NEW S L E TTE R
*IA PTQUARANTINE AND) CONTROL ADIaNISTRATION I3 R
UNITED STATES DEATME=, OF AGRICULTUREW
Number 10 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) October, 1931l.
A public hearing to consider the advisability of extending the quarantine on account of the phony peach disease to the States of Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Louisianap Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas, was held September 15, 1931, before the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration and the advisory Federal Plant Quarantine Board, in Room 43, Natural History Building, UT. S. National Museiun, Washington, D. C.
The advisability of extending the quarantine -to include most of hese States was considered at a hearing held llovomber 14, 1930, but action was deferred. It was felt that the scouting had not yet bee-.,, extensive enough to fully develop the situation, and that the principal danger of spread of the
disease on peach and nectarine nursery stock would be the shipments from the areas of Georgia and Alabama already under quarantine.
The hearing on September 15, presided over by Mr. Lee A. Strong, was well attended. Among those present were plant quarantine officials of the States of Texas, Florida, South Carolina, Louisiana, Alabonia, Georgia, Tennessee, Virginia, Maryland,,and M4issouri; nurserymen from Georgia and Missouri; representatives of the American Association of Nurserymen Qnd the National Canners Association, and numerous representatives from the Bureau of Plant Industry, Bureau of Entomology, Extension Service, and the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration.
The subject of the possible extension of the quarantine as well as the alternative of abandoning the quarantine was fully discussed. It is expected that a decision will be reached shortly.
A. G. Galloway is in El Paso, Tex., constructing a plant for the sterilization of cottonseed for planting. The plant is designed for a capacity of about 20 tons of cottonseed per day, heating the seed to the sterilizing temperature, and holding it for a period of one hour at these temperatures.
Recent work on the round bale press in compressing cotton showed
that in the process of baling the cotton the lint was not compressed sufficiently to crush the seed contained in all parts of the bale, even though the bale had a final density of around 36 pounds per cubic foot as contrasted with an average of 22- pounds per cubic foot in the ordinary compressed flat bale after removal from the press. The crushing of the seed in the flat bale is due apparently to the extremely high pressures to whiich it is subjected while in the compress.
The work on the fumigation of cottonseed has been proceeding very
satisfactorily. A. C. Johnsou and assistants have-shown that considerably better results are obtained with a lower concentration of hydrocyanic acid when the vacuum chamber containing the cotton is evacuated and held at reduced pressure throughout the fumigation period than if air is mixed with the gas in the chamber immediately after the gas is introduced. In other words, the more nearly complete the vacuum during fumiigation, the more effective 'the fumigation.
FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES
R~ECE14T ETOMOLOGICAL INTERCPIONS OF INTEREST
Mediterranean fruit fly in pears.--Larvae of the Mediterranean fruit
fly (Ceratitis capitata) were intercepted at Norfolk, Va., in pears in stores from Spain. \Vhil; the- ]Vditerranean fruit fly has been found in pears from the Azores, Greece, Italy, the M.adeira Islands, and Portugal, this represents our first interception of this fruit fly in pears from Spain. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 2, February, 1931; No. 3, M1arch, 1931; No.4, April, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931; No. 7, July, 1931.)
Mediterranean fruit fly in peaches.-Living larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) were intercepted at Philadelphia in peaches in stores from Spain. The Mediterranean fruit fly was intercepted previously in this host from Spain in 1925i.
Larvae identified by specialists in the National Museum as the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens) were collected by K. H. Townsend and 0. C. Trot-
man in Chrysophyllum cainito (star apple), guava, red plum, and yellow plum in Sinaloa, Mexico, and in red plum, yellow plum, and sour orange in Nayarit, Mexico. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931; No. 7, July, 1931.)
Pupae of a weevil in baggage.--Pupae of Brachycerus albidentatus (Brachyceridae) were taken at New York in garlic in baggage from Italy. This weevil has also been intercepted in garlic from Spain and cipollino (Muscari comosum) from Morocco. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931.)
Weevil larvae in cabbage leaves.--Larvae of Ceutorhynchus quadridens
(Curculionidae) were found at Philadelphia boring in cabbage leaves in stores from France. This weevil was intercepted in turnip from Denmark in 1930. A. G. Boving, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that the larva usually mines in the stalk and leaves af turnips but has more exceptionally also been found in the upper part of the swollen root. It is common anid at times very injurious in Denmark. It is not a gall maker.
Scale insect on croton.--The coccid Lepidosaphes auriculata was intercepted at San Francisco on the stems and leaves of croton in ship's quarters
from Hawaii. This scale insect is not recorded from continental United States.
Live pink bollworms intercepted.--Live larvae of the pink bollworm
(Pectinophora goso lia) were intercepted at Atlanta, Ga., in a mail shipment of cotton from Tripoli, Republique Libanaise, Syria. (See also News Letter No. 1, January, 1931; No. 3, March, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931; No. 8, August, 1931; No. 9, September, 1931.)
Pink bollworm in okra.--The pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) was collected at Trujillo Alto, Porto Rico, in okra July 10, 1931. Loftin, McKinney, and Hanson, in U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin 918, list the following hosts of the pink bollworm: Cotton, Hibiscus, milo (Thespesia populnea), Gossypium tomentosimn, hanbuk (Abutilon sp.), mallow (Malva sp.), bamia or okra (Hibiscus e--d'-ntus), teel or hemp (H. cannabinus),and hollyhock (Althaea rosea).
Chrysomelid from Guatemala.--Diphaulaca aulica (01iv.) var. (Chrysomelidae) was intercepted at Mobile, Ala., on banana debris in cargo from Guatemala. H. S. Barber, of the Bureau of Entomology, states that this species is reported to be a serious enemy of beans in tropical America.
Siamese grain beetle from China.--The Siamese grain beetle Lophocateres pusillus (Klug.) was found at Philadelphia in paddy rice in cargo from China. According to Back and Cotton (Farmers' Bul. 1260), this ostomid first appeared in this country in exhibits of rice and cereals from Siam, Liberia, and Ceylon at the World's Colurbian Exposition. They further state that it is likely to be found in seaport towns and in southern States, but as yet it is not abundant or widespread.
New Chrysomelid for National Museum collection.--Adults of the chrysomelid Colaspis flavipes (Fab.) were found by Max Kisliuk, Jr., on wild solanaceous plants at Liguanea near Kingston, Jamaica. H. S. Barber reports that this species is new to the National Museum collection.
Bean pod borer from Dutch Guiana.--Larvae of the bean pod borer(Maruca testulalis) were found at New Orleans in string beans in stores from Dutch Guiana. This is the first interception of the bean pod borer from Dutch Guiana by inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration. (See also News Letter No. 2, February, 1931; No. 5, May, 1931; No. 6, June, 1931; No. 9, September, 1931.)
Citrus blackfly from Cuba.--Eggs, larvae, pupae (severe), and a few adults of the citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi) were intercepted at Jacksonville, Fla., on orange leaves received by parcel post from Cuba. G. B. Merrill, of the State Plant Board of Florida, states that this is the most severe infestation of the citrus blackfly which has come through the Gainesville, Fla., office. (See also News Letter No. 4, April, 1931.)
Mealybug from China.--Pseudococcus citriculus Green (Coccidae) was
taken at Washington, D. C., on citrus plants received by express from Canton, China. Previously this mealybug was intercepted in 1929 at Washington, D. C., on pomelo plants from Java. The following coccids were also found on the citrus plants from China: Lepidosaphes gloverii, Parlatoria pergandii, Parlatoria theae, and Pseudococcus citri.
RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST
Phoma alliicola was intercepted at New York on garlic bulbs in cargo from Italy. Apparently this disease has not been reported from this country and has not previously been intercepted.
Macrophoma bakeri was intercepted at Seattle on Dracaena plants from Italy carried as ships' furnishings. This is the first interception of this disease, which Stevenson's manual lists as occurring in Brazil only.
Coleus is the latest addition to the list of hosts on which Aphelenchus avenae has been intercepted. This interception was made at Philadelphia on a plant in ships' furnishings.
Common diseases intercepted.--Some of the rather common diseases are
seldom intercepted. Recent examples are Puccinia coronata intercepted on oats at New York in baggage from Germany, and Ustilago zeae intercepted in green corn on the cob at New York in shins' stores from Colombia. This is apparently the first interception of P. coronata since 1924, and U. zeae has been intercepted very few times in recent years. Owing to the variability of different strains of some rusts and smuts new forms of some of these common species may be introduced which would prove to be as destructive as new species.
Puccinia porri, a rust intercepted at New York on garlic in a cargo
from Italy, is reported in U. S. D. A. Bul. 1366 as occurring in Connecticut only, on onions and chives, although Stevenson's manual lists it from several foreign countries and on numerous hosts.
Urocystis colchici, a smut not known to occur in this country, was
intercepted at the Inspection House in Washington on Colchicums in cargo fran Holland. Stevenson's manual lists the fungus as attacking the leaves but it was found on bulbs in this case.
Nematosis of yams.--Attention is called to a short article on "A Nematosis of Yams caused by a new species of Hoplolaimus," by Dr. G. Steiner, on page 121 of The Plant Disease Reporter for September 1 (vol. XV No. 11), based on an interception made at Philadelphia.
FOREIGN PLANT QU.ARJUTINE STJvIARIES
MEXIGO,--The Mexican Resolution of June 22, 1931, amends Exterior
Quarantine No. 5 (See page 6 of circular PQCA-284) by excluding Florida from the list of places affected by that quarantine.
IMXICO.--The Presidential Decree of July 23, 1931, revokes that of March 4, 1931, which imposed an absolute Exterior quarantine against wheat (Exterior Quarantine No. 8, page 7 of PQCA-284). The Resolution of July 30, 1931, prescribes that intending L exican importers of wheat shall apply in advance for permits and it furnishes a list of the countries in which flag
smut and take-all occur.
The above information will be published in detail as Supplements 4 and
5 to PQCA-284.
COLOMBIA.--The Decree of July 1, 1931, prescribes that every shipment of plants, bulbs, and seeds offered for entry into that country shall be accompanied by an inspection certificate issued by competent authority of the country of origin visaed by a Colombian consul. This decree is effective 180 days after July 17, 1931.
CANADA.--Canadian Regulation No. 6 (Foreign) 1st Revision, effective July 21, 1931, prohibits the importation into Canada from Europe of the Austrian pine, Pinus nigra; Swiss mountain pine, P. mugho; and the Scotch pine, P. silvestris; and their horticultural varieties, on account of the European pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia (Evetria) buoliana.
CANADA.--Regulation No. 10 (Foreign) 6th Revision, excludes Vermont
from the list of States quarantined against the shipment to Canada of certain cut flowers, straw, and vegetables on account of the European corn borer.
Copies of the Canadian Regulations may be obtained from the Secretary, Destructive Insect and Pest Act Advisory Board, Ottawa.
Southern ports now opened to Cuban citrus fruits.--Quarantine No. 49, effective April 1, l21, was promulgated to prevent the introduction of the citrus black fly into the Lnited States. This quarantine was superseded by the present Fruit and Vegetable Quarantine No. b6, effective November 1, 1923, which, among other restrictions, limited the entry of Cuban
citrus fruits, other than lemons and sour lines, to the port of New York and such other ports as may be designated in the permits. After no less than five surveys had been made in Cuba and the Isle of Pines, and as a result of the experience gained with shipments of grapefruit from those sources, it was deemed that such fruits might, with negligible risk, be permitted entry in sealed refrigerator cars through the port of Key West, Fla., for transit in bond to points north of, and including, Baltimore, Cincinnati, and St. Louis. Such movement was authorized September 17, 1924, and announced in the press September 23, 1924. The privilege of routing such fruits also to Chioago wa.S later extended, and in January, 1929, permission was granted similarly to route those fruits through the port of New Orleans.
It is now believed practicable to permit the entry of Cuban citrus fruits, in addition to lemons and sour limes, at Key West and NTcw Orleans
without undue pest risk for the followingr reasons:
(1) All citrus fruits shipped fro-M Cuba and the Isle of Pines to the
United States now come in stand:Ird pack free from leaves and other plant parts,
thus minimizing the risk of conveying the citrus black fly to the United States.
(2) During the period of over 7 years that shipments of Cuban citrus fruits have been imported into the United States, no destructive pests have been found in them as a result of careful inspection.
(3) A more complete understanding of the post situation in Cuba and the Isle of Pines makes it apparent to the Administration that citrus fruits from those islands may be admitted through southern ports subject to inspection at those ports without subjecting the domestic cultures to undue pest risk.
Therefore permits will be issued, upon application, for the importation of citrus fruits from Cuba and the Isle of Pines, not only through Key West and New Orlea.s, but also through any other Southern port where a plant quarantine inspector is stationed, under the conditions which have prevailed at the port of New York.
MOIRE E.ECTIVE USE OF FI1MD INSPECTION DATA
The Division of Forein Plant Quarantines is endeavoring to coordinate its work more closely with that of the Division of Domestic Plant Quarantines and of the State inspectors concerned with respect to the action to be taken as a result of the pest data assembled in the course of the field inspection of special permit material growing under agreement. Immediately upon receipt
of the determinations of a specimen submitted the Technical Information Section now classifies the finding into one of three groups, according to whether the pest is (a) Sufficiently important economically to merit special measures and sanitary precautions; (b) Of some economic importance but, from the foreign quarantine viewpoint, does not require special attention; (c) Of trivial importance, saprophytic, etc., requiring no further considerat ion.
Upon receipt of this information the Special Permit Section promptly drafts notation to the permittee of findings in classes (a) and (b), as well as to the State inspector concerned, regardless of whether the host material is eligible for release. In the event the ost is one covered by a domestic quarantine, the Division of Domestic Plant Quarantines is also adv* ed.
As a result of this action it is believed that the permittee will be better able to safeguard his plantings, not only against newly introduced pests but against insects and plant diseases that are already established in this country. The State inspectors concerned will have had information presented to them which will enable them to take any further action that
may be required by the quarantines of the respective States or the regulations issued by their offices. Likewise the Division of Domestic Plant Quarantines will have been similarly advised with respect to pests in which that office is interested.
Based on the advice of the Department specialists, necessary action will be taken more promptly on cases of important pests found that are new to this country.
MR. SASSCER VISITS SOUTHERN PORTS
During the period September 4--7, E. R. Sasscer made inspection
visits to the ports of mobile, Ala., Gulfport, Miss., and Pensacola, Fla., and a2so took in Jacksonville to discuss matters of port inspection with Dr. J. H. Ilontgomery, of the Florida Plant Board.
W. A. MC CUBIIN RPLTUhNS FROM TIHE VEST COAST
W. A. McCubbin returned August 29 from a six-weeks tour of middlewest and western points, inspecting on the way special permit material in Ohio, Nebraska, and Colorado, looking for Lima bean scab in southern California, and gathering information on rose chlorosis, the buckskin disease of cherry, and on the bulb disease situation in the Pacific Coast States. He also paid visits to the ports of Portland, Oreg., and Seattle, Bellingham, and Blaine, Wash.
NEW YORK FINDS FRUIT FLY IN BAGGAGE
A package of assorted fruits was intercepted at New York in passenger's baggage from France. The material was badly decayed so that it was impossible to determine the percentage of infestation. However, 32 living larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly were taken from 10 figs. The exact origin of the fruit could not be determined but it is safe to assume that it originated in one of the countries bordering on the Mediterranean Sea.
BULB FLY FOTJND IN TINY BULB
The Washington inspection house reports an interesting discovery by D. P. Limber of a larva of the narcissus fly (Elerodon equestris) in a small narcissus bulb (Narcissus bulbocodium conspicuus) riot more than 2 cm. in total length. This larva was found in a shipment arriving September 5, 1931, from Barr and Sons, Covent Garden, London, England. The occurrence of larvae in such small bulbs is so unusual that photographs have been made of the specimon. The finding also emphasizes the need of treatment or very close inspection for bulbs of small size.
CAIAL ZONE FRUIT IN COASTWISE VESSMLS
In the News Letter of September 1, comrment was made on the occurrence of Canal Zone fruit in coastwise vessels and a typical case was cited from Philadelphia. Under date of August 25, C. E. Prince writes from Baltimore:
"The importance of boarding vessels of domestic registry passing through the Canal Zone as well as those classes d as coastwise was indicated recently at this port. The Charles R. McCormick arrived Tuly 23 from Raymond, Wash., via Canal Zone, San Juan, Philadelphia, and New York. Contraband discovered and destroyed by W. A. Ranck consisted of 26 mangoes from Panama and 2 pounds of sweetpotatoes from Porto Rico carried in the ice box of this ship."
BULB SbUGGLERS PAY HEAVY FINES
Persistent attempts to smuggle anemone bulbs brought from Holland into Canada and carried in concealment across the border in the neighborhood of Port Huron, Ontario, have recently come to a close with confessions from the two firms implicated acccnpanied by acceptance of a fine of 65,000 in each case.
For several years beginning in 1924, the illegal entry of bulbs was made by one of these firis, usually in containers with a top layer of potatoes or onions, or thc:y wore sent in by truck, the materials being entered and the duty paid !-n them as potatoes or onions. Another method adopted was to store the bulbs in a concealed compartment in an ordinary auto. Later the other firm undertook to bring in its own stock and made arrangements through outside persons to have the bulbs delivered across the border. However, the
arrangements miscarried and a shior-ent of 50,000 bulbs was intercepted by a
customs official as it was being landed by a rum runner. The boat was confiscated, and complaints have been filed against several of those implicated.
This case is an outstanding exarmle of the persistence which the
customs officials display in patiently pursuing their investigations until suspicion is transformed into cold legal evidence. On the other side of the picture the case well illustrates the difficulty involved in entirely preventing illegal entry of plant products, especially at border points where the traffic is large and a considerable proportion of it is local.
INSPECTORS TAK YTOMOLOGY COURSE
Convinced that further knowledge of Entomology would make all of them more efficient and aid them materially in dealing with the various problems arising in their work, members of the San Diego, Calif., County Commissioner's Office, the local State port inspection force, and the Federal port inspectors at San Ysidro, got together a year ago and formed
a class in Entomology. The San Diego branch of the State University made provision for instruction by Prof. 2. D. Harwood, and through the good offices of Ir. Paul Kline, Principal of tne San Diego night schools, space was provided by the School Board in the local high school building. The course covered one semester, and involved 2- hours -twice a week from September 15 to F.ebruary 15. The class had an average attendance of 18 throughout this period. The hours were from 7 to 9:30 p. m., and some of the men drove in from 40 miles away to attend these classes. Beyond a nominal fee the whole course was without cost to the men, being financed by the good will of the city schools.
A second semester's :,ork is being planned for the coming winter season and after that the group expects to take up Plant Pathology aid Botany.
JUST SNIFFING AROUTD
How would one determine whether or not household goods moving in a closed barrel were packed in straw, assuming the straw to be a forbidden material? Break open the barrel? That is effective,no doubt, but crude compared to the method used by L. E. Bozarth, State inspector and collaborator at Portland, Oreg. A screwdriver pries the staves apart to make a
crack, and with his nose to this opening he whacks the barrel smartly with any handy object. A couple of sniffs of the puff of air driven out of the crack tells him at once if there is straw, paocr, or excelsior inside by its characteristic odor. Tima., 10 seconds, and the barrel is undamaged.
COTMUTE ITT BADGES
A city detective in Buffalo on arresting a man for some offense
recently found in his car n P. Q. C. A. badge. The- badge was without the
attachment pin and the numbers stamped on it were not enameled. The badge was sent in to W.1ashington through Mr. Owrey, and the matter is being taken up with the manufacturers.
=EICAN BORDER PORTS CLOSED AT NIGHT
Effective August 15, the Treasury Department made several changes
in the closing hours of certain ports of entry in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. The ports of Brownsville, EaCle Pass, Del Rio, Laredo, and Hidalgp, which for the past several months Lave *een open 24 hours per day, were closed between th3 hours of 9 -n. in. and 7 a. m. The ports of Roma, Thayer, and Zapata, which had previously been open from 8 a. m. to 12 midnight, were also placed on the same schedule.
WILMINGTON, N. C.,OFFICE CLOSED
The port inspection office Vt W'ilmington, N. C., was closed September 9, 1931. R. W. Woodbury, who was in charge at that port has been transferred to the port of New York. The occasional inspection needs at Wilmington will be taken care of by G. Gay, of the Charleston, S. C., office.
PORT INSPECTION TRANSFERS
On September 6, George M. Jones was transferred from Zapata, Tex., to be in charge at Roma, Tex., and on September 8, R. B. Haller was transferred from Roma to Brownsville, Tex.
L. M. Scott, after spending July and August on special survey assignment along the Canadian border ports, finds that the volume of imports at these ports will not justify his supervision during the winter months. He will, therefore, make his headquarters in Now York for the present.
L. L. Spessard, of the Washington inspection house staff, was assigned to Salisbury, Md., on August 29, to spend about two weeks in supervision of narcissus bulb treatment. 11. C. Rich, of the Norfolk, Va., station, has been at Nuttall, Va., on this same mission.
J. M. R. Adams, of the Washington office, returned August 9 from a six-weeks inspection trip, covering import materials under special permit in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Kentucky. He notes that there is noticeable improvement in the labeling and segregating of the plants in these States. In Ohio there has been an unusual development of black thrips (Thrips gladioli) on gladiolus, and many cases of sunseald were seen. The fungus disease (Fusarium salicis) discovered on taburnum vossi in Ohio in 1930 was again present on these plants and appeared to be so damaging that the destruction of the plants is being recomended.
DOMESTIC PLANT QTJAiATI'IIT ES
Transit inspection activities for the enforcement of domestic plant quarantines were reinstituted at St. Louis on September 1, by 0. T. Yoder. Mr. Yoder also carries on foreign plant quarantine work at that station, and inspection was resumed thus early in the season due. to the expected arrival of shipments of citrus fruits from the West Indies, consigned to various points in the Central Wcst.
The regular fall inspections at railway terminals are also being resumed at Omaha by F. 11. Rose, at Kansas City by Y. T. Scott, and at St. Paul by G. W. Nelson. The forces at New York and Chicago, where transit inspection is carried on the year round, ar2 also being strengthened to meet the increased shipping of nursery stock during the fall season.
PHOITY PEACH DISEASE
The inspection of the environs of peach growing nurseries located in Texas and Arkansas has been continued. With the completion of the present work, probably by October 10, all nurseries in the infected States known to be growing peach stock will have been inspected for the phony peach disease. During the past two months inspections have been made of 2 nurseries in Mississippi, 2 in Louisiana, 17 in Texas, and 8 in Arkansas. Infections of the phony peach disease were found within one mile of the peach plantings of 2 nurseries in Mississippi, 2 in Louisiana, and 1 in Texas.
It is desired to *orrect a statement made in the September issue that phony peach disease infection had been found in Jackson County, Ill. It was intended to state that the diseased trees were found in Jasper County, Ill., the only county in that State in which the disease has so far been known to occur.
VWHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST
White-pine blister rust was discovered in three counties in Ohio and one county in Iowa as a result of the scouting done in August by this Administration, the Bureau of Plant Industry, and the State inspectors of the
States concerned. The recent discovery of the rust in Virginia and West Virginia and new infection centers in 1aryland are also announced by the Bureau of Plant Industry. The affected coLnties in Ohio were Fulton County, in the northwestern part of the State, ald Geauga and Ashtabula Counties, in the northeastern corner of the State. A species of wild gooseberry (Grossularia cynosbati) was responsible for the presence of the rust in Fulton County, European black currants (Ribes nigrum) bore the disease in Geauga County,
while both the above species wore found diseased inAh31abula Coiuty. The Iowa infection was found on white pines, at Ames, in Story County. The specimens are considered by the Division of Blister Rust Control, Bureau of Plant Industry, as Cronartium ribicola, and the identifications have been confirmed
by the Division of Forest Pathology of that Bureau in the case of all specimens which have been so far examined by the latter Division.
The States of Illinois and Indiana were also scouted but no blister rust infection was found. Scouting in these four States was confined to currant and gooseberry bushes except in the case of State forest plantings in Illinois and Indiana where the white pines were also examined for the presence of the disease. On account of the extreme drought in Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa, which caused defoliation or drying out of the Ribes leaves, it was not a favorable year for scouting in those States.
The Virginia infections were found in Frederick County, the northernmost county in the State, and in Thornton Gap, Rappahannock County, 8 miles east of Luray. In West Virginia the rust was discovered in Tucker and Randolph Counties. The infections in these two States were all found on a species of wild gooseberry (Ribes rotundifolium).
Since the publication of the September issue of the "Ters Letter, in
which the discovery of the blister rust in Maryland was announced, two additional infection centers have been located in Vashington County, and six
centers in Allegany County. The Washington County infections were found on R. rotundifolium and white pine. In Allegany County four of the infections were found only on the European black currant, one was on the cultivated red currant and the black currant, while: the sixth infection -;.as on R. cynosbati.
L. W. Hodgkins, of Taunton, Mass., was one of the discoverers of the rust in Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland. 1r. Hodgkins was formerly a member of the transit inspection force of this Administration during nursery stock shipping seasons, and vas also one of the first members of the transit inspection force -.hen the work was initiated undor the Bureau of Plant Industry some ten years ago.
EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND JAPAINESE BEETLE
General Project No-as
A conference with nurserymen on Japanese betle quarantine matters, held in the Administration offices at Washington on August 11, was attended by Messrs. Strong, Hoyt, and Worthley. For the nursery tradesmen there -,ere present Messrs. L. C. Bobbink, Carl Flemer, and William Flemer, jr., of N;.'
Jersey; Eugene Berner, R. T. Brown, and E. H. Costich, of New York, and J'. C. Clark and 5. HI. Humphries, of Pennsylvania. Prof. T. 1. Headlee, New Jersey State Entomologist, also was in attendance. The principal topics under discussion related to changes in dates for beginning of shipping season from "leaded" areas and for concluding~ soil treatments, proposals having been advanced for setting the former forward from October 1 to September 1, and for advancing the latter from August 1 to July 1. Injury to plants was represented as due to lead arsenate in the soil and resulting from applications of carbon disulfide emulsion. Apparatus intended to introduce the last named chemical into the soil about plants was explained to the nurserymen by Dr. Hawkins. From Washington, Mr. Worthley went to College Park, hid., for interviews concerning beetle quarantine matters involving Federal and State cooperation, with Dr. Symons and Prof. Cory, respectively Maryland Director of Extension Service and Entanologist. On the 19th, at Bridgeton, N. I., Mr'. Worthley attended the convention of the Eastern Association of Nurserymen, speaking before an evening session, Proceeding directly from Bridgeton to Cincinnati, Ohio, the project leader was joined there on the morning of the 21st by Mr. Strong and Mr. Hoyt. The two days following were devoted to observation of field work in the western European corn borer control area, including a visit to the Springfield headquarters. After 11r. Strong's return to Washington from Fort Wiayne, Ind*, at the end of the week, Mr. Hoyt and 11r, Worthley visited the Michigan City Station, then went on to Toledo, whence the former left for Wlashington early in the following week. Thereafter 11r. Worthley visited the Bureaus of Entomology and Agricultural Engineering farm at Maumnee. Heaviest infestation of the borer observed on the trip was in I .Wood County, Ohio, which later may do considerable damage to the current crop of corn. At several Ohio and Pennsylvania points Mr. Worthley studied recently discovered infestations of the Japanese beetle. Arrival again in South Norwalk of the project leader was not until the 27th,
Effective Aug;ust 17, 1931, Mr. S. S. Grossman became associated with
the E~uropean corn borer and Japanese beetle project, in the capacity of First Assistant to M1 r. Worthley, in charge. Transferred to this work from the activities of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration dealing with control and prevention of spread of gipsy and brown-tail moths, M1"r. Grossman has had extensive experience both in the regulatory and research fields. For the past four or five years 1.r. Grossman has been engaged as First Assistant to Mr?. Burgess, in charge of gipsy and brown-tail moth duties. Before then from 1913 the former was at the head of the parasite laboratory of the moths project, in that connection having :;rc.e several trips to Europe for study and collection purposes. Earlier in his association with the Department, Mr. Grossman spent a year or two in Florida on research in respect to the citrus white fly. Returning to college thereafter for some post-graduate work, he later went to Porto Rico for an extended stay under the auspices of the Insular government's department of agriculture. After he ha ) familiarized himself with the more important phases of European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine enforcement, in the South Norwalk headquarters, Mr. Grossman will undertake similar study of the field operations.
Weekly payment, by a temporary special disbursing agent stationed at the South Norwalk headquarters, of over 2t300 per diem scouts, road inspectors, farm products inspectors, and other inspectors engaged in quarantine and control operations, requires the employment of eight temporarily appointed clerks in addition to the regular personnel of the business administration division. The enlarged personnel of the combined European corn borer and .Tapanese beetle projects is employed only at the peak of the summer's activities, at which time they are scattered throughout the States of' Connerticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Tersey, 1N.ew York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, Wejst Virgini.a, and Wisconsin, At tho conclusion of the seasonal activities the combined personnel drops to approximately 300 employees. Considering the large number of employees paid weekly, this phase of' work is performed expeditiously and to the satisfaction of the men in the field.
Survey of the New England situation with respect to the plans for cooperative extension and educational work on the corn borer made by Prof. C.O. Reed, collaborator, was completed in the early part of August. Contacts were had by Prof. Reed with the agricultural colleges and experiment stations in most of the Northeastern States, during which he observed the present set-up of the agricultural engineering departments and their facilities for demonstrating mechanical control measures. While the work was found to be further advanced in Connecticut and Massachusuotts than elsewhere, distinct progress has been achieved in the other States during the past year. Exhibits and demonstrations of' control machinery, conducted by the Adinistration and the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering, working with the State and sounity agencies, some of which 11r. Reed attended, were reported by him as evidencing greatly increased interest in corn borer control on the part of' many farmers.
Study of isolated infestations discovered this season, both of' the
European coin borcr and of the Tapanese beetle, with a view to intensive applications of eradication measures, was initiated during August. Considerable attention was given to this matter by Air. Wortnley, in his western trip, and Mr. CrossmaA also went to Springfield late in the month for conference with Mr. Brewer on special phases of the work as it will apply to corn borer findings. A little later, Mr. Stockwell is to conduct a field-survey of the situation, with particular reference to the beetle infestations far removed
from the areas now under regulation. 'Vbanvihile, the South N~orwa2lk offices have had extensive correspondence on the subject with State authorities in the territories affected. In general, the policy will require the States to furnish materials and labor for the undertaking, the Admin',stration assigning men from its staff to supervise the effort.
Entomologists visiting B~oston who visit Faneuil Hall Market, "The
Cradle of Liberty," located at Dock Square, find it of interest to view the grasshopper weather vane. This weather vane was fashioned by hand from stout copper by Deacon Shem Drowne, in 1742, was knoe -ked down in the Boston
earthquake of 1755, in the fire of 1761, and again by accident in 1889.
Although often repaired it is still preserved as on the original building. An excellent view of the gilded grasshopper weather vane may be obtained from the Administration office at No. 12 South Yarket Street, opposite Faneuil Hall Market. It is not definitely known why a grasshopper was chosen for a weather vane over a public market, unless the good deacon had in mind the Biblical stories of the plagues of Egypt; or he may have borrowed the idea from the Royal Exchange, London, England, which contained the sign of the grasshopper at various prominent places.
Specialized Coz'n Borer Activities
Ear corn from the areas under quarantine for the borer this year for the first time may be exhibited at the International Grain and Hay Show in Chicago, which is put on as a department of the International Live Stock Exposition. In this form, however, the corn must be heat-treated by government agencies, before it is shipped to Chicago. Indiana growers are to have the treatment applied at Auburn by the State Department of Conservation, under arrangements perfected by the Indiana Corn Gro7ers Association, and corn from that State should be delivered to P. T. ULinon, Auburn. Exhibitors from other States may arrange for corn to be treated at western area corn borer control headquarters in Springfield, Ohio. Grain for the purpose should be shipped to E. G. Brewer, in charge, whose address is Warder Street, Springfield. Corn for treatment must reach Auburn or Springfield by November 10, and transmission from these points to Chicago will be handled by 1r. Ulmon or 'Mr. Brewer. All initial shipments should be prepaid. The Grain and Hay Show will be rim from November 28 to December 5.
A news story appearing in the United States Daily and other publications during the early part of August,cver a Springfield, Ill., date line, purported to detail the circumstances concerning the alleged "coming to life" of a specimen of the European corn borer after it had been in a sealed container for more than a year. Statements were made that the borer had emerged from a pupa supposed to be dead, contained in an exhibition case prepared by corn borer officials of the Department for display in the offices at Springfield of State Director of Agriculture Pearson. In view of the implication that employees of the Administration had been careless in failing to assure themselves that no life remained in the specimens prepared for exhibit purposes, an investigation was instituted. Through P. A. Glenn, Chief Plant Inspector of the Illinois Department of Agriculture, it was ascertained that the facts had not been correctly recited in the article.
Plans were made in August for the second annual Eu:-opean corn baXor conference and field day at the Berkley, i Mass., demonstration farm of the United States Department of Agriculture. This year the event will take place on September 17, nearly a month earlier than in 1930. Berkley farm, acquired late in 1929, is operated to facilitate the concentration at one point along the Atlantic seaboard of the several forces engaged in corn borer investigation and control. It is located in Bristol County, Mass., six miles from Fall River and four from Taunton. Soil conditions on the property are fairly
typical of those generally found in New England. In the work here the Administration has the cooperation of the Bureaus of Entomology and Agricultural Engineering. Invitations to the September 17 meeting have been extended to a number of State plant pest officials as well as to agricultural college and experiment station men interested in corn borer problems.
While most persons satisfied with the performance of any government agency refrain from expressions to that effect, leaving the writing of letters to the individuals who are displeased in some manner and consequently want to go on record in protests, it is not an altogether unusual thing for the Administration's conduct of the European corn borer and Japanese beetle quarantine enforcement to be specifically commended by observers of the field work. A fairly typical communication in point was addressed to the Department by George Balla, of 3rooklyn, N. Y., on July 30, 1931, containing these commiendatory phrases: "I want to add a word of coimendation for the men statione-d at .............. These fellows in their hunt for the
corn borer are thorough, patient workers and courteous in their search of cars passing thrci;h. It's a hard job, and one that tries the inspectors stopping so many hundred cars in the course of a day, in the hot sun."
Removal from the area under quarantine on account of the European
corn borer of the northeastern New lorsey section, and location of the vehicle inspection stations at the Hudson Ri-:er Ferries and the Holland Tunnel, greatly increased the amount of inspection and certification in New York City. Flowers for vessels of steamship lines leaving from docks on the New Jersey shore, formerly not requiring certification, now have to be inspected and certified. Commuters to New York from the New Jersey territory previously under
regulation applied in large numbers for "Honor system" windshield stickers after the lines were moved. Valued cooperation in setting up and operating the new inspection stations was received from the Port of New York authorities. An average of 1,200 cars per hour, and a maximum of 2,500, passed the station at the Holland Tunnel.
Reports from corn growers and corn consumers in respect to damage by the borer to indicate an increasing appreciation of the menace to crops. In Cattaraugus County, N. Y., where the current year's infestation is understood
to be unusually heavy, farmers who previously were indifferent to clean-up as a means of control now are said to be akin& plans for unified community effort in that direction. Visitors to some of the sexr1.er resorts in Ohio,
along the south shore of Lake Erie, are knwn to have ,,(mpained of their inability to obt7nn usinfested sweet corn in the markets or at public eating places. Corn canneries in some sections of western H.ew York are reported in local newspapers as reducing the prices paid for sweet corn on account of the extent to which the supplies offered them had been injured by the borer.
An exhibit truck displaying material which shows the life cycles of the European corn bo er, specimens of infested plants, and photographs of
fields where crops have been damaged by the pest, had its initial presentation to the public at Durham, N. H., on August 13 and 14, in connection with
the Farmers' Week exer-ises of the State Agricultural College. A miniature
field of torn stubble, ranging from 2 to 12 inches high, was of particular interest to farmers who saw the truck, since it showed the numbers of borers to be found in stubble of different heights, under average conditions
as to date of cutting, weather at the time, and stage of maturity of crop. The truck is to have further exhibitions at the demonstrations of borer control machinery in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, during September.
Demonstration of corn borer control machinery on the annual field day of the Connecticut Agricultural Exporiment Station, August 19, gave special attention to the attaclnents and implements for cutting stalks at the ground surface and for plowing under to afford complete coverage of all the crop remnants. The field day exercises were conducted on the M,,orunt Carmel farm of the Connecticut Station, seven miles north of New Haven. Organizations which took nart included the Connecticut Pomological Society and
the Connecticut Vegetable Growers Association. Representatives of the Adrainistration and of the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering were present to direct the demonstration of borer control devices.
Governor Joseph P. Ely, of Mlassachusetts, has driven through a vehicle inspection station in the western part of the State almost every Sunday this summer and has courteously permitted examination of his motor car. United States Senator Royal S. Copeland, of New York, and members of his family, drive regularly on a thoroughfare where a station is located and none of them ever interpose objections to inspection. iVany other high of-ficials, Federal and State, have similarly shovm their desire to be helpful
to the men engaged in the effort to enforce the corn borer quarantine.
Infestation sur-vey of growing corn, conducted by the Administration in cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology, is showing a decided increase in intensity over last year in certain parts of the western area of oorn borer activities. M1onroe and Wayne Counties, Mlch., Chautauqua, Jefferson, and Monroe Counties, IT. Y., and Erie, Putnam, and 1,7ood Counties, Ohio, are included in the territory from which reports have been received. Exceptionally heavy infestations were found in Jefferson and Monroe Counties, N. Y.
An amendment to the European corn borer quarantine regulations, approved by the Acting Secretary of Agriculture on August 14 and effective August 15, modified the requirements in two important respects. Corn and other products under restriction hereafter may be shipped from one infested section to another, on through bill of lading. Movement also is authorized of trucks and other road vehicles, tuider permit and seal, from one regulated
area to another which pass over free territory en route.
During the ronth of August carload lots of miscellaneous vegetables
were shipped from Boston to Chicago, Philadelphia, altimore, and ashinoton, D. C. Lima beans requiring inspection on account of the European corn borer were included in these shipments. Large wholesale consignments of gladioli
consigned to Cleveland, Ohio, were also inspected by the Boston officerof the Administration.
The first of the European corn borer highway stations for vehicle
inspection to be discontinued this season were ones located in the northern Michigan section of the western area. These were withdrawn on August 31. Interceptions at this time were of such a nature as to indicate little further danger of spread of infestation through these avenues.
Specimens from interceptions at highway stations for inspection of vehicles in the western corn borer area have a wider range of origin this season than usual, according to reports from nearly all the quarantine line
posts in Ohio and Indiana. Two specimens were found in six ears of corn moving from Cleveland, Ohio, to Los Angeles, Calif.
Exclusive or Combination Japanese Beetle Work
Ground upon which will be erected a chemical laboratory has been
staked out at the Ncw Jersey district headquarters at Uiite Horse. Funds from the New Jersey cooperative Japanese beetle appropriation will be used
for the construction of the building. After completion, the laboratory will house the project's analytical work performed in determining the lead arsenate content of previously treated nursery plots. Analyses of composite soil samples as a basis for the determination of the requisite quantity of soil insecticide necessary to bring the lead arsenate content to the specified 1,500 pounds per acre were first authorized durinin the spring of the present year. Since the work was in an experimental stage, approval was secured for
its performance in cooperation with the Japanese beetle research laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology at Moorestown, q. J. The chemical treating division of this project gathered the representative samples of treated soil by means of specially constructed soil samplers. The samples were then turned over to seven chemists temporarily appointed by the Administration, but working under the supervision of the insecticide division of the research laboratory. On the basis of this year's experience in developing analytical apparatus, organizing the routine, and determining tecchnique, it is now possible to carry on the work wholly as one of this project's enterprises. It is anticipated that Dr. Hawkins, of the Administration's technological division, will assist in the organization of this unit and further perfect the technique
of the analyses.
For the first time since the Jananese beetle has spread to the blueberry sections of the pine barren region of New Jersey, it has been necessary to fumigate blueberries as a requirement for their certification. In previous years it has been possible to inspect the berries as they were sorted and graded. The degree of infestation present this year, however, made it unsafe to grant certification on the basis of the visual inspection possible during the sorting and grading operations. Accordingly, large quantities of the bluw-
berries were fumigated with carbon disulphide in the Hammonton, N. J., fumigation house. Previous experiments had shown that fumigation with this chemical does not affect the edibility of the berries, nor does it injure their "bloom." The latter characteristic, a powdery, waxy substance on the berries, is commercially valuable in disposing of the product. Acuordingly, great care is necessary in the sorting, packing, and fumigation to prevent its injury. Tentative plans have already been made for the erection next year by the Blueberry Growers' Association of a fumigation plant somewhere in the vicinity of VWhites Bog, N. 5.
At the exhibit of the New England Gladiolus Society, which was held in cooperation with the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, the Massachusetts Department of Agriculture, and the American Gladiolus Society at Horticultural Hall, Boston, August 22-23, the State of New York and all of the New England States were represented. The attendance was the largest of any previous year, with one exception, and the displays of flowers and vegetables were arranged in a strikingly beautiful manner. Inspectors from the offices of the eastern area of combined corn borer and beetle control covered the exhibits and found two exhibitors from Connecticut, who, through ignorance of the regulations, had brought their gladioli over the road without inspection and certification on account of the Japanese beetle. There were many co-giluts of serious damage to gladioli plants and flowers by a species of Thrips, but none reported damage by the European corn borer or the Japanese beeTle.
This season's scouting activities in the vicinity of the clay pits centering around NTew Brunswitck, N. J. revealed initial infestations in practically all of these establisbri-ents in which Japanese beetles had not heretofore been found. The consistency of the c'ay rined in these establishments is such that it is not considered a favorable medium for oviposition or larval development. The clay is dug at considerable depths below the surface of the ground. Such of it as is shipped to points outside the regulated area is used as furnace lining, and is therefore subjected to high temperatures. In view of the slight infestations now present in the clay pits and the methods used in mining the product, the additional precautions necessary to assure freedom from infestation of the clay offered for certification should not seriously inconvenience the operators of the establishments.
Plantings of smartweed in areas heavily infested with Japanese beetle are to be made under direction of European corn borer and Ja-anese beetle project officials as the basis for ceortnin experimental work designed to develop better methods for control of the pest. Collections of seeds of this weed will be from sections in the territory of the Rutherford, N. J., office, and Mr. Crossman was there in the third week of August to outline plans for the work.
Movement by boat of tomatoes from southern New Jersey to canneries
on the Delmarva peninsula required the assignment of a number of farm prod-
ucts inspectors to temporarily established inspection centers at Salem, Stow Creek, and Wading River, N. J. The quarantine regulations permit certification without actual inspection of farm products "grown in districts where the fact has been established to the satisfaction of the inspector that no infestation exists and are to be shipped directly from the farms where grown to points outside the generally infested area." Accordingly, it was possible to grant certification for large quantities of these tomatoes on the basis of lack of infestation determined by surveys made of the patches from which they were picked.
Copies of PQCA-322, consisting of a supplement to the instructions relating to the disinfection of nursery products for Japanese beetles, were distributed to inspectors and nurseries concerned late in August. These revised instructions advance from October 1 to September 20, the date on which nurseries may start shipping plant material from plots which have been treated two successive seasons with lead arsenate. At the same time, the latest date on which the lead arsenate treatment may be applied is advanced from August 1 to July 1.
All Japanese beetle scouting activities were drastically curtailed on August 29. Dismissal of the crews operating within the regulated areas began with the disbanding of a number of crews in New Jersey on August 15. Scouting was en'rely discontinued in Virginia on the latter date. By the last of the month only a few crewvs cont inued their operations in the infested areas. All scouting activities outside the regulated areas were either discontinued by the end of the month or abandoned on September 1.
A peach auction market opened at HaLammonton, N. J., on August 7. The methods of packing and grading practiced by many of the growers and peach packers offering their peaches for sale at this market were officially inspected and approved. Their products, therefore, were eligible to certification, having comnriied with the regulation requiring that they be "handled or treated under the sjervision of an inspector in manner and by method to free them from any infestation."
Adult beetle flight in the vicinity of the wharves, market districts, and freight yards in Philadelphia ceased to such an extent that on August 13 it was possible to restore the usual 24-hour-a-day sirction servi-e at the Philadelhia farm products inspection pl'iform, The tre~l y tive flight of the beatles in the Philadelphia are is year la d from a' :oximately
July 9 to 29, with a lesser noticeable activity occurring on Aurist 5 to 7.
That Japanese beetles in Connecticut fly high vas shown when 69 were collected off the roof of the Thanes clubhouse in New London. he nort received by one of the men looking after the traps in that :ity, indic ating presence of beetles about the club, led to the search which captured the specimens. Two beetles also were caught in traps placed on the roof of the clubhouse.
Dismantling of traps distributed at known infestations or placed
in cities distant from the infested areas for the purpose of determining infestation if present began early in August. By the end of the month traps had been lifted in most of the trapped cities in M1aryland and Pennsylvania and in a number of cities distant from the regulated areas.
Reductions were made after August 31, in the numberr of men assigned to road inspection work and in the number of quarantine line posts operated.
MEXICAN FRUIT FLY
Operation of approximately 1,100 fly traps in the groves on the
American side of the Rio Grando resulted in the capture of two specimens of Anastrepha pallens during the month of August. One of these was taken in a grove near Mission on the 11th, and the other was taken in a grove on the outskirts of Brownsville on the 8th. It will be recalled that an adult of this spe ies was taken in a grove south of Mission on July 14. This species was first described from a specimen taken at Brownsville, Tex., in 1904. Nothing is known of the life history or host food of this species. Following the finding of these specimens a thorough examination was made of fruits and berries growing in the Valley in an effort to locate the host food, but all inspections gave negative results.
The operation of 177 traps in 58 premises in Matarmioros resulted in the taking of 23 adult Anastrepha ludens. Adults were taken in four premises which had not been previously reported as infested. However, these premises were in areas in which the poison bait spray was already being applied, so it was not necessary to increase the spraying operations.
Inspection of fruit arriving in the market at M1atamoros from points in the interior of Mexico revealed infestations in apples, oranges, peaches, and pears. A total of 45 larvae were taken from these fruits during the month. Three boxes of mangoes arrived in M1atamoros during the month. One box was delivered by the express agent to the consignee. This box of fruit was promptly seized and destroyed by the Mexican Inspector, Sr. Flores. Delivery of the other two boxes was refused by the consignees and these shipments were destroyed by the express agent at Matamoroso
Street estimates of the size of the present erop of citrus fruit
took a decided increase toward the latter part of the month when the fruit began to reach a size where it could be easily seen. The estimates now vary from 7,500 to 10,000 cars. Quality of the fruit appears to be excellent for this season of the year.
The ginning season is now getting under way in practically all sections of the regulated area. Most of the cotton ginned to date has been in the Salt River Valley of Arizona. However, at the close of August, less than half the number of bales had been ginned as compared with the same time last season. This is due to the fact that the cotton crop is some two weeks later than usual. In many cases where the cotton has opened, the farmers seem to be very slow to begin picking because of the low cotton market. Many of the gins have reduced the ginning charges, and it is reported that some are considering ginning the cotton in return for the seed,.
Considerable progress has been made in the inspection of gin trash. All of the inspections made outside of the regulated area have been in southern Texas. During August, 50744s bushels were examined, making a total of 6,010 bushels to date. The results have all been negative. Due to the fact that picking and ginning of the crop was later than usual, some of the *machines were not able to run at full capacity. Plans had been made for the inspection of trash in the vicinity of DMatamoros, Mexico, but -permission could not be obtained to cross the border. However, a permit was secured to operate four days at Nluevo Laredo, Mexico, opposite Laredo, Tex. There had been very little ginning in t'dis area, consequently only a small amount of trash was available for inspection. These results were also negative.
Within the regulated area 82-, bushels of trash were examined in the Salt River and Gila Valleys of Arizona. The results were all negative. In the Big Bend of Texas the first bale was ginned on August 15, and 34 pink bollwormjs were taken from three-fourths of a bushel of trash. The second bale was ginned on August 29, and from one-third bushel of trash 353 pink bollworms were taken. On August 31, 471 pink bollwormns were taken from 11, bushels of trash. This makes a total of 854 specimens taken from 217lushels of trash.
At the end of August there were 12 gin trash machines in operation-3 of the stationary type and 9 mobile. The stationary machines are being operated inside the regulated area, and the mobile machines outside the regulated area. The stationary machInes in all of the districts have been completely overhauled and are now ready to begin operating as soon as sufficient trash is available.
The regular weekly infestation counts from 23 selected fields in
Maricopa and pinal Counties, Ariz., were continued throughout thle month- of August. A total of _23,600 bolls and 5,000 squares were examined; also 1,690 bolls from fields which had been found to be infested during Ma4y and ~Tune. The results of all the above examinations were negative. Iii the Tucson area 875 acres were inspected, using 10 green bells per acre. Th"is makes 2,100 acres which have been covered. There still remain some 400~ acres to be inspected, which will complete the entire acreage in this distrint.
During August, 12,723 cars were inspected at the four road stations
operating, from which 71 confiscations were made. None of the material confiscated was found to be infested with the pink bollworm.
On September 1, the road station formerly located at Valentine, Tex., was moved to Van Horn, Tex., about 40 miles west on the same highway. A new road is being completed out of the Big Bend area, which comes into the highway west of Valentine, thus making it necessary to move the road station.
There was very little activity at the fumigation plants during the
month, due to the fact that most of the 1930 cotton crop has already been taken care of. Only 11 bales were compressed in the lightly infested areas under the new amendment whereby the fumigation requirement was removed on August 1. On oil mill began operating in the Salt River Valley of Arizona. All mills in the regulated arca are in readiness to open as soon as sufficient seed is available.
PRTENvTING SPREAD OF MOTHS
During the month of August there was considerable activity due to moving of office, shop, and field supplies and equipment from Mielrose and
Pittsfield, Yhlass., to Greenfield, ILass., where new headquarters were being established. About 30 men were engaged in packing and loading Government
property at I}elrose and Pittsfield, and 20 additional men were kept busy unloading, uncrating, sorting, and arranging supplies and equipment as rapidly as possible as it was received at Greenfield. A large amount of preliminary work was necessary, both at the new office quarters and the storage buildings, erecting shelving, benches, racks, bins, etc., so that there would be a minimum of confusion and delay in conducting business at the new quarters after the moving was completed.
Eight large trucks owned by this project and equipped with commercial bodies were constantly in service throughout the month moving furniture, machinery, tools, and supplies of various kinds. Some 75 truckloads were received at Greenfield between the middle of July and August 31, and in addition 33 large sprayers heavily laden with hose, 6 trailers, and 21
light delivery type trucks as well as several sedans and coupe type cars were also delivered at the new, quarters. All light motor equipment brought in its quota of materials usually of a fragile nature such as framed pictures, maps, photographic supplies, typewriters, and numerous delicate instruments.
Although this project officially took possession of the property at Greenfield on Aug
but by the close of the latter date the transfer of all miscellaneous property to Greenfield had been completed and the Administration offices together with the shop force were established there.
August is the least active of the summer months from a quarantine inspection standpoint so far as the gipsy moth project is concerned, and for this reason the vacations of the majority of the inspectors are planned for that period, so that they may be taken before the fall nursery stock shipping season commences. Where possible vacation schedules are arranged so that the inspectors in adjoining districts may substitute for each other. During vacations or enforced absences because of illness, applications for inspection are made by shippers to the official address of the district and there picked up by the man who is substituting. TILAe evidence of change in the address to which applications should be sent removes the possibility of confusion and guards against delay in getting shipments inspected.
In August the evergreen inspections began to increase with the real start of the laurel shipping. Shipments of some balsam twigs for novelty manufacture were made also. However, it will not be until later in the year, at the start of the Christmas greenery season, that the shipment of evergreen products will reach imposing proportions. Signs of renewed activity were evident at some of the nurseries, but, of course, nothing like that which may be expected several weeks later. Of the shipments inspected a number were sales to custuners traveling by automobile who desired to take home the stock actually picked out by themselves. With such sales a little difficulty may be experienced at times in getting the stock inspected and certified as during the summer sales of this nature are so scattered that it is not possible to keep an inspector continuously available. Customers making such purchases are usually reluctant to wait for inspection and hesitate to leave orders for future shipment as they prefer to take the stock with them. If inspection can not be arranged immediately they do not buy, but orders lost for this reason are usually rare and the nurserymen accept them with good grace as they realize that it is not feasible to have inspeitors at hand constantly.
From present indications the fall nursery stock shipping season will not be an exceedingly busy one. A number of nursery owners have reported that orders are coming in slowly and are of rather small size. All this may be changed, however, before the season gets well under way, so that the amount shipped may compare favorably with that of other fall seasons which, as a rule, does not show anywhere near the volume of the spring season shipping.
During all periods of the year, with the exception of the two nursery stock shipping seasons, the resident inspectors are able to handle the duties Of their respective districts without assistance. The spring and fall nursery shipping periods, however, necessitate additional men as most, if not all, of the nurseries of any size require uninterrupted inspection service which has to be provided by giving the district inspectors assistants who
are stationed at the large nurseries and who are under the direct supervision of the inspectors in whose districts they are located.
During August, 91 lots of nursery stock and forest products were inspected and certified for shipment from the quarantined area in New Jersey. On Long Island, 65 lots of nursery stock required inspection and certification before shipping from the quarantined nurseries in Nassau County.
Forty violations were reported during August. Several of them have already been investigated but were found to be of a minor nature due either to ignorance of the quarantine or misunderstanding of the requirements on the part of shippers or transportation agents. No prosecutions were instituted in any of these cases as no evidence was secured that indicated that the violations were intentional.
Eleven. regular scouting crews were engaged throughout August inspenting exter'ive wced areas in six townships in the .i ,Q'k region of the barrier Celo, nia; .y, Chacerfield, Cro'n P)int. s- roga, Viestport, and ,lsobro, N, Y, Seven New York :onservat one P went crews
were scour in in t he townships of Canaan, Aisterltz, and KiLlsdale. No indications of gipsy mraoth infestations were reported by either Federal or State forces operating in the barrier zone during August.
In New Jersey a small force of Federal employees took up scouting work late in August in the easterly section of Bridgawater whore work was planned for the current fiscal year.
Four Nev York State crews were scouting in the township of North
Hempstead, Nassau C:unty, Long Island, and have reported the discovery of one infestation, but ina~smuch as no clean-up work has yet been done, it is impossible to determine tho extent or intensity of this infestation.
In the August News Letter a description of assembling cages and the method of preparing the attractant used in them was given in some detail. Records recently examined indicate that 887 assembling cages cwore distributed in 29 townships in New Jorsey this summer and 582 of these cages were refilled with fresh attractant material approximately two weeks after they were put up, thus prolonging their effective period. Although pricdie visits were made to each cage and the tanglefoot carefully examined each time, no male gipsy moths were caught at any of the ages. Cases put out in New Jersey were taken in late in August. A large number of cages distributed in the field in the barrier zone and just east of the zone will be taken in later and complete results will then be available.
One hundred and sixty collections of miscellaneous insects were made
during the month and forwarded to the Gipsy Moth Laboratory at M elrose Highlands. The greater part of these collections were made incidental to the regular duties of the field men.
On August 27, 28, and 29, A. F. Burgess attended the 7th Annual Meeting of the National Shade Tree Conference, which met on the first two days at the Boyce Thompson Institute, Yonkers, N. Y., and on the last day at the Bartlett Tree Rescarch Laboratory in Starmford, Conn. Mr. Burgess, chairman of the cori*erence, read a paper entitled "Some Results Secured from Gipsy Ivoth Control and Extermination 'ork." The meeting was largely attended by arborists and scientists of the Northeastern States, many of whom are engaged in research work pertaining particularly to the care of shade trees and their protection from insect pests and diseases. Some of those present, however, came from as far west as Chicago and as far south as Virginia.
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