N E WS L ET TE R
PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
UNITED STATES DEPARrM1ENT OF AGRICULTT-E,
Number 13 (NOT FOR PTJBLICATION) January 1, 1932.
A test was recently conducted at 3abylon, N. Y., for the purpose of determining the practicability of treating im-ported chestnuts by some means other than hot water. The hot-water sterilization, while entirely satisfactory in destroying the insects, generally leaves the nuts in a condition ideal for decay and mold growth. The treatment tested at Babylon, in which air heated to the correct degree and with a relative humidity of 100 per cent is used as the heating medium, eliminates the likelihood of this condition. By placing the chestnuts in shallow, wire-bottom trays, in a suitably designed room through which the conditioned air is circulated, this treatment can be accomplished rapidly and does not involve a drying process following the treating.
Reports on the tests being conducted at Acala, Tex., in which a machine for treating commercial quantities of seed cotton by heat is being used, continue to strengthen the evidence that treatments in this type of sterilizer are practicable. Approximately-80 tons of seed have been used for the tests in which various exposures and temperatures were tried. Germination determinations have been completed on samples taken from seed used in 34 of the tests. About the same number of viability results are yet to be reported on.
The laboratory at El Paso, in which work relative to certain phases of the pink bollworm quarantine has been conducted for several years under the direction of A. C. Johnson, is being moved to Alpine, Tex. The transfer involves the moving of all laboratory equipment from El Paso to Alpine and the establishment of permanent headquarters at the latter place of Mr. Johnson and his assistants.
FOREIGN PLANT qUARATINES
C-ECNT ENTODLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST
[editerranean fruit fly from the Azores.--At Providence, R. I.,
living larvae and pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) were intercepted in sweet limes in baggage from the Azores. Three living larvae of this fruit fly were also intercepted at Providence, R. I., in Sorbus fruit in baggage from the same islands.
Mediterranean fruit fly in Japanese persimmon.--Four living larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly were intercepted at New York in a Japanese persimmon in the mail from France. This represents the first interception by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration of this fruit fly in Tananese persimmon.
Coffee berries infested with Mediterranean fruit fly.--The Mediterranean fruit fly was intercepted at San Francisco in coffee berries in quarters from Hawaii. Larvae of this fruit fly have been intercepted more than a score of times at California ports in coffee berries from Hawaii.
Mediterranean fruit fly in peach.--Fourteen living larvae of the
Mediterranean fruit fly were found at New York in a peach in baggage from Italy. This fruit fly has also been intercepted in peach from the Azores,
France, and Spain.
Coreid feeding on guavas.--Adults of Leptoglossus stigma Herbst (Coreidae) were found feeding on ripening guavas near Vieux Habitant, Guadeloupe, French West Indies, by Max Kisliuk, jr. and C. E. Cooley, September 1, 1931.
Soursop seed infested with an eurytomid.--An adult of Bephrata maculicollis Cam. (Eurytomidae) was collected by Max Kisliuk, jr., and C. E. Cooley in a soursop seed at Pointe Michel, Dominica, British West Indies, September 20, 1931.
Scale insect from the Straits Settlements.--Parlatoria pseudaspidiotus Lindinger (Coccidae) was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, on orchids (Vanda spp.) in baggage from the Straits Settlements.
Pentatomid from Central America.--Discocephala humilis HerrichSchaeffer (Pentatomidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on bananas in cargo from Panama. This insect, which is not recorded from continental United States, has also been taken on bananas from Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras,
Scale insect on orchids.--The coccid Chrysomphalus rossi (Mask.) was intercepted at tonolulu, Hawaii, on orchid plants (Phalaenopsis sanderiana
and P. schilleriana) in cargo from the Philippines. This scale insect has also arrived on various hosts from Australia, Belgium, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, and Samoa.
Rice moth in cacao beans.--The rice moth (Corcyra cephalonica
Staint.) was intercepted at San Francisco in cacao beans in cargo from Africa and Brazil. According to E. A. Back and R. T. Cotton in Farmers' Bulletin No. 1260, this pyralid is seldom found in this country and has not become very widely disseminated.
Mealybug intercepted at Honolulu.--Pseudococcus lilacinus Ckll.
(Coccidae) was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, on orchids (Phalaenopsis grandiflora, P. sanderiana, and P. schilleriana) in cargo from the Philippines. This coccid has also been intercepted from India and New Zealand.
Destructive termite from China.--Soldiers and workers of the termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were intercepted at San Francisco in a wooden crate containing taros in cargo from China. T. E. Snyder, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that this termite does not occur in the continental United States and that it is one of the most destructive termites in the world.
Weevil in orchid plants.--Acythopeus aterrimus Waterhouse (Curculionidae) was intercepted at Honolulu, Hawaii, in orchid plants (Dendrobium phalaenopsis and _halaenopsis amabilis) in cargo from the Philippines. This weevil has also been intercepted in orchid plants from the Straits Settlements.
European corn borer from Italy.--A living larva of the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hubner) was intercepted at New York in a lot of five ears of corn in baggage from Italy.
RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST
Lima bean scab interceptions.-A number of interceptions of Elsinoe canavaliae on Lima beans from Cuba have been received from the port of New York. One interception of thi-s disease has been received from San Juan,
Porto Rico, taken from a sh-pient of Lima beans destined for the mainland. Some of the Cuban beans .,ere infected with Facterium phv~:eol some with Colletotrichum liIca<.h a, and some with Dia c th :solorun. One of
the Bueau of Pla1i'. Industry specialists has asked for noe ai of the Colletotrichum as he wishes to get a pure culture of the organism for study. It is difficult to isolate as it is much slower to start than organisms likely to be associated with it. Spores of the Diaporthe from Cuba are variable and it is sometimes necessary to make several mounts before typical spores are found.
Euonymus spot.--Several interceptions of an unrecognized trouble on
Euonymus have been received from Seattle in the last few months, on plants frtm Japan. The affected spots are quite small and fall out before any visible evidence of a fungous develops, if such is present.
Septobasidium spongia was intercepted at New York on orange twigs from Brazil. This fungus forms a thick brown g 'owth around twigs and branches. The importance of the group is a matter of some dispute. It had been generally supposed that the fungus killed the masses of scale insects it overgrows, but one investigator has recently come out with the results of his studies and claims that the fungus and scales live symbiotically, the fungus deriving food from the scales and in return protecting the scales from parasites and spray.
Nematode interceptions.--Tylenchus pratensis was intercepted from Porto Rico for the first time, the host being Dioscorea and the port of interception, Philadelphia. Aphelenchus parietinus was intercepted on ginger root and lily bulbs from China at Detroit. The former is a new host and China is a new locality among our interceptions of this nema. It has been reported from China in the literature according to the Division of Nematology.
A species of Phoma was intercepted on Verticordia monadelpha from Australia at the 1 ashington Inspection House. No record of diseases on this host was found. Unfortunately, the amount of material was too limited to permit of a detailed study.
Lavatera r4st.--A rust, apparently Puccinia sherardiana, was intercepted at El Paso on Lavatera sp. from Mexico. This rust apparently is not reported on this genus in North America although it is known to infect other members of the same family (Malvaceae).
Chinkerichee rust.--Interceptions of diseased cut flowers of chinkerichee have been received from Boston, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia. In addition to the rust, Puccinia ornithogali-thyrsoides, several lots were found to be infected with Terosporium ornithogali, material of which was desired by one of the specialists of the Bureau of Plant Industry.
lIPO-RTS OF FUIGUS CULTURES
A shipment of fungus cultures for industrial uses was held up in the mails in Philadelphia recently, though not under plant quarantine restrictions. This incident stimulated an inquiry from our Philadelphia station as to what attitude should be taken by us toward such imported cultures if presented for entry, which brought the following information from the Washington office. It is quoted here as a matter which may be of interest in various ports.
"Although this Administration has at present no restrictions on the
1 A IPL AN~ I3ARO
importation of fungus cultures as such, yet it is fully realized that among such imports may be important plant pathogenic organisms. Even when these cultures come under the names of species already present and well known here there is always the possibility that strains of exceptionally virulent nature may be thus introduced.
ItOn the other hand the Administration would wish to make no objection to the entry of cultures of organisms incapable of causing diseases and intended for commercial or industrial purposes. These materials are considered to be outside the scope of our activities.
"If the fungus cultures entering this country are adjudged to come within the last-mentioned category the inspector -lay allow then, to pass unquestioned. But if they consist of or include disease-producing types, or there is suspicion that such may be present, the Washington office desires to have the opportunity before they are delivered to the consignee of verifying their natur--, keeping record of the entry, and arranging with the consignee for such safeguards as may be necessary. In case such cultures are encountered the essential facts covering them should be promptly submitted to Washington for the action indicated."
'IY4 F SCORCH OF AZALPAA shipment of azaleas from Holland destined to New Jersey was found on inspection at Washington, D. C., on December 7 to be rather generally infected with a leaf-scorch disease due to Septoria azalea. Available information indicates that this disease is not recorded for this country, but that it occurs in Europe where it appears to be somewhat widely distributed and is reported as damaging. The disease also occurs in Japan. The azaleas in question were therefore held for return to the sende.- or for destruction. A similar shipment of azaleas presented for entry from Europe December 8, 1930, was likewise refused on account of this disease.
The fungus produces dull, dark-brown, irregular spots or patches on the leaves; under certain conditions there may be an evident chlorotic margin or halo around the spots, but this halo effect is not always present. The spore-bearing pyonidia are imbedded in the tissues of the upper surface of the spots and are difficult to observe even under a hand lens. However, after a period of dry weather stringy coils of adherent spore masses may sometimes be observed exuding from the pycnidia. These are white in color and are easily seen under the lens,
The disease is said to become evident in early autumn and after that time produces so much defoliation that the plants are greatly weakened. Infection is carried over apparently in fallen leaves and research in Japan indicates that infection may be followed by an incubation period of about two months. We have no record of its occurrence on plants other than azalea,
Inspectors are urged to watch carefully for this disease, both on incoming azalea plants and on plants growing under special permit. In import material leaves which have fallen off in transit should be especially scrutinized.
Rhododendron M1osaic is reported for the first time by Dr. H. Pape in Die Gartenwolt 35:621, 1 fig, for Novembur 6, 1931. The leaves of affected plants bear some resemblance to those of beets infected with curly top of to the distortions of potato leaves suffering from certain types of mosaic. Special permit inspectors will watch for possible cases of this disease in this country.
BEETLE IN ClhIAND N SEED
An interesting species of coleaoterous insect was intercepted recently at the 1iashington, D. C., Inspection House in Cinnamcmum zeylanicum seed from the Department of Agriculture, Trinidad, B. 71. I. Approximately 30 per cent of the 60 seed in this shipment were badly injured by this beetle. In identifying this insect as Heilipus rectirostris Champ. L. L. Buchanan, of the bureau of Entomology, notes: "H. rectirostris was described from two specimens, one from Mexico and one from Guatemala and it is very remarkable that the species should be found in Trinidad breeding in a Ceylonese Cinnamomum. THowever, the specimens fit Champion's description so perfectly that I can scarcely doubt that they belong to his species. (It is possible that H. rectirostris Champ. is a synonym of H. draco Fab., from South America."
DOfl1STIC PLANT QTJARATIN2S
The first and only violation of the Mexican fruit worm quarantine reported during the fall season was found by K. S. Rohwer at Pittsburgh, on December 1. It consisted of a crate of grapefruit frcm Brownsville, Tex., consigned to Pittsburgh, Pa., without the required certificate attached.
The checking of freight in the vicinity of Pittsburgh, particularly at the Pitcairn yard, is being worked out by Mr. Corliss, of the transit inspection force, and Mr. Rohwer, of the European corn borer project. A combination of telephone messages and copying of waybills is expected to provide an efficient system of checking freight shipments of articles restricted under the European corn borer quarantine and other domestic plant quarantines.
More nursery stock is distributed by express through Washington,
D. C., than by parcel post or freight, if November is a criterion for the remainder of the year. H. J. Conkle, on checking the November shipping, found a total of 764 shipments en route. Of these, 565 were found to be moving by express, 289 through the railway mail service, 64 through the post office, 34 in train-to-train transfers of express and mail at the Union Station, and 12 in freight at the Potomac Yards. The reason for the apparent greater movement of express is that Washington is a parcel post distributing point for only a limited territory, involving parts of Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee, while express shipments of nursery stock available for examination here are distributed to 22 States.
Trucks and railway shipments of livestock arriving at the Chicago Union Stockyards, many of them for exhibition at the Annual Stock Show, are being checked by transit inspectors in cooperation with the Euronean corn borer project, to determine whether cornstalks and cobs used as bedding, and corn on the cob used for feed, are being shipped from the
European-corn-borer regulated area. These articles may be infested with the borer. Inspections for a 0-day period resulted in checking 1,045 trucks, of which 153 were from the reglated area. This work is done from 10 p. m. to 7 a. m. Night inspection is also carried on at the Chicago railway terminals in checking on p rcel post and express shipments. A high degree of compliance with the requirements is reported.
The New York field office states that the importance of freight
inspection at that city was greatly increased during the first 10 days in December, due to the shipping of Christmas trees. Over 100 carloads of
evergreen trees from the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth area were moved to or through the transportation terminals during this period.
The Chicago field office sends in the following totals as the
number of Federal violations intercepted at Midwest stations during the period from July 1 to December 4, 1)31:
Omaha and Council Bluffs 51
Kansas City 27
St. Paul and Minneanolis 17
St. Louis 15
Information concerning the destinations of these violations is of interest. The shipments inter cepted at C]cano would have proceeded to Arkansas, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Nebraska, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and South Dakota. The Omaha a4d Council Bluffs shipments were destined to Colorado, Idaho, Massachusetts, Nebraska, Newi Jersey, Oregon, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. The violations i:tercepted at Kansos City
were in transit to Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tex,. Virginia, and Wisconsin. Those seen at St. Louis were consigned to Arkansas, Illinois, Missouri, and Texas, while the St. Paul and
Minneapolis violations were en route to Iowa, :Mic1ian, Minnesota, South Dakota, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Chrisjtmas shiping.--The checking of shipments of Christmas greenery and similar decorative material forms the principal work of transit inspectors at this time of year. The quarantines relating to the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth, the white-pine blister rust, the Woodgete rust, the European corn borer, and the black stem rust, are all taken into consideration. The certification of Christmas trees and greens from most of the New England States is required and there is an embargo on the shipment of Christmas trees as such from the area generally infested with the
gipsy moth. Often white pine trees are used as Christmau trees and, as the blisters may develop and scatter spores weeks or months after trees and branches are cut, the shipment of white pine trees from infected to noninfected States is not allowed. Similar restrictions are also in effect as to hard pines from 10 counties in New York State kno-n to be infected with the Woodgate rust. One of the most popular cut flowers at this time of year is the Chrysanthemum, but it is also unfortunately one of the favored hosts of the two-generation strain of the European corn borer. Mahonias, also known as holly grapes, are much used as holiday
decorations on the Pacific Coast where they are native, and are occasionally shipped from that section, but under the black stem rust quarantine regulations, the species susceptible to the rust are not allowed shipment into the 13 orotecscd rmid(Ple-western States, and permits are required for such shipment of resistant species. The quarantine regulations provide exemptions of Christmas greenery wherever possible, in order to avoid interfering with the pleasures of the Christmas season, but it is nevertheless necessary from time to time to turn back shipments which involve a real hazard of carrying infestation to new localities.
WHITE-PINE PLISTLR RUST
Two interceptions of Ribes infected with the blister rust have
recently come to our attention. One consisted of R. nigrum shipped from Georges River, Nova Scotia, to Boston, Mlass., which was discovered by Chief Maritime Inspector WT. G. Bemis. The other was cultivated red currants shipped intrastate in Massachusetts, and discovered by E. J. McNerney.
PH0NY PEACH DISEASE
As reported in the last News Letter, the phony peach disease
quarantine was amended effective November 30 to involve 11 States instead of only 2 as heretofore. This announcement was followed immediately by
the forwarding of letters and application blanks to the peach-growing nurserymen of these States. Where the nursery premises and the area within one mile of' the nursery had been found free from the disease during the past summer's inspection, permits were issuc;d authorizing interstate shipment. Nurserymen whose each stock was grown within a mile of known
infections were notified thct interstate ship-ing of peach and nectarine trees and roots from their premises would not be permitted.
The organization of quarantine activities in the newly regulated areas, including personal visits to important peach-growing nursery centers, and checking on nursery Stock shipments, occupied the attention of the Atlanta office during the month. G. 7T. R. Davidson is personally supervising the inauguration of such work in Georgia and Tennessee in cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry of this Departmrent, and Mr. Dopson has been assigned to Texas and A-rkansas.
A quarantine restricting the intrastate movement of peach and
nectarine trees and roots in North Carolina has been issued by the Commissioner of Agriculture of North Carolina. Preliminary steps in the direction of' State quarantines have alo already been taken by several other States involved in 1nhony peacha disease infection.
A survey of the routings of nursery stock shipments moving northeast from the areas infected with the phony peach disease has been carried on during the month under the direction of R. A. Sheals, assisted by C. A.. Lowe of the Bureau of Plant Industry. Evidence indicated that Spencer, Haralet, and Rocky Mount, IT. C., were the three principal transfer points through which such stock was distributed, mainly by freight, when destined for points in the east central States. Cooperative arrangements
were made with Dr. R. W. Leiby, State ljntorioloriJst of North Carolina, under which the State and Federal. Departments will Join in checking nursery stock shipments through those points to insure compliance with phony peach disease quarantine regulations. Similar vlork is being carried on at Atlanta, Ga., and Washi~ngton, D. C., with the result that it is believed a complete check on the movement of restricted plant material can be maintained.
In November, six far, palms and one date palm were found infested on an old infested property in the Im, crial valley. The palms were under 2 feet high, growing along a ditch bank in a heavy growth of arrowhead. In the fall of 1928 several large, heavily infested date palms were found on this property. It is probable that the small infested palms mentioned above were very small seedlings at the time and were overlooked becase of their location.
This incident, with others previously recorded, emphasizes the
need of careful inspection of infested premises for a considerable time after the original infestation seems to have been cleaned up.
The arrowhead is a very common plant in desert areas growing along ditch banks and in uncultivated fields. It is cut and use3 as shelters for winter vegetables. The plant is a host of a scale identified by Dr. F. S. Stickney as Asnidiotus lantaniae Sign., the male of which resembles the male Parletoria scale. T'he dense growths ;-f arrowhead and mesquite 'An abandoned plantings of date palms often make adequ,:te inspection impossible.
During November, five oronerties in the Coachella Valley were
inspected on which no scale has been found since Movember, 1930. Scale has been found on only four properties in the Coachella Valley in the past year--twVo commercial plantings and two of no commercial value. Only four infested palmrs were found in the commercial Eardens, two cf which were defoliated and torched. The remaining two were not treated as only single dead scales were found. Thirteen infested paL ms were found in the two noncommercial plantings and were dug out and destroye,.. A total of 17 infested palms have been fouad in the Coachella Valley during the year ending Novembe,'30, 1931, as cor:pared with 201 found in the 12 months ending November 30, 1930. In the Imperial Valley lb date palms have been found infested during the year ending NovemIber 30, 1931, as compared with 98
found during the 12 months ending Nove-mbocr 30, 1930. In Arizona 2 infested palms were found during the year ending November 30, 1931, as compared with 22 during the 12 months preceding.
EUOPEAN CORN BORER A'D JAPAk~ESE BEETLE
General Project News
Field activities in corn borer control were almost wholly brought to a termination within the current period and in the Japanese beetle division also were subjected to additional reductions, except with reference to inspectors dealing with nurseries and in respect to treatment of isolated infestations. Last of the scouting for the borer which will be done this year took place during the first half of the month, and market inspection of oroducts also was discontinued. Road patrols and vehicle inspection stations remaining in operation at the beginning of the month were withdrawn a short time later. Office duties, on the other hand, were increased in a number of directions, the compilation of final records for the season requiring much attention. Information needed in consideration of proposed changes in the quarantine regulations also took up considerable time of certain members of the force.
Findinrc of scarabeid grubs, identified as Ochrosidea villosa Burm., on an estate at Greens Farnms, near South Tor- l, have 'een reorted to project headquarters. Turf o. another and adjoining residence property also has been injured by insects similarly determined. Feeding, of the grubs has ruined some three acrcs of lawn on the latter nlace, and a large number of specimens collected for experimental nurooses have been delivered to the Connecticut. State Entomologist, Dr. W. E. Britton.
Specialized Corn Borer Activities
Reports from the International Live Stock Exuosition and Hay and
Grain Show, which opened in Chicago on November 27, for a nine days' run, indicate that the Euronean corn borer exhibit attracted much attention and was a source of interest to thousands of people. The display, prenared at the western section headquarters in Springfield, Ohio, was transported to Chicago by truck and set up in ample time for the first day of the event. Some of the outstanding items in tihe exhibit were as follows: Life cycle of the borer, the injury done by it, and t1e parasites which prey upon the pest; larvae of the borer and of N other insects sometimes mistaken for it; borer moths collecte2 from various parts of the world
and moths of the fa:ri'y Pyralidae; damage to corn plants by the corn borer in comparison ,ith that by the ear worm, srmartweed borer, and lotus borer; seasonal activities and development of the corn borer, including flight of the moths, laying of eg masses on the leaves, depredations in growing plants during the larval stare, winter hibernation, spring resumption of larval functioningi, the pupation period, and emerg:ence of the new generation of moths. In another section, loss in yields was shown in a comparison between ears from infested and noninfested plants, in two small cribs with the same number of ears in each. Illustration of loss in yield further was riven in 5 lots of ears each from 25 plants, with the following number of borers per plant: 10, 1i, 125, 30. A section was devoted to plowing, one of the several methods of control recommended.
A full size table model of two turned furrows of a corn stubble field was shown. One-half of the model represented clean and satisfactory plowing, wThile the other half depicted a slovenly piece of work. The background of the exhibit was a panoramra of a field of corn stubble ready to plow. A striking feature :was a longitudinal section of a ploed furrow; one-half shoring the debris lying in the bottom, and the other half showing the debris near the top and along the surface, emphasizing
the relative merits of good and poor plonTing for control. Different phases of the quarantine enforcement were granhically presented. Present quarantine lines and the quarantined areas by St!.tes were shown on an outline map of the United States. The point of origin and the destination of 46 interceptions of ear corn at quarantine stations also were indicated on the map. Two miniature grain c:rs were featured, one loaded with clean shelled corn, permitted movement from the infested to noninfested
areas without interference, and the other with corn containing, parts of cobs, debris, etc., the movement of ILich is prohibited from quarantined territory. Tw:o corn cleaning screens, such as are used by elevators,
also were exhibite; one showing the proper type, and the other allowing cobs or debris to drop through with the corn in the process of cleaning. 27o live stock cE.rs were displayed, one loaded with animals bedded down with stalks and debris, in violation of the regulations, and the other empty and in the process of cleaning before use in reshipment of cargoes from within the quarantined section. The centerpiece in the background was an illuminated cut-out sign depicting a quarantine station. A question box *ith answers was arranged in a form which permitted accurate mechanical operation. Questions were painted along the rim of a dial at the top, and just above and behind the dial there was a panel on which a pointer was set in the shape of an arrow which moved and pointed to the answers. When the interrogation mark on the dial was placed at a question, a button, conveniently at hand, was pressed and the arrow turned clockwise with the head stopping at the answer on the panel. Twelve of the questions most frequently asked by the general public were placed on the box and appropriate answers on the ?anel.
The overL for heat treating material to be moved outside the quarantined area was completed in time to treat all the ear corn exhibits for the International Live Stock Exoosition and Hay and Grain Show at Chicago which growers had submitted from the quarantined area. Corn was received as follows: From Canada, 1 lot, 10 ears; from Pennsylvania, 5 lots, 70 ears; from Indiana, 15 lots, 153 ears; from New York, 4 lots, 71 ears; from Michigan, lo lots, 192 ears; from Ohio, 9 lots, 100 ears; total, 50 lots, 596 ears. The oven was constructed as follows: 1-5/16" x 1/8" angle iron used for the frame, on which was riveted 1/16" galvanized sheet iron for both the outer and inner walls and 2 1/2" x 2 1/211 x 1/8"1 angle iron for the door frame. Inside dimensions were 40 x 52" x 64" and the outside 48" x 60" x 72", leaving a space of 4" between the walls; 1/2" of this space was taken up on each wall by insulation of sheet asbestos packed viith mineral wool, giving an air space on all sides of 3". Six electric heaters were placed on the floor of the inner wall, each heater equipped with an independent switch on the outside which permitted the use of any number desires. Four inches above the heaters is a false bottom, of 4" x 1/8" iron rods placed at a graduated distance from each other, from 0 at the back to 3/8" at the front, to equalize the amount of heat which the motor draws through t-e air duct at the back for circulation. The door was constructed the same as the walls of the oven in a manner that closed both the outer and inner walls of the door flush against the outer and inner openings of the oven. ietal weather strips were placed on both the outer and inner walls of the door to prevent any loss of heat. The door is supported by a large caster while open. The total weight of the oven is approximately 2,100 pounds, and it was erected on wooden skids for moving. The inside space above the false floor is divided equally for six trays, 40" x 63", which are about
6 1/2" apart. Each tray will hold approximately 100 ears of corn, average size. The trays when removed from the oven are blnced on a rack for cooling. Even temperatures are maintained at all points of the oven by a blower carrying air from the false bottom up through a duct at the
back, and is distributed by blower down through the center of the top.
The temperature is regulated by a thermostat mounted on the top, with a capillary tube running; through the side to the center. Corn which had been treated :'on high honors at the Hay and Grain Show, including first prize in the white dent classification, giving evidence that it had not been injured by the process. After the entries had been judged, typewritten slips mere attached to each collection of treated ears, explaining how the corn had been subjected to the heat treatment, so that visitors to the exhibit could see for themselves that it had sustained no injury.
Over 100,000 copies of the Massachusetts State lawi relative to
the disposition of cornstalks and stubble in connection with the suppression of the Euiropean corn borer have been distributed over rural routes and to post office box holders. This distribution will be followed by a
canvass of the agricultural and suburb n sections of Barnstable, Bristol, Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk, Plymouth, and Worcester Covnties, cy State inspectors. Fifteen men have been assigned to this .ork, and all persons who have not complied with the law will be required to appear in person at the State House, in Boston, or at some other conveniently located State or county building, for a hearing. Eight hundred "first offenders" were
compelled to attend these hearings last year and all were placed on probation. That there were no 'second offenders" and that it was unnecessary in any case to impose severe penalties speaks well for the operation of the law. The work of the State inspectors will be supplemented by a more intensive "farm to farn" campaign by experienced Federal inspectors, working in cooperation with the State, through the Greater Bost.n market garden section, which includes about 30 towns containing small farms, gardens, and greenhouses supplying the wholesale markets with fresh vegetables, plants, and flowers. This district covers the territory included in the first Federal and State quarantine against the European corn borer and contains heavily infested neighborhoods.
Conditions in the eastern shore counties of Virginia, where a firstrecord corn borer infestation was found late in the fall, as developed in a survey made during November, are much different from any existing elsewhere in the infested areas and present some unusual Droblems with reference to control practices. About half of the farmers in Accomac County, the scene of the new infestation, still follow the old-time custom of "topping" their corn, just above the ears, and stripping the leaves from the stalks below that point. This handling,, which was the general practice wherever corn was grown in the South up to 40 or 50 years a.go, supplies fodder claimed to have a maximum of feed value, as the tops are cut and the blades pulled while the corn is'yet green. Ears are harvested from the topped stalks at convenient periods during the winter, mostly in December. Sometimes the leaves are left, below the ecrs, and the stalks cut, Et a height of about 6 inches, Lfter the corn has been pulled off. In other cases, the stalks are allowed to stand for a ..'n'e, and afterwards cut down before spring plowing is done. On the other h".lf of the crop, corn is cut and shocked in the same manner as elsewh re in the grain-
growing regions. Obviously, the extraordinary amount of stalks and stubble to be taken into consideration makes the approved method of control by turning under more or less impracticeble, and a further complicLtion is introduced by the light, sandy, and loamly soil, ranging from 4 to 6 inches in depth and customarily subjected to shallow plowing only. In Accomac aid Northamton Counties, some 70,000 acres of corn are cultivated in a normal year. Arrangements were carried forward for the cleaning up of from 75 to 100 acres around the location of the infestation .reviously found.
Men are to be placed in the field by the Rhode Island department
of agriculture, beginning on December 1, to make a thorough survey of all premises on w'ich corn was grown last season and ascertain how far there has been compliance with the State law requiring that all stubble and
debris shall be plowed under. Eforcoment of the law in 193 it is pointed out by the officials in their announcement of the investigation, resulted in an average reduction in infestation of ap roximately 50 per cent, in the State as a whole, and made possible the marketing of the best crop of early sweet corn produced in three years. Only one county reported a heavy increase in corn borer population, it is stated, and special attention will be accorded this section ia the forthcoming cleanup campaign. Warnings have been widely published in the State press that
corn growers who fail to conform to the provision of the law will be held to strict accountability under the penalties prescribed.
Proceedings instituted on October 26 against Clarence Shipp,
231 Paul Street, Belvidere, N. J., for a violation of the European corn borer quarantine on Se tember 4, were concluded on November 17. The violation involved the transportation vie rowboat of 36 ears of corn, grown in the one-generation area, across the Delaware River from Riverton, Pa., to Belvidere, IN. J. Just prior to the violation the dcfendant had been refused permission to walk across the bridge with the corP. He appeared before Judge George M. Bourquin, in the District Court at Trenton, and entered a plea of guilty. In view of the small quantity of corn involved and of the poverty of the defendant, a fine of only $3 was imposed.
In collecting additional information concerning infestations of the corn borer and crop damage resulting therefrom, 41r. Bartley, of the South Norwalk headquarters, visited farmer:-, canners, and county agents in the western, Lake Ontario, and Albany sections of New York, during the latter part of Nove-iber. Data from these sources indicate that growers of early-planted corn in several of the counties covered sustained considerable losses. The survey conducted by Mr. Bartley in this connection supplemented a similar one made by Mr. Crossman soue weeks previous.
Commercial dar ge to sweet corn, amounting to at least l0 per cent, as a consequence of heavy infestations of the Europeen corn borer, has
been reported during the current season from the southwestern part of Vermont, according to information supplied the press by the State department of agriculture. Spread is said to have been observed from not far distant sections of New York which are heavily infested. Control by plowing under of all corn stubble and waste according to approved methods is urged upon Vermont farmers by the plant pest authorities of the State.
The remaining road patrols and vehicle inspection stations in the eastern section of corn borer control work were discontinued on November 14. These quarantine line activities had been confined to New York City and vicinity for some time before that date.
Shipments of the new crop of winter sweet corn grown in Florida first were reported as arriving at the Washington Market, in New York City, on November 16. This green corn on the cob was packed in crates. Only limited quantities were offered for reshipment under permit.
Late fall crops of Limaa beans supplied material for shipments to New York from California, Cuba, and some of the Southern States, which began to come through in the early part of November.
Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work
Project and field leaders in enforcement of the Japanese beetle quarantine were in confer
Lead arsenate treatments of isolated infestations were begun at
Elmira, N. Y., on Novefmber 2 and concluded on the 5th. Properties on which 21 beetles were collected by scouts during the past summer are in close proximity, therefore treatment was applied to a continuous section
of some 18 acres. At the conclusion of the work two of the four spraying outfits used were returned to the South Norwalk headquarters. From Elrmira, two spray outfits proceeded to Watl:ins Glen, N. Y., where arsenate of lead was aIplied to approximately four acres on November 6. The three finds of a single beetle each in traps were all in close proximity to the Belknar Hotel, at the entrance to the Glen, so that a contiguous tract was treated. On November 9 about three acres of ground were treated in Little Falls, N. Y., surrounding the premises on which seven beetles were collected during the summer of 1931. Treating of 32 acres in Richmond, Va., was finished on November 9, in this operation, begun on October 24, four separated areas having been covered. Infestations in Richmond discovered last snmaer consisted of 5 beetles collected by scouts and 10 additional beetles recovered after the distribution of traps. After finishing in Richnond, two sprayer trucks proceeded to Charleston, S. C., where treating began on November 12 and was finished on the 23rd, 23 acres having been given attention. Unfavorable working conditions in congested residential districts slowed down the work. Three more or less isolated tracts were treated in and around the four locations at which single beetles were trapped last summer. Sprayer trucks were en route to the South Norwalk headquarters at the end of the month.
Steps for additional control operations next summer, in densely beetle infested sections of Philadelohia, wore taken during the month. The demonstration contemlates the treatment of a number of vacant lots with dosage of arsenate of lead toxic to larval survival, planting of smartweed on the treated soil, and subsequnt trapping operations on the plot during the noriod of adult beetle flight. Smartweed, nrcf rred as a food olant by the insect, will attract and feed large beetle ponulations. Traps with geraniol end eugenol bait will draw and catch the pests in great numbers. Ovioooition in the poisoned soil ';ill not perpetuate the insects, but will result in his:h 1iortality of the grubs. The intention of this control measure is to reduce by the millions, if possible, the beetle nopulatio-. Pre-eration of six vacant lots was nearing completion at the end of the month, permission having been secured for free use of seven. One of the lots is reserved for treatment and seeding in the spring,. Arsenate of lead is spread and harrowed thoroughly. Smartweed planting is accomplished by broadcasting. In most cases the broadcasted seed is lightly harrowed. The lots are distributed throughout the city, in sections known to hcve many beetles. On another plot, containing one-half acre, where there nas already a rank growth of tall smartweed,1ead arsenate was spread on tre soil to be washed in by the rain. One-half acre of ground at the White Horse district headquarters has also been treated, and a half acre is reserved for spring treatment.
After obtaining a "buyer's button" at the Ha: onton, d. J.,
berry market on Juie 29, 1931, Carnon Micale of' yrcuse, N. Y., purchased 24 crates o berries. Informed by the market master that carbon
disulphide treatment was necessary before his berries might be certified for movement to Syracuse, the purchaser laced the crates in the fumigation house. Micale refused to pay the treating fee, so his fruits were not fumigated. En route to his destination with the uncertified berries, he was stopped by road inspectors stationed at Factoryville, Pa. Desuite warnings as to the consequences, he proceeded to Syracuse with the contraband. A criminal information was filed against the violator in the United States District Court at Syracuse. A plea of guilty was filed by the defendant on November 21 and he was fined $50.
Considerable outside work was done during the month in mapping nursery establishments recently or scantily infested and apparently eligible for Class II and III split-classification. Erection of suitable permanent fences or the establishment of other satisfactory boundaries to clearly mark the units subdivided as Class II on Class III premises was supervised in a nuinber of establishments.
Road patrol activities on the southern and western boundaries of the lightly infested areas were abandoned on November 30. Several inspectors stationed at these posts had been laid cff earlier in the month. Discontinuance of quarantine line work at these posts occasioned the dismantling of 19 road posts and the dismissal 3f 20 additional road inspectors.
M4XICAN FRUIT OIM
Two adult Anastrepha ludens were taken November 6 and 9 in traps maintained in a premise in Matamoros. Following the finding of these adults four applications of arsenical poison bait spray were made to the trees in 22 premises surrounding the point of infestation. Edible sweet oranges were growing in four of these premises. Cloths about 4 feet square were suspended in these trees and the poison applied to these cloths. Occupants of two premises objected to the spraying work and rather than build up opposition to the work the spraying on these premises was omitted.
An increase was noted in the amount of infested fruit recovered from the market in Matamoros. Guavas, sweet limes, oranges, and pears were found to be infested. Two hundred and sixty-four larvae were taken from these fruits.
No Anastrepha were found on the American side of the river.
The movement of fruit from the Valley was decidedly sluggish during the month due to a weak market and the lack of large sizes of fruit in
Valley groves. Valley fruit is still running largely to 96s and smaller, and the market is demanding larger size fruit. Some growth was noted in the fruit during the month; groves which had been ring picked for 96s and larger at the beginning of the month showed a fair percenta e of 80s and larger when picked aain at the end of the month. A total of 668 cars were moved by rail during the month, and approximately 272 carloads, or about 40 per cent of the entire movement, was by truck. A casual check of the destination of these trucks showed the farthest points to which fruit is being trucked are New York, several points in Kansas and Missouri, and Denver, Colo. Naturally the great majority of fruit going out by truck is destined to Texas points.
The Rio Grande City road traffic inspection station wcs opened on
the 16th. Very little traffic moves over this road and, accordingly, only one inspector was assigned to duty at this station. Confiscations at both
stations have been fairly light considering the volumle of fruit passing.
Groves were found to be in good condition during the month. The
continued dry weather with several days of hirt winds caused a heavy drop of fruit which put the growers to considerable extra trouble and expense in picking it up and burying it. A total of 7,043 inspections were made during the month. Of the groves infected it was necessary to withhold "Certificates of Inspection" on 510 on account of -drop fruit and weedy condition of the groves.
Picking and ginning of the cotton crorp in the regulated areas
progressed very rapidly during the first nart of November. Weather conditions, however, interfered considerably during the latter part of the month. In a number of the districts there are many fields in which no picking has been done. Pract cally all of the cotton is now onen, consequently it will all be gathered at one nicking. It was thought that
ginning would be completed earlier than usual this season, but now that winter rains have begun it appears that the season will be prolonged as usual. At the end of November 174,501 bales had been ginned. The cold rains have affected the seed sterilizers somewhat, but as a whole seed
sterilization continued to be very satisfactory.
In last month's letter it was stated that iEry little cotton had been shipped from the regulated ercas and as a result practically all
gin yards were full. The latter Dart of the morlti a reduction of freight rates on cotton went into effect and since that time cotton has been moving very rapidly. This has resulted in a considerable increase in activities at the various comDresses and fumi;,ationi plants. In fact, the
compresses in the El Peso Valley have been unable to handle the cotton as fast as it comes in.
7ith the exception of the Tucson district and the Salt River
Valley, both in Arizona, specimens have been found in trash from practically all gins in the regulated areas; therefore, most of the gin trash machines were closed during the month. Two machines are still operating in California in addition to those in the Salt River Valley. The machines operating outside of the regulated area in the western extension of Texas were also closed the latter part of the month, and the men are now devoting their time to field inspection.
The results of all gin trash inspection outside of the regulated areas have been negative this season. A number of specimens were taken by the machines operating within the regulates areas during: November; however, these did not involve any new territory. All of the specimens taken in the Salt River Valley during November were in trash from the Gilbert Gin Company, at Gilbert, Ariz. Although none of these specimens have been traced directly to the fields as yet, the information secured from the ginning records indicates that the voris originated in fields of stub cotton in the vicinity of Chandler and Goodyear.
A new record finding was made by the gin trash machine in the
Big Bend district of Texas on November 3. One bale of cotton produced about three-fourths bushel of trash, which contained 8,767 specimens of the pink bollworm. The first frost occurred ir the Big Bend on the 19th of the month, and since that date the number of worms per bushel in trash has been decreasing. There has also been a considerable decrease in the number of pupae taken.
At the beginning of the season regulations were promulgated by the New Mexico authorities calling for the daily disposal of gin trash until November 15, the average date for a killing frost being before that time. This season, since there had not been a killing frost by the 15th, our gin supervisors requested the ginners to continue the daily disposal of trash until there was one. It is very encouraging to note that most of the ginners very readily agreed to this.
Mention was made in the last letter concerning the finding of a specimen of the Thurberia weevil in trash from the gin at Coolidge. Additional specimens have since been taken from rin trash and also found in the field. This cotton is grown at Eloy, which is outside the area regulated on account of the Thurberie weevil. On November 10 the Arizona Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture met and extended the Thurberia Weevil Quarantine so as to include this new area.
The number of cornfiscations mode at the road stations continues to show a slight increase. Only one of the confiscations was invested with the pink bollworm, this interception being made at the Alpine, Tex.,
station on November 6. This interception consisted of 37 cottonseed taken from cracks in the body of a truck, which contained two dead larvae. The driver readily informed our inspector that he had hauled seed from the Big Bend, but that his truck had been swept thoroughly. This finding indicates that a very cluse inspection is being made at the stations. A rather unusual confiscation was aede at the Van Horn, Tex., station on November 1. Five men passed tho station on foot, and as one of the men was carrying his clothes in a pick sack our inspector stopped them for inspection. About one-half -ound of seed cotton was found in the sack. One of the other men had a small amount of seed cotton in his suit case, while another was carrying two green bolls.
The latter part of Noveriber a delegation of citizens and
officials from the State of Arizoiia visited the !, Bend section of Texas, for the purpose of seeing actual field dam-ge done by the pink bollworm. Among those making the trip was the Chairman of the Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture, State Entomologist, County Agent of Maricopa County, a newspaper editor, and several prominent cotton farmers. These ]en,esecially the farners of the perty, mere all very much surprised to see the damage that could be done by the pink bollworm. They all expressed themselves Es being very heartily in f,-vor of continuing the eradication program in the Salt River Valley.
An estimate of the damage done by the pink bollworm to cotton in the Big Bend section has recently been made. Counts were made of the pickable and nonpickable bolls. Pickeble bolls -were counted as those which the ordinary picker would take, that is, bolls showing no injury and those showing injury to only one lock. Bolls showing injury to two or more locks were counted as nonuickable. The following table shows the results of the counts made in 14 fields in the vicinity of Presidio. Actual damage will run hi: her, as the injury to the lint and seed of the cotton that was picked was riot taken into account:
Damage of the pink bollworm to the 1931 cotton cro i Bend section of Texas
(Records made on November 12, 13, 14, 1931)
:.Number : Number
Field "-o.: Location :bolls boIe un- Total :Per cent
.:pickl : ickable : bolls damage
1 : 1 Ii. SE Presidio : 1146 : 291 : 1437 : 20.2b
2 842 : 462 : 1304 : 35.43
3 : 2 : 1012 : 596 : 1604 : 37.06
4 : 2 : 870 : 231 : 1101 : 20.98
5 : 6 : 1031 3 25 : 1356 : 23.96
6 : 1680 : 597 : 2277 : 26.22
7 : 21- N7 : 1063 : 22'5 : 1288 : 17.47
8 : 3 : 772 : 278 : 1050 : 26.65
9 : 5 : 1065 : 70 : 1435 : 25.78
10 : 5--" : 607 : 106 : 713 : 14.87
11 :12 : 574 : 64 : 6358 : 10.03
12 :13 : 541 : 68 : 609 : 11.16
13 :20 : 1009 : 154 : 1163 : 13.24
14 :21 : 927 : 133 : 1060 : 12.55
: Average daae Presidio section 21.12
PREVEhTING SPREAD OF MOTHS
Scouting work for the gipsy moth was greatly reduced during
November because of the fact that there &ore ap roximately 100 men from the scouting and extermination force assigned to tomporary duty on quarantine work. These men were engaged in the seasonal inspection of evergreen boughs, Christmas greenery, and Christrmas trees to be shipped out of the area quarantined for the gipsy moth.
Of the 191,557 acres of -.oodland plarmed to be scouted by the
Federal force in the Adirondack region of the Ile? York barrier zone during the current fiscal year, approximately 150,000 acres have been examined with negative results.
Scouting work for the gipsy moth was concluded during November with negative results in Crown Point, N. Y., a to';n having more than 350,000
acres of woodland, and the men working there were transferred to other
work. At the close of November, scouting crews were working in Putnam and Dresden, Washington County, N. Y., and in Hague, Warren County, N. Y. No gipsy moth infestations were found during November in the area regularly scouted by the Federal crews in New York State.
On November 30 a small crew was assigned to intensive scouting work
planned for this season around old colony sites in the town of New Marlboro, Berkshire County, Mass. This is one of the towns in southwestern Massachusetts where numerous gipsy moth infestations have been found in the past which were attributed to wind spread from the infested territory east of the barrier zone.
Preliminary scouting work was continued during November with
negative results in Beckett, Monterey, and 'yrin.ham, Mass., and Kent and Litchfield, Conn., in tho vicinity of where gipsy moth male adults were caught at the assembling cages.
The New York Conservation Department has been allotted the sum of $50,000 for gipsy moth work from an appropriation for the relief of the unemployed. The appropriation was passed at a special session of the New York legislature this fall. The training of men for gipsy moth work started November 9 and there are several crews now at work. The allotment will be expended for gipsy moth work by the Conservation Department in Washington, Putnam, and Westchester Counties, N. Y.
The New York Conservation Department has reported that t'.ere were scouting crews engaged in the examination of'wooded areas during November in East Fishkill, Kent, Southeast, and Phillipstorn, all in Dutchess County, N. Y., and in Newcastle, Eedford, \hite Plains, end Harrison, all in Westchester County, N. Y. The map received from the New York Conservation Department which gave the above information also indicated that scouting work was concluded in LaGrange and Fishkill, Dutchess County, N. Y., with negative results. In addition to the above scouting crews, there is one crew engaged in checking work around old colony sites in Milan, Dutchess County, N. Y.
The Conservation Department has reported 12 gipsy moth infested
locations on Long Island in Nassau County up to and including Novemuber 30, of which 9 are situated in North Hempstead and the other 3 in Oyster Bay. Ten of these infestations are within a 3-mile radius of No. Roslyn, L. I., the centre of the original infestation founAd on Long Island during the fiscal year 1930.
Clean-up work on Long Island is renorte as progressing slowly in
that it is limited to days when it is dark, foggy, or otherwise unfavorable for scouting work. There are New Yo:k State scouting crews working in North Hempstead, Oyster Bay, and He istead, Lone Island, N. Y., the work in the latter lace starting during Novemaber. These three towns are in Nassau County.
During November, there were several employees of the scouting and extermination project caught in fox traps that were concealed beneath leaves and other debris. These employees were not injured by the exnerience because the type of dress adopted by the scouts consists in part of leather puttees or high leather boots and also because they were fortunate enough not to step onto stronger treps such as are used in trapping of bears and other large animals. However negligible it may seem, these hazards, in some instances, have a slight bearing on the quality of the scouting work accomplished.
Although the gipsy moth egg cluster usually h- tches from the latter part of April to the first half of ,iay and the larvae issuing from the eggs become full grown the latter part of July and the early part of August, there are rare occasions when gipsy moth eg- clusters are found hatching in the fall of the year. An instance of this was discovered just east of the barrier zone in back of Bald Mountain, Shelburne Falls, Mass., on September 11. Approximately 25 gipsy moth larvae were found on an egg cluster which was about 5 feet from the ground on the east side of an apple tree. Closer inspection revealed 12 additional egg clusters in
a cavity of a dead limb on the s=e tree end larvae were h-tching from
3 of these egg clusters. The fall hatching. of o'ipsy moth egg clusters is so rare that it is unimportant as a control factor and consequently very little study or investigation has been made to determine the facts in the
case. There were no temperature or other weather data available which would have a bearing on this fall hatching exceuot that in a general way the weather was unusually warm for that time of the year.
During November there were 143 lots of material offered for inspection in New Jersey, which represented a decrease in the number of ship ments and the quantities of materials comprising these shipments over the previous month. No gipsy moths were found on these shipments.
On Long Island, in Nassau County, there 'was also a decrease in the volume of stock offered for inspection, there being 12o lots examined and certified for shipment during November. No gipsy moths wcr found on these shipments.
At one time, cable reels used by the maintenance departments of telephone companies operating in the quarantined areas were difficult to inspect for infestation by the giosy n-oth. They were constructed entirely of wood, and the inner drum on which the c ble was wound was not made in such a manner as to prevent the entrance of full-grown larvae.
In consequence, egg clusters were sometimes; deposited inside of this inner drum, and in order to reach them the reel had to be taken apart. The cable reels now used have pressed on steel drums whose only openings are the two, one on either side, through which a steel bar is placed to act as an axle when unwinding the c, ble. 'o avoid the possibility of the drum becoming infested on the inside, the telephone companies provide plugs which they require to be placed in the holes at all times except
of course when the reels are mounted for unindin. During the unwinding the holes are filled by the steel axle and close fittin;- steel plates so that larvae cannot enter. Particular care is exercised by the telephone employees as they realize that if t e inner drues did become infested, their dismantling for inspection 'ould be a difficult and expensive task.
In general, the inspection of quarantined roducts for shipment
to points outside of the quarantined area is made just prior to shipment. After inspection, the articles are nackeu or loadefo and then certified. With certain manuf actured products, such es wreaths and other decorative Christmas pieces, the materials may be put together in such a -ey that thorough inspection can not be made and as a result the usual procedure of inspection is not possible. Fo all such articles when inspection of the finished products can not be made, the raw materials are examined before used in the process of .anufecture and tle prorer precautions taken so that only inspected mr terils will be used. In most cases, the shippers will send out some if not many articles to points within the quarantined area where certification is rot ece~.ry, but as it is impossible to tell in advance of manufacture just what materials may be
used for the inside shipments, all are isacte:, end then at the time of shipment, certificates are issued only for :hose .ihich are consigned to points outside of the quarantined area.
The spruce boujb industry in southern Vermont and western
Massachusetts, which was explained in the Dece.ar ews Letter, was practically completed in November. Approxi1 atly 1,300 tons of spruce bouths were inspected up to iovoimbr 3D, which is ,bout 35 per cent increase in the amount of boughs submitted for inspection tbis year as over the quantity inspected and shipped las year. Te inspected boughs are being rapidly certified and shipped to points outside the quarantined area.
In connection with the spruce boug;h inspectio, b15 tons of balsam fir boughs and 10 tons of he:lock boughs have been inspected and certified for shipment. These were shipped in 100-pound bales and are used for mak ng up wreaths and other decorative nieces for Christ2:as use. The baling process of shipping this stock enables the florists to make their ow~n creations as ordered. Christmas tree inspection is purely seasonal, and the volume of business is so great over such a short
period in November and December that it is necessary every year to arrange with the scouting, and extermination project for the temporary transfer of approximately 100 men trained in gipsy :,oth work to take care of the inspection and certification work incidental to the Christmas tree and greenery industries. The inspection ;f Christmas trees in the quarantined area of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and western YMassachusetts started November 2 and rached its mexium point about Novembcr 25. The Christmas tree operators were unusually late in assembling the trees
for inspection this season due to the fact that this November was the warmest on record for this type of inspection. The trees are conveyed to a shipping or assembling point and the 'urdles opened by the operators to allow for a tree-by-tree inspection for the gipsy moth. The trees when shipped are loaded onto flat ccrs, at which time a certificate is
issued covering the shipment based on the iisnection at the tire the trees were assembled and bunched at the shipping point. The cutting of car stakes, which are necessary in loading platform cers, is another work associated with this industry. A car will take from 14 to 22 stakes, 10 feet in height and bout d to 8 inches in diameter, and considering that there were aioroximately 850 cars loaded and shipped last year, a great deal of additional ins-,ection work is required for this type of product. The Christmas trees cut i> the quarantined gipsy moth area are shipped to practically every State in the Union, although for the most part they are destined to Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the New England States. This year inquiries have been received by the o-erators relative to shipments of Christmas trees to Italy, Germany, and England.
A new revision of the satin moth quarantine No. 53 has been issued by the Secretary of Agriculture to become effective December 1, 1931. In this revision, the territory under qoarantine has been extended in Maine,
Vermont, Massachusetts, and Connecticut to include within the regulated area all towns beyond the old regulated area which have been found to be infested with t-is insect. In Maine appDroximately 757 square miles were added to the regulated area and in this section are located 18 tons or other geographical units. This addel area is located in Piscataquis, Somerset, and Franklin Counties. In Vermont one town of approximately 47 square miles in Orange County w..s added to the regulated area. In Massachusetts the extension was in Berkshire and Franklin Counlties, and consisted of 8 towns of approximately 177 square miles. In Connecticut the area extensions were mainly in Hartford and Litchfield Counties, although a few towns were added in both New Haven and Fairfield Counties. In all, 24 towns of approximately 569 square miles weVre added to the regulated area in Connecticut. The regulations in so fcr as they affect poplars and willows, or parts thereof capable of propagation, remain the same. The shipment of these trees or parts from the regulated area is not permitted. As the regulated area has been extended from year to year, more and more nurseries have been brought into the area from which the shipment of poplars and willows is not permitted In many cases these nurseries receive orders for poplar and willow trees nhich they are unable to fill. The reg letions of some other quarantines permit the shipment from the quarantined areas of products which originate outside, but this has not been permitted under the regulations of quarantine No. 53. In the revision, a new regulation provides that these trees and parts may be brought into the regulated area after October 1 of any year, but they must be shipped prior to April 30 of the following year. In addition, it is provided that skch trees o-' parts while ,ithin the regulated area must be safeguarded by being sermerted so that there will be no possibility of their becoming infeste All shirmients of these trees and parts to points outside of the regulated ,rea will Po under permit.
UNIVERSITY OF FLOil,(A 3 1262 09245 0781