IJUkRARY I N E WS L E TT E
STATE P)LANT BOARD
PLANT QUARANTINTE AND COIITBOL ADMINISTRATION
'UNITED STATES DEAYT11VNT OF AGRICUJLTURE
Number 6 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) June, 1931.
DIRECT ACTION AGAINST YAM %4UGGLR BRINGS QUICK RESULTS
When the British Schooner Arthur J. Balfour arrived at Mobile, Ala*,
recently, both the captain find th steward stated that they had no plant material, fruits, or vegetables. When the Customs officers returned to
seareh the vessel, 5. Robins Wood, inspector of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, stationed at M1obile, accompanied them and with their assistance found a Jamaican yam hidden on deck near the steward's galley. This led to the finding of seven other yams in the hold of the vessel near the bow.
One of the latter was wrapped neatly in a sack, rewrapped with paper, and addressed to a woman in Mobile.
In view of the evident intent to smuggle these yams, Mr. Wood appeared
before the United States Commissioner at IMobile and swore out a warrant for
the master of the vessel, charging him with bringing yams from a foreign c'ountry in violation of Federal Quarantine No. 29. The information was filed
April 13. On April 14 the master pleaded guilty and paid a fine of $20.
This incident stresses the necessity of a careful search of all foreign
vessels arriving at United States ports to guard against the entry of contraband plants and plant products, which might bring with them insects or diseases. The advantages of getting prompt convictions of violators of Federal quarantines are many, and one or the other of the two procedures for expediting prosecution set forth in PQCA 292 might well be adopted not only at other
entry ports but also, in certain instances, in connection with violations of
domestic plant quarantines.
A compilation of the treatments applied to plants and plant products
in connection with the various Federal quarantines as a requirement for their Movement from the regulated to nonregulated areas has been completed and mimeographed and is ready for distribution. This includes brief descrirtions of
29 disinfection or sterilization treatments required, together with an introduction and index. Each treatment is given a separate page and can be removed or replaced as revisions occur. Additions can also be readily made and assembled in the proper order.
Test work on the method for sterilization of cottonseed for planting was carried on recently in the Big Bend section of Texas. This method of sterilization involves the heating of the cottonseed to a sterilizing temperature and holding it at that temperature for a period of one hour. The first tests with an insulated box ware failures because of the variation in temperature within the seed mass in the container. An all-metal container equipped with a steam jacket was devised in which it was possible to obtain relatively uniform temperatures throughout the cottonseed in all parts of the container. With this equipment, all tests in which live pink bollworm larvae were used resulted in a complete kill of the insects.
Work on repairing the car fumigation house at Laredo is in progress. Guard rails have been installed and the rail joints over the door pits have been remodeled so as to prevent derailments, and two carloads of gravel donated by the railroad have been used in grading in the house. Gutters, down spouts, and a concrete drain have been installed to take care of rainfall and
prevent flooding the building. Various minor improvements have also been made. A new roof and new partition doors will soon be installed.
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES
SOME RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF ITTEREST
New host for West Indian fruit fly.--The l-est Indian fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus) was taken at New York in tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) in cargo from Porto Rico. This represents the first interception of the West Indian fruit fly in this host by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. (See also News Letters No. 1, Tanuary, 1931, and No. 5, May, 1931.)
Rhagoletis sp. from Yugoslavia.--Pupae of Rhagoletis sp. (Trypetidae) were found at New York on dried sour cherries in cargo from Yugoslavia. This is the first record of Rhagoletis sp. being intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration from Yugoslavia. (See also News Letter No. 3, March, 1931.)
Weevil intercepted in globe artichoke.--Lairvae of Apion carduorm (Curculionidae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in globe artichoke in stores from France. This weevil has also been taken in globe artichokes from Italy.
Yams infested with Euscepes batatac.--The Uc'st Indian sweetpotato weevil (Euscepes batatae) was intercepted at New Orleans in yams in stores from
Brazil. This weevil has been taken by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in sweetpotato from Antigua, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Cuba, Dutch Guiana, Hawaii, Jamaica, Madeira Islands, Porto Rico, Tahiti, Trinidad, and Turks Islands. It has also been found in yams from Barbados, Brazil, China, Haiti, Hawaii, Jamaica, Porto Rico, and Tahiti. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931.)
Scale insect intercepted in baggage.--Protopulvinaria pyriformis
(Coccidae) was intercepted at New Orleans on Cinnamomum cassia in baggage from Cuba. This scale insect has been taken previously by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration on avocado, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon tree), English ivy, Eugenia sp., Gardenia sp., Laurus nobilis, Myrica sp., and oleander. It has been intercepted from Bermuda, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Jamaica, Mexico, and Trinidad.
Weevil intercepted in alligator pear.-The weevil Conotrachelus
aguacatae was intercepted at Eagle Pass, Tex., in avocado (alligator pear) in baggage from Mexico. According to Dr. W. M. Mann this is a very serious pest--so serious that the avocado trees, from which the types of this species were taken, had been chopped down when he visited the place a few months later. Dr. Mann further reports this weevil as destroying nearly all the fruit of its host tree where he observed it at Huascata, Jalisco, Mexico.
Silky cane weevil taken at Hobile.--The silky cane weevil (Metamasius sericeus) was collected at Mlobile, Ala., on banana debris in cargo from Nicaragua. This weevil has been previously taken with bananas, pineapples, plantains, oranges, palm seed, pejibaye (Guilielma utilis) fruit, Lima beans, sugarcane, and grapes. Banana leaves were used as packing for the grapes. It has been intercepted from the Canal Zone, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Panama, Peru, and Porto Rico. This represents our first interception of the silky cane weevil from Nicaragua.
Turnips infested with a weevil.--Ceutorhynchus picitarsis (Curculionidae) was taken at Philadelphia in turnips in stores from France. This weevil is closely related to the turnip gall weevil (Ceutorhynchus pleurostigma). This represents the first interception of Ceutorhynchus picitarsis by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. (See also News Letter No. 3, March, 1931.)
Scale insect from Tahiti.--The scale Morganella longispina was taken at Washington, D. C., on mango budwood in the mail from Tahiti. This coccid has also been intercepted on citrus, oleander, and papaya. It has arrived from Bermuda, Brazil, China, and Egypt.
Thrips on dahlia.--The thrips Frankliniella cubensis was taken at Miami, Fla., on dahlia from Cuba. This represents the second interception of this thrips on dahlia from Cuba.
Mealybug from Japan.--The mealybug Pseudococcus pini was taken at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Pinus sp., from Japan. This mealybug has been intercepted twice previously on pine from Japan, once at New York and once at Seattle.
Pepper weevil .intercepted from Mexico,--Larvae of the pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii) were intercepted at Eagle Pass, Tex., in Capsicum annuum in baggage from Mexico. In the United States this weevil is recorded from Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas.
Scale insect from the Orient.--Chionaspis yanonensis (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on orange in ship's stores from Japan. It has been intercepted previously on grapefruit from China, orange and tangerine from Japan, and orange from the Philippines. This scale insect is not reported from continental United States.
Bruchid in dried lentils.--Bruchus signaticornis (Bruchidae) was interoepted at New York in dried lentils in cargo from Italy. J. A. Hyslop, of the Bureau of Entomology, comments on this bruchid as follows:
"Recent workers now consider B. pallidicornis Boh. as a variety of B. signaticornis Gyll. This insect occurs throughout Southern Europe where it is a pest of lentils. No lentil-infesting species of the genus Bruchus are known to be established in the United States."
Weevil in avocado seeds.--An importation of 12 avocado seeds (Persea americana) from Oaxaca, Mexico, was received at the D. C. Inspection House recently. The seeds were intended for the office of Foreign Plant Introduction. Upon inspection four of them were found to be infested with living specimens of the avocado weevil (Heilipus lauri Boheman).
NEMvIA-INFESTED STRAWBERRY PLANTS FROM ENGLAND
A shipment of 12 plants of Fragaria var. Royal Soveroign, imported by the Department from Bristol, England, was found upon inspection to be infested with the nema Aphelenchus fragariae. It was stated by the specialist who made the determination that this was the first time this nema has been found on plants imported to the United States although it has been reported in strawberry plants in Europe. It is also known in this host in the southeasterr part of this country.
According to Stevenson's Foreign plant Diseases, p. 78, A. fragariae
"causes a fasciation of Fragaria sp. in Europe known as the "brush" or ,bauliflower" disease. Fleshy malformations take the place of leaves and flowers, or the flowers may appear free of the deformed leaves and be in turn caused to assume odd shapes. The diseased areas assume a deep blood-red color. Infested plants are stunted and fail to form fruit."
LIMA-BEAN PESTS INTERCEPTED FROM CUBA AS IN PREVIOUS SEASONS
Unshelled Lima beans from Cuba were permitted entry, at the port of New York only, from November 1, 1930, to March 31, 1931. Importations for this period totaled 107,645 containers in 468 shipments. Representative containers from each shipment were inspected 100 per cent for the presence of the bean-pod borer (Maruca teptulalis) and Lima-bean scab (Elsinoe canavaliae). It was the practice to examine about 2 per cent of each shipment,
and a total of 2,150 containers were so inspected.
The restrictions placed on the entry of this comodity from Cuba
are on account of the occurrence of the bean-pod borer in that country. Each shipment was carefully inspected by Cuban plant quarantine officials prior to exportation, and whenever found, infested pods were removed. On arrival at New York, however, 420 specimens of Maruca testulalis were found in the containers examined from 171 shipments.
Specimens of suspected pods were collected in 505 instances and forwarded to Washington for disease determination. Elsinoe canavaliae was found on pods in 457 of these samples, which were taken from 250 of the 468 shipments. Other more or less important diseases noted in these samples were: Bacterium phaseoli (found 97 times); Bacterium (vignae?) (found 5 times); Diaporthe phaseolorum (found 25 times); Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (found 13 times).
Regarding the bacterial determinations it should be stated that only a few of the specimens were cultured and identifications made on the basis of cultural characteristics. In all other instances bacteria were seen in the lesions and the determinations were based upon the macroscopic characteristics of the lesions rather than upon the morphology of the organisms.
NOTES ON T=E LIMA BEAN SCAB SITUATION
The interception of shipments of Lima beans from Mexico last January infected with scab (Elsinoe canavaliae), together with the continued occurrence of this disease on Lima beans entering New York from Cuba, has made it desirable to gather sufficient information on this comparatively new disease to establish its status as a plant pest. For this purpose W. A. McCubbin, pathologist, visited Cuba from Iarch 14 to 21, to study the disease in the Lima bean fields there. The Cuban Department of Agriculture, through the Sanidad Vegetal, cooperated most heartily in this investigation, not only supplying auto transportation during the whole period, but also permitting Dr. Ernesto Sanchez, Chief of the Sanidad Vegetal, to accompany our representative as guide and interpreter.
The scab disease was found generally in greater or less amounts in all the Lima bean growing sections visited, in several cases with pod infections reaching above 75 per cent. The disease appears to be spread to a considerable extent by the wind and is probably carried over the intercrop period on either live or dead plant refuse, or on escaped Lima bean plants which are not numerous. So far as known, it is confined to Lima beans; there is reason to think the morphologically similar fungus on Canavalia sp. may be distinct from that on Lima beans. Spraying at frequent intervals is being tried experimentally in Cuba with some promise of success.
Agents of the Sanidad Vegetal instruct and supervise the farm sorting to remove scabby beans, and there is a final inspection by the Sanidad Vegetal at dockside in Havana. While the Cuban authorities are thus taking special pains to remove all scabby beans before shipment to New York, the
only port at which Cuban Lima beans may enter, yet it is virtually impossible to get all the scabbed pods out of the product, especially when the scab is in incipient stages.
The scab disease occurs on the leaves and sterns as well as on the pods, but in general the injury is not as great as one might expect from the appearance of spotted pods. The chief damage appears to arise from pod disfigurement.
On the return trip Mr. McCubbin spent a few days in Florida in company with M. F. Barrus, of the Plant Disease Survey, to look for scab on the Lima bean crop there. It was found, however, that frost and rains had delayed the Florida crop season and the beans were not yet in condition to develop scab.
In this connection it may be noted that arrangements are now completed with the Office of Plant Disease Survey to make a comprehensive survey of all eastern Lima bean regions this season to determine whether or not the disease
is present in any of these areas.
The possibility of establishment of scab in this country through discarded infected pods is being given somo attention. It has been found that in all the large eastern cities, with the exception of Baltimore, a considerable proportion of the vegetable garbage -finds its way to piggeries in the surrounding territory, and there is some possibility of the fungus getting into contact with its host through these channels provided'it can survive our winter climatic conditions, a point not yet settled.
PINK BOLLWORM TAKEN FROM COTTON IN PHILADELPHIA
On April 17 the United States Customs E,'xaminer in Philadelphia called
the attention of our inspectors to a case containing antiques from Syria packed in raw cotton. The cotton was removed and exroelsior substituted; half the 36.5 pounds of cotton was examined and all seeds removed from it, the whole lot baing then destroyed by burning. Dead larvae of pink bollworm (Pectinophora 52y'l piella) were found in 18 of 100 seeds, and in the nineteenth a living larva was found. The remainder of the seed was forwarded as an interception to Washington. Reports on both the larvae found and the seed submitted ncw verify the presence of pink bollworm in both cases.
Thi s case is of special interest, not only because it is a first record of the finding of live larvae of this insect at the port of Philadelphia, but also because of the unusual attendant circumstances. The case of antiques would normally have little interest for our inspectors and we are indebted to the Customs officials for bringing the matter to our attention. It may be added that this helpfulness on their part clearly implies a very encouraging degree of understanding and cooperation between the two inspection forces in this port.
A MONTH'S INSPECTION IN HAWAII
A report to this off ire by H. F. Willard, of the Honolulu office, covering Hawaiian fruit fly inspection activities for the month of March, is here
summarized to indicate the scope and nature of the work being carried on there.
Inspection and certification of fruits and vegetables for export involved the inspection of 187 lots and the issuance of 109 permits. Nine lots of bananas were refused shipment, 5 for overripeness and 4 because of mealybug.
Baggage inspection involved 182 pieces of baggage for 14 steamers.
In parcel post inspection 8,961 parcels were inspected without opening and 5,046 were opened and inspected; 323 were found to contain plant material and in 14 of these the material was contraband. Among these 14, two are of special interest; one of them contained cotton from which several specimens of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) were removed, and the other was made up of 15 passion fruits (Passiflora sp.), one of which fruits contained 48 fruit fly larvae (Ceratitis capitata).
NOTES ON NARCISSUS INSPECTION ON LONG ISLAND
.7. A. Mv;*cCubbin, pathologist, spent April 27 to 29 with the force engaged in special permit inspection of narcissus on Long Island, arnd comments on the disease situation as follows:
Of the diseases now present basal rot and mosaic loom up as
the most important. In addition to these the "fire" disease (Stagnospora) and the Botrytis. rot were noted in a few cases,
though neither disease at this time was causing much trouble. The
eelworm, (Tylenchus dipsaci) in this section is important, not so
much from the actual damage done by eelworm attack, as in the care
and cost involved in maintaining freedom required for interstate
shipment. The hot water treatment of bulbs, and the suppression by
roguing and soil treatment of sporadic infestations are the means relied on to keep this parasite in check. Experiments are being
conducted locally to find the most effective and practical method
of soil treatment, and sone of the treatments under test are regarded as promising.
Mosaic in narcissus varies much according to the variety,
and runs from almost perfect freedom in some cases to almost complete infection in the most susceptible types. Roguing experiments and investigations on the methods of spread are needed to determine
if reproduction stocks can not be kept reasonably free from this
The growers are hopeful that the investigations of the Bureau
of Plant Industry now under way will solve the difficulties of the
basal rot problem and enable them to avoid the loss of many highpriced bulbs from this disease.
QUESTIONABLE ORIGIN OF INFESTED FRUIT
In inspecting ship stores on th~e SS Siboney, arriving at New York
on April 5, from Vera Cruz, 1,exico, and Havana, Cuba, there were found about 50 small grapefruit, about 100 larger grapefruit of a different type, and about 200 oranges. The 50 small grapefruit were heavily infested with larvae of Anastrepha ludens. The chief steward and pantryinan gave the origin of the ship's fruit as Cuban, but farther questioning brought out the admission that some grapefruit previously purchased in Vera Cruz had had "something wrong" with it and its use had been discontinued. The safe conclusion is that the infested fruit was of Mexican rather than Cuban origin.
This incident emphasizes the importance of careful inquiry as to origin of infested or questionable materials in ships' stores or passengers' baggage, especially when, as in this case, the ship had touched at more than one foreign country before arrival. 1. superficial inquiry in this instance might have resulted in a record of the Mexican fruit fly from Cuba, a country in which it is not known to occur; and even if the matter were cleared up by troublesome investigation afterwards, the general effect of the whole affair would be very undesirable.
The infested fruit in this case was burned in the ship's galley.
WEST INDIAN FRUIT FLY SURVEY
C. E. Cooley, of the Washington office, and Max Kisliuk, of Philadelphia, have been assigned to make a special fruit fly survey in the 11,est Indies
and South America. They are scheduled to spend several months in the field collecting such data on the subject as 'will be of especial interest to this Administration.
SPECIAL PERMIT FIELD INSPECTION UNDER U'JAY
Field inspection of plants imported under special permit is now in full swing. Due to the large variety of plants imported and the fact that this material is being grown in almost every State of the Union, this inspestion work will continue-in some sections of the country until freezing weather.
The primary object of the inspection of these plants (nursery stock,
bulbs, etc.) is to determine their freedom from important pests, particularly plant diseases, which may have escaped detection or have been unrecognizable in the initial inspection in Washington, D. C., or San Francisco, Calif., prior to shipment to the field.
A. G. Webb and W. H. Wheeler (Seattle, Wash.), and T. T. Baker (Portland, Oreg.), have just about completed the inspection of special permit material on the west coast. H. W. Hecker (C-"Acago, Ill.) is held responsible for special permit inspection in the Middle Western States. WV. WU. Wood (Detroit, M~ich.) assists 11r. Hecker in Michigan and Vl1isconsin; the inspection work in these States is just starting. 11. T. 0'rrey (Buffalo, N. Y.), who has charge of this inspection work in New York with the exception of the
vicinity of New York City, reports that he will start May 18. W. G. Bemis (Boston, MVass.), who covers the New England States, has already inspected some of the early varieties of plants, such as narcissus. WV. S. Fields (New York City), whose area includes New York City and vicinity, Long Island, and points in New Jersey, has been busy for several weeks. R. VI. Wjoodbury (Wilmnington, N. C.) has already completed the inspection of special permit material in North Carolina and South Carolina. 5. 11. R. Adams and L. 19. Scott, of the Washington office, are covering the Southern, Southeastern, and Southwestern States, and Pennsylvania, Delaware, and most of New Jersey. Inspeetion in the Southern States is now about completed.
During the last fiscal year 626 man-days were spent in examining
special permit material grown by 992 permittees, located in 619 towns in 52 States. Inspections were made involving 71,748,275 plants, bulbs, etc., imported under 3,434 special permits.
DOMESTIC PLANT QUJARAN\TINES
The records of quarantine violations intercepted during the spring
season now nearing a close indicate that the number will approximately double the interceptions found during a similar period a year ago. This marked increase is due partially to the opening of one or more new important stations, such as the one at Boston, and to the revision of inspection schedules at certain other points; also to an increase in the force of inspectors assigned especially to checking on the movement of restricted articles in mail, express, and freight. During the *period from January 1 to M1ay 14, the number intercepted as shown by records in the Washington office is approximately as follows:
Quarantine No. of Violations
Japanese beetle 544
Gipsy moth and brown-tail moth 171
VWhite-pine blister rust 121
Narcissus bulb 49
European corn borer 34
Satin moth 34
Mexican fruit worm 6
,IBlack stem rust 3
Phony peach disease 2
Pink bollworm 1
While the number of violations detected seems large, these infringements represent only a small fraction of 1 per cent of the total number of shipments che'nked by Administration inspectors at transit inspection points.
The Chioago field office sends in the following totals as the number
of violations intercepted at M.idwest stations during the period from January 1 to May 10:
Omaha and Council Bluffs 42
St. Paul and Minneapolis 28
St. Louis 22
Kansas City 4
Information concerning the destinations of these violations is of interest. The shipments intercepted at Chicago would have proceeded to Illinois, Hawaii, Missouri, Michigan, Wiisconsin, California, Iowa, New York, Arkansas, T.Minnes:ta, Connecticut, Texas, 1Washington, Indiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Ohio, W!yoming, Oregon, Idaho, Massachusetts, South Dakota, and the District of Coilumbia. The Omaha and Council Bluffs shipments were destined to Nebraska, Pennsylvania, Florida, Idaho, Arkansas, Utah, California, Nevada, Texas, Colorado, Iowa, Montana, and Wyoming. The violations intercepted at St. Paul and I'inneapolis were in transit to Michigan, 1W0isconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Montana, Indiana, Illinois, North Dakota, South Dakota, Colorado, Texas, New York, and Idaho. Those seen at St. Louis were consigned to the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kentucky, Texas, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kansas, and Iowa. The Cincinnati violations contained materials from the European corn borer regulated areas, which had been moved into the Cincinnati Union Stockyards. The violations seen at Indianapolis were also destined to that city, while the Kalsas City interceptions were en route to Arkansas, Colorado, and Kansas.
With the close of the nursery stock shipping season, transit inspection is being discontinued the middle of May at Kansas City and Omaha, and
the close of May at St. Paul. Most of the men assigned to seasonal work on transit inspection come from other pest-control projects within the Department, such as white-pine blister rust, European corn borer, lapanese beetle, and the gipsy moth aad brown-tail moth.
Checking up on the use of expired or altered State nursery inspection certificates, as well as shipments bearing no certificates, is one way inl which transit inspectors are rendering a service to State quarantine officers. A recent shipment of currant plants from a Michigan nursery was turned back by transit inspectors at Chicago as a violation of the white-pine blister rust quarantine, for the reason that it bore an expired State certificate. The regulation in question requires the use of "a valid State nursery inspection certificate of the State from which the shipment is made." The nursery claimed the certificate was valid and sent in a sample, on which the dates had been
altered. The Michigan officer in charge of orchard and nursery inspection pointed out, however, that mutilated or altered certificates are not valid under the requirements of that State, that their use is in no sense authorized, and requested that transit inspectors report any such mutilated certificates found on Michigan shipments. Parcel post shipments of uncertified nursery stock seen at transit inspection stations are reported to the Post Office Department also, as infringements of the postal regulations requiring State certification of woody plants shipped by mail.
Some difficulty on the part of express employees has arisen the present season in the application of quarantine regulations to the reshipment of nursery stock from bulk-break points. Nurseries frequently ship car lots by freight to such points and the individual packages therein are then reshipped by express to many different destinations. Both nurseries and the express company in such cases have often overlooked the necessity of complying with such regulations as apply at the point at which the express company receives the shipment. As an illustration: A nursery at Rochester, 1T. Y., which is outside the Japanese beetle regulated areas, made car-lot shipments to Taunton, Mass., within the regulated area. The shipments were accepted by the express agency at Taunton, without certification, and reshipped to points outside the regulated areas. These reshipments, were held up by transit inspectors and turned back as quarantine violations. In such situations, inspectors can not determine whether or not such stock may have actually originated at the outside point or whether some nurse -ryinan at the bulk-break point may have filled the order at the request, and under the: shipping tags, of the nurseryman outside the aroa. The proper action is for the express agent at the point of reshipmont to treat such shipments as original consignments, refusing to accept thcori unless accompanied by the proper certificates or permits. The Administration has now taken up the matter with the Railway Express Agency, and we understand that instructions will be sent out to the agents along the lines suggested.
W)HITE-PINE BLISTER RUST
The control of wh~ite-pine blister rust constitutes one of two outstanding examples of forest post control in the Empire State,9 according to H. L. McIntyre, Supervisor of Forest Pest Control, Now York Conservation Department, in a recent radio address on the subject, "Guarding Our Forests." He is quoted as stating that since 19235 over half a million acres of white pine have been initially protected from this disease, at a cost of a few cents per acre, or if the entire cost were proportionately charged to New York's present population, they would be required to contribute a little less than 3 cents each. The otherexample cf~ forest pest control pointed out by Mr. Mclntyre was the campaign to prevent the permanent establishment of the gipsy moth in New York State, also dating back to 1923. In that year outbreaks of the insect were discovered along the eastern border. In the eight years that have followed, many more of these outbreaks have been discovered and exterminated. For 17 years the gipsy moth approached New York at an average of 6 miles per year. Since the inauguration of the barrierzone project no spread of the post has been reported. The cost of this campaign for the eight-year period, if divided proportionately among the
present population of New York, would amount to 15 cents each. A continuous reforestation program in flew York State covering a period of fifteen years, and providing the sum of ~lOOis proposed in the Hewitt Amendment, according to W. G. Howard, Superintendent of State Lands and Forests, in a recent address to blister-rust agents of that State.
NARCISSUS BUTLB QUARANT hE
The Plant Quarantine and Control Administration has recently written a number of State inspectors, calling~ their attention to the representations made at the bulb conference in January and the expectation that as a result there will be a substantial improvement in pest conditions in the bulb plantings in this country. The Administration warns against any feeling that -thle Department may have definitely and finally excluded foreign bulbs for all time, irrespective of the pest conditions in the bulb plantings of this cointry. It is pointed out that the growers are being given an opportunity to clean up the bulb pests in the United States and that in the event of their being unsuccessful in such pest suppression work, the quarantine will not be used merely as a measure to eliminate foreign competition.
An opportunity to look over a number of bulb plantings in Oregon and Washington was recently afforded C. R. Stilling r, of the Spokane office, in connection with work at Portland and Seattle on transit inspection and blister rust quarantine enforcement activities. The trip gave Mr. Stillinger opportunity to consult with and advise the State plant quarantine officers as to the methods of bringing undor control several recently discov, red bulb ealworm infestations.
Members of the phony peach disease quarantine enforcement organization, while in North Carolina recently for the purpose of scouting the surrounding peach-growing nurseries for infected peach trees, were able to give some incidental assistance on the diagnosis of the narcissus bulb pests to the State entomologist of that State and his assistants. The discovery of eeiworm infestations in several lots resulted in the reinspection by State employees of narcissus plantings in two ether States.
PHONY PEACH DISEASE QUARANTI17E INSPECTION
The movement of nursery stock through southern transit inspection
points has practically ceased, and only 10 shipments of peach and other restricted nursery stock woere ce rtified in April by Administration inspectors for nurserymen at Concord, Ga. The certification activities at that point were discontinued early in May.
Inspection was interrupted several times during the month of April by sandstorms which are prevalent at this season of the year, and on one occa" sior, by rain which is quite unusual. The time lost to inspection was devoted to clean-up work.
The maximum temperature exceeded 100' F. for the first time this year, and the summer costume of shorts, hat, and shoes is again in evidence ar.ong the inspectors.
April is the first month since the work has been reorganized during which no scale was found either in California or Arizona.
The offshoot cutting season commonccad in April and considerable time was devoted to inspection of offshoots at the time of cutting. At this time the area of the palm and offshoot at the point of union may be inspected. All offshoots to be shipped are inspected at the time of cutting.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER A:TD JAPAIlESE BEETLE
Further consolidation of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle
projects is being effected. The South Norwalk office has been undergoing alterations for some time and this work has been rushed at a rapid rate and is practically completed. The Camden office, headquarters for the Japanese beetle project, will move to South Norwalk, Conn., about June 1. Office and garage facilities, both for storage and repairing, are suitable to accommodate both projects. Offices and equipment repairing facilities have been made for the Agricultural Engineering branch of the Bureau of Public Roads.
The European corn borer and Japanese beetle projects in New Jersey are occupying one office at 39 Park Avenue, Rutherford. The Midland Park office, former headquarters for all European corn borer work in the New Jersey area, has been relinquished. Both projects are to occupy quarters at 171 Meadow Road, Rutherford, N. J., after June 1, when the space recently leased becomes available.
Arrangements have been made and preliminary details consummated for starting soil treatment work for Japanese beetle control in the New England area. The areas in Hartford and Willimantic, Conn., will be under the supervision of J. P. Johnson and T. L. Cannon. .r. Cannon is to go over the soil treatment work with T. C. Cronin in the Providence, Newport, and Westerly, R. I., areas, and in the Springfield and Boston areas, and is to be in immediate charge of this control work.
The Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, in cooperation with the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, assigned 12 inspectors, on April 20, to enforce the Connecticut State European Corn Borer Clean-up Law. Inspectors visited all farms in the tovns under quarantine and interviewed the owners or managers and reported cases whenever cornstalks and stubble
were found. This work is to be completed the second week in May.
Road patrol inspectors began work an April 1, enforcing quarantine No. 48 in New York at the generally infested border line. Four road stations arc actively in operation. The inspectors arc being paid with funds from the
Department of Agriculture and IMarkets.
Additional automotive equipment is being received from Toledo, Camden, and Orlando. Two Federal pump trucks weru r(.ceived during the month, having been transferred to South Norwalk from the Mediterranean fruit fly project.
It has been found necessary to employ two additional general auto
mechanics to repair equipment now in storage at South Norwalk. This equipment will be needed shortly for quarantine enforcement and for scouting operations.
Interceptions made during April by road inspectors at the border of the generally infested Japanese beetle quarantined area in Mvaryland included a box of pansy plants being transported from Philadelphia to We.'st Friendship, id., a point within the lightly infested area. An examination of the soil accompanying the pansies disclosed one Japanese beetle larva. A more important interception was made on the Lackawanna Trail in Pennsylvania. Three fig trees being transported by a private individual from Phiiladelphia to Rome, N. Y., were surrendered at the road post. Upon examination of the soil about the roots of the trees, six Popillia japonica larvae were found. Rome, N. YI., is at a conside-rable distance from a knlown infestation of' Japanese beetle.
T.he first combined European corn borer and Japanese beetle certificates were received from the Government Printing Office the last week in April. As soon as the entire printing order for certificates is received, the old Japanese beetle certificates now in use 'ill be abandoned and the now types substituted. There are but two tyoc;s of combined certificates, one designated as an "All certificate, for use on individual packages of quarantined articles, and another kno,,n as a "13" certificate, to accompany bulk shipments moving via
trucks or common carriers. These two types of certificates will replace seven types of certificates w.,hich have horetofor.e bea n used to certify shipments under the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations. They will also be used to a limited extent to certify articles eligible for certification under the regulations supplemental to the European corn borer quarantine. Slightly less than one million certificates are used annually to certify shipments of quarantined articles shipped from the Japanese beetle quarantined areas.
The application of powdered arsenate of lead at the sites of Japanese
beetle infestations in Cape Charles, Va., started on April 16 and was concluded on May 9. Lead arsenate had previously been applied to the older infestations during August, 1929, and again in April, 1930, at which times 18 and 21.75 acrc. respectively, were treated. This year approximately double the previous acreage was treated. A dosage of 250 pounds of arsenate of lead was applied to th,' area which had previously been treated, while 500 pounds of lead were applied to the area on which the treatments were applied for the first time. An average of 7 laborers, hired locally, operating 5 fertilizer distributors, were use' in the work. The work was under the supervision of assistant plant quarantine inspector T. C. Cronin, who was assisted by agent R. W. Coles. G. T. French, Virginia State Entomologist, conferred with 11r. Cronin while the treatments wier being applied. A number of heavy rains were encountered which interfered with application of the lead. Form letters describing the leading operations and urging certain precautions were distributed to all property owners before thoir premises were treated, and warning notices were posted conspicuously throughout
the treated areas. Four thousand three hundred and sixteen Japanese beetles were collected in and near 500 traps placed in Cape Charles between M.ay 20 and August 30, 1930. The infestations are comparatively light but fairly continuous throughout the town. A representative of the Moorestown Japanese beetle research laboratory spent several days in Cane Charles while the treating operations weru in process, but failed after repeated diggings to locate any larvae whatever in the treated area. Larvae other than Popillia japonica were found by diggings made in untreated soil in Cape Charles.
Several truckloads of lmumber, steel shelving, awnings, and miscellaneo'l supplies have already been moved from Camden to South Norwalk preliminary to the complete removal of the Camden headquarters to that point.
As a result of a Civil Service examination held recently for the purpos of filling vacancies in the position of garageman-driver for duty at Camden, eight men who had been employed in the maintenance division at Camden and nearby suboffices as State employees qualified for probational appointments, and their appointments unh er this classification were obtained. These men will be used as truck drivers and in connection with the maintenance and repair of automotive equipment. Five of the men will be transferred to the South Norwal headquarters as soon as the moving operations attending the transfer of the Camden headquarters to South Norwalk are completed.
Printed instructions for inspectors stationed at quarantine line posts at the borders of the Japanese beetle and corn borer areas have been prepared. Previous to the merging of the two projects, separate printed instructions were in use by each project. The essential points in these two sets have been combined, and a single set of instructions applicable to line men of either project is now available.
The offices now occupied by the Philadelphia Japanese beetle quarantine suboffice are located in a building owned by a banking corporation which was taken over by the Pennsylvania State banking officials. The State official now handling the affairs of the bank has refused to renew the Department's lease, except on a month-to-month basis. It is contemplated that the Philadelphia and Norristown, Pa., suboffices will be combined next fall, and suitable quarters are now being sought for this purpose.
The construction engineer of the 'reasury Department in charge of the erection of the new Baltimore post office building has advised the Department that quarters will be available in the completed building for the Japanese beetle suboffico about M1ay 1, 1932. Accordingly the luase on the present office space is being renewed for the fiscal year 1932.
Road inspection work at the border of the isolated lightly infested Japanese beetle regulated area in the vicinity of Norfolk, Va., was started for the first time on April 28, at which time two men were detailed to this work. One has been supplied with a car, so that two or three roads may be covered alternately.
A proposal has been made to combine the Japanese beetle suboffice
in Norfolk, Va., with the office of the port inspector. New quarters would be required for such a combined office. The proposal, which it is believed might prove economical and advantageous to both phases of the work, is under consideration.
In connection with the trap control work, preparations were made during April for the coming season's activities. Maps were made of the various sections to show areas trapped and the number of beetles collected in each city block during 1930. These will be used as key maps for the placement of traps this summn~er. Bait materials were ordered and received. These consist of 2,500 pounds of geraniol, 300 pounds of eugenol, 1,500 pounds of glycerine, 850 gallons of molasses, and 14,000 pounds of bran. Traps in storage were in process of reconditioning. During the past winter it was necessary to repair about 1,000 traps that had been used the previous season.
A building in Springfield, Ohio, with approximately 74,000 square
feet of floor space, has boon selected as a now branch headquarters for the western area. E. G. Brewer, who is in charge of that division, reports arrangements have been made to start moving from Toledo, Ohio, to the new headquarters immediatoly on the first of the month, and he hopes to havoc completed the work by June 1b.
The inspection on Ohio Rivor bridges in connection with corn on the
cob being transported in violation of thu quarantine was discontinued at midnight on the 15th of April.
The clean-up work of the isolated infestation in Ohio and Kentucky has been completed and the equipment returned to the station for overhauling.
The Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, in cooperation Vwith the Bureau of Entomology, is conducting a debris survey in counties in the lake region in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan, and a few counties in eastern New York.
One thousand four hundred and twenty-seven units have been shipped from Camp Perry to other bureaus to whom they have been permanently transferred. This is approximately 70 per cent of the surplus equipment stored there with the exception of the stubble pulverizing units, for which there has not been much call.
All of the Japanese beetle and European corn borer offices, with the exception of the Washington suboff ice, and the Baltimore and Toledo offices, are now working on daylight saving time.
ME~DITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY
Disposal of equipment, property, records, and supplies accumulated in
the past two years occupied the time of the remaining personnel of the project
during April. Problems connected therewith indicated the need for authoritativ(.
decisions and instructions, in order that packing and shipping might be facilitated. In order that an official survey of the situation and determinations in respect to matters pending might be made, Mr. Connor arrived on Saturday, April 4, remaining until early the next Monday morning. Transfer of a considerable quantity of material to other projects was authorized by Mr. Connor while he was here. Arrangements also were made for destruction of forms which will be of no further service and of extra copies of duplicated records. District offices were closed as rapidly as possible, all having been discontinued by the end of the third week of April. Files from these field headquarters were assembled at Orlando and indexed before they were shipped to Washington. Additional transfer orders were received from day to day following Mr. Connor's return to TWashington, and by the end of the month many lots of equipment had been moved to other points. A large amount of property remained for later handling, however, especially at the garage and warehouse. Further reductions in personnel, effective at intervals, brought down the total number of employees to 59 on April 30, with additional dismissals scheduled for early in May.
The Florida legislature convened in biennial session on April 7, and members of the body are closely scrutinizing appropriation measures and earnestly seeking new sources from which revenues may be derived. Report of the State Budget Commission, composed of the Governor and certain members of his cabinet, recommended specific appropriations aggregating $lOv925,783, this total being $718,040.95 less than the sums authorized by the 1929 legislature for the current biennium. Of the difference, ,211,590.95 was accounted for by reduced estimates from department heads, and additional cuts amounting to Q506,450 were made by the Budget Commission. Nearly half of this sum, or $~211,000, was taken off the requests of the State Plant Board. Included in the eliminations was an item of '!l8O,0OO for fruit fly inspection and substantial reductions in salary allowances for other work. A number of bills have been introduced proposing abolition of the State Plant Board, along with sundry similar agencies.
A unique and interesting letter from F. C. Haseman, Thulimbah, Stanthorpe District, Queensland, Australia, addressed to Mir. Strong as "Keeper of Plant Control, Capital City of Florida," was delivered to the State Plant Board in Gainesville and the original transmitted to the Chief of Administration in Washington, copy having been supplied to this office. The contents of Mr. Haseman's communication were as follows:
I have just read with great interest the wonderful achievement of your department in entirely eradicating your State of the
fruit fly. Now wie orchardists in Queensland are considerably
troubled with this pest, and any helpful information you can furnish me will be greatly appreciated. The control methods adopted
here are the picking up and destroying all affected fruit with traps used to catch the flies. We feel, however, that perhaps you have better methods than these and would be willing to part
with the information.
The movement for a voluntary bait spray campaign during the summer, initiated by officials of the Clearing House Association, the Fruitmen's Association, and other organizations of growers and shiDpers, failed to receive anticipated support and practically has been abandoned. A request made of the State Plant 3oard by the president of the Clearing House Association for donation of copper carbonate, sugar, and syrup left over from last year was granted. Later, however, the Clearing House Association declined to accept the gift, President Tilden claiming that the withdrawal of Federal field inspection had made it impossible to develop sufficient favorable sentiment to be successfully prosecuted.
A visit to Florida was made in April by 1,r. Allen, Executive Assistant to the Director of the Budget Bureau, and Mr. Jumzp, Budget Officer of the Department, who arrived in Viest Palm Beach early on Saturday, the 18th, and left the State from Lake City late in the evening of Monday, the 20th. whilee here the Budget officials observed Department activities at Canal
Point, Chapman Field near '.iiami, Fort M:yers, Taipa, Orlando, Ocala, and Lake City. From West Palm Beach to Orlando the tour was conducted by Mr. Hoidale, and its direction from this place to Lake City was by Mr. Hadley, of the Forest Service.
A truckload of Florida citrus fruit was seized on April 23 at Mdobile, Ala., under county quarantine, suspended during the winter season, but which automatically again became effective on April 1. Oranges and grapefruit purchased at Lakeland, Fla., by JonL Partin, of Pritchard, Ala., were not confiscated, but the owner received instructions they must be disposed of outside the county. All roads from Florida and stores selling fruit will be inspected by Alabama State Board of Agriculture men, who have power to condemn and destroy any citrus from this State which may be found, according to statement of J. Lloyd Abbot, a member of that body.
The survey of the losses claimed to have been sustained by the growers of Florida as a result of the Mediterranean fruit fly campaign has been lompleted by H. C. Babcock, local real estate operator and secretary of the committee headed by Mr. Howey which seeks reimbursement from the Federal Government. In interviews with newspaper correspondents, r. 3abcock indicated that the findings would be made public after a meeting of the committee, to be held in Orlando at an early date. Vhile definite figures are withheld, Mr. Babcock states that many thousand claims were filed and the total amount of alleged
damages runs into the millions.
In a newspaper interview at 7ashington, United States Senator Fletcher asserted that the question of compensation for fruit and vegetable growers for losses alleged to have been sustained in the eradication campaign will be renewed and pressed for settlement in the next session of Congress. Statements made by the senior Senator from Florida were based on the assumption that the State has been formally and officially declared free from the Mcditerranean fruit fly by the United States Department of Agriculture.
The forty-fourth annual convention of the Florida State Horticult'ural Society,which convened in MIiami April 14 to 17, .>s addressed by Mr. Strong,
Chief of Administration, whose talk was delivered on Thursday evening, the 16th. The subject assigned to 11r. Strong was "Enforcement of Quarantines," and his address was followed by one by Doctor iiontgomery, of the State Plant Board, on "Port Inspection 7Mork." The trip to Miami was made by Mr. Strong direct from 17ashington, and he returned to the Capital almost immediately.
Transfer to Porto Rico of hDL. Derry and r. Oakluy, in connection
with work for the Foreign Plant Quarantines Division of the Administration, was made during the month. The former had been assistant to Mr. Benjamin in the identification branch of this project, and the latter was engaged in field inspection, at one time as a district insDector. It is understood that Lr. Berry's services in Porto Rico will be temporary and that he will be available for Mexican fruit worm work about September 15.
In a letter addressed to Mr. Strong at Orlando, irs. C. T. 2eymer, of Summit, N. J., who wrote from Jacksonville, where she spent the winter, told the Chief of Administration that she is very unhappy about the trees of Florida, feeling that the Spanish moss surely is killing them. Unless preventative menasures aro taken soon, M-2rs. Weymor fears that the State will be a desert in 25 years. Spanish moss she regards as formidable a menace as the 1Mditerranean fruit fly.
Returning from a personal visit to 3radenton, Mr. Yeomans, Georgia State Entomologist, stopped off in Orlando and spent several hours with Mdr. Hoidale. Disposed to be somewhat disappointed because of the termination of field inspection so far in advance of the end of the fiscal year, 1r. Yeomans agreed, after a trip to the garage and warehouse, that he had had no adequate idea as to the quantity of equipment to be transferred.
Shipments of grapefruit and oranges continued heavy throughout April.
Markets showed a firmer tendency for most of the period, especially on oranges. Credit was taken by both the Florida Citrus Exchange and the Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association for the fact that, in the principal auctions, Florida oranges have been selling at higher figures than were realized on the comparable California product.
In the circuit court of Madison County, the grand jury indicted M, r. 71yrd, bound over under charge of manslaughter in examining trial held some months ago, following collision vith a Government truck driven by him in which two persons lost their lives. When his trial was set for the June term, Mr. 13yrd was released under bond of $1,000, his previous bail having been in the sium of 6500.
MEXICAU FRUIT WOPM
The outstanding development on the ilexican fruit worm project during the
month of April was the finding of infestations in locally grown fruit in Matamoros and in fruit produced in a grove near Mission, Tex.
The Matamoros infestation was discovered April 9, in sour oranges produced in the patio of a house at 8th and Herrera Streets. The fruit produced on this premise was heavily infested during the season 1929-30. Although traps have been maintained in these trees continually since October, l92 ', no adults have been caught since August 20, 1930. Upon finding this infestation a thorough examination was made of all fruit growing in Matamoros. This inspection showed no indication of other infestations. However, on both the 15th and 16th an adult was caught in traps located at -a distance of 11 and 5 blocks, respectively, from the infested premise at 8th and Herrera Streets. Immediately upon the determination of the infestation and in cooperation with the Mexican inspector at Matamaoros, the work of stripping all citrus fruits from the trees was started. Very little opposition to this work on the part
of the citizens of ::1atamoros has been encountered.
On April 22, a report was received of the finding of three maggots in a grapefruit from a grove northeast of Mission. Upon checking the grove from which the fruit originated some two or three bushels of fruit were found stored in a box filled with sand. An insnection of this fruit resulted in the findin. of one larva, and on screening the sand in which the fruit had been stored, 5 pupae were found. This fruit and the sand in which it had been stored were immediately treated and buried, as were some 9 boxes which were being held in storage within about one-half mile of the point of infestation. A thorough examination of all other fruit hold in storage in the Valley showed no indications of further infestations.
The listing of all. fruit trees growing in the quarantined area was star on April 1. Considerable difficulty was onc-ountered by the inspectors in getting the varieties of the younger trees correctly, due to thi, damage done them by the freeze of 1920. It is expected to complete the field part of this work by the middle or the latter part of D.ay.
A carload of office supplies, furniture, etc., including a one and onehalf ton truck and a Ford Tudor Sedan, was received from the Orlando office du:ing the month.
All gins and oil mills in the regulated area which had not previously finished their season's w:,ork were closed down during April, and attention was given by the inspectors to the enforcement of regulations requiring thorough cleaning of the premises. Excellent cooperation was given by the owners of suc plants. The inspection of the sterilizing equipment at the gins was also begur and recommendations regarding changes and repairs which would insure efficient operation next season were made where necessary.
The various fumigation plants are still operating occasionally as cottoe still on hand is shipped out.
';ieather conditions over a considerable part of the regulated area were rather unfavorable during April for the new cotton crop. The mean temperature was considerably lower than usual and the rainfall was excessive. Due to these conditions, poor stands of cotton have resulted and much replanting has been made necessary.
No interceptions of pink bollworm were made at any of the road stations during the month; however, 12 lots of material liable to carry the pink bollworm were confiscated.
Regulations were issued by the Commissioner of Agriculture of Texas, on April 11, requiring permits for the movement of alfalfa and hay from Presidio and Brewster Counties, Tex. On account of the heavy infestation of the pink bollworm in these counties, there is danger that these products might be contaminated with cotton infested by this insect. These regulations allow shipment under permit of alfalfa or hay not produced in or contiguous to land that was planted to cotton the previous year or the then current year and when not contaminated in any way with cotton produced in the infested area. Special inspections are also made of other shipments leaving the area mentioned which min-lit be contaminated with cotton products.
The office of the Administration at Mesa, Ariz., which had been
dealing with claims for compensation on account of being deprived of the privilege of planting cotton during the 1930 season, has now been closed. The majority of such claims have been settled, most of those remaining being of an irregular nature. These are being handled at the San Antonio office.
The headquarters for the work in the Salt River and Gila Valleys
is now at Phoenix. During the month, the survey of alfalfa fields formerly planted to cotton was continued, to determine the danger of disseminating the pink boll-aorm by shipments of that product. Preliminary results of this survey indicate that a small portion of the alfalfa fields contain cotton in some form. However, in the area of the noncotton zone of 1930, such fields were free from cotton in any form, due to the thorough :!lean-up operations.
In order to determine the activity of the pink bollworm in the Salt
River Valley, two light traps and two flight screens were used, but no moths have been taken. The inspection of cotton squares, however, yielded 5 larvae of the pink bollworm on May 5. The field where the specimens were taken vies rather heavily infested last year, and the infested squares were from stub cotton. Preparations are now being made to destroy the cotton in that field. Three additional pink bollworms were found in an adjoining section on May 6. These findings are the first in that area in the 1931 crop of cotton.
Inspection of green cotton bolls gathered last fall and stored
continued at the San Antonio laboratory during April, 2,257 one hundredboll samples being inspected with negative results. These samples represented collections from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. The number of samples examined by an inspector per day has been incrCa,3ing steadily each month. During April the average number of samples
examined per day by each inspector was 5.9, whereas at the beginning of
the work in January the average was only 2.1. This is due to better laboratory methods and an increase in efficiency of the individual inspector.
All mail for the pink bollworm office at San Antonio should be addressed to P. 0. Box 798, instead of to 801 Smith-Young Tower, as heretofore.
PREVENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS
The spring season for the shipment of nursery stock reached its height in April with the nurseries moving trees and shrubs as fast as they could be dug and packed. V.hen possible, wholesale orders, particularly carload lots, are shipped first in order that they may be received by the purchasers in time to fill their retail sales. These wholesale orders are consigned to other nurseries and to department and chain stores. In addition to carload lots, numerous wholesale orders are shipped in large wooden cases. In general, the carload lots are composed of small trees and shrubs for retail sales, and a single car may contaiin thousands of plants. After the wholesale orders are filled, the nurseries concentrate on the retail orders. These arc shipped mainly by parcel post and express. Bach tree or shrub receives individual inspection for gipsy moth and brown-tail moth infestation, and if no infestation is found, the proper certificate is issued. In addition to nursery stock some of the nurseries and roadside stands in southern Connecticut sell rustic furniture and bird houses. ThE; furniture is m,-ade mostly of native red ce-dar. The bird houses are made of white and red oak, birch, and tulip. As the rough outside bark is not removed, such articles are subject to gipsy moth inspection as forest products. There is a possibility of gipsy moth egg clusters being carried on the outside bark.
Nurseries located well within the quarantined area ship large orders, as a rule, by freight, but those located near the border of this area ship to
a very large extent by truck. Trucking of nursery stock is increasing. Last year there was about a 25 per ce ,nt increase over the amount of stock transported this way the previous year, but due3 to general conditions it is doubtful if the increased will be as great this year.
In general, orders for nursery stock have not been as large as during
previous spring seasons. There were 34 carloads less shipped during April than during the same month last year. In contract there were nearly 2,000 more small lots shipped than during the same period a year ag!o.
During the spring shipping, season, which may extend from early in I1arch until well into June, all large nurseries require the services of from one to four inspectors. In addition to the large nurseries, there al-e many small ones which require regular inspection, and these azre usually assigned by grouDs to inspectors located at convenient points. During April the volume of shipping required the services of 26 extra inspectors.
The arrangement with thle transit inspection service in Boston to hold
for inspection small noncommercial shipments found moving in violation of Quarantine No. 45 has been quite satisfactory. During April a number of such inspections were made at the different terminal post and express offices. These inspections obviated the necessity of turning back the shipments,
There has been a considerable increase in inspection of nursery and forest products during the month of April in New Jersey and on Long Island, N. Y. Approximately 300 lots of material were inspected and certified in the former State and something over 800 lots in the latter. The quarantine work in New Jersey and on Long Island is carried on by Federal inspectors, who are enforcing State regulations on account of the gipsy moth. No infestations were found as a result of these inspections.
During the month of March there was a heavy fall of snow in the Massachusetts Barrier Zone region, which handicapped scouting work. Accordingly, most of the men working there were transferred to the southwestern part of Connecticut where scouting conditions were more favorable. By the second week of April, snow conditions had improved to such an extent in western Massachusetts that some of the crews were returned in order that the scouting m rk planned for in that region this season could be completed.
Twenty-three crews were engaged in scouting work in the Barrier Zone in 14 towns in Connecticut, in 6 towns in Massachusetts, and in 2 towns in Vermont. In 10 of these towns the work was carried on around infestations which had been located and treated in the fiscal year 1930. The work in the other towns consisted of the regular 40-foot strip method of scouting. Seven towns in Connecticut and 2 in M,,assachusetts have been completed during April with no infestations discovered. The crews are now working in 7 towns in Connecticut, 6 towns in Massachusetts, and 2 towns in Vermont. As yet no infestations have been found in those 2 towns in Vermont, but infestations have been found in 4 towns in Connecticut and in 3 towns in M iassachusetts. The most serious infestations in the Barrier Zone have been found in the towns of New Marlboro, Sandisfield, and Sheffield, Mass., and in the towns of Canaan and Salisbury, Conn.
Twenty-five men were eMloyed during the last half of April to do extensive chopping and cleaning work in the immediate vicinity of the gipsy moth infestations located this season in southwestern Massachusetts and northwestern Connecticut. 'Qhey are also engaged in erecting suitable fences to enclose pasture areas which are to be treated with lead arsenate spray during the month of June, and will assist in the spraying work.
Cleaning and chopping work were described in the previous News Letter. They are a necessary part of the preparatory work which must be done where extermination of gipsy moth infestations is the object in view. There are, however, many other necessary operations which might be termed preparatory to the actual spraying, work. As the scouting is completed in the various sections, estimates are made of the areas to be sprayed in order that the amounts of materials to be purchased can be determined. The owner or tenant of the property must be interviewed in order to obtain written permission to spray the property. and in some cases to arrange for fencing off parts of pasture lands in order that cattle may not feed where spraying has been done. The locations of the
water supplies and the approximate amounts of hose and other materials necessary for each job must be determined. During May the supplies are transferred from the storehouse to the field and just prior to the spraying season the machines are set up at the water supplies. On some occasions it is not practicable to set a machine at the water supply and then it is necessary to use auxiliary pumps to set near the water to deliver the water to the spray tank. The spray hose must be laid from the machines at the various set-ups to the farthest points of the areas to be sprayed.
When the foliage is large enough to hold the spray, a crew consisting of a foreman, truck operator, nozzleman, and eight or ten men for the hose line, is assigned to each spraying outfit and the spraying is started. This begins at the farthest point away from the machine. A strip of about 200 feet in width is sprayed each side of the hose line. As the nozzleman works away from the hose line (let us say to the right of it), he sprays a. strip about -1-10 feet -wide and 200 feet deep, and as he returns to the hose line a similar area is sprayed. He then operates in the same manner on the left of the hose line, and when he returns to the line a strip of about 400 feet in depth and 100 feet in width has been sprayed. Now the sections of hose on the and of the line which have been used are detached and the nozzle is connected with the main line again, and the same operations are performed as described above. In the meantime the detached sections of hose have been laid about 400 feet over to the next strip that is to be sprayed. Gradually
the crew works nearer to the machine, and when the first section to be sprayed has been completed the spray hose has already been laid through the next section to be sprayed, and the operation is repeated.
Powdered lead arsenate at the rate of 5 pounds to each 100 gallons of water is the poison used. V.herever possible, fish oil at the rate of 4 ouires to each pound of lead arsenate is added. This makes the poison adhere to the foliage throughout the season, and for this reason it can not be used in all places, especially in pastures which are apt to be used for forage later in the season. High-powered automotive spraying apparatus is required because much of the spraying is done in forest growth, in hilly country where spraying apparatus can not be hauled. Sometimes it is necessary to lay lines of hose over a mile in length, and often up a considerable elevation from the machine. Such work requires specially constructed hose to withstand the pressure, and machines nuch be able to develop and operate at a working pressure of about 1000 pounds in order that the pressure at the nozzle may be kept at 300 pounds. It is necessary to have this pressure at the nozzle in order that the spray may reach the tops of tall trees, sometimes 90 feet high.
The spraying season for the gipsy moth in New England ranges from four to six weeks in length, beginning about the first of Tune. After the sp.raying season is finished, the hose, all of which is in 50-foot lengths, is classified according to its age and the pressure it will stand. Clean water is forced through all of it before it is stored. The couplings are removed from all hose found to be in poor condition, and all serviceable oouplin-s are salvaged and attached to hose purchased during the coning year. The spraying apparatus is thoroughly overhauled during the fall and winter months.
A map recently received in this office from the New York Conservation Department shows the progress of work in the Hudson River Valley towns embraced by the B~arr'ier Zone where the Stae organization is carrying on scouting work. During April, 9 crews scouted in 4 towns, and the rao indicates that 2 infestations were found in the te~n of Milan, but as the work in this town has not been completed, the size of these infestations is not known. Work in 4 towns in the New 'York section of the Barrier Zone was completed during the month with no infestations reported. On Long Island, scouting was continued by the Now York Conservation Department in the towns of' Oyster Bay and Huntington. The map illustrating, the work on Long Island indicates that the work in Oyster Bay has boon completed and that 6 crewUs are scouting in the town of Huntington. No report has been received of additional infestations being found in the town of Oyster Bay or that any have been found in the town of Huntington.
The work conducted cooperatively by the Federal and State forces in New Jersey during April has resulted in completing scouting in Hillsboro and Piscataway Townships. Checking work around infestations which were located in the township of iBernads during the fiscal year 1927 has also been completed. Crews are still scouting in the vicinity of infestations which were located in Warren Township during the fiscal year 1928 and around an infestation discovered in North Plainfiell during the same year. hihen the checking or scouting work in these 2 townships is finished, all scouting work planned for in the New Jersey area for this ye,.ir will have been completed. No infestation has been discovered in the New Jersey area this
In cooperation with the New York Conservation Departmentweather
stations were set out during the last part of April at Shelburne and 7!estfield, Mass., and at Berlin and M1ilan, N. Y. At these stations the temperature, the velocity, and direction of the wind are recorded. The stations are operated from the last of ApDril until the last of May or early June, as it is within this period that the caterpillars hatch from the gipsy moth eggs. These records are obtained each year and are examined to determine the amount of favorable conditions for wind dispersion of the small rgipsy
moth caterpillars. In conjunction with these records, information is gathered as to the time when the gipsy moth caterpillars hatch.
Some fifteen or twenty years ago the Bureau of Entomology investigated the subject of wind dispersion of gipsy moth ( aterpillars and at that time determined that first instar caterpillars are carried by the wind to distances of at least 20 miles when conditions are favorable. A combination of several factors is necessary in order that any large amount of long distance spread resulting in establishment of new infestations may occur. There must be a heavy gipsy moth infestation; the temperature must be 650 F., or higher; and the wind velocity at least 5 miles an hour, and no rain falling. These conditions must occur during a short period of a few days when the majority of the gipsy moth caterpillars have hatched and before they have fed, at least to any extent. Furthermore, when they are carried by the wind they must settle on favorable foods in order to establish a new colony. Even then they have the many vicissitudes of life to overcome, and if they happen
to settle in uninfected territory and reach the adult stage, there is still the necessity of mating before fertile eges can be deposited.
Gipsy moth hatching occurred this season during the week of Mlay 4.
This.is about normal. The period over which it will extend will vary according to the 'weather which follows. The chief concern of the New York Conservation Department and the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in operating these stations is to determine annually the amount of danger of wind dispersion and its likely direction into the Barrier Zone. Last year records indicated more favorable hours for wind dispersion into the Zone than had occurred for several seasons.
There were a total of 92 violations reported during April. Seventysix shipments violated Quarantine No. 45; 11 shipments violated Quarantine No. 53 as well as Quarantine No. 45; 1 violation of Quarantine No. 53 alone;
2 violations of Quarantine No. 63 as well as of Quarantine No. 45; and 2 violations of Quarantine No. 48 as well as of Quarantine No. 45. Most of the violations reported for the month of Marchas well as many of the April violations, were investigated during April. No prosecutions have been instituted as the investigations have shown that the violations were due to ignorance of the quarantines or misunderstanding by the transportation agents. Information concerning quarantine requirements has been given to the violators by investigating inspectors of this project in all cases where the parties could be located.
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