1 ATE PLTBO
PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUTRE
Number 12 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) December 1 1931.
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES
RECET ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF InTEREST
\ He terranean fruit fly from Venezuela.--Living larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly were intercepted at San Juan, Porto Rico, in peaches in baggage from Venezuela. This represents the first interception by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration of this fruit fly from Venezuela. (See also New7s Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 2, February, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 4, April, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931; No. 7, July, 1931; No. 10, Oc0tober, 1931; No. 11, November, 1931.)
Mango weevil from Hawaii.--The mango weevil Sternoehetus mangifere was intercepted at San Francisco in mango seed in baggage from awaii. This weevil has also been intercepted in mango from Ceylon, Egypt, India,and Siam. This insect is a serious pest of mango in Hawaii, where it has been r orted to infest 60 to 90 per cent of the crop.
Thrips from Mexico.--Elaphrothrips longiceps (B3agn.) was interepted at Hidalgo, Tex., in a seedless avocado in baggage from mico. No entrance hole in the avocado was apparent. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., remarks as follows in reference to this interception:"Th seems to be rather a common thrips on avocados inCentral America. It has not been recorded from the United States."
Whitefly on ale.-Aleyrodes analeae B. &,M. (Aleyrodidae) was
intercepted at te York on a leaf of Azalea sp. in the mail from Austria. This whitery,.which is not known to oeour in continental United 84qtes,
hen beenti 4ner
has een nter previously on azalea from Belgium, England, and Jap an.
Bruchid in vetch seed.--Bruchus brachialis Fabr. (Brushidae) was intercepted at Washington, D. C., in the seed of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) in the mail from Budapest, Hungary. J. C. Bridwell, of Washington, D. C., states that this bruchid, like the pea weevil and broad-bean weevil, infests only green pods in the field and can not reinfest the seed in storage.
Weevil in Eugenia sp.--Larvae, pupae, and cocoons of Anthonomus
sp. (Curculionidae) were collected by Max Kisliuk, jr., and C. E. Cooley in green and ripe fruit of Eugenia sp. near St. Cloud, Guadeloupe, French West Indies, August 25, 1931, and larvae of Anthonomus sp. were collected in ripe fruit of Eugenia sp. en the ground 3 miles south of Castries, St. Lucia, British West Indies, September 8, 1931.
Scale insect from Japan.--Ceroplastes rubens (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on the leaves of Aralia sp. in ship's quarters from Japan. This scale insect, which is not known to occur in continental United States, has also been intercepted from Hawaii and Samoa.
Weevil found in guavas.--Larvae of Conotrachelus dimidiatus Champion (Curculionidae) were collected by T. R. Stephens in guavas at Matamoros, Mexico, August 15, 1931. The infested guavas originated in Uruapan, Michoacan, Mexico. According to A. G. Boving and L. L. Buchanan, of the Bureau of Entomology, this insect is potentially injurious and guava is the only known host. Dr. Boving further states that this weevil is a typical Mexican form and is not known to occur in continental United States. This insect was intercepted at San Antonio, Tex., in 1929, in guava from Mexico.
Weevil from Greenland.--Brachyrhinus arcticus Fab. (Curculionidae) was intercepted at New York in soil around the roots of a collection of miscellaneous plants from Greenland. This is the first record of this weevil being intercepted by inspectors of the Plant quarantine and Control Administration.
Syntomid from Panama.--Ceramidia scintillocollaris (Syntomidae) was intercepted at San Francisco with bananas in cargo from Panama. This lepidopteron, which is not recorded from continental United States, has also arrived with bananas from Costa Rica and Guatemala. According to William Schaus, of the National Museum, the larva of this moth feeds on weeds in plantations and climbs banana plants in search of a place to form a cocoon and pupate.
Tortricid from Switzerland.--Cacoecia podana Scop. var. sauberiana Sorh. (Tortrieidae) arrived at Washington, D. C., on Rhododendron hirsutum plants in cargo from Switzerland. Neither the species C. podana nor its variety sauberiana is recorded from continental United States.
Noctuid on pineapple slip.--An adult of Simplicia robustalis Guen.
(Noctuidae) was intercepted at San Juan, Porto Rico, on a pineapple slip in cargo from Hawaii. This noctuid is reported to attack the fruit of pineapple in Queensland, Australia, and is an occasional pest of ragi (Eleusine coracana) earheads in the stack in Mysore State, India.
Scale insect on papaya.--Pseudoparlatoria ostreata Ckll. (Coccidae) was intercepted at New York on papaya fruits in baggage from Porto Rico. This scale insect, which has not been recorded from continental United States, has also been intercepted from Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, and Venezuela.
Mexican jumping bean.--A larva of Grapholitha saltitans West. was
intercepted at Boston in a Mexican jumping bean (Sebastiania pavoniana) in crew's quarters from Mexico. The activity of the larva within the seed is the cause of the jumping. The larva changes to a chrysalis, and the butterfly emerges by lifting up a lid which had been cut out of the seed wall earlier by the larva. This tortricid is related to the codling moth of apple.
RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTEICEPTIONS OF INVEST
A specimen of diseased mamey-sapote collected in Porto Rico was
found to be suffering from an attack of Cephaleuros virescens, a parasitic alga.
An Australian grown apple intercepted at Baltimore showed spots resembling those of the nonparasitic "Jonathan spot" which occurs in this country.
Black currant leaves from Canada bearing numerous telia and some
uredosori of the white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) were intercepted at Boston. The rust was covered with other fungi and in poor condition.
Among the nematode interceptions from Philadelphia was Aphelenchus heterophallus n.sp., an interesting new species infesting sugar cams from Jamaica.
A small white blister intercepted at Philadelphia on a turnip leaf from France proved to be a spot of "white rust" caused by Albugo candida, formerly called Cystopus candidus. 7,hile this disease occurs on a number of crucifers in various States, it had not been intercepted before.
A species of Penicillium doubtfully referred to P. gladioli was
found in three lots of crocus bulbs from Holland intercepted at Philadelphia. P. gladioli has not been recorded as infecting crocus so far as the specialist who examined the material is aware.
Tylenchus dipsaci was recently intercepted at New York in garlic
from Italy, this being the first record of this nematode on garlic from that country.
An 6nion from Germany intercepted at Philadelphia was found to be infected with a species of 0ospora apparently identical with 0. citriaurantii, the organism causing sour rot of citrus. The specialists are testing the fungus on citrus.
Lima bean scab (Elsinoe canavaliae) was intercepted for the first time this season at New York on November 10, in two shipments of Cuban Lima beans. Cuban Lima beans are permitted entry at this port only, and their importation is confined to the period November--March, inclusive, these restrictions constituting sa: Zuards imposed under Quarantine 56 in relation to the pod borer (M1aruca tostulalis).
INCREASED DOSAGE AND EXPOSURE IN THE FUIJGATION
OF RAILWAY CARS ON 1-ICAN BORDER
Effective November 23, 1931, the dosage of liquid HCN used in the fumigation of railway cars from Mexico has been increased from 3 to 6 pounds per car when the temperature in the fumigation houses is 400 F. or over, and to 7 pounds when the temperature in the fumigation houses is under 400. The time of exposure has also bec~n increased frorl 1, to 6 hours dountin. front the tine all the 'gas is in the funiatio0n chamber.
The number of railway cars now being fumigated at Mexican border
ports is rather small compared with the number fumigated a few years ago, and it is not anticipated that the increase in the time of exposure will affect the movement of freight to any appreciable extent. The falling off in car fumigations has been due in part to the present economic conditions and also to a considerable extent to the exemptions which have been granted during recent years. The last exemptions, granted on August 21, 1931, included all stock cars if cleaned on the Mexican side, all refrigerator cars if free from cottonseed, and box cars hauling ore concentrates provided certain safeguards were employed. Prior to this, tank, flat, coal, and gondola types of cars had been exempted from fumigation if found upon inspection to be free from cottonseed. That the recent exemption on cars hauling ore concentrates will be the means of effecting a considerable saving in the movement of such materials is supported by the fact that since August 21 up to November 7, 531 carloads of ore concentrates have entered without fumigation.
NUA0ROUS INSECTS FOUND IN PACKING MATERIAL
Recently a shipment of four pecan trees was received at the Washington, D. C., inspection house from a nursery in Texas, the plants having been certified by the nursery inspector of that State as apparently free from injurious plant pests. On examination by the inspectors in Washington the
trees themselves were found free of pests as certified by the Texas officials, but the rotted straw and other debris used as packing was found to be very much alive with insect life, meal worms and lepidopterous larva
being particularly abundant. Other insects present in the packing were sow-bugs, earwigs, carpet beetle larvae, and seven different species of adult coleoptera. Many of these species will be revealed, no doubt, after identification, as being very common throughout the country, but at the same time this case illustrates in an outstanding manner the danger of a new pest becoming established in a new locality by the use of infested packing material of this type.
ITALIAN CHESTNTJIS ENTER NEW YORK
The first shipment of Italian chestnuts for the Season reached
New York on September 28, and up to November 1, 155 shipments representing 39,872 containers had arrived. During the same period in 1930, 108 shipments consisting of 26,384 containers were entered. Not only has the movement started earlier this season but the chestnuts appear to be in better condition as regards infe)statio, with living larvae of the European codling moth and chestnut weevils. only 4 of the 155 shipments (611 containers) that entered prior to Novembe3r 1 required treatment, while last season 8 of the 108 shipments (1420 containers) reaching New York before November 1 were given the hot-water treatment.
FOREIGN PIANTI QUARANTINE SUI'M1ARIES
RTMNIA.---The American consul at Bucharest, Pumania, has transmitted the text of Rumanian Orders of August 19 and of September 7, 1931, to the Customs Service of that country. The text of the former reads:
"Being informed by the minister of Health, Labor, and Social W~elfare that Californian apples are treated with arsenic and therefore are injurious to health, we are requesting you to take all possible steps to prevent the importation of these apples through any means."
The latter orderprescribes that apples from California only are prohibited, and the importation of apples from other States will be approved only if it is ascertained by analysis that the apples have not been treated with toxic substances.
ENGLAND AND WALES.-- (Colorado Beetle Orde-r of October 15, 1931, effective March 15, 1932.) To prevent the introduction of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) the landing in England and Wales of any potatoes grown in European France is prohibited. The landing of living plants is likewise prohibited, unleDss authorized by a license granted by the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries, or unless each shipment is accompanied by the form of certificate pre Iscribed by the order.
The landing of raw vegetables gro' in European France between March 15 and October 14 in any year also is prohibited unless the landing is licensed, or unless each consignment is accompanied by a prescribed certificate.
CHANNM ISLANDS.--(Act of the Committee of Agriculture of August 7, 1931.) This Act prohibits until further orders the importation into the Islands of all products of the soil (agricultural and horticultural), seeds, and plants coming from France, to prevent the introduction of the Colorado potato beetle.
DOMESTIC PLA/IUT qUAMTIIThES
A third inspector from the Missouri State nursery inspection force, B. F. Boillot, has been assigned to work with the transit inspectors of this Administration in inspecting nursery stock shipments at railway terminals. Mr. Boillot is stationed at St. Louis, where 0. J. Yoder, of the regular Federal force, makes inspections of both foreign and domestic plant shipments.
Uncertified cut flowers of chrysanthemums shipped from the twogeneration regulated area of the European corn borer quarantine constitute more violations of the domestic quarantines at this season of the year than any other product. Persons not engaged in the commercial shipping of these flowers and, therefore, not informed as to the requirements, are responsible for a considerable per cent of these infringements. A total of 326 violations of this quarantine (including all articles restricted thereunder) have been reported since the first of Tuly. This is 103 more than were reported for the second half of 1930, and the Thanksgiving shipping will doubtless increase the number still more. Uhile rany persons know that corn is restricted, the fact that chrysanthemums, gladioli, and asters also harbor the borer is apparently not so well known. Commercial shippers also frequently overlook the certification requirements.
Narcissus bulbs also come in for a c-onsiderable share of the uncertified articles moved at this time of the year. There has been no increase, however, in the number of narcissus bulb qu,rantine violations reported so
far, compared with that of a year ago. Vhile commercial concerns are responsible for more of these violations than are private individuals, the commercial shipments have consisted very largely of bulbs which on investigation were found to have passed the certifi(!ation requirements, the interceptions being due to lack of evidence of certification on the container.
The Japanese beetle quarantine violations have more than doubled the number Qeported for the fall of 1930.
Among the unusual interceptions, the Chicago inspectors recently reported a 600-nound tombstone moved from the gipsy moth infested area without the certificate of inspection. An inspection by the transit inspectors showed, however, that no gipsy-moth egg clusters were present, and the tombstone was, therefore, allowed to proceed to destination.
PHONY PEACH DISEASE
The phony peach disease quarantine was extended, effective November 30, to cover the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina, parts of the States of Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas, as well as those parts of Alabama and Georgia which are not already under quarantine to prevent the spread of this disease.
Quoting from the official press announcement,
The Secretary states that the Department of Agriculture
is extending the quarantine because of the discovery of scattered points of infection outside the areas previously under regulation. The disease has been knom in Georgia for a number of years and is believed to have spread from centers of infection in that State to other areas through the movement of infected nursery stock prior to the establishment of the
Federal quarantine in 1929. The Federal Departmentof Agriculture is cooperating, with the State Department of Agriculture of Georgia and other infected States in an attempt to
eradicate the disease.
The quarantine regulations restrict the movement of peach
and nectarine trees and roots, not only from the quarantined to nonquarantined States but also from one quarantined State
to another. In connection with this latter provision, the
department announces that it makes this requirement on the
assurance by the responsible plant quarantine officers of most
of the States concerned that they will either continue or immediately undertake an active eradication program which, in the
Judgment of the Federal Department, will suppress the phony
peach disease. * *
Through the cooperation of the Bureau of Plant Industry, transit
inspection will be carried on at Nashville and Memphis, Tenn., and Roanoke
and Petersburg, Va. Three members of that Bureau aho have scouted for the phony peach disease will inspect shipments in transit to determine whether
peach and nectarine nursery stock shipped from the regulated areas is being certified for interstate movement under the provisions of the phony peach disease quarantine. A fourth man will be stationed at Ft. Valley, Ga., to check the origin of peach stock shipped from this nursery center. At Atlanta, Ga., transit inspection will be continued by M. E. Connolly, of this Administration.
No new localities have been found this y.ear infected with the woodgate rust although the disease is still appearing in the old localities, according to a recent report from the Bur3eau of Plant Industry.
During the month of October 30,094 palms were inspected in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys in California and no scale found. In Arizona 6,430 palm inspections were made and no scale found. No scale has been found in the Salt River Valley in Arizona siace October, 1930.
With the return of cooler weather scouting outside the regular areas and, in the Imperial Valley, the section by section survey, have been resumed. In the Coachella Valley clean-up work wes resumed and it is expected that all abandoned plantings will be dug out or pruned so that they may be adequately inspected by the end of this fiscal year.
During the month of October 257 fan palms on the Southern Pacific Station grounds at Indio, many of them over 50 feet high, were inspected. Parlatoria scale was found in September, 1930, on 44 of these fan paL71s which were within 300 feet of a heavily infested date palm. At that time all the palms were defoliated, leaving only the bud, and sprayed with an oil emulsion. At the time of the October, 1931, inspection the palms had full tops of leaves and no scale was found. There is no danger of leaf base infestation on these palms as the bases do not remain alive as on date palms.
The larger palms were inspected from 60-foot extension ladders.
The inspectors were equipped ith linemen's belts, with 10-foot light chain extensions with which they anchored themselves in the croms of the palms. This enabled them to use both hands for manipulation of the loaves for inspection. No Parlatoria scale was found, but a few specimens of Ivy scale and Tamarisk scale vere found.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER UMTD JAPANESE BEETLE
General Project News
In a radio broadcast of information concerning the spread in 1931 of insect pests which are the basis of existing quarantines made on October 22 as a part of that day's National Farm and Home Hour program, the European corn borer and the Japanese beetle were accorded special attention by Dr. Fracker, who delivered the talk. As scouting for the corn borer still was under way, an additional and iLportant new infestation having been found only a few days ago, the broadcast could not deal conclusively with the season's results in respect to spread of this insect. Owing to the time of day when the National Farm and Home Hour is on the air--12.55 to 1.10 p. m., eastern standard--it is believed that comparatively few plant pest control field men found it convenient to listen in on Dr. Fracker's remarks, but through the forty stations utilized--some of them leading and highly popular ones--unquestionably a great many people were reached. First-record finds of the corn borer outside of the regulated area, mentioned by Dr. Fracker as partial-results of the current season's scouting, included those in New Jersey down the Atlantic coast from New York, in two townships of two Wisconsin counties, and several in Indiana and Kentucky. New infestations of the Japanese beetle referred to were in South Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and Maryland,
That the metropolitan press is becoming plant pest conscious might
be inferred when a newspaper with the standing of the New York Herald-Tribune includes references to a major pest in a dramatic criticism. In a recent issue, a staff writer, critically reviewing a new play, stated that the costume of one of the actors made him resemble a Japanese beetle more than the character he was supposed to portray. Several times lately the New York Sun has contained editorial mention of various plant-quarantine activities. "Iotorists who have smiled indulgently or bustled aggressively when stopped on the highways by inspectors will read with interest that six persons have been fined for transporting sod capable of carrying the Japanese beetle," the Sun
-commented in respect to a case recently terminated, concluding with the observation, "The protective cordon is not entirely jocular."
Specialized Corn Borer Activities
First record infestations of the European corn borer in Manitowr and Sheboygan Counties, Wis., discovered by Administration scouts duringsiderrent season, were regarded as of special importance because of the (en
able distance from the boundaries of the present regulated area. County, specimens were taken on a farm in Centerville Tovmship of Manitcof Mosel, nine one day and two the day following. In the adjoining townaext day, Sheboygan County, twelve borers were found, six one day, two 'ecovered was and four more five days later. Wile the number of the insnis case greater than usually is the case in isolated infestations
apparently the rust so far is confined to a restricted territory, no furtler evidences o' it having been developed by a picked crew which scouted more than 1,000 acres of corn in the neighborhood something over a month after the last of the findings had been made, concluding their work at the
end of the first week in October. Both the counties affected are in a dairy section, where the farmers take pride in the appearance of their premises and in the efficiency of the methods they use. All corn on the two farms which were the location of the infestations was cut and placed in silos early in the fall, and the debris plowed under in accordance with
approved borer control practice. Further check-up will be made next spring to determine if additional measures are required to dispose of corn remnants.
Discovery during October of an infestation of the European corn barer in Accomac County, Va., near the southern end of the eastern shore peninsula composed of portions of that State, of Maryland, and Delaware, was significant both in that it represented a finding of the pest several hundred miles from the boundaries of the area at present under quarantine and because of the somewhat unusual procedure which led to identification of the borer in this instance. On October 9 and 10, an inspector of the Administration working in the New Y'ork City markets found corn borers in Lima beans which had been purchased by a local buyer from a broker operating at Temperanceville,
Va. Members of a field crew, dispatched to that point, secured from the broker the names of three growers, from one of whom he believed he had secured the beans which were shipped to New York. Inspection of their premises having failed to disclose any infestation, a list of other growers was obtained, who might have furnished some of the oeans. In corn grown by neighbors of one of these farmees a specimen of the corn borer soon was taken.
A series of six de -monstrations of plowing for corn borer control,
arranged for by Mr. Harrington, Massachusetts Extension Agricultural Engineer, in cooperation with members of the South Norwalk staff, was initiated on October 26 at the James Lyman farm in Easthampton, Jampshire County, Mlass. Another was conducted the next day on the Henry Titt farm, Belchertown, in the same county. On October 29 and 30, plowing was demonstrated at two points in Franklin County, the F. L. Graves farmn near Viatley, and the Charles S. Tinney farm, Northfield. The two final ;vents in the series were scheduled for MTiddlesex County, on November 2 and 3. A unique feature was the use of plows furnished by farmers in the neighborhoods visited, in addition to the
equipment carried with them by the demonstrators.
Following the demonstrations and reports which were part of the proceedings of the Joint Conizittee on the European corn borer, held in Toledo,
Ohio, September 30, representatives of various agricultural implement manufacturing concerns, who were present by invitation, advised their superior officers as to the results of the meetings. A surmary of the conclusions reached by one of these farim machinery men, copy of which has been furnished the South Norwalk headquarters, particularly is interesting because of
definite suggestions included for the firm to undertake the making on a commercial scale of additional borer control mechanical devices perfected by the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, in cooperation with the Administration.
The last of the surplus equipment from the ten million dollar corn
borer clean-up campaign of 1927, stored at the Erie Ordnance Depot, was advertised for sale in October, with bids returnable on or before November 3. Included in the machinery and supplies for which no calls had been received in response to proffers to other government departments and bureaus were the following items: Used, unserviceable stubble pulverizers, 497; used, serviceable stubble pulverizers, 200; used, serviceable Oliver plows, 197; burning carriages, 100; used Vulcan plows, 59; power take offs for Fordson tractors, 1 lot; junk tires and tubes and miscellaneous junk metal, 1 lot each. All of the material which could be used further was reconditioned before the sale.
Convening at the State College in Kingston on October 22, the fifth annual conference of the agricultural and industrial interests of Rhode Island devoted a three-day session to discussions of current problems, the proceedings having been concluded by the adoption of a series of resolutions,
one of which pledged support to the corn borer clean-up program. This organization is unique in that, in addition to the agricultural groups, the membership includes.representation of civic, co inercial, and industrial agencies concerned with the prosperity of farmers. Another unusual feature is the active part taken in respect to State legislation.
By the end of October all scouting in the central section of corn
borer work had been discontinued except that in the Delarva Peninsula undertaken after discovery of an infestation at Tomperaricevillo, Va. Crews were kept at work in southern New Jersey, however, until near the close of the month. Seventeen first-record findings were made in that region during the month--in an equal ntuaber of tomships of eight counties--additional to the 35 new infestations recorded in September. host of these were at points well removed from the areas at this time under regulation.
Compilation of the findings in the infestation survey recently made in Connecticut shows that the corn borer population was larger than heretofore throughout the sections in which the investigation was conducted. In New London County, the average number of borers per acre increased from
1,347 in 1930 to 15,646, while the 1iindham County average this year was 4,617 against 1,391 last season. Greater density of infestation also was found in the southern portion of I"iddlesex County and in two towns of New
Haven County--Liilford and Orange.
The meeting in New Brunswick, N. J., on October 15, 16, and 17, of
the North Atlantic Section, American Association of Agricultural Engineers, devoted no part of its fo-rmal program to discussion of corn borer control
machinery. Considerable interest regarding progress in development of more efficient devices was manifested, however, by individual members, in personal contact with Mcr. Irons, of the South Norwalk offices, 'Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, who was in attendance.
Early in the month, the vehicle inspection in the central section of borer activities was still further reduced, though road patrols were maintained in the vicinity of New York City throughout October, on irregular schedules. Receipts of Lima beans from the heavily infested sections of Long Island continued for the entire period, though decreasing in volume toward the end. One Sunday evening, 11 lots of beans were inspected and 101
borers found-66 of them taken from two 30-pound bags.
An oven for heat treatment of corn, having a capacity ofl 500 ears,
has been constructed at the headquarters in Springfield, Ohio, of the Western section borer control activities. Plans and specifications were passed on by Dr. Lon A. Hawkins, head of the technological division of the Administration. Dr. Hawkins visited the Springfield headquarters on October 9 for conference relative to the construction of this oven. A feature of the equipment is insulation making possible the maintenance of heat at any temperature. This oven will be utilized in treating corn produced within the infested area, which is to be shown at exhibitions in free territory.
~Thile calls for inspection of fCarm products-gradually grew less in the central corn borer section, they were in much greater numbers than is
usual at the season, ovring- to the absence of killing frosts. Inspectors had been withdrawn -from most of the markets in Connecticut by the last of October. Arrangements were made, nevertheless, whereby field inspection could be supplied u-pon request.
*When the exhibits at the International Live Stock Exposition in
Chicago are opened to the public on November 28 for a week's showing, that of Eurnopean corn borer control methods will be found of exceptional interest. Western section field leaders gave much time and thought to its preparation, during October, in the endeavor to make the display far surpass any shown at past exhibitions.
A survey of the territory in the vicinity of each of the first record corn borer infestations found this season along, and outside the southern Ohio and West Virginia boundaries of the present regulated area, was made from the Springfield, Ohio, offices, during October. Recorarendations with reference to location of the 1932 quarantine lines will be based on the findings.
Lizia beans from Long Island were found by the market inspectors at
South Norwalk, Conn., to be so heavily infested they could not be certified for shipment to points outside of the two-generation corn borer regulated
area. Larvae of the borer also were reported from the Bridgeport market t, in beans which came from the same section.
Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work
Enterprising newspaper Veporters recording their observations of Japanese beetle trap activities next year will find no occasion as heretofore to describe bait, consisting of a mixture of bran, molasses, eugenol and geraniol, as a "transparent liquid contained in the bottom of a glass jar attached to the trap." The bane to speedy trap tending has been the
necessity for emptying accumulated rain water from the ordinary pint Jars comprising the beetle collecting portion of each trap. Repeated rains during the past summer obliged trap tenders to devote considerable time to emptying water from Jars, which more profitably could have been employed in fiela scouting in the vicinity. The obvious remedy for this situation is a small slot in the bottom of each Jar. Jars so blown and in required quantity constitute an item of considerable expense. Ordinary files and emery wheels subject the jars to such friction that breakage results. Estimates received from commercial glass cutters quoted froM 3 to 10 cents per jar for slotting. At the South Norwalk headquarters there has been constructed an abrasive machine which cleanly and speedily cuts a slot approximately 1/16 inch in width and from 5/16 to 3/8 inch in length in the jar's bottom edge. The machine is belt driven by a 1 1/2 H. P. electric motor. A speed of 1,750 R.P.M. at the motor is stepped up by means of an intervening pulley to a machine speed of 8,000 R.P.I.. resulting in a speed of 12,000 surface feet per minute on the abrasive wheel. The base for the machine is a 10-inch dual polishing head, with 1/2 inch steel shaft and centrally mounted pulley. Cast iron bearings either side of the pulley are constantly lubricated by a visible drip oiler. Attached at either end of the shaft are 80-grain shellac bonded abrasive wheels, 6 inches in diameter and 1/16 inch thick. Safety guards cover the belts and co:Ipletely encase the abrasive wheels. Integral with these brass safety guards are vertically mounted brass cylinders of 3 inches inside measurement. The Jars are brought in contact with the wheels when placed in these cylinders. Adjustable bolts in the bottom of each cylinder act as stops for the Jars and may be lowered to compensate for wear on the wheel. Cold water is so fed through 5/16 inch copper tubing directly over each wheel that the point of
contact between the wheel and jar is constantly under a swift spray. Both wheel guards are slitted at the bottom and havu covered slits in the outer sides to permit water drainage. The entire aas mbly is bolted to an enameled cast iron sink having sewer connection. "V ious crystalline abrasive wheels were tried of 46, 60, and 80 grain and with both bakelite and shellac bonding. The 80-grain wheel with shellac bonding, costing 90 cents apiece, has proved most effective for speedy cutting and long wear. Each wheel is capable of cutting 2,000 or more Jars. A decrease of one second in the cutting period is obtained by putting an inch of water in each jar prior to feeding into the machine. The maximum production so far reached was 24 Jars in 65 seconds. The normal daily working capacity is 2,000 Jars cut, washed, and racked. Breakage attributable to the slotting operation is not over 1 per cent. From two to four men may be used in the operations. When four are used, one man supplies the operator with uncut Jars, another
washes the slotted jars by means of a two-jet bottle washer mounted on an inverted faucet, and the fourth man packs the jars in corrugated fiber cartons. Approximately one-third of the project's 35,000 jars have been cut, and the remainder will be handled from time to time throughout the winter.
Treatment with lead arsenate of isolated infestations in Erie, Pa., was started on September 29 and concluded on October 5. First-record finds in Erie were made by scouts between July 30 and August 7 of this year, 141 beetles having bean collected in four adjacent blocks in the residential section near the city park. A month's operation of 600 traps, placed'in the infested section on August 18, was responsible for the collection of 22 additional beetles. The Erie infe st-tions created considerable alarm among the agriculturists of Erie County. Over 80 p.:;r cont of the vineyards in Pennsylvania are located in the county, and there also are large acreages devoted to cherry orchards. Since both grapes and cherries are among the preferred foods of the Japanese beetle, establishment in that section of the pest could cause widespread destruction of valuable crops. Arrangements were accordingly made to troat 32 acres of soil in and surrounding the infested premises. Four spraying outfits from the South Norwalk headquarters were employed in applying 8 tons of arsenate of lead purchased by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. Two supervisors and four truck drivers were supplied from the permanent force of the project. Laborers hired locally in Erie and paid from Federal funds completed the operating personnel.
Two supervisors and four truck drivers were dispatched frcm South
Norwalk on October 29 to assemble equipment and materials in Elmira, N. Y., for soil treatments to be applied in that city and in W atkins Glen and
Little Falls. Purchase of 5 1/2 tons of dry arsenate of lead has been made by the State of New York, of which 3 3/4 tons will be applied in Elmira, 1 ton in Watkins Glen, and 3/4 ton in Little Falls. First-record finds of 21 beetles in Elmira and 7 beetles in Little Falls were made by scouts this summer. Traps placed in the vicinity of a tourist hotel near the entrance to W, atkins Glen were responsible for determination of a first-record infestation of three beetles.. Two spraying outfits are already in storage in Elmira, having been left there at the completion of the spraying in Erie, Pa. Two more outfits now in storage at Erie will also be brought to Elmira. Lead arsenate had been delivered to Little Falls by the end of the month, and the material for Elmira and Watkins Glen treatments was in transit from the manufacturers. All four outfits had been assembled in Elmira by October 31, ready to start operations on November 2.
Successful termination of the initial prosecution instituted for a
violation of the Maryland State Japanese beetle proclamation was accomplished on October 6. August 13, Arthur V. Dorsey, of Hagerstown, Md., was stopped at the quarantine line station located near Ellicott City and found to be transporting a load of uncertified farm products from Baltimaore to Hagerstown. Despite inspectors' warnings, the driver insisted on proceeding
to his destination with the contraband. Details of the violation were reported to the Maryland authorities. At their direction the State's Attorney at Ellicott City prepared necessary legal papers and the defendant was given a hearing before Magistrate Smith of Lisbon, Howard County. The violator pleaded guilty and was fined costs, amounting to $15. Since the case made considerable of an impression on the defendant and received suitable publicity throughout Howard County, the desired ends are believed to have been attained.
Richmond, Va., soil treatment operations, begun on October 24, were still in progress at the end of the month. Initial infestations of theXapanese beetle in Richmond were detarmincd this summer through the recovery during lune and July of five adult beetles. Subsequently traps distributed in the city collected ten additional specimens. operating crews of a supervisor, foreman and two truck drivers manning two spraying outfits left the South Norwalk headquarters for Richmond on October 20. Application of lead arsenate by power sprayer began in the city on October 2?, and 12 1/2 of a total of 32 acres had been treated by the end of the month. There are two isolated infestations in Richmond, one centering near Monroe Park and the other in the general vicinity of the Confederate Home and Memorial.
Various combinations of white paint, to furnish a durable coating
for trap funnels and baffles, are under trial. Preliminary reports of this season's trap research at the Moorestown laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology indicate that increases of as high as 115 per cent in beetles caught may be made with traps having white funnels and baffles as compared to traps painted entirely green. During the winter, all traps now in use will be reconditioned and repainted. The cylinders will be painted a medium green and the baffles and funnels ,Ihite. Iron supporting rods will also be painted black. Reconditioned traps will be distributed to storage places conveniently located to next season's proposed trapping areas.
An order was placed late in October by the South Carolina State Crop Pest Commission for 6 tons of dry arsenate of lead for use in treating 23 acres of soil in and about'the premises in Charleston, S. C., found infested with Tapanese beetle. Single beetles were trapped at four comparatively isolated locations in the congested business and residential district in the northeastern section of the city. The crews operating in Richmond at the completion of their treatments in that city will move to Charleston. At the present rate of progress in Richmond, the crews should start work in Charleston about November 16.
Second crop apples have been observed in Salem County, N. 1. Entire areas were defoliated by the beetle in sections of that county. In most instances the fruit was consumed as well. The tree on which the second crop apples were observed is one which is known to have been defoliated and denuded of fruit during the present .5ummer. It is of the princess Early
variety, which ordinarily matures its fruit about July 4. The apples when observed on October 29 were almost mature.
Quarantine line stations operated during the season on the western
and southern borders of the generally infested area were abandoned the last of September and the remaining road force moved out to guard the boundary of the lightly infested area. Four additional road posts were also established on the main exit roads from Norfolk, Va. Under the revised program 20 inspectors man 19 posts scattered throughout Virginia, IWest Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Six lines were maintained in New York, checking shipments of nursery stock.
The virtual disappearance of all adult beetles in even the most
densely infested sections of Philadelphia led to the abandonment on October 16 of all attempts to scout classified establishments in connection with regular certification duties.
The lifting on October 16 of seasonal restrictions on the movement
of cut flowers from both the generally and lightly infested regulated areas permitted the dismissal of all temporary employees assigned to cut flower inspection and certification.
=WICAN FRUIT FLY
The second round of grove inspection was completed during the latter part of the month. A total of 6,931 grove inspections were made, during the course of which 16,505 specimens were taken in 2,581 collections and submitted for identification. No speciilens of fruit flies were taken on the American side of the river. Forty-four larvae of fruit flies were taken from guavas, oranges, and peaches brought from the interior to the local market at M.Tatamoros. In addition to these 44 larvae, the Mdexican inspector submitted a number to L:exico City for identification.
No adults were caught during October in the 202 traps maintained in 73 premises in ?Uataiioros. This is tne first month that has passed since last April during which no adult flies have been taken in the traps. A close inspection was also made of the citrus fruits growing in the premises in which the traps are maintained. The sour oranges are still small and green and, though dropping quite badly, no indications of infestation could be found. The cooperation of the officials and citizens of Matamoros continues to be of the highest order.
Two modifications of the regulations supplemental to Quarantine 64 were made effective during the month. On October 2 the use of water-proof fabric mesh bags il sizes not to exceed one and thiee-fifths bushels was
authorized as containers of citrus fruits. Heretofore fruit leaving the quarantined area was required to be packed in boxes or bushel baskets. Due to the inability of the manufacturers of these sacks to supply the trade, only a couple of cars of sacked fruit were loaded out during the month. A number of the packers claim that the use of this type of container will lower the packing costs without lo,.7ering the quality of the pack.
An announcement was made October 28 that the harvesting period for Valley fruit would be extended to April 10, 1932. Previously the harvesting period has closed on March 1. This announcement met with a most favorable reaction from the growers and packers, since considerable concern had been expressed as to the ability to harvest and market the largest crop ever produced in this section within the old time limit. The extension is particularly gratifying to the growers this season inasmuch as the Iarsh grapefruit, which constitutes about 80 per cent of the grapefruit crop, for some unknown reason is extremely slow in sizing up. The market has been very weak on sizes smaller than 96's. It is thought by many growers that this fruit will increase in size with
the advent of the winter rains.
The usual run of minor technical violations on the part of the
packers and growers was encountered during the month. On the part of the packers these violations usually consist of getting fruit from groves without first securing permission from the district inspector. The majority of violations listed against the growers are occasioned by fruit being improperly buried by Lexican laborers. In practically all cases encountered during the past month the ownership of improperly buried fruit was established, and the owners reprimanded and required to properly dispose of the fruit.
There was a lively movement during the first half of the month in the early varieties of grapefruit and oranges. The crop of Duncan grapefruit was fairly well cleaned up by the middle cf the molith. The latter half of the month was marked by a ocriod of general inactivity, except on the part of the truckers, due to the fact that only a small percentage of the ia oh fruit is considered of sufficient size to market. Many of the packj -7 antss were closed down td; k st wcek of the mcnth. In spite of thib "c; i :ty a total of 744 carloijd,- had been roved by rail to the end of O2Lober. In addition, approximately 1?0 carloads had been moved by truck.
The checking of road traffic was inaugurated on a 24-hour basis on
the 13th at the Falfurrias highway station. This station has been operated in previous years at Encino, about 20 miles south of Falfurrias. However, several grcves hove come into bearing this season between Encino and the Hidalgo-Brooks County line, and accordingly the inspection station was set up on the right-f-way of Highway 12. Through the cooperation of the State
Highway Department the hard surface of the road at this point was widened
PIHK BOLL d0RM
Perhaps the most outstanding feature of the pink bollworm work during the month of October was the operation of gin-trash machines. All 35 of the machines were in operation the entire month, and with very few exceptions they were able to secure sufficient trash for steady operation. At the close of the month the 21 machines operating outside of the regulated areas had inspected 65,118' bushels in Arizona, California, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, and Mexico. A considerable amount of trash was examined in that part of the western extension of Texas which was released frcm the regulated area last season. Examinations were also made in the old eradication areas in Texas and Louisiana. The results of all examinations outside of the regulated area have been negative.
Within the regulated areas in Texas, New !Lexico, and Arizona,
31,955-- bushels of trash have been examined by the 14 machines operating. A total of 179,580 specimens have been taken this season. The great majority of these specimens were taken in the Big Bend and the Lower El Paso Valley of Texas. Specimens have been found in trash from 728 of the 125 gins operating. The infestation has been found to extend throughout the Pecos Valley of TOxes ran New 'Mexico, the El Paso Valley of Texas and the Mesilla Valley of New Mexico, the Safford Valley of Arizona and, of course, the Big Bend of Texas. A small amount of cotton is planted at Tularosa and Deming, N. 14ex. Specimens have been found in trash from both of these localities.
In the Salt River Valley of Arizona specimens were found in trash from the Gilbert Gin Company, at Gilbert, Ariz. This infestation was traced to a field located southwest of Gilbert, in Section 26, T2S, R5E,
4 live specimens having been found by field inspecti on October 23. Only 10 specimens have been found in gin trash in the Salt River Valley of Arizona this season--l from a gin near Phoenix during September, and 9 at the Gilbert Gin during October.
ScTeral examinations of trash in the Big Bend section are rather
outstanding. On October 15 two bales of cotton produced about 4 miles up the PRiver from Presidio yielded 1 bushel of trash. This trash was put thrcuh' the machine and a total of 7,068 sPeimons of the pink bollworm were !:::~r, 6,302 of which were alive, 731 dead, and 35 pupae. After the abc Nu -*.s< :as passed through the machine, the voluine was reduced to abou 3 qJ&'-Gs, 'his trash being placed in one end of a large pan. Within a very few minutes the worms began crawling from this trash, and our
inspectors report that 4,500 were collected in this manner without disturbing the trash. On October 22 one-hair bushel of trash from one bale of cotton yielded o,8923 specimens of the pink bollworm, 5,300 of which were alive, 441 dead, and 82 pupae. This cotton vras produced on a small farm about one-hair mile south of the gin at Presidio. It is interesting to note that the Bureau of Entomology has been making infestation counts in this field, and. on the 7th of October the infestation had reached 100 per cent witli an average of 5.i3 worms per boll. The following week threefourths bushel of trash from one bale of cotton produced on the same farm yielded 8,619 pink bollworms, 7,892 of which were alive, 684 dead, and 43
Some interesting information w.,as obtained from the results of the examination of trash fromi three bales of cotton produced in the lower part of Hudspeth County, Tex. Traqh from the first bale ginned on October 19, yielded 81 livina3 and lb dead specimens; from the second, on October 27, 342 living and 60 dead specimens, and from the third, on October 30, 592 living and 72 dead specimens. This cotton was produced on about 3-"2' acres which is some 3 miles from thii nearest cotton field. Also the land has been uncultivated for three years previous to this season.
Ginning picked up quito a bit during the month, but is still considerably less than to the same date last season. Additional pickers have gone to the Pecos Valley of Texas and New Mexico and the El Paso Valley of Texas, so that the crop is now being gathered much faster. In the Salt River Valley of Arizona there is still a shortage of pickers. At the end of October 105,084 bales had been ginned. Most of the gin yards are now full of cotton, as very little is being shipped. This is bor:xe out by the fact that only 13,764 bales had been fumigated and 28,660 bales from the lightly infested area had been compressed. Cotton is always shipped shortly after being treated by one of these two methods. In addition to the cotton, 1,951 bales of linters wore fumigated and 182 compressed.
There has been considerable increase in the price of seed to farmers in the eastern and western quarantined areas, as a result of which most farmers are now selling their seed instead of carrying it back home. This has enabled all of the oil mills in the regulated area to begin operations. So far 38,731 tons of seed have been shipped to the various mills, over half of which have already been milled. To date 2,360 bales of second-cut linters have been treated by the roller system.
A survey ofL all ginning and sterilizer equipment throughout the regulated area is now under way. This survey has been completed in all areas except the Salt River Valley of Arizona. Our gin supervisors report that they are receiving excellent oooperat ion from ginners with reference to correcting the defects revealed by this survey. This survey was considered advisable because of the change in regulations permitting the movement of baled cotton from lightly infested areas without fumigation under
certain safeguards, one of which was that it be ginned in such manner as to preclude the possibility of seed passing into the lint. On the whole the gin equipment was found to be in very good condition. To the end of October seed from 71,271 bales had been sterilized at an average efficiency of 98.6 per cent per bale.
There was considerable increase in the number of confiscations
made at the road stations during October, even though the number of cars inspected showed a decrease over the previous month. The material confiscated consisted of 88 small lots of cottonseed, lint, or seed cotton, 13 cotton plants with bolls attached, 9 pick sacks, 17 quilts, pillows, or mattresses, nd 2 other articles. In addition, 340 -nick seeks were treated and passed. On October 8 approxim.,'teiy 3 pounds of seed cotton were taken from a truck which had come from Presidio, Tex. ."n examination of this material resulted in the finainm of 7 dead pink bollworm larvae.
This interception was made at the Alpine, Text, station. This same station also made an interception of a small amount of cotmonseed which originated in the Big Bend section and showed pink bollworm damage; however, no specimens were found.
The weekly infestation counts from selected fields in Maricopa
and Pinal Counties, Ariz., have been continued. Also extra material from other fields has been examined. The results have all been negative. In a number of fields it is becoming impossible to collect green bolls. However, these fields are being dropped and others substituted. There are still plenty of green bolls available in long staple fields, and probably will be until frost. However, there are now very few green bolls in the short staple fields. The infestation counts will be continued as long as
green bolls aru available.
SOme important information on the Thurberia weevil infestation has been revealed by the gin-trash inspection. Quite a number of weevils have been taken in trash from two gins in the Tucson area. Weevils have been found in two fields near Tucson by field inspection. On October 28 a specimen of Thurboria weevil was taken in trash from The Western Pinal Gin Company, at Coolidge, Ariz. This finding is very important as it is outside of the area regulated on account of the Thurberia weevil. These findings would seem to indicate that the weevil infestation in the crop of 1931 will prove to be the heaviest yet. Climatic conditions have been especially favorable to the insect. Present plans call for quite a bit of scouting a little later in the season to determine the present status of the Thurberia weevil.
PREVTING SPREAD OF MOTHS
During October approximately 115,000 feet of high pressure spray hose were stored in one of the storage buildings at Greenfield, Mass, After this hose, which is in 50-foot lengths, is returned from the field at the close of the spraying season, it is thoroughly washed out with clear water and examined with a view of determining whether any leaks or other weaknesses have developed during the spraying season. It is then piled in separate stalls according to its age and condition. In addition to the 14 spray hose, approximately 1,500 feet of 2" suction hose were stored. The section hose is in 25-foot lengths. This hose is also examined with a view to determine, so far as possible, whether any of it became porous or otherwise damaged in use, and if such is found to be the
case, it is discarded.
Scouting work for the gipsy moth was concluded during October in the towns of Chesterfield and Ticonderoga, 11. Y., and the scouting crews working there were transferred to Hague and Putnam, N. Y. At the close of October there were seven Federal scouting crews engaged in the examination of woodland in Crown Point, Hague, and Putnam, N. Y. No gipsy moth infestations were found during October in the area regularly scouted by the Federal crews in New York State.
In the vicinity where gipsy roth rii16 a.lults -re caught at the assent bl1A$ cages, which contain an attractant for the male moth, a small amount of scouting work was done in Becket, Lee, and Tyringham, Mass., and Kent, Conn. This check up on the assemblin:; cage catches resulted in the finding of a gipsy moth infestation at Tyringham, Ilass.
Burlap bands, that were put on trees at and in proximity to infestations found during last year's scouting, were removed. A gipsy moth egg cluster was found beneath the burlap at Canaan, Conn., and two infestations of one egg cluster each were found at New IiarlborQ, Mass. Closer inspection of these areas around the assembling cages and where the burlap was removed will be given during the prosecution of the regular planned work for this year, and all necessary clean-up work will be done at that time.
Information from the New York Conservation Department indicated that the scouting work as planned along the New York-New England border was finished in Columbia County, N. Y., and at the close of the month there were 12 New York State scouting crews examining woodland areas in Dutchess County, N. Y. This area constitutes the most rugged mountainous section that remains to be covered in this county. It is encouraging to note that the towns scouted to date by the New York State crews have been found uninfested, although in the past, gipsy moth colonies have been found iu each of these towns, viz; Canaan, Austerlitz, Hillsdale, Copake, and Ancram, in Columbia County; Northeast, LaGrange, and Fishkill, in tAutchess County.
The work on Long Island conducted by the New York Conservation Department is reported by that department as progressing satisfactorily. No clean-up work has as yet been attempted at the two colony sites in Nassau County reported during September, or at the two colony sites found in Nassau County during October, due to the fact that the foliage has not dropped from the trees to any extent. There are three crews working in Oyster Bay and two in North Hempstead, Nassau County, N. Y. Up to the present time, these crews have escaped interference by reason of the heavy fogs usually present there at this time of the year, hence very little interruption in
the scouting work was encountered.
During October there was a slight increase in the number of shipments and quantities of materials co~mprising these shipments offered for inspection on account of the gipsy moth State quarantine in New Jersey. There were 156 lots certified for shipnent during the rionth. No gipsy moths were found on these.
On Long Island, the inspection work showed an increase during October in the number of lots examined, but there was a slight decrease in the quantities of stock constituting the shipments. There were 182 lots examined and certified for shipment and these were found to be free from gipsy moths.
The assembling cage work, which is supplemental to the control and eradication work, in that it determines to some extent the quality of previous scouting work, the effectiveness of spraying work, and the location of possible gipsy moth infestations that may have been overlooked, is now completed and it is possible at this time to report that there were 4,258 gipsy moth assembling cages, properly baited with an attractant, distributed as follows in New England, New York, and New Jersey: MASSACHUSETTS 1,258 cages were placed in 37 to;ns--9b8 cages inside the barrier zone and 300 cages east of the barrier zone. Eighty-six adult male gipsy moths were caught at these cages in Massachusetts towns as follows: 2 at Becket, 6 at Sandisfield, 4 at Tyringham, 3 at Lee, 1 at MJonterey, 22 at New Marlboro, and 18 at Sheffield, a total of 56 adults inside the barrier zone; 3 at Blandford, 2 at Chester, 20 at Granville, and 5 at Tolland, a total of 30 adults east of the barrier zone. CO CTICUT 1,184 cages were placed in 36
towns--777 cages inside the barrier zone and 407 cages east of the barrier zone. Forty-five adult male gipsy moths were caught at these cages as follows: 3 at Canaan, 3 at Cornwall, 1 at Kent, 2 at Litchfield, and 27 at Warren, a total of 36 adults inside the barrier zone; 1 at Barkhamsted, 6 at Hartland, and 2 at Jow Hartford, a total of 9 adults east of the barrier
zone. VERMH0lNT 820 cages were placed in 16 towns all of which were inside the barrier zone. There were no adult male gipsy moths caught at any of these assembling cages. NEIW YORK 3C9 cages were put up in 12 towns all of which were inside the barrier zone. At Milan, 1 adult male was caught, and 1 adult male was trapped at Northeast. N'W JESEYI There were 887 assembling cages placed in 29 townships, but no adult male gipsy moths were attracted.
Of the 4,258 assembling cages played in the field this year, 44 per cent were refilled with fresh attractant material, thus prolonging their period of effectiveness. In Massachusetts 490 were refilled, in New York 195, in Connecticut 605, and in New Jersey 582.
The western portions of the New York towns, bordering on and in the Adirondack Mountains in the barrier zone, where I1ederal crews have been working for the past few months, are heavily wooded and otherwise extremely difficult to scout. The mountain slopes in this r,.egion are rough, precipitous, and in places actually inaccessible. IMany of the woodland areas are so large that it was necessary to take advantage of streams, old logging roads, and trails to reach the most distant points. Topographical maps are very helpful in laying out the work of the crews and in determining the location of the town lines.
In the town of Ticonderoga, N. Y., where scouting work was completed during October, 1931, there is situated the largest single woodland block to be scouted during the current fiscal year, and it is to some extent indicative of the topographic condition of this particular region. This woodland bl~ck consists of approximately 22,100 acres, and extends for 7 nilbs along the western boundary of the town, being 7 miles wide at its widest point. Located within the boundaries of this wo6odland. block are found 15 lakes and 6 mountains. The highest of these mountains is Mt. Treadway, which has an altitude of 2,248 feet above sea level.
The mountainous condition of this section has been contributory to an increase in the number of injuries occurring to employees while in the performance of official duties. Since July 1, 1931, when work w~as started in this area, there were 26 personal injury cases reported, consisting chiefly of sprains, wrenched ligaments, bruises, and lacerations.
With the advent of the deer hunting season in the Adirondacksduring the latter part of the month, another perplexity presents itself to the men engaged in woodland scouting work in this region. 71e have been fortunate in the past in that no gipsy moth employee has been wounded by hunters while performing official duties. The mental hazard, however, still remains, and another detriment to efficient scouting work is not removed until the hunting season closes.
As a result of a request from the Penfield Grange, of Crown Point, N. Y., a town in which gipsy moth work has been conducted during the past several weeks, three 1,000-foot motion picture reels were shown at this place on October 23 before a gathering of about 400 people. one reel shows the life histories of the gipsy moth and the brownm-tail moth and the damage they cause; another illustrates the control work in the barrier zone, with views of scouting, creosoting egg clusters, and spraying, and it also has some views of the various types of quarantine inspection work; the other reel shows views of the parasite work, which is carried on by the Bureau of
Entomnology. A brief instructive talk was given by H. L. Blaisdell, of this project, in conjunctioa with the pictures. In conversation with some of the audience, their remarks wiere commnendable in that the pictures were informative and educational to them. Due to the fact that some were unable to be present at this meeting, the three reels were again shown the same evening in Gromn Point before approximately 30 more people.
About the middle of October, depending on the weather conditions,
it is customary for several nurserymen in the quarantined area of Connecticut and Massachusetts to fill their storehouses with deciduous stock. This practice enables them to handle a greater volume of spring business in a short period of time and also allows an earlier and later shipping season due to the fact that they can ship to Southern States for planting, even though the frost in the ground would not ordinarily permit digging in these quarantined areas. After digging, the stock is inspected. It is then tied into bundles and transported from the growing fields to the storehouse, where it is graded and otherwise prepared for storing in bins by employees of the nurseries. The bins are marked so that the various grades, sizes, and varieties of shrubs ape easily distinguished. WThen the stock is consigned to points outside of the regulated area, it is certified by our inspectors. This inspection of stored stock requires the services of extra inspectors, as the element of time is of great-~value to the nurserymen in the spring of the year.
Although classified as Christmas greenery in the inspection reeords, and even though the shipping comes just nrior to the Christmas tree work,
the spruce bough business is an industry in itself and should not be associated with the Christmas tree industry. The spru-e boug-:h inspection work started October 19 and reached its height the latter rart of the month. It is confined chiefly to the spruce areas of western M.assachusetts and southern Vermont. only boughs having good color Fire selected from trees along the edges and openings of spruce woodlots and pasture spruce. Long-handled pruning cutters from 12 to 20 feet in length are used by the dealers for removing the spruce boughs from the trees, and in some cases short heavy knives similar to a machete are used. After the boughs, which are from 2 to 4 feet in length, are cut from the tree branches, they are gathered and hauled to the nearest press which is used for baling- purposes. The gipsy moth inspector then examines each bough, after which the operators press the boughs into bales. These bales are about 2 fee~t thick, 2 feet wide, and 4 feet long, and weigh approximately 100 pounds. Thcs bales are piled in tiers, and when shipping begins they are transported to thia railroad shipping point and loaded into box cars. An average of 200 bales (10 tons) are usually loaded into each car. At this time a certificate, based on the previous inspection at the tine of baling-, is issued covering the shipment. The average baler will press about e,OCO pounds of boughs (80 bales) each day, and this ordinarily keeps one inspector busy while the press is in operation. During October approximately 1500 toil.s of boughs were inspected. There wore 23 baling presses in operation at various points within the
quarantined area. About 95 ner cent of the boughs are shipped to New York City, the remainder being distributed iraainly throughout Missouri, Michigan, and Ohio. The boughs are used chiefly as a covering in cemeteries to beautify the lots during the wintc r season, and also to some extent for co vering perennial and rose beds on private estates. There were 27 inspectors engaged in handling the necessary inspection work incident to the bough shipments.
Deciduous nursery stock is shipped without soil, but the roots
are packed in moist moss or other similar material. Evergreen trees, on the other hand, are dug with a ball of? earth surrounding the roots and this is usually enclosed in burlap. These methods prevent the roots from drying out before planting and preserve them while in transit. Because of dry weather, the soil is often so dry that it falls away from the roots, and consequently the movement of evergreen stock is restricted during these dry periods.
By tLhe use of modern methods of moving nursery an~d evergreen stock, size and weight are not prohibitive, as has been evidenced by the moving of four large red cedar trees recently from Torrington, Conn., to Yonkers, N. Y. These cedars averaged 25 feet in height, and the balls of earth, which preserve the roots, weighed in the vicinity-of 800 pounds on each tree. Stich large specimens are rather difficult to handle and care has to be exercised to avoid breaking, which would spoil the symmetry of the tree. Nurserymen provide help on these occasions to aid in the turning and handling so that thorough inspection may be made.
The V7.ashington Elm, under which the father of our country took command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Mass., on July 3, 1775, still lives. Although this famous tree no longer stands, a horticulturist grafted a branch of the dying elm, and this graft is now a beautiful large tree, growing on the grounds of the Public Library, Wellesley, Mass. From this Wellesley elm, four scions were grafted. One was set out at the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plains, Mlass., another at the PhillipsAndover Academy, Andover, Mass., and the other two at a nursery whose
products are shipped under quarantine regulations. I.any descend,,'.ts of the historic original Washington Elm were raised at this nursery and these have been examined and certified for shipment to various parts of the United States.
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