N WS L ETT R iATE PLANT OA
PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
UNITED STATES DEPARTIEIT OF AGRICULTURE
Number 11 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) November 1, 1931.
A public hearing to consider the advisability of extending the quarantine on account of the Japanese beetle to the States of Ohio and South Carolina was held October 8, before the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, in the auditorium of the U:ited States National Museum, Washington, D. C. The hearing was presided over by Mr. Lee A. Strong, and approximately 80 persons were in atte-dance.
In inspections last surmnner four Japanese beetles were found in Charleston, S. C., and five in Columbus and one in Cleveland, Ohio. The Administration now believes that, for the -resent at least, the situation can be handled by these States without the aid of a Federal querantine. It is exPected that Ohio and South Carolina will undertake control measures and this Adlninistration will cooperate. Accordingly, on October 10, the Secretary of Ariculture announced that the Japanese beetle quarantine would not be extended at this time to the States of Ohio and South Carolina.
This decision is in line with the policy which has been followed in similar cases in the past, and is in full accord with the desire of the Department to place restrictions only where they are absolutely necessary to prevent the spread of a dangerous pest.
D. R?. Tackle, Senior Entomologist of the California Department of Agriculture, who is collaborating with this Administration on various phases of some pest control problems, contributed the following brief discussion of h)at treatments of fruits and vegetables to destroy certain pests.
A collaborative project between the Technological Division of the
Plant Quari'ntino and Control Adiministration and the California Department of Agriculture is seeking to dsvlop information on the compatibility of California fruits to thermal treatmcats that will prove 100 per cent lethal to fruit-inhabiting insects. The oroj.ct differs from most other projects in that it is in the nature of 4 areparedness program, whereas most Qf such projects are of a remedial nature.
It was initiated with the idca in view that the solutionsof too many of our problems are forced to wait until the day of reckoning is at hand, a practice inherently conducive to much confusion and loss. The project does not seek to develop specific formulae but rather to develop general information on the compatibility of fruits and to determine the thermi. death point of such insects as may inhabit them.
The work was started in 1930 to continue the study of the so-called Florida process of exposing fruit at 1100 F. for 8 hours, a schedule known to be lethal to MTedfly. It is hoped that data will be developed that will enable compatibility curves in relation to temperature to be constructed which will furnish an index as to the range of availability of such treatments in special regulatory entomology wherein 100 per cent kill is sought. The problem presents many aspects, as its availability depends upon whether or not it is capable of industrial application. Hence, all work has to be carried on upon an industrial scale. In this case the commercial lug box is being used as a unit. Only commercial grades of fruit are used. With each lot that is treated, a similar lot is carried as a check. Both are placed in cold storage and subjected to daily observation, the check being used as a basis of comparison. in order that the individual, i. e., the human element, may be reduced to a minimum, two men check on the fruit daily, the results being their joint opinion on such points in which they are in agreement.
The seasonal work in deciduous fruit and summer citrus is being
brought to a conclusion. It involves about 90 commercial lots representing about 45 varieties. It is expected that by continued observation over a number of seasons a more comprehensive understanding of the reactions that take place in different fruits will supply information on methods not only as to schedules of treatment which various fruits will stand, but the time they best lend themselves to treatment and also the practices to be avoided.
That great interest attaches to this work is evidenced by requests Aot only for further information but on all details as to where equipment can be purchased, its costs, capacity, etc.
FOREIGN PLANT QUALITIES
REC T ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST
Living larva of Mediterranean fruit fly found.--A living larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) was intercepted at Philadelphia on a grape leaf among grapes in stores from Spain. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 2, February, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 4, April, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931; No. 7, July, 1931; No. 10, October, 1931.)
Mediterranean fruit fly in sweet orange..--The Mediterranean fruit fly was intercepted at New York in sweet orange in stores from Spain. This fruit fly has also been intercepted by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration in oranges from Algeria, Azores, Brazil, Hawaii, and Italy.
Fruit fly in cherries.--One larva, 3-.prepupae, and 35 pupae of the trypetid Rhagoletis cerasi L. were intercepted at New York in 200 cherries in baggage from France. This fruit fly, which is not known to occur outside of Europe, was intercepted previously in dry sour cherries in cargo from Yugoslavia in 1930.
Fruit fly in Haden mango.--Anastrepha sp. (near fraterculus) was
intercepted at New York in the Haden variety of mango in baggage from Cuba. (See also News Letter No. 9, September, 1931.)
Mangoes heavily infested.--Five hundred and forty larvae of the
fruit fly Anastrepha sp. (near fraterculus) were found at New York in 80 mangoes in stores from Cuba.
A lentil weevil from Italy.--Bruchus ervi Froh. (Byu~hidae) was intercepted at Philadelphia in dry Lima beans and peas in the mail from Italy. This bruchid was intercepted in lentil (Lens esculenta) seed frman
Palestine in 192G.
Coccid on cactus.--Protortonia cacti (Linn.) (Coccidae) was intercepted at San Diego, Calif., on cactus in cargo from Porto Rico. This represents the first interception record of this coecid in our files.
Pink bollworm in okra pod.--A larva of the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) was found by Max Kisliuk, Jr., and C. E. Cooley in an
okra pod at Adrian, St. John, American Virgin Islands, August 4, 1931. The pink bollworm was reported to be very destructive to both cotton lint and to cottonseed in St. Croix, American Virgin Islands, by Charles E. Wilson in 1923. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 6, June, 1i31; No. 8, August, 1931; No. 9, September, 1931.)
Pink bollworm in St. Kitts.--Larvae of the pink bollworm were found in Sea Island cotton four miles east of Basseterre, St. Kitts, British West Indies, by Max Kisliuk, Jr., and C. E. Cooley, August 9, 1931.
Weevil on bananas in cargo.--Metamasius sericeus var. carbonarius (Curculionidae) was intercepted at Mobile, Ala., on bananas in cargo from Guatemala and Iexico. This weevil has also arrived with bananas from Honduras.
Scale insect from Japan.--The coccid Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana) was intercepted at San Francisco on an ornamental plant in ship's quarters from Japan. This scale insect has also been intercepted on Aralia sp., Citrus sp., Daphne sp., and orange from Japan.
Chrysomelid on banana.--Myochrous tibialis Jacoby (Chrysomelidae) was intercepted at .obile, Ala., on banana in cargo from Hivaragua and at New Orleans on banana leaf in cargo from Mexico. This beetle was intercepted with banana debris from Nicaragua in 1930c.
Scale insect from the Azores.--The cnccid Targionia bromeliae was intercepted at Providence, R. I., on a pineapple leaf in baggage from the Azores. This scale insect has also been taken on pineapple from the Canary Islands, Cuba, Federated alay States, Haiti, Hawaii, Jamaica, Porto Rico, and the Straits Settlements, on Ananas sp. from India, and on Neoglaziovia
variegata from Brazil.
Whitefly on guava.--Cardin's whitefly (Aleurodicus cardini) was intercepted at Jacksonville, Fla., on guava leaf in parcel post from Cuba. This aleyrodid was described in 1912 by E. A. Back from material collected
by Dr. Back at Havana and Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba, in November, 1910. This whitefly has been recorded as occurring in Florida.
PRECNT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST
Diseased apples from Australia (in Tasmania wrappers) were intercepted at Seattle and submitted to experts in the Bureau of Plant Industry. The spotting proved to be one with which they were not familiar. No organism was found associated with the disease.
0ospora citri-aurantii (sou* rot) was intercepted at Bellingham on an orange from Australia. This disease occurs on lemons in California and has been reported on oranges in Southern Europe but it is not listed by Stevenson or by Fawcett & Lee as occurring in Australia.
Tylenchus dipsaci was intercepted in Sternbergia (Amaryllis) lutea bulbs from Istanbul, Turkey, at the Washington Inspection House. These bulbs are said to have been collected in the wild, and this finding is the first record for this host.
Parasitic nematodes were intercepted at Detroit in several lots of
hyacinth bulbs from Holland within a few days, the parasites being Aphelenchus parietinus (3 lots), A. sp., Paraphelenchus sp. (?) and Tylenchus dipsaci (3 lots). *
Tylenchus dipsaci (the bulb nematode) has been intercepted in six shipments of bulbous Iris recently at the Inspection House, Washington, D. C. The infestations are apparently heavier in the individual bulbs, often causing complete decay, particularly in the English Iris. Infestations have been found in bulbs of English, Dutch, and French origin.
The nematodes Aphelenchus avenae, A. parietinus, and A. subtenuis were also intercepted in shipments of bulbous Iris--the first two snecius from Holland, and the last in a shipment from London, England.
Coniothyrium hellebori was determined as the cause of a leaf spot of Helleborus niger collected at the Tashington Inspection House on a shipment from Holland. The disease had been collected previously, once in New York, once in Oregon, and once in Europe, according to the Bureau of Plant Industry records.
A leaf spot of oleander apparently caused by Sectoria oleandrina
was intercepted at New York in oleanders in baggage from B ormuda. S. oleandrina is reported from France and Italy as well as from Bermuda, according to Stevenson's Manual, and is listed in U. S. D. A. Bul. 1366 as having been found in Florida and Louisiana.
LIMA BEAN SCAB SURVEY
Lima bean scab (Elsinoe canavaliae) is not yet present in the continental United States, so far as could be determined by surveys made this season in the eastern seaboard States and in California.
Eight of the eastern seaboard States (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York) were included in a survey made by the Office of My!cology and Plant Disease Survey in cooperation with this Administration. In this survey, conducted in July and August, over 100 examinations of Lima beans were made in the States mentioned, either of field beans or those in markets and packing houses. No scab was found in any case.
A survey in California was considered desirable in view of the presence of the disease in the Sinaloa region of ocxico, as shown by several interceptions of diseased beans coming from that area at the port of Nogales,
Ariz., last January. A limited survey was therefore made of the Lima bean areas of California, August 10-15, by 71. A. McCubbin, ir. cooperation with the California Department of Agriculture. In this survey 58 lots of beans amounting to 173.5 bushels in 53 produce and grocery stores in eight cities and towns were examined. No trace of the scab disease was present. Examination ras also made on 40 farms in five counties south of San Francisco. In the 50 fields examined on these farms, amounting to 796 acres of Lia beans, the disease was not found.
SHIP 'S CAPTAIN IGNORES QUAAATTINE SAFEGUARD
A report by 7. W. Chapman, of the port of Philadelphia, on October 8, tells of the finding of a 30-pound lot of turnips in stores on the French SS 1erope heavily infested with a weevil, Ceutorhynchus sp. The inspector sealed the lot as a proper safeguard, whereupon the captain became indignant and broke the seal. 1,ith the cooperation of the customs officials a detainer was put on the clearance of the ship until th3 matter could be adjusted. However, when the ship was later boarded with an order for destruction of the infested rcterial, the captain made no further objection and even apologized for his action. It is fwu'ther noted that the local agents for this steamship line were nuch disturbed over the attitude of the captain and were ready and willin: to have the offending turnips disposed of as we might require,
This is said to be the first tirle that any ship's officer has ignored the seal of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, and it is safe to say that it is not likely to happen vry often in the future.
PION1 PLANE INECTED
On September 1, IT. V:. Hecker inspected on arrival at Chicago the German seaplane Greenland Tal, traveling ov.r the Arctic regions in an attempt to determine the feasibility of this northern route between Europe and America. The plane arrived via Hudson's Bay and Long Lake, Canada. No prohibited plant material was found aboard.
FRENCH CRUISERS ATTENDING YORIWOJN CELEBRATION INSPECTED
Special arrangements for interpreters and a certain amount of foresight enabled M. C. Rich, of tho Norfolk, Va., -ort, to make an inspection of the French cruisers Duquesne and Suffern which arrived in the Chesapeake Bay October 15, carrying a delegation of French notables to the Yorktown celebration. As no customs inspection was made in these vessels, our inspector made arrangements to board through the Commandant of the naval base at Norfolk, and through the Virginia Pilots' Association, the naval base having undertaken to notify both visitors by radio of his coming. The inspection was made as planned and instructions were issued to retain all vegetables on board while in territorial waters, to destroy all vegetable
refuse in the ships' incinerators, and to have the small amount of fruit present consumed as soon as possible. The inspection was carried out in good faith on our part and was accepted in the same spirit by the French officials.
Richard Faxon, in charge of Federal plant quarantine inspection in Porto Rico, visited Washington on October 20, to report on the plant quarantine situation in the island and discuss with Mr. Sasscer plans for future activities
E. R, Sasscer left ,V!ashinaton on October 4, for a two-weeks' visit with the Seattle District inspectors.
G. G. Becker retu rned on September 28 from District No. 1 on the
Mexican border, where he took up the personnel situation brought about by the partial or complete closing of several of the bridge ports as an economy measure.
Because of a shortening of the hours during which the bridges between this country and Mexico are open, it has been necessary to make certain adjustments in our Mexican border personnel during the past month. The appointrnenteof R. R. Roberts, E. L. Friday, and R. T. Kyzar were terminated, without prejudice; J. D. Smith has been temporarily detailed from Brownsville to Nogales; J. A. Stanton has been transferred from Brownsville to Seattle; E. L. Tolbert has been transferred from Del Rio to Laredo; H. G. Frane has been transferred from Hidalgo to Nogales, replacing R. A. Rodgers, who has been retired; G. A. Pfaffman has been transferred from Laredo to Zapata, where he will be acting in charge, arid E. W. Ingle has been temporarily detailed from Brownsville to furnish relief at a number of stations in District No. 1.
REDUCT1017 IN AUTO EQUIP121T
In line with the present economy program, a careful study has been made of the need for government owned automobiles at the various ports of this Division. As a result, arrangements have been made to dispense with the automobiles at Mercedes, Ysleta, and Del Rio, Tex., and to dispense with one of the two automobiles at Nogales, Ariz. It is believed that it will be found possible to dispense with one or two additional automobiles in the near future.
ROBERT A. RODGERS RETIRES
In retiring from the service at the age of 66 years on September 30, 1931, Robert A. Rodgers earns the distinction of being the first employee
of the Administration to be retired on account of age. At his own request 3&. liodgers was granted the privilege of retiring at the age of 62 because of his-work with poisonous gas. When the time for his retirement arrived, however, he requested an extension of time, which was granted, and at the end of this extension a second one was requested and granted. The second extension expired on September 30.
Mr. R~odgers had served in the Department of Agriculture for almost 26 years. He was employed in the Forest Service from January 24, 1906, until Januar'y 16, 1922, when he was transferred to the Federal Horticultural Board to serve as an inspector at Nogales, Ariz. He served continuously at that port from the date of his transfer.
In the last month o-f his employment, Mr. R~odgers was credited with saving the life of a coworker. On September 10, while working at an incinerator with R~. C. Watson, the clothing of the latter took fire and it was only the prompt action of Mlr. Rodgers in tearing off the burning shirt and rushing his companion to the hospital that averted consequences which might have proved fatal.
During his nine years of conscientious service 11r. Rodgers has always shown to the public and to his fellows an agreeablos and friendly personality, and he carries with him in his retirement the entire good will of both the Department and his coworkers.
BURNED INSPECTORS T~I =5 I NS TO DTJrY
R~. C. Watson, inspector at Nogales, referred to in the above note, has returned to duty, the burns received in his accident having proved not to be of a permanently serious nature.
COME~TTM 0O7 FORMS~
In order to provide in prompt and orderly manner for revision of the
numerous forms employed in the work of the Division, 1.r. Sasscer has appointed a committee to study these forms and present recomendations for any needed change, simplification, or merging that may be desirable. The committee, composed of W4i A. McCubbin, G-. G* Becker (or C. A. Locke), and N. R&~ Hunt, will at the outset give particular attention to forms which are in immediate need of revision. One of the problems nowv being attacked is uniformity in the use of rubber stamps, as a basis for which request has been made for facsimiles of all stamps used in the various ports with a note as to their function. The committee will also attempt to gather material for the compilation of a "Manual for Port Inspectors." This is a task of some magnitude and will require much reference to the experience of port inspectors before it can be completed.
WO1N SuLJOGLES IRIS
A woman traveler coming from Canada through Rouse's Point, N.Y.,
recently, was observed by the eagle eye of a customs inspector to be somewhat more corpulent than was consistent with an otherwise slender figure. When searched by the woman inspector of the port, it was discovered that the traveler had a quantity of valuable iris roots wrapped in a towel and wound around her waist under her outer clothing. After being subjected to the humiliation of search and seizure, the smuggler suffered final complete mortification when she learned that she could have brought her personally conducted cargo into the country openly and freely under a permit.
PL *Y OF FRUIT FLY
W. H. Freeman calls attention to the interception in New York on August 8, of 67 living larvae of the tIlediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) taken from 14 pears in the stores of the S.S. Triolus. The pears apparently originated in Algeria. This is one of those cases that throw a convincing flash of revealing light on the pest dangers to which we are constantly exposed and which only occasionally are made evident with such startling clearnessa
PROTECTION TO OTHER COUNTRIES
Two cases have recently come to hand in which our inspection serves to protect the interests of neighboring countrieS. A shipment of 20 mango plants from Calcut'ai India, destined to Sinaloa; Mexico, was entered at San Francisco Scntcmber 14, 193$l, and found on examination to be infested with eggs, larvae, and adults of the citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi). The plants were also rooted in unsterilized soi14 The material was refused entry and was ordered to be either returned or destroyed.
The second case involved a shipment of 15 raspberry plants which
were examined at the port of New York for certification and export to Brazil. Four of the plants were found infested .wvith the raspberry root borer (Bembecia mnrginata). All infested plants were located and destroyed before a Te;ificate was issued. It is of interest to add that a State nursery inspection tag aceompanied this shipment.
The Department makes no claim to purely altruistic motives in such cases. In the first-mentioned instance it is clearly to our advantage to have our neighbor to the south kcept free from pests which might later on invade our own borders; and in the second we are only trying honestly to make our certificate mean what it says. Yet in both cases the countries in question have been undoubtedly benefited by oar activities.
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTIlE SUMIVIARIES
MEXICO.--On account of the apparent extermination of the Mediterranean
fruit fly in Florida and the consequent lifting of Quarantine No. 68, the Mexican Resolution of June 22, 1931, amends Exterior Quarantine No# 5 by excluding the State of Florida from the places affected by that quarantine. The text of Article 1 of this Resolution has been published as Supplement No. 4 to Circular PQCA-284.
The M1exican Decree of July 23, 1931, revokes that of March 4, 1931, which imposed an absolute Exterior Quarantine (No, 8) against wheat on account of the flag-smut and take-all diseases, and provides for the entry of wheat under permit, besides listing the countries in which the two diseases are known to occur. The text of this Decree has been published as Supplement No. 5 to Circular PQCA-284.
COLO MBIA.--Colombian Decree No. 1128, of July 1, 1931, prescribes that every shipment of trees, fruits, plants, bulbs, seeds, banana slips, unmanufactured plant products, or any part thereof, offered for entry into Colombia shall be accompanied by a certificate issued by competent authority of the country of origin and visaed by the Colombian consul or that of a friendly nation. It prescribes also that an import permit shall be obtained in advance by the importer. A summary of this Decree was transmitted in a memorandum to chief inspectors and collaborators under date of September 1, 1931.
CANADA.--The text of Canadian Regulation No. 10 (Foreign) 6th Revision, has been received and transmitted to chief inspectors and collaborators. This revision excludes Vermont from the list of States quarantined against the importation into Canada of certain cut flowers, straw, and vegetabLes.
The text of the first revision of Canadian Regulation No. 6 (Foreign) also has been received. In addition to prohibiting the importation into Canada of five-leafed pines from all foreign countries, the revision prohibits also the importation of the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), Swiss mountain pine (P. mugho), and Scotch pine (P. silvestris) from Europe.
Copies of the Canadian regulations may be obtained from the Destructive Insect and Pest Act Advisory Board, Ottawa, Canada.
MANGO IX FROZEN PACK NOT ADLaTTED FROM REGIONS INFESTED WITH AEGO EVILS
Pending the .,ompletion of experiments in Hawaii to determine whether the frozen pack method described in Circular PQCA-311 will effect the destruction of mango weevils in mangoes, it has been decided to permit the importation of that fruit in the frozen pack condition only from countries of North and South America and the West Indies. This does not apply to mango pulp in the frozen pack condition, but only to the whole fruits.
DOMSTIC PLANT WARANTINES
TRANSIT INSPECT I011
The States of !iissouri, Minnesota, and Iowa have assigned State inspectors to work with Federal transit inspectors during the rush nursery stock shipping season this fall. Two Missouri inspectors are being assigned to Kansas City and St4 Louis, respectively, one Iowa inspector to Council Bluffs, and one Mlinnesota inspector to St. Paul. This additional help makes it possible to cover freight and express more ccmpletely at the points named and relieve the transit inspectors, at least partially, of a certain amount of overtime, which has heretofore been necessary.
With the removal of restrictions on farm products from the areas generally infested with the 5apanese beetle, which became effective on September 28, there has been a noticeable decrease in the number of violations of this quarantine. Narcissus bulb shipments are beginning to come through in considerable number however, and several violations of this quarantine have been reported, as well as some infringements of the white-pine blister-rust quarantine.
Specimens of the European corn borer (PTausta nubilalis Hubn.)
were discovered by the transit inspectors at New York in a recent shipment of corn moving from the two-generation regulated area.
BLACK STMA RUST
Permits to ship Barberry and Mahonia plants that are resistant to the black stem rust have recently been issued to 17 nurserymen who are growers of these plants. The black stem rust quarantine, as recently revised, requires a permit for shipping these plants to or among the 13 "protected States" which are eradicating the susceptible species. Before growers' permits are issued, inspection is made by the Barberry Eradication Office of the Bureau of Plant Industry, to determine that only inmune species are present on the premises of the applicant. The Bureau then makes a recommendation to the Administration as to whether a permit should be issued to the nurseryman. The applicant must also agree that shipping certificates will not be used in conn-ection with plants not grown in his nursery, and that he will not handle any species or variety of Barberis or Mahonia not listed in his application, unless written authorization to do so is received from the Administration. Of the 17 growers to whom permits have been issued, 8 are located in Ohio, and 3 are within other protected States. The other 6 are located outside the barberry-eradication area.
WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST
The Administration has tentatively approved an application by the Federal Forest Service for a permit to grow five-leafed pines in the Wind
River Nursery at Carson, 7ash., for interstate movement under the conditions specified in the white-pine blister-rust quarantine regulations, as to nurseries located in generally infected States. The Wind Rivar Nursery comprises a part of the Forest Service Experiment Station in the Columbia National Forest, and, according to the Forest Service, distributes annually about a million young trees to various points in the Northwest for planting on denuded areas. Experience and investigation indicate that blister-rustfree white pine can be p-oduced in infected areas such as the State of Washington by carrying out the Ribes-eradication measures outlined below. The tentative approval of the application was based on a report by the Bureau of Plant Industry showing thore arc no European black currant plants within a mile of the nursery, and that all other currant and gooseberry plants have
been destroyed within a radius of over 1,500 feet of the pines. The premises are also checked annually by inspectors of the Administration. The authority for interstate shipment relates to pines grown from seed which will be planted this fall and next spring, authorization for shipping being deferred until after reiirspection of the promises and environs prior to shipment. Tribes eradication is being carried out around three other Federal and State-owned nu-'series in the Pacific 1o40thwest, but has not yet advanced far enough to justify the distribution of five-leafed pines from such of these points as occur in generally infected areas.
PHOKY PEACH DISEASE
The inspection of the oremiscs and environs of peach-growing nurseries in Texas was resumed and extended in September and October by InspectorsDopson and Connolly. Several of the nurseries reported as handling peach trees for intrastate movement were, in fact, growing them for other nurseries which make interstate shipments. The number of nurseries it was necessary to inspect 7ms, therefore, greater than the first report showed.
NARCISSUS BULB S
On a recent trip to the Pacific Coast, Dr. S. B. Fracker consulted. with the plant quarantine officials of California, Oregon, and Washington concerning narcissus certification rieasures. He also attended informal conferences of bulb growers at Portland, Oreg., and Sumner, 7;ash.
A 'ecent outbreak of the bulb eelworm (Tylenchus dipsaci Kuehn) in onions at Canastota, N. Y., is of interest to narcissus producers. only two small areas of a few square yards each in one onion field are involved, but these are i',ported to have been a total loss in 1930. The infected onions were destroyed as rapidly as found in 1931, and lettuce and broccoli planted in their place. As an eradication measure, the soil was sterilized by steam under 80 pounds pressure. It is not as yet movn whether the eelworms involved in this outbreak belonged to one of the narcissus-attacking strains of T. disaci or not, nor how the pest reached the locality. According to the Bureau of Plant Industry, this is the first instance in which
this species of eelvworm has been found attacking onions, under natural conditions, in the United States.
'he hope of success in the Date Scale Eradication Project is based on the assumption that an infested date palm can be found by inspection and the scale eliminated before the infestation reaches the point where it
will spread to near-by palms.
It is essential, therefore, that all the date palms and other hosts of the Parlatoria scale in the date-growing areas be located. The first operation when the project was reorganized in 1928 was a survey to locate palms. Reports were made by the inspectors giving, among other items, the location of the planting and number and age of the palms, and stating whether ornamental, commercial, or abandoned.
From these reports the plantings were located on maps, the Coachella Valley and Imperial Valley in California and the Salt River Valley and Yuma Valley in Arizona being taken as units. Next the maps were divided into districts, probability of infestation and convenience in inspection being the criteria. The reports were filed by districts and lists were made of the properties, giving the owners' names, size of planting, and location. The places requiring less than 5 one-man days were listed for "scouting inspection," and those requiring more than 5 days, for "routine inspection." The routine inspection was done by crews of four or more men working under squad leaders, and the scouting inspection by inspectors working in pairs.
When the inspection work is laid out for the month, the squad leaders and scout inspectors are given lists of the properties to be inspected. They are supposed to be on the alert for plantings in the district not listed. This, of course, affects the scout inspectors more than the routine crews.
When the inspectors come in at the close of the day's inspection, the reports submitted are checked with the lists. The changes in number of palms, etc., are made and new places added. 1ihen inspection of a district is completed, the lists are typed with corrections for the next inspection.
Following the first survey, many new places were added--all small,
abandoned, or ornamental plantings overlooked previously, or new plantings. When the scout inspectors became familiar with the districts, they naturally fell into beaten paths and were not as liable to locate new plantings as when unfamiliar with the territory. New -en, therefore, were put on scouting work from time to time.
Last year it seemed evident that practically all palms were listed in the date-growing areas which could be located in this manner, and a section-by-section survey connenced. A large map of the Coachella Valley was obtained, giving the sections and property ovmers as nearly up to date as possible. Two inspectors worked together and were given three or four
sections cut from the map with instructions to scout them thoroughly, walk.; ing over the entire area to be sure there were no palms growing in windbreaks and mesquite jungles overlooked. The listed palms were not to be inspected, but any unlisted palms were to be inspected and all located on the maps.
A considerable part of the Coachella Valley has been covered in this manner, and a few small unlisted palms--none of them infested--have been found to date. This type of survey was also started in the Imperial Valley and a number of unlisted palms found--one of them infested. The survey bhas not yet been commenced in Arizona.
Early in the summer this work was discontinued because of the hot
weather and because of the difficulty in locating small palms in the dense growths along the ditch banks in the Imperial Valley and mesquite thickets in the Coachella Valley. It will be resumed when the weather is cooler and the sunier growth dies downm. The survey is the final operation in the location of palms in the date-growing areas,
Another phase of this operation is the location of date palms outside the date-growing areas. This will not be so difficult, as we are interested only in offshoots taken from the infested areas. This movement has been very limited because of the State a *nd Federal quarantines, and also because of the demand for offshoots f6r planting within the infested areas. Some work has been done along this line but most of it will be postponed until reduction in the eradication areas can be safely made.
EUROPEANI CORN BOE AND ZJAPANESE BEETLE
General Project News
Exhibits of an educational character at largely attended fairs were a prominent factor in the work of the project for S3eptember. During the Eastern States Exposition, in Springfield, Mass., open from the 20th to the 26th, both European corn borer and Japanese beetle displays were shown. On several days this exhibit apparently attracted more attention than any other within the grounds. Many inquiries were made as to the habits of the pests, the products which they attack, and the best means of control. Special interest was generally manifested in the miniature stubble field, stressing the comparative scarcity of borers resulting from low cutting of corn and illustrating the increase in infestation proportionate to the height of the stalk left in thle field. Machinery and equipment for borer control were the main features of the exhibit at the Ohio State Fair, held in Columbus, from August 30 to September 5. Life history and seasonal habits were featured in display for the Kentucky State Fair, at Louisville, September 14 to 19, inclusive. here the comparison in yields as between infested and uninfested
fields was displayed, and a corn borer question box, originally designed by the western section offices for the International Live Stock Exposition, was the center of attraction for many of those in attendance.
The first official announcement concerning spread of the Japanese beetle, as developed in the current season's scouting and trapping, was contained in the call issued by the Acting Secretary of Agriculture on September 17 for a hearing on proposed extensions of the quarantine, to be held in Washington October 8. Ohio and South Carolina are the two States specially to be dealt with, infestations of the beetle having been found this year for the first time at Cleveland and Columbus, in the former, and at Charleston, in the latter. Findings of the beetle in States already affected by the quarantine, of which there have been several in territory outside the.present regulated areas, were not mentioned in the call for the hearing, but some of them were named in an accompanying Department press release. Specific reference was made in the news story to new infestations in Somerset and Worcester Counties, Md., Altoona and Erie, Pa., and Albany, Ft. Edward, Little Falls, and Watkins Glen, N. Y. As some scouting for the corn borer was still under way at the end of September, the Department has not given out lists of the places where this pest has been discovered for the first time during the season.
Project activities of a sooul c V :.cV:' : ere ',reatly reduced -in volume by the end of the month, as regards both European corn borer and Japanese beetle field inspection and quarantine enforcement. In the eastern section of borer control work, the last scouting was done in the concluding days of September, road patrols previously having been discontinued. Central section special scout crews still were covering portions of Connecticut, Delaware, and New Jersey, on the 30th, and a few highway stations for vehicle inspection also were in operation, most of the latter, however, munder orders to cease on October 3. Western section scouts all had been withdrawn on the 5th, except three twovrAn crews in Wiconsin. Highway stations in the west mostly were abandoned on September 6, those in Indiana having been kept on, however, until the 20th. Japanese beetle scouting was entirely finished during the month, and further lessening of the road inspection forces took place.
Specialized Corn Borer Activities
The annual field day and corn borer conference held on September 17, at the Berkley farm of the Department, located near Taunton, Mass., was attended by more than 60 plant pest control officials, who manifested keen interest in the reports presented by the three bureaus cooperating in the maintenance of the property for experimental and demonstration purposes. In the list of speakers for the occasion, the Plant Cuarantine and Control Administration was represented by ir. Strong, Chiief; Mr. Hoyt, Assistant Chief; Mr. Worthley, in charge of Eurocoan con borer and Jaoanese beetle work, and by Prof. C. 0. Reed, of Ohio State University, Collaborator. For the Bureau of Entomology, talks were made by Mr. Rohwer, Assistant Chief;
Dr. Larrimer, in charge Division of Cereal and Forage Insects; Mr. Caf'frey, i~n charge European corn borer research; Mr. Jones, in charge of the Arlington field laboratory, and Dr. Batchelder, in charge Experiments at Berkley
Farm. Bureau of Agricultural Engineering representatives who spoke included Mr. Gray, Chief of Division of Mechanical Equipment, and Mr. Merrill and Mr. Irons, of the Corn Borer Control eastern unit. Field demonstrations of control machinery made during the day, under the direction of Dr. Batchelder, M~r. Merrill and Mr. Irons, were devoted to corn binder attachments and hand hoes, for low cutting, sled-type stalk shavers, attachments to plows for cc::-pletro coverage of crop renants and debris, and spraying equipment. High lights of the discussions were the encouraging results of the year's experiments on spray materials and moth baits and the success attained in adapting mechanical devices for control to New England conditions. At the conclusion of the formal exercises, many of those present inspected heavily infested fields in the vicinity, where severe commercial damage was noted. Berkley farm was acquired by the Department late in, 1929, and since has been operated by the three burtoaus joining in corn borer control activities as a means of concentrating, at one point on the Atlantic seaboard, work such as it was felt could be more efficiently prosecuted if combined in this manner. Soil and terrain conditions on the farm are fairly typical of those generally found in New Englaznd, and the ravages of the corn borer have been particularly injurious in the neighborhood of the property. Corn was grown in this section by the Indians before the settlement therein of the English early in the seventeenth century, and the crop continued to be a major one until after the advent of the borer.
The survey of commercial damage to crops from the T~uropean corn borer in sections of western New York, conducted for the Administration during the second week in September by M1r. Crossman and LMr. Stockbridge, of the South Norwalk offices, developed information in large measure confirming other reports indicating substantial losses to farmers, especially on sweet corn. In several of the counties visited, evidence was available showing serious damage, and it was clearly apparent that the growers of field corn for seed, and for grain and ensilage had suffered materially, even if not to as great an extent as the producers of sweet corn. Typical instances of losses incurred from infestations of the borer were as follows: Tefferson County-numerous complaints of damage made to county agent; crop from one 60-acre plot of sweet corn all put in silo or plowed under--none picked for canning; field of grain corn expected to yield 600 bushels will turn off 20(' bushels or less; Livingston County--loss of ears in 200 acres of sweet corn will run 20 per cent or more; Monroe County--farmers lost 50 to 60 per cent of the ears on sweet corn, planted for supply of stores and roadside stands; in some cases damage so great crop was plowed under without attempt to harvest; Ontario County--in two communities, groups of farmers who planted 75 and 60 acres of sweet corn, respectively, have had a 40 per cent loss of ears; a leading canning concern is writing the sweet corn growers urging practice of control measures to prevent heavier infestations next season; Orleans County-one grower offered privilege of picking sweet corn at 10 cents a dozen, but persons who tried it gave this up as a bad job; another was able to harvest
less than half of the anticipated crot, leaving the rest for hog feed; Wayne County--one grower lost 15 per cent or a 40-acre sweet corn crop; another farmer, who raises corn for seed, esti.Rates his daage at 90 per cent. Newspaper clippings and other advices also confirm reports of severe damage in Cattaraugus County, which tMr. Cr'ssman and ML,. Stockbridge were unable to visit on account of limited time.
The report of the Toint Committee on the '-"uropean corn borer, formul.ated at the annual meeting in Toledo, Ohio, September 30, stressed the spread and increase of the pest in 1931 as indicating danger from it in1932 corresponding to the greater intensity of inf~lstation--estimated as two and a half times as much as last year and more than twice that of the year before. Increase in borer population w~as reported as having been particularly heavy this year in northwestern Ohio, south of the former center of infestation along Lake Erie, and in the important sweet corn area of New York, along the southern and eastern shores of Lake Ontario. Continued cooperation of farmers, scientists, educators and State and Federal administrative officials was declared to be justified by the fact that the borer potentially is one of the most destructive crop pests ever introduced into America. Practice of control measures by farmers was commended and endorsement given to the research, regulatory, and educational activities of public agencies. Appropriations by State and Federal governments of funds needed to maintain and, if necessary, to expand the researeh, educational, and quarantine programs, were earnestly recommended. Support from all agencies and individuals interested in the welfare of An-eriean agriculture was urged for thorough scouting, careful clean-up of isolated infested areas, and maintenance of quarantines. Extension workers wore asked to strengthen, expand, and coordinate their educational progi'ars pertaiining to the borer. Investigations should be continued, it was recited, especially in relation to parasites, insecticides, environment, immune varieties, mechanical devices for control, feed values as affected by the borer, substitute crops, and influence on live stock production costs and quality. The Toint Committee represents the Amaerican Association of Economic Entomologists, the American Society or Agronomy, the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, the American Farm Economic Association, and the American Society of Animal Production.
Low cutting of corn arid removal of crop remnants with disposal according to recommended practices, followed last year by a goodly proportion of Rhode Island farmers, is crpaitod by the State department of agriculture with an apparent reduction this season of from 46 to 24 in the figures showing the percentage of corn borer infestation. In a survey of early sweet corn, from 1 to 67 per cent of plants examined were found infested in the 28 towns co7ered. As high as 39600O plants in a torm ,.ere inspected, the smallest number having been 250. The greatest drop in intensity of infestation, from 85 to
12 per cent, was in a county wbiere cloan-up work was most complete in 1930. The largest gain, on the other hand, from 40 to 5A3 per cont, wias developed in a county where there is said to have been lack of cooperation in respect to control measures,
An investigation was conducted this month, at the request of Dr.
Britton, Connecticut state entomologist, with respect to a reported 33 1/3 per cent borer infestat on of corn in Wethersfield, the inquiry having been directed from the Hartford office of the central section. V91ile not as great as had been represented to Dr. Britton, the infestation was found to be heavy--more so than ordinarily would be expected in view of the fact that the territory involved had been in the regulated area for only one year. Corn production is an important item in the agriculture around Wethersfield, and farmers are greatly concerned by reason of the increase in borer population. Control measures, principally consisting of plow ing under stalks and crop remnants, were begun by some of them before the Department inspectors had finished their studies.
Heavy infestations of the corn borer in Lima beans growing on Long Island led to an intensive survey of conditions on the northeastern end of the Island, in the township of Southold, Suffolk County, by special scouts sent from the central section headquarters. Two crews of scouts commenced work in the second week of September and concluded their inspection in approximately ten days. Detailed counts were made in some 125 fields to determine the percentage of plants infested and number of borers to the plant. Data also 'were collected as to dates of planting and acreage.
All highway stations for inspection of vehicles were discontinued, in the central section of corn borer control, during the first ten days of the month, except the ones located in New York City. Scouting activities also were ended in this territory, except with respect to a few crews engaged in special duty. Equipment employed in the field work has been collected in the South Norwalk warehouses for storage.
Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work
Flower shows held within the Japanese beetle regulated area annually present the necessity for protecting from infestation all certified cut flowers and plants brought to the show from classified establishments, and returned to certified greenhouses after the exhibition. The most recent of these shows was the Second National Atlantic City Flower and Garden Pageant, held from September 4 to 10, inclusive. An inspector was stationed in the Atlantic City Auditorium, which housed the show, from August 31 until all certified stock had been removed on September 11. Since the show was held during the period of adult beetle flight, all cut flowers were individually inspected before they were taken into the auditorium. Due to the care with which the flowers had been grown and tended, not a single beetle was found among 115,000 cut flowers examined. A total of 11,779 potted plants were received and returned under certification. One unusual feature of the show was a vegetable exhibit from Sutton's, of Reading$ England.. Five tons of vegetables and paraphernalia were included, the majority of the vegetables being of mammoth proportions. On the evening of September 8, thirty employees connected with the project in New Jersey attended the exhibition.
Practically all of thre sand pits in the 1 rriswick Townshinp area of Middlesex County, W. J., late in the month were released from the fumigation requirements which had been enforced during the period of adult beetle infestation. These -pits were found to be infested for the first time this year. Several pits in the southern section of New Jersey around Miliville and Bridgeton wo-re also similarly released from the treating requirements. Beetles were still found in reduced numbers in most of the sand pits in the vicinity of M~ount Holly, in Burlington County, N. 5. During the months of the year when the pits are free from adult beetles, the quarantine restrictions impose few, if any, burdensome requirements upon sand shippers, since all sand shipped is dug only after considerably more than the required twelve inches of top soil have been stripped from the pit. While adult beetles are present in thle -pits, however, all sand must be fumigated with carbon disulphide before_ certification is granted.
With the lifting of the farm products quarantine, this project has again, through Pennsylvania Secretary of Agriculture John A. McSparran, extended its thanks to the Delaware River Joint Bridge Commnission for its courtesy and cooperation in permitting the erection of the Philadelphia farm products inspection platform on ground owned by the Commission at the south side of the bridge approach. Appreciation has also been expressed to the Director of Public Wiorks of Philadelphia for-the assignment of a policeman for duty at the platform. The Philadelphia inspection center is ideally located, convenient to the t-D principal market districts of the city. A portable, covered platform annually has been erected on this same site. It would be extremely difficult to obtain a location equally as an,cessible and free from traffic congestion as the one which has been gratuitously offered for the project's use.
Preliminary demonstrations to determine the practicability of applying lead arsenate to nursery plots and heeling-in areas by means of a spray, rather than in dry form with fertilizer distributors, were started during the month. An application by the spray method of 500 pounds of lead arsenate to one-third of an acre of nursery section was made in a nursery near Philadelphia. The mixture was not washed into the ground by additional water from the sprayer, as has been the practice in treating isolated infestations. Rather the spray mixture was permitted to dry and the lead arsenate coating then harrowed into the ground. Grub diggings -were made before and subsequent to the application. Suffio-ient observations and grub tests have not Yet been made to determine the effectiveness of the new method.
Surveys are now under way in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware,
Maryland, and Virginia with a view to so subdividing nursery and greenhouse establishments classified under the Japanese beetle regulations that groups of from 15 to 30 establishments, dep-indkrnt upon the sizes and locations of the concerns, may be allotted to a single nursery and greenhouse inspector. In a number of instances it may be feasible to permanently station the inspector in the subdivision under his immediate supervision, and permit him to operate somewhat independently of a project suboff ice. Maintenance of closer contact with all classified establishments should result in mutually
improved relations between the project and those affected by the quarantine restrictions.
Road inspectors stationed at Osterhout, Pa., intercepted during the month two uncertified shipments which, upon examination, were found to contain Japanese beetle larvae. The first shipment consisted of five spruce trees carried by a motorist traveling from Vineiland, N. I., to Olean, No Y. A single grub was removed from the soil about the roots of one of the trees. The second shipment contained two potted plants, en route from Philadelphia, Pa., to Penn Yan, N. Y. Five grubs were removed from the latter shipment. Quantities of uninfested articles were also intercepted and examined.
Employees working under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey district office at White Horse were recently given an examination based on the lecture courses held in connection with the third annual school for New Jersey inspectors, on June 1 to 4. The examination included questions concerning parasites, traps, sprays, physiological reactions of the Japanese beetle to poison, chemical treatments, administrative practices, ecology, identification of nursery stock, and general entomological data.
Cards, 4"1 x 6" in size, and bearing a colored picture of the Japanese beetle together with brief informative data concerning the Japanese beetle quarantine and the life history of the insect, were recently received from the Government Printing Offic-e. Information on the card is applicable to scouting, trapping, and road inspection phases of the project, and next season they will be available for distribution by scouts, trap tenders, and quarantine line inspectors.
Road inspection at the border of the generally infested area in
Pennsylvania was curtailed on September 1. Fourteen inspectors were retai ned to guard eight of the principal highways. Arrangements were made to move, on October 1, all road inspectors in Pennsylvania and Maryland to the boundary of the lightly infested 'areas in these States and in Virginia. A few highway stations in New York were still operating at the end of the month.
Changes in the classified status, under the Japan-ese beetle quarantine regulations, of 13 nursery and greenhouse establishments were necessitated by the discovery of infestations on their premises. Similar changes were made during August in 38 establishments. Ten of the establishments determined as infested were located in the generally infested area. The additional three establishments involved were located in the lightly infested areas.
Lead arsenate treating of the infestations in Erie, Pa., began during the latter part of the month. Eight tons of treating material were purchased for this purpose by the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture. Four sprayer tanks and an International truck were dispatched from the South Norwalk headquarters to perform the work,
Withdrawal from the field of all scout crews operating outside the regulated areas was accomplished by September 1. Scouting of classified nursery and 62eenhouse premises continued on a reduced scale, within the regulated areas, until September 15.
jXICAN FRTIT FLY
Inspection of citrus groves in the lower Rio Crande Valley preparatory to the certification of the movement of the 131-32 crop was started September 2. During the month, 5,945 inspections were made. It was necessary to withhold 397 "Certificates of Grove Inspection" because of drop fruit or weedy condition of the orchards. It is customary for the growers to plant cover crops or to allow weeds to grow in the groves during the summer months. These are usually turned under in late August or early September, and the groves given an irrigation. In turning these cover crops under, some fruit is always knocked off the trees. In addition to the fruit on the ground from this source, the irrigations, together with heavy local showers during September, caused an excessive splitting and dropping of all varieties of oranges. In most cases the groves were immediately put in proper sanitary condition following the inspector's visit.
Following a conference of Federal and State officials with representatives of the citrus industry of the valley, Quarantine 64 was revised to
allow the shipment of fruit from the qurantined area at any time in September that it passed the State green fruit test. Previous to this revision no fruit was allowed to leave the valley until October 1. However, it was held that the effectiveness of the host-free period was at an end when the fruit was ripe enough to pass the acid sugar ratio and juice control tests of the State green fruit law, and that there .,as no entcmological justification for requiring the fruit to remain on the trees until October 1. Shipment of frmit did not begin under this ruling until about the (0thi of the month, after which the movement gained momentum resulting in the shipment of 71 cars of fruit by rail and approximately 12 ears by truck.
Three adult fruit flies vere caug,,ht in the traps in Matamoros during the month. Due to the lightness of the infestation and to tt fact that the trees were developing a coat of sooty mold, the spraying operations were discontinued in that city on the 15th. Anastrepha larvae were found in apples, gravas, oranges, peaches, pears, and quinces reaching the market in Matamoros. Peaches from Rarmos Arispe, Coahuila, were found to be most heavily infested. As a further clue to the dissemination of fruit flies in M1ataimoros, it was learned during the month from Sr. Gonzales, in whose yard adult flies were taken on Tuly 31st, that prior to that date he had been given several sanote fruits from a premise on Independencia Street and on opening these fruit they were found to be wormy and consequently were thrown out in the yard to the
Very few technical violations were encountered during the month.
Three packers were found to h:.ve cut fruit from goves without having first secured pD.,ission from the district inspectors, Considering the fact that many of the field foremen for the packing plants are new men and that the
competition for fruit a- tae opening of the season is always keen, it is gratifying th'tt no greater violation of this kind was encountered.
The i ,,portance of the collection by the inspectors of specinens for identification was stressed throughout the month with the result that 1,434
collections, totaling 8,561 specimens, were submitted by the inspectors. Of these 123 were species of Anastrcpha taken in Mfatwaoros. All collections in Texas were material other -hin fruit fly,
P. A. Hoidale, who for the past two aad a half years has administered the Mexican fruit fly project from the Atlanta and Orlando offices, returned to Harlingen September 18 to resume personal direction of the work.
During the 1931 crop season there will be 130 gins in the regulated
area, practically all of which are now in operation. This is a reduction of about 15 gins as compu: red to last season. Due to the present economic situation, the larger companies have closed some of their gins, especially were there was more than one in the locality. At the end of September, 19,846 bales had been ginned. This is just one-third of the total ginnings to the same date last season, and is due to a number of reasons. The cotton crop is quite a bit later this season than usual. Also, the rrice paid for picking, about 40 per hundred, does not seem to be attracting very many pickers; in fact, several districts are already reporting a shortage. As a result the owners and tenants are having to pick a large part of thJ crop themselves.
The slow ,inning season has naturally delayed the operation of the oil mills. There will be 17 mills to operate this season, about half of which have already beg-un. These mills have received 6,751 tons of seed, 3,412 tons of which have already been milled. Most of these mills are now equipped with the roller system for treating second-cut linters, 390 bales of which have been produced to date. The remaining mills are waiting until a sufficient supply of seed is on hand to insure steady operation.
Only two fumigation plants were in operation in September, these being
located in Tucson and Phoenix, Ariz. These two plants fumigated 2,231 bales of lint and 586 bales of linters, making total fumigations to date of 3,748 bales of lint and 1,727 bales of linters. The plant at Alpine, Tex., will
begin operations during the coming month. The plant at Fabens, Tex., will
also operate occasionally during the coming season. In addition to the two fumigation plants, there were four compresses in operation, at which 3,034 bales of lint and 105 bales of linters, produced in lightly infested areas, were compressed.
At the end of September there were 35 gin trash mac-hines in operation, 14 of which are located within the regulated area and 21 outside. A total of 29,469 1/3 bushels of trash was examined outside the regulated area in Texas, Arizona, California, Louisiana, and Mexico. The results were all negative. Within the regulated area, 650k bushels of trash were examined in Texas, 7,8073 bushels in Arizona, and 621- bushels in New Mexico, or a total of 9,079&3 bushels. In the Big Bend se -tion of Texas, 11,772 specimens of the pink bollworm have been found to date, or an average of 737 worms per bushel of trash examined. Two new findings were made during September. Trash from the Fort Quitman gin, in the lower part of Hudspeth County, yielded 8 specimens. The other finding was in the Salt River Valley of Arizona, at the Southern Avenue Gin, near Phoenix. A single specimen was taken from 4 bushels of trash on September 25. This trash was the accumulation of the ginning of 7 bales of cotton produced in
6 different fields. Trash had previously been examined from 5 of these fields, and since the finding additional trash has been examined from the fields with negative results. It will probably be necessary to await the second picking in order to determine definitely which of the fields is infested. Practically all of the machines are nowv able to secure sufficient trash for steady operation. The machines within the regulated area have thus far been able to examine all of the first cleaner trash.
The regular weekly infestation counts from 20 selected fields in
Maricopa County and 3 in Pinal County, Ariz., have been continued. Due to the increase in regulatory activities, it has been necessary to reduce the number of bolls examined in the Pinal County fields from 300 to 100 each. During September, 29,700 boils were examined with negative results. In addition, 1,000 bolls were examind from other fields which were infested last season, also with negative results. A rather thorough field inspection was made throughout the Parker Valley of Arizona. These inspections were made by gin trash machine men during the time when no gin trash was available for inspection. The gin trash machine in the Yuna Valley of Arizona developed mechanical trouble, und while this was being repaired the men devoted their tii.je to field inspection, 7T- man-days having been put in with negative results. Due to the local showers retarding ginning, the gin trash men in the Safford Valley of Arizona were also able to spend some time making field inspections, but no signs of the pink bollworm were discovered.
There was a considerable increase in the traffic at the 4 road stations during the month of September, 11,192 cars having been inspected and 173 confiscations made. The material confiscated consisted of 59 small lots of cottonseed and seed cotton, 8 cotton stalks with bolls attached, 252 pick sacks, 25 pillows, quilts, aid mattresses made of seed cotton, and 8 miscellaneous articles. On September 9, 1 specimen of the pink bollworm was intercepted at the Van Horn, Tex., road station. This specimen was found in
two lots of seed cotton taken from a pick sack which had been used at Presidio, Tex.
During the 1931 season, 3060 cars have been inspected, from which 258 confiscations have been made.
PRKEENTING SPREAD OF MOTHS
During the month of' September a considerable force of' men continued with the overhauling and placing of office furniture which had been transferred to Greenfield, Mass., from Melrose, Mass. Considerable shop equipment also was transferred to the new repair shop from Bound Brook, N. 5.
The construction of racks, shelving, and bins in the repair shop
progressed rapidly so that before the close of the month it was possible to commnence arranging and storing a large amount of material used regularly in the field and for the repair and maintenance of motor equipment and spraying apparatus. Several pieces of shop machinery were set up and put in operation. Some delay ras encountered in making' necessary repairs to motor vehicles brought in by the field supervisors, but field supplies were pranptly dispatched to the field personnel.
Thirteen Federal scouting crews were enga-ed throughout September in the examination of woodland in the towns of Chcsterf'iold, Crown Point, Essex, Ticonderoga, Westport, and leWills'ooro, N. Y. Three of' the above towns, namely, Essex, Westport, and Willsboro, were completed during the month.
The New York Conservation Department conducted scouting work in the
following Hudson River Valley towns: Austerlitz, Canaan, Copakes Hillsdale, and LaGrange, N. Y.,' the first two of these towns being completed during the month. No infestations were located by either the Federal or State crew; in any of the foregoing townms.
New York Conservation forces also scouted all of the nurseries in the known infested area centering around Roslyn, L. I., 'with negative results. Two infestations were found, however, in Nassau County--one in the town of North Hempstead and the other in the town of Oyster Bay. It is impossible at this time to determine the size or extent of either infestation as no clean-up work has yet been attempted. Six State crews are now working in
the northern portion of Oyster 13ay r'ownf, N. YO
State of Connecticut crews were working during September in the towns of Colebrook, East Hampton, Enfield, Portland, and Suffield. A small amount of work conducted in Wethersfield, Conn., by State men resulted in the discovery of a gipsy moth infestation consisting of some 4,000 egg masses.
P, 5This town lies just south of .Iartford, Conn., and all of the towns scouted by the State of Connecticut forces are east of the barrier zone.
In addition to the work conducted by the Federal forces in the Adirondack region during the month, a siaall force of men were engaged in the inspection of wooded arenas in the eastern section of Bridgewater Township, N. T. No signs of the gipsy moth were found.
During September the necessary inspection work in New Jersey increased somewhat. One hundred and thirty-six lots of nursery stock and forest products were inspected and certified for shipment. The inrterial inspected was
found to be free from the gipsy rotn.
On Long Island the inspection wo-k at the quarantined nurseries in
Nassau County also increased materially--so much so that it was necessary to transfer another man to Long Island to assist i i this work. One hundred and thirty-four lots of nursery stock were inspected and certified for shipment. No infestation of the gipsy roth was found.
Demand for articles which seize popular fancy often provides additional inspection work. From the very nature of the demand, spood is of prime importance as the producers of the finished articles desire to get them on the market while the call is at its height. Often such articles are produced or shipped by individuals who have never handled any materials the shipment of which is regulated by quarantine, and who, therefore, have little if any knowledge of the requirements. As it is recognized by the inspectors that almost anything may be shipped at any time, they have to be on the lookout for new shippers and now products so that the quarantine may be properly enforced, and that no uninspjcted and uncertified shipments are transported. The responsibility for maintaining vigilance cannot be placed entirely on the shoulders of the agents of transportation, though it can be said that they have proven many times thut they arc alert.
For the last year or so miniature gardens constructed in ornamental
dishes of various types, termed "dish gardens," have been exceedingly popular. These are made of pebbles overlaid on soil in which arc planted a few particular species of small plants. Small rough pieces of stone, small clay figures, bridges, and other structures are added, and the whole arranged artistically after the form of Japanese gardens. The plants used are all greenhouse grown
and are not in the classes for which inspection is required. Since the market for this ornamental indoor garden has developed, there has been a market for locally produced materials which can be used for their construction. A number of shipments of asbestos rock have been made out of the quarantined area to
florists, and, of course, inspection was required for this rock. Rock of this type, after it has been exposed to the elements for somS time, takes on the appearance of age and, besides, it has the necessary roughness to insure lack of formality; in addition, it can be broken into any desired size. In the preparation of the dish gardens too much drabness is to be avoided and, to relieve this, small touches of color are added. Asbestos rock takes color
readily and producers have been able to dye it with various colors.
Ordinarily one does not connect the practice of medicine with
quarantine enforcement, but, at least in a certain sense, the former is responsible for some activity on the part of the inspectors. Bark from certain species of trees and shrubs is used to a degree in the preparation of specific remedies, and as this bark is a natural product of the woods, it has to be inspected and certified.
Shipments of lumber from the quarantined area are usually confined
to carload or smaller shipments, but from tinae to time there are calls from seaport towns to inspect larger lots which are to be transported by water. The inspection of these barge loads is a considerable undertaking, as each barge has a capacity of from 25 to 30 carloads. Lumber moved in this way has to be inspected with all of the speed possible without the sacrificing of carefulness. 5hs loading of such barges is accomplished just as rapidly as possible. Loading crews are as numerous as can be accoitote.' ... --fd the inspection has to keep ahead of the loaders. For such rush joos the district inspectors have to request extra men, as it would be impossible for them to attend to this work unaided.
During the month of Sertember, 12 tourist camps in Massachusetts and 10 in Connecticut were examined for gipsy moth infestation. None was found infested in Connecticut, but in Massachusetts 9 of the 12 camp sites examined were infested with this insect. The inspectors notified the property owners in each instance and advised them to eradicate the infestation as soon as possible. Additional inspections will be made before the opening of the next tourist season.
Rattlesnakes infest certain restricted sections of the barrier zone,
particularly in the mountainous regions of southwestern Massachusetts, northwestern Connecticut, and adjoining areas in New York skirting the Hudson Valley. New York State scouting crews working in one portion of Copake Town, N. Y., early in September encountered a number of these snakes, killing from one to four nearly every day. It was, therefore, deemed advisable to temporarily transfer the men from this area so badly infested with these venomous snakes, but work will be resumed there as soon as cold weather sets in.
During September the greater part of the assembling cages distributed earlier in the barrier zone and towns to the east of it were taken in, so that very shortly it will be possible to report in greater detail the results of this work.
Seventy-five collections of miscellaneous insects, one of which was of satin moths, were made during the month and forwarded to the Girsy Toth Laboratory at Malrose Highlands, Mass. All of these collections were made by field men incidental to their regular work.
The street numbers of the various buildings occupied by the gipsy moth project in Greenfield, Mass., are as follows-.
Office 20 Sanderson Street. Repair Shop (Building No. 5), 38 Haywood Street. Storage Building No. 3, No. 33 Riddell Street. Storage Building No. 3A, No. 36 Riddell Street.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262 09245 0765