut there are numerous small mines which produce mica and feldspar. Both of these materials require inspection and certifi cation before shipment. At the present tinie there seems to be considerable demand for these products. Mica is shipped sometimes in quite large sheets and is used principally for elect 'ical insulation. It is also used to a







-23


considerable extent in spark plugs, electric toasters, flatirons, and numerous other appliances. Larger sheets are used for motors, generators, electric furnaces, and stoves. Even the small pieces called scrap mica, find a use, as they are ground and the resulting product used for Christmas "snow,"1 wall patterns, and insulated wall materials. Feldspar is used to a considerable extent for glaze on pottery, tiles, and high-tension insulators. Ground to a very fine powder it is also used as one of the ingredients for a certain manufactured cleaning soap and powder.

The outer bark from a few spoecies of birch trees has long been used
for various decorative purposes. Small strips of it are used for baskets and for covering small blocks which are to be used as bases for table decorations. The bark from the paper or canoe birch (Betula papyrifera) can be peeled from the 'tree in t *hin sheets and, because of its paper-like texture, has been a favorite for decorative purposes. In some cases thin sheets of this bark are used for post cards. In most cases the pieces of bark shipped from the quarantined area are small, but recently there was a shipment sent from one of the Maine districts consisting of 50 sheets, 19 by 2~4 inches in dimension. These were shipped in a crate to a New Jersey destination, where they are to be used for''the construction of miniature Indian tepees by a class of children at an Indian school located in that State. As this bark was in the original condition as'peeled from the trees,' it had to be inspected carefully. No gipsy moth infestation was found on it.

During the month a number of trees 10 to 12 feet in height were obtained from Cape.Cod, Mass., to be set up in the office at Greenf'ield as a more or less permanent exhibit showing a small section of woodland heavily infested with the gipsy moth. On the trees collected are numerous molt skins and pupal cases as well as a heavy deposition of egg clusters. Most of the trees are white oak but a few specimens of pitch pine are included. As other interesting specimens are obtained showing different food plants and othier-objects such as, Fence rails,-signboards, tin cans, etc. on which egg clusters are deposited, they will be added to the exhibit. It is planned to put up a suitable background and from time to time it will be improved as desirable specimens are secured, and as a floor cover representing a typical forest ground cover is arranged. In transporting these trees to Greenfield, extreme care had to be exercised to keep egg clusters, molt skins, and pupal cases intact. Layers of cotton batting were wrapped around the infested parts and strips of burlap wound over the cotton. As the usual method of creosoting the clusters with a brush would be liable to crush them or otherwise impair their value for exhi' itional 'Purposes, carbolic acid was sprayed on the infested parts by a new device similar to an atomizer. This device should prove very useful in the future in treating specimens to be used for exhibitional purposes.

For years assembling cage material has been keot in cold storage but recent results obtained at the gipsy moth laboratory at Melrose Highlands, Mass,, have shown that material keeps better under cellar conditions, where the temperature is cool and with only a small amount of change throughout the




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year. As a result of this finding, work is nearing completion on insulating a room under one of the buildings at Greenfield, in which the assembling cage material is to be stored. It is expected that this room will have a fairly cool and even temperature, and to avoid any danger of freezing (which might ruin the material), a thermostat attached to a small heater is to be installed tcr prevent the temperature nearing'the freezing point.

Since the removal of the assembling cages, scouting work has been carried on around locations where male gipsy moths were trapped this season. These catches are sometimes very helpful in determining the sections of the towns where the infestation is most severe, and the catches in some cases result in leading scouts to infestations which otherwise might not be discovered for some time. As a result of this work, to date infestations have been found in one town in Connecticut and one town in Massachusetts near locations where male gipsy moths were caught this season.

For the past few months this office has been gathering records of temperature, wind direction, and wind velocit r from a number of weather stations in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. This survey covers the lO-year period from 1923 to 1932. Only records for the months of April and May are obtained as this is the period when small gipsy moth caterpillars are likely to be carried b- the wind. The gathering of these meteorological records from 25 stations is completed. At the present time these data are being Worked over and the resulting figures showing favorable wind dispersion hours are being tabulated and arranged on charts to show the danger and direction of wind spread of the gipsy moth caterpillars. One of the outstanding findings of these studies in connection with the Pennsylvania infestation is that during the favorable wind dispersion hours the wind drift for 1932 and for the 10-year period from 1923 to 1932 was very definitely in an easterly direction, most of which was blowing northeast. These records should be very helpful in determining the wind spread of this insect in Pennsylvania. There are about 10 more stations from which records are being obtained in order to complete this survey of meteorological conditions favorable for the dispersion of the small gipsy moth caterpillars in the Northeastern States.