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United States -- Plant Quarantine and Control Administration
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Began with: no.1 (Jan. 1931)
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Ceased with: no.18 (June 1932)
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"Not for publication".

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University of Florida
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NEWS L E T T E R LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD
PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE


Number 17 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) May 1, 1932.


TECHNOLOGICAL

The work of analyzing the soil of nursery plots that have been
treated with lead arsenate to determine the arsenic content of the upper
3 inches of soil is proceeding rapidly at the White Horse laboratory. V.A.
Johnson has charge of sampling the plots and he reports that all but two
or three samples from plots containing growing plants have been collected
and delivered at the laboratory. The general method of sampling this year
is to take 80 borings, 2 inches in diameter and 3 inches deep, from each
plot of 20,000 square feet or under. The cores are placed in 50-pound lard
cans, numbered serially, and conveyed to the laboratory where they are pre-
pared for analysis and analyzed.

A new soil sampler was developed for this work. This consists of a
tube of mild steel, 3 feet 2 inches long, and 2 inches inside diameter,
ground to a cutting edge at one end so that a sample could be taken exactly
2 inches in diameter. The tube was equipped with a guard or flange which
allowed it to be thrust into the soil exactly 3 inches. An appropriate
handle was attached to the upper part of the tube and the soil was ejected
from the sampler by means of a brass plunger operated by a rod extending
out of the top of the tube. This apparatus is similar in design to certain
well known types of soil samplers, with some modifications to fit it to this
particular type of work. As mentioned, the borings were placed in cans and
S these numbered cans were taken to the laboratory for analysis.

In preparing the samples for analysis, it is frequently necessary to
dry the soil. This is accomplished in a drier designed especially for this
purpose. The drier consists of a galvanized iron box approximately 28 by 46
by 72 inches high, constructed of 22-gauge sheet steel on an angle iron frame,
one side being hinged and equipped with appropriate fasten. rs, forming the
door. The soil is placed in the box in sheet iron trays 24 by 36 by 2 inches
deep. The drier accommodates 20 trays. These are staggered or placed in
such a position that the heated air circulates from one end of the box to the
other, back and forth over the trays. Heat is furnished by means of two
large industrial gas burners under the box and the air, after passing over










the trays, is exhausted through a stack at the top. The equipment will dry
approximately 40 samples of soil in eight hours.

A soil sifter was also developed by modifying an ordinary grain clean-
er and installing special sieves. This is cheap and convenient to operate
and does the work required very well. It is operated by hand.

A special mixing table for mixing .and quartering the -sbil was built
with holes at diagonal- corners 'f6r the elimination of the discarded., quarters.

The work,,,after the samples reach the laboratory, has been handled by
G. A. Russell and assistants, Two junior chemists, Messrso Roy Glick and
Hyman Cohen, have been appointed for a period of three months, and other
help is furnished by the Japanese Beetle project.




FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTI S

RECENT ENTOMOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF INTEREST

Mediterranean fruit fly from Bermuda.--Living larvae of the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly (Ceratitis c apitata Wied.) were intercepted at Boston in
papaya (Carica papaya) and loquat (Eriobotrya japanica) in the mail from Ber-
muda. These represent our first interception record of this fruit fly in
papaya from Bermuda and our second interception record of this fruit fly in
loquat from Bermuda.

Bruchid from Trinidad.--Phelomerus aberrant Sharp (Bruchidae) was in-
tercepted at Washington, D. C., in Cassia javanica seed in the mail from
Trinidad. This bruchid is recorded in Cassia spp. seed from Central and South
America.

Thrips from Morocco.-Thrips angusticeps Uzel was intercepted at BDston
on lettuce ,in stores from Morocco. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., report,
that this is a European species not known to occur in this country.

Qlethreutid in okra pod.--A living larva of Crocidosema Zplebeianael-
ler (Olethreutidae) was intercepted at' Brownsville, Tax., inen okra pod in
cargo from Mexico, This oiethreutid has also arrived from the Azores and
Uganda.

Scolytid from the Dominican Republic.--Living adults of Coccotrypes
thrinacis Hopk. (Scoly'tidae) were intercepted at Washington, D. C., in Sabal
adansonii seed in the mail from the Dominican Republic.

New to tho National V.uscim. -An adult of IMycotrechus geminatus Gorh.






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(Erotylidae) was intercepted at San Francisco on banana in cargo from Panama.
W. S. Fisher, of the Bureau of Entomology, reports that this species is new
to the National Museum collection.

Thrips from England.--Chirothrips similis Bagnall was intercepted at
Washington, D, C., among Scabiosa plant material in the mail from England.
This thrips is recorded from California on grasses, wild lupin, Monardella
villosa, and the terminal leaf clusters of plum trees.

Endomychid from Central America.--Phalantha intricate Gorh. ( -ndomy-
chidae) .was- intercepted at Charleston, S. C., on banana in cargo from Hondu-
ras, and at San Francisco on banana in cargo from Costa Rica.

Lygaeid fra Moroceo.--Metopoplax ditomoides Costa (Lygaeidae) wis
intercepted at Washington, D. C., with almond plants in the express from
Morocco,

Thrips on heather.--Taeniothrips ericae (Halliday) was intercepted
at Honolulu, Hawaii, on dried heather sprigs in the mail from England and
Scotland. J. R. Watson, of Gainesville, Fla., reports as follows: "This
is a common thrips on this plant throughout northern Europe, not known to
occur in any other part of the world. There were not only adults on these
but numerous larvae."

Camphor scale from Japan.--The camphor scale (Pseudaonidia duplex
Ckil.) was intercepted at Seattle, Wash., on orange in cargo from Japan and
on Mandarin orange in baggage from Japan. This coccid, which was first dis-
covered in the United States at New Orleans in August, 1920, has also arrived
from ohina, the Netherlands, and the Philippines.

Varietal name to be omitted,--In connection with the identification of
the larvae of Laspeyresia splendana Hbn. (Olethreutidae), which were inter-
cepted alive at Philadelphia in raw chestnuts in the mail from Italy, C. Hein-
rich, of the Bureau of Entomology, remarks as follows: "I shall hereafter
omit the varietal name reaumurana Hein."

Bean pod borer in pigeon pea.--A larva of the bean pod borer (Maruca
testulalis Geyer) was found in a pigeon pea (CaJanus indicus) pod in Porto
Rico. Our records show that this insect was collected in the same host in
Porto Rico in 1928.

Syrphid in dahlia tuber.--Five living larvae of Eumerus sp. (Syrphi-
dae) were intercepted at Philadelphia in a dahlia tubur in the mail from
Germany.

RECENT PATHOLOGICAL INTERCEPTIONS OF IIV1TEPEST

Immature rust spores confused.--Several interceptions recently have
been determined as II Puccinia sp? It has been necessary to question the


# 0iM&Orr







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determination because the urediniospores of Puccinia and Uromyces look alike,
although the genera are readily separated in the telial stage because the
teliospores of Puccinia are two-celled while those of the Uromyces are one-
celled. However, it often happens that the first teliospores of a Puccinia
are one-celled, hence it is desirable to have mature sori of the telial stage
in cases where rusts of both genera are common on the host- in-the country of
origin of an interception. When the rust is just starting, as was the case
with the interception material mentioned, it is not practicable by holding the
material to obtain identifiable telia.

Vacciniunacultures sterile.-Several lots of berries of Vacciniumn spp.
were received in response to the request of the Bureau of Plant Industry (see
p. 2 of the March News Letter). All attempts to get cultures frcman these com-
mercial lots of berries have failed. It is possible that some preservative
was added to the berries or the organisms may have died in the- absence of
sufficient oxygen.

Gladosporium carpophilum, the peach scab pathogen, was found sporulat-
ing freely on small twigs of Prunus sp. from Poland intercepted in mail at
Philadelphia. The only previous interception recorded in the files was on
apricot from Chili in 1925.

The fruiting bodies of Schizophyllum commune'were found on a shipment
of Australian logs at Norfolk, Although rather common and widespread on dead,
woody parts of trees and shrubs, this is the first interception of the fungus
since 1919.

Nematodes in some diseased narcissus bulbs from Porto Rico intercepted
at Philadelphia were determined as Pathoaphelenchus parietinus and Aphelen-
chus avenae. P. parietinus (formerly known as Aphelenchus parietinus) has
been intercepted on narcissus once from Holland and once from Cyprus; but this
is the first interception of A. avenae on narcissus.

A disease of watermelon sent in from Porto Rico proved to be due to
Diplodia sp. This disease occurs in the Southern States but for some reason
has no accepted specific name. It is interesting to note that the only disease
recorded on watermelon in our interception files came from Egypt. Why have we
had none from near-by parts of the world?

Ascochyta caricae in papaya.-A large diseased spot from a papaya fruit
collected in Porto Rico proved to be covered with pustules of Asoochyta cari-
cae. This fungus was known from the type material only which was collected in
Ecuador on petioles of papaya. This specimen was, of course, a welcome addi-
tion to the mycological herbarium of the Department. The appearance of the
lesion indicates that the disease might be an important one if conditions fa-
vorable to its development should exist in localities where it occurs.

Nematode in bulbous Iris.--Among the nematodes found in bulbous Iris
during the current season's field inspection of special permit material is







-5-


Pathoaphelenchus winchesi. The only previous finding of this organism was in
faeces of a pig in England. While belonging to a parasitic group nothing is
known as to its possible importance.

Sphaeronema sp, was found in the basal plate of a diseased onion from
Holland intercepted at Philadelphia. As compared to the species causing black
rot of sweetpotatoes the beaks of the pycnidia were much shorter and broader,
and were hyaline instead of brown. There was only a small amount of the
material, and pycnidia were difficult to find; hence it was not practicable
to get anyone to study the organism.


SEASONAL VARIATION IN DISEASE INTERCEPTIONS

Seasonal fluctuations in the number of interceptions of some plant
disease organisms are quite marked. In part this is due to the seasonal
fluctuations in importations of the host and in part to the seasonal nature
of the diseases. Disease interceptions of Lima beans show ,lsinoo canavallae
predominating throughout the season, but Diaporthe phaseolorum seems to ap-
pear with increasing frequency as the season advances.

For several weeks relatively little material infected with Botrytis sp.
was intercepted but beginning :"arch 9, a number of Botrytis sp. interceptions
were received in relatively rapid succession. Host's for gnotrytis sp. inter-
ceptions for March include onion from Egypt, England, Germany (3), and Italy,
cabbage from England, green peppers from Mexico, and carrot and orange from
Spain. The material was sent in from Charleston, Mobile, Nogales, Norfolk,
and Philadelphia (6). An inspection of the records already in the files indi-
cated that Botrytis is most likely to be intercepted in April, the number for
each month being as follows: January, 13; February, 9; Tarch, 18; April; 25;
May, 8; June, 8; July, 4; August, 2; September, 7; October, 9; November, 8;
December, 6& Interceptions of Botrytis on material other than onions, largely
On miscellaneous nursery stock and bulbs, are as follows: January, 35; Febru-
ary, 26; March, 31; April,36; May, 19; June, 2; July, 4; August, 6; September,
44; October, 39; November, 41; December, 55,

There appeared, on a casual examination of the slips, to be a tendency
for Botrytis to be intercepted more often during certain periods oa specific
hosts regardless of the origin of the host material, even though from both
north and south of the .equator. While we do not have enough data as yet to
work out anything definite along this line even in a tentative way, it may be
possible to gradually build up a set of data that will be of assistance to the
inspectors by enabling them to know what special types of infections to look
for at different seasons, and of assistance to those making the determinations
by enabling them to know the probable causal agent where symptoms are present
but the organism is immature.

If any of the port inspectors have analyzed their records or have any
special notes that would be of assistance in such a study, the W7ashington of-
fice would appreciate a summary of the information available.







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FORMS BROUGHT UP TO DATE

On September 19, 1931, E. R. Sasscer appointed a committee to review
all forms used in the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines, with the ob-
ject of reducing the number of these forms and of revising those that were
not serving their purpose to the best advantage.

After giving careful consideration to all of the existing forms, it
was determined that some 60 required prompt attention and the committee has
been meeting once or twice a week to work on.these foxss, This work has
been completed for the time being (April 1), and as a result of the committee'
recommendations a few forms have been discarded as of no further value, severs
have been combined--in one case as many as 14 being combined into 1--and a
great many have been revised, some of them.materially.

In combining and revising-the forms, the committee adopted many con-
structive suggestions submitted by inspectors in charge at various field sta-
tions where the forms are used in considerable numbers, and it is believed
that the forms, as finally approved, will save considerable time for the em-
ployees of the Washington and field offices,, as well as for the importers and
brokers. It is also believed that the forms will serve their original pur-
pose to greater -advantage.

Orders have been placed for.-all of the revised and combined forms and
stocks should be available by July 1. Other forms which require minor changes
will be considered as replacements.beeome necessary. A circular letter, list-
ing the forms which have been changed and explaining new procedures to-'be fol-
lowed in using some of. them, will be sent to inspectors in charge at the ap-
propriate time,
i -



DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTINES

TRANSIT INSPECTION

Recent interceptions of foreign plant material reported by 0. 3. Yoder,
who examines both foreign and domestic shipments at St. Louis for compliance
with Federal quarantines, included 10 gooseberry plants which arrived from
Germany in violation of the white-1ine blister-rust quarantine. The gooseber-
ries and other unpermitted plant material were destroyed. The entry of these
host plants from Europe, Asia, the Dominion of Canada, and Newfoundland is
prohibited. The white-pine blister-rust quarantine as.originally issued on
September 16, 1912, was the first to be-promulgated after the passage of the
Plant Quarantine Act of August 20, 1912. The.embargo first applied to five-
leafed pines only but was later extended to include currant and gooseberry
plants.







-7-


Two crated pieces of granite apparently originating from Finland and
forwarded from Boston to St. Paul without the Federal permit required under
the gipsy moth and brown-tail moth quarantine, were recently seen by Gee. W.
Nelson, transit inspector at St. Paul. They were inspected and allowed to
proceed to destination.

Inspector J. M. Moran was held up and robbed at Chicago some time ago,
the thief taking his official badge, as well as his pocketbook. The holdup
man was captured the next day, and the badge returned. Prosecution resulted
in the imposition of a stiff sentence to the Illinois penitentiary for steal-
ing the purse, and it is reported that further prosecution in Federal courts
for taking the badge is in prospect. Not long after this holdup, a Federal
car in use by the transit inspectors was stolen from a point where it was
parked near a postal station.in Chicago. It was also recovered a few days
later after being severely damaged.

Under a recent amendment to the Mexican fruit worm quarantine regula-
tions, sterilization is made a requirement for shipping citrus fruit produced
in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and consigned to Southern and Western
States. Certain fruit shipped to northern destinations was also sterilized,
the work being done at Chicago and St. Louis under the supervision of transit
inspectors located at those points. The process involves holding the fruit
at 30 to 31 F. for a period of 15 days. Thirty-two cars of fruit were sent
north for sterilization at the tu cities named between the time the amend-
ment was issued on March 5 and the close of the shipping season on :March 25.
The fruit is reported to have gone from the cold storage after sterilization
in excellent condition, and sold at prices as high as any on the market.

Inspection of nursery stock in transit through Milwaukee, Wis., has
recently been instituted by the State Entomologist's office for the enforc-
ing of State and Federal regulations. J. M. Corliss, of the Chicago office
of the Admini'stration, assisted in setting up the system of working out the
tours.

PHONY PEACH DISEASE

The activities of the inspectors at southern points in examining
nursery stock shipments during the winter and spring to insure compliance
with phony peach disease quarantine regulations, resulted in finding 51 appar-
ent infringements up to April 6. The greater number of these was seen at
Atlanta and Memphis. All wero found in express except four. This work has
been carried on under cooperative arrangements with the States of Georgia,
North Carolina, Tennessee, and others. The Federal and State Departments have
maintained, it is believed, an effective check on the movement of restricted
plant material. The intercepted shipments were consigned to various points in
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland,
Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina,
Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Checking on such shipments was largely dis-
continued on April 30, with the close of the shipping season, and nursery

ULBRARY
STATE PLAWT BOARD










inspection will be started shortly.' G. W.' R. Davidson, in charge of this
project, is now working out methods of cooperation with the various States
Concerned under which State men will assist in"iispecting.the environs of
Speach-growing nurseries ,this coming, simmer.

NARCISSUS BULB PESTS.

NarCissus growers were well represented at.' .the hearing. held in Washing-
ton on March 2,8. to consider the possible withdrawal of the* Department of Agri-
pulture from tShe inspecting and certikyitig of narcissus. bulbs, for 'Interstate
movement. The growers,, with.onie'-or two' exceptions, requested that the' Depart-
ment continue in the field." -The -State inspectors were divided 'on the quest ion
At a ,meeting -of the :Northwes`trn Xiorists' Association on April 12, at
Tacoma, Wash., the members unanimously.voted their support of an increasingly
stringent program of narcissus inspection and pes.p. suppression presented by
the Washington. State De.partmehit of Agriculture. ,

'". '. , .l,:';1 ^ * *WHITE-^PINE BLISTER RWST .**' '

SAt the hearing held on March'26 to consider ,the revision of the white-
pine blister-rust regulations,'or the revocation of the. quarantine, the Bureau
of plant Industry.of this. Department made the following recommendations:

"The Bureau, of plant Industry recommends that the Federal quaran-
tine be;: retainv'd in' a-:simple and flexible form. A simplified Federal
quarantine which would be helpful to the aims of the cooperative blis-
ter rust control programs should accomplish .the following things:

". -Under Federal"permit, allow interstate shipment of five-
leafed pines only-when the stock is grown from se'ed'under standard
rust-protection conditions, EXCEPT that permits shall be granted fcr
the movement of unprotected stock into those States where the State
forestry and plant quarantine officials have notified the Federal
Plant Quarantine and Control Administration that it is the State's
policy to admit unprotected white pine stock'.without"'any discrimina-
:tion between the States of origin of such stock.'-'That is, if any
State is on record with the United States Department of Agriculture
as being '* willing td amit. unprotected stock from any and all States,
a Federal permit would be issued automatically. Otherwise, the Federal
permit wotild be issued only for stock'grown under standard protection
requirements. There, would be no distinction between infected and unin-
fected Stat6s bit Qnly between protected and unprotected stock. The.
Mississippi Valley line would be abolished under this plan.

. '". Pe'rnmit 'uhrestricated interstate movement of all Ribes, other
'than -, nigrun, R ..pet iolare, and R. bracteosum, except that Ribes
shipments into States having estabTished. blister rust control areas










must be accompanied by a Frederal permit, as provided in the present
quarantine. The present dormancy and defoliation requirements on
Ribes shipped out of infected States to be omitted from the quaran-
tine, but the dipping requirement continued. Restrictions on the
movement of R. nigrum to be continued as in the present quarantine,
and the samei restrictions laid against R_. petiolare and R. bracteo-
sum (two species of wild Ribes that are highly suseeptibTe to rust
infection)."

These reemnendations are being tudiod in the Adflinistratioa to deter-
mine the possibility of the practicable and economical enforcement of the pro-
visions quoted or of some modification of them*




DATE SCALE

During the month of March, no Parlatoria scale was found in the Coa-
chelle Valley. In the past year, April 1. 1931, to March 31, 1932, only
three infested palms have been found in this area. The number of infested
palms has decreased each year as follows: 1928 1,612; 1929 558;
1930 186; 1931 17; and 1932 to date 0.

When the first survey was made the date plantings were located on a
map of the Valley and the severe infestations considered centers of spread
were marked. An area including all plantings within 2 miles of these centers
of spread was designated as the infested area. From the evidence at hand 2
miles seemed to be the limit of natural spread. Careful and continued inspec-
tion in the infested area located many infestations evidently resulting from
the spread. The natural means of spread seems to be wind, birds, and large
insects. While no direct evidence of such spread has been gathered, there is
considerable circumstantial evidence, such as colonies of scale found around
cicada egg punctures and birds' nests when no scale could be found on other
parts of the palm. Study of the map would indicate that the spread was in
the general direction of the prevailing winds,

In the area outside the infested area it would seem that the scale
could be carried only on offshoots fram infested gardens, by men going from
infested gardens to clean gardens, or, possibly, by pollen from infested gar-
dens used in clean gardens. There are many instances of the scale being
carried on offshoots, but there is little evidence of its being carried on a
man's clothing and none on pollen, although some cases of the latter are still
under observation. Information on the source of offshoots and pollen has been
gathered and most of the plantings outside the infested area may now be dropped
from the inspection lists.

l1 the infested area the -problem now is te decide how long insleettoa










should be continued in the noninfested gardens after the severe infestations
have been reduced to a point where there is no danger of spread, and in in-
fested gardens after the last scale is found.

Inspection is not perfect and light infestations are often overlooked.
The best inspectors will have their attention diverted at times especially
when scale is seldom found. No inspector will observe 100 per cent of the
surface of the palm nor will any two (because of height, position on the lad-
der, etc.) inspect from exactly the same angle. However, the infestations
will increase in intensity and repeated inspections by different inspectors
should locate them.

A definite time limit could be set if all the palms were uniform, but
the size, number of offshoots, amount of foliage and location (especially of
ornamentals) in regard to other palms, trees, brush, and buildings influence
the ease or difficulty of inspection.

The above refers to infestations on the exposed portions of the palms.
There is also to be considered the possibility of infested leaf-bases below
the fiber on palms that were previously infested and defoliated and torched.
It is possible that scale might breed under these conditions and not reach the
foliage until offshoots come out near the infested leaf-bases. Tree records
have been kept in all infested gardens and such infestations can in all prob-
ability be found by special leaf-base and offshoot.inspection.

The logical procedure would be,, it would seem, to consider each plant-
ing as a separate unit and continue inspection until that garden was consider-
ed free of scale. This would result in a gradual reduction in the area until
the project was considered completed.




EUROPEAN CORN BORER AND $APANESE BEETLE

Speoiali;ei Cori Borer Activities

The control work on the isolated infestations in southern Indiana and
northern Kentucky is progressing in a very satisfactory manner. Farmers are
cooperating in every way possible by arranging their field work so as not to
interfere with the progress of the work or work which has already been com-
pleted. A great deal of interest is manifested by farmers from a wide area,
many of whom have called to inspect the work and get first-hand information
as to the amount of extra labor required in practicing control methods, at
which time they discover that it does not involve any great expenditure of
labor or money in addition to their ordinary field operations.

The work to be done on the isolated infestations in Wisconsin will be
of a different nature. The weather conditions have not permitted any field







-11-


work the past month. The farmers in that locality cut the corn in the fall
and later plow undor the stubble. In the spring they use the spring-tooth
harrow to prepare the ground for seeding. The spring-tooth harrow is a very
unsatisfactory implement from a control standpoint because it brings to the
surface much of the corn plant debris that has been turned under, which neces-
sitates considerable pick-up work on the fields. This fact will be quite for-
cibly impressed upon the mind of the individual farmer .iho can naturally see
that a different method of cultivation would save considerable labor and time.

The first of the month it vas discovered that there were a few minor
violations in moving fodder and corn into unregulated territory, after which
uniformed inspectors were sent to the field to stop the practice. After their
presence was discovered all violations ceased and finally the inspectors were
temporarily removed. This dcmonistration proves beyond a doubt ;what might hap-
pen when the public discovered that there was no effort being made to check
such practices. The very presence of the nen keens before the public the
thought of the necessity of the prevention of the spread of the corn borer in
an unnatural way, which is only true of all of the activities carried on in
the administration of this work.

Arrangements are being made by the State of Connecticut for the annual
spring chock-up of the disposal of corn debris. According to the order issued
by the Director of the Agricultural experiment Station, all corn debris should
be plowed under, burned, or otherwise destroyed by April 10. For the first
time, this work will include the whole State of Connecticut.

Exclusive"or Combination Japanese Beetle 'ork

Erection of a fumigation house in which may be fumigated all blueberries
shipped from the vicinity of New Lisbon, Burlington County, N. J., by members
of the Blueberry Growers'Association is under consideration. The fumigation
house contemplated is one of pressed brick construction, 15 by 20 feet, the in-
terior to be rendered gas proof with 3-ply tar roofing material or a thick
coating of tar or asphaltum. A flat, tar slag roof is proposed. Equipment is
provided in the suggested plans for heating the building to the required treat-
ing temperature and for volatilizing the carbon disulphide fumigant. Such a
building would have a capacity of 300 crates. During the height of the berry
shipping season it would probably be used two or three times a day. The Asso-
ciation proposes to fumigate all berries shipped, regardless of their destin-
ation. This procedure is motivated by the fact tLat beetles feeding within
the celophaned packages have in the past affected the salability of the ber-
ries. Berries intended for shipment under certification from the Japanese
beetle regulated territory would be fumigated under supervision in the morning.
Further fumigations during the day would be perforrmecd wholly for the conven-
ience of the shippers and would not require presence of an inspector. The As-
sociation is also contemplating a change of packing for their product. Previ-
ously all berries have been shipped in regular quart berry boxes covered with
celophane. The pack under consideration consists of a cardboard box having a
certain number of holes in each side, and finally covered with either eelophane










or some other transparent material, Tests of the proposed package will be
required to determine gas penetration. Not until last year did beetle in-
festation in the blueberry-growing section of, New Jersey reach such propor-
tions as to render impracticable inspection of berries in the grading and
packing shed. During the latter part of the 1931 shipping season, 989 crates
of blueberries were fumigated for members, of the Association in the fumiga-
- tion house owned by the market commission' of the borough of Hammonton, NX J.
Prior experiments had shown that carbon disulphide fumigation does not affect
the taste or "bloom" of the berries.

The regulated area a's extended in the tenth revision of the rules and
regulations effective January 1,' 1932, comprises, 51,339 square miles. This
is an increase of 3,776 square miles over the territory under regulation last
year. 1Reductions in regulated sections were made in Massachusetts, Maryland,
and Virginia. Release from the quarantine regulations of a portion of.Haempden
County, Mass., reduced the Japanese beetle zone in that State from 1,618
square miles to 1,207 square miles. Previously regulated'uninfested area in
Maryland this year dropped from the restrictions reduced the zones therein
from 6,934 square miles to 2,439 square miles. An uninfestod portion of last
year's Virginia regulated section in Fairfax County was also released from
quarantine operation, resulting in regulated environs this year of 1,099
square miles compared to 1,224 square miles in the 1931 zone. The only in-
creases in territory were in Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New York. With in-
clusion of the entire State of Delaware, 90 square miles were added to the
zone. Nominal area increase in Pennsylvania of from 17,894 square miles to
19,871 square miles was necessary to include newly discovered infestations
in the central part of the State. The only notable extension of area was
made in New York. Northern extension of the regulated territory in the lat-
ter State was made to include minor infestations at Albany and Fort Edward
and incidentally to afford unrestricted movement of the usually high-grade
,and consequently uninfested farm products from New York City to the numerous
summer resorts in the Catskill Mountains. This extension increased the New
York zone of quarantine operations from 4,3.66 square miles to 11,307 square
miles. Zones in the States of Rhode-Island, Connecticut, and New Jersey,
and the District of Columbia remained unchanged since they were already in-
cluded in their entirety. Omitting consideration of the New York area, there
was a reduction in remaining territory of 2,974. square miles,

Effectiveness of lead arsenate control measures is indicated by re-
duced or retarded beetle populations at seven isolated infestations subjected
to poison applications for three consecutive years, and at four isolated in-
festations which received arsenate treatments during 1930 and 1931. Infesta-
tions so treated are of three land four years' standing. Of the localities
which received three cQnsecutive treatments, beetle recoveries in Springfield,
Mass., and Cape Charles, Va., show marked reductions over peak infestations,
while slight increases but evident checking of normal expected increase were
evidenced at Hartford and New London, Conn., Binghamton, N. Y., Sayre, Pa.,
and Norfolk, Va. Among tho localities receiving tzo arsenical applications,
Kingston, N. Y., and Willimantic, Conn., showed fe-er beetles recovered in
known infested sections, while a.heavy mortality with only a minor increase







-13-


in specimen collections was observed in Boston, Mlass. The Drincinal obstacle
to effecting complete control through lead arsenate application is the diffi-
culty of determining the exact range of soil infestation. Females collect-d
at one location have frequently oviposited din a section removed from the
point of collection. Treatment of locations scouted or trapped with positive
results consequently does not always reach the entire larval population of an
infested community.

By four weeks' operation with two shifts per day, painting of the
project's supTly of 34,666 beetle traps was completed on March 19. Painting
of 33,000 tran rods was also accomplished at the South Norwalk headquarters.
The remainder of theo rods are being painted at Norfolk, Va, Begun on a small
scale late in December the work at South Norwalk vas fully organized about a
month later. TTnhre were expended 8,519 man-hours in jar grinding, trap and
rod repair cleaning and inspection, trap painting,, rod dipping, and packing
of trap assemir-ls ecri rods. The entire supply of both trans and rods was
hauled to separate to3ge space from which they may really be loadd for re-
moval to distant trappn.- operations. Approximately 600 gallons of lcpu:r
and 250 gallons of lacqur tirnncer ,crc u.ed in spray painting the trap assrrem-
blies. One hundred and fifty gallons und,.i'i-'arnm black (asph'.altum), 50 gallons
naphtha,and 85 gallons gasoline were, required for rod painting. The cost of
all operations incident to bottle griindig, repair, painting, and packing of
the completed trap assomblios is, estiLaated at 14.27 cents per trap. The cost
of rod repairing, cleaning and painting averaged 2.66 cents per rod.

The project has acquired a srall model of a rotary plow or tiller
which -will be tested, in connection with tl.e .r.'-ic '.tion of lead arsenate in
heeling-in areas and nursery blocks containiing ero,;irn 1oants. Funds for the
purchase of the a.-hino .re furnished by the Stato of Nev7 JTersey. Of foreign
origin and of co...paratively recent introduction in this cou.antry, the machine
is a departure from th,. standard ,mode of tillage in that the soil is agitated
by means of sharp prcn.s revolving at a high rate of r.od. The machine has
a 2* h. p. gasoline engine, giving a speed .of onc-half mile per hour. With
it a 13-inch strip of soil may be stirred to a dopth of from 2 to 8 inches
One gallon of gasoline with an additional 6 per oeat of oil will run the til-
ler for three hours. An att.empt will be nado to rig on the front of the ma,-'-
chine a distributing unit to permit in a single operation uniform distribu-
tion of lead arsenate and its thorough incorporation -vitll the uponer 3 inches
of soil.

Plans have been formulated for the establishment early in April of
quarantine line stations at the border of the regulated zone. Six stations
will be operated in Pennsylvania, 1 in Maryland, 5 in VirgL;inia. and 3 on the
West Virginia-Maryland boundary. .Vith the exce-tion of thrI.e -o:os on the
border of the isolated zone comprising Portsmou'2 nnd Norfolk, V. tle ta-
tions will each be an&rnod by a captain e4d one load i1iso tci ..,,v. will
alternate posts in covering three exit roads frorr. Por nitt i' n,-. cl. A
supervisor from the 0aOrio-ut, Pa., district headquarte-rV will bo i' Lrif.l.'.ate
contact with the six Punnsylvania posts. An experienced ro-.d patrol supervisor










from the South Norwalk headquarters will superintend the establishment op*ll
posts and later exercise immediate field supervision over road patrol opera-
tions in the above-mentioned States. Early establishment of six line stations
in New York is also contemplated,

Movement of plant material to and from the Philadelphia Flower Show
necessitated considerable unscrambling of stock on the part of Japanese beetle
inspectors supervising receipt and removal of exhibit material. This annual
exhibition of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society was held from March 7 to
12, inclusive. As the plants, cut flowers, aod, and peat arrived they were
listed by an inspector. Plant material arriving from classified premises was
sealed with Department lead seals. Exhibits were examined to assure that ade-
quate. safeguards were being taken to prevent mixing of certified with uncerti-
fied stock. Throughout the week frequent examinations of foliage and blooms
were made for adult beetle emergence. At the conclusion of the show, check
was made of stock returning to classified establishments.

Tests are still in progress at the New Jersey district headquarters of
mechanical devices for removing adult beetles from string beans. Six differ-
ently constructed machines have been tried, one of which offers promise of
being practicable and efficient. Although machine tests already made indicate
that beetle infestation may successfully be removed from these farm products
by mechanical means, the beans used in the tests have been of distant origin
and somewhat travel toughened. Cool weather has also aiid in their preserva-
tion after machine handling. A critical teat yet to be made is the quick
handling of large quantities of freshly picked beans during hot weather. It
remains to be determined whether the slight tumbling of the fresh beans !o
their trip through the "debeetler" will injure them to the extent of impairing
their keeping qualities.

Visits by inspectors were made to 1,754 unclassified establishments in
New Jersey for the purpose of acquainting the concerns with their privileges
under the quarantine regulations. Forms delivered by the inspectors were ex-
ecuted and returned to district headquarters by 648 firms in the State. To
date 24 establishments have availed themselves of the opportunity afforded all
nursery and greenhouse establishments within the regulated zone of acquiring
a classified status. Throughout the winter inspectors in New Jersey also made
861 calls at classified establishments. This has been a more intensive winter
survey than has hitherto been possible. Intimate contact with nurserymen thus
made possible has beenrutually helpful in promoting a fuller understanding of
local nursery conditions and regulations applicable to plant movement within
and from the different establishments.

Schedules Were in course of preparation during March of Japanese beetle
trapping operations to begin in the extreme southern coastal States the latter
part of April and fore part of May. Purchases under competitive bids were made
during the month of 2,063 pounds geraniol, 230 pounds eugenol U. S. P., 350
gallons black strap molasses, and 7 tons coarse red turkey wheat bran. As soon
as is received 750 pounds of glycerine C. P., there will begin mixing of these










ingredients of trap bait. Prior to award of the bid for geraniol, samples
submitted were tested for specific gravity, presence of aldehydes, and ol-
factory properties at the Japanese beetle research laboratory of the Bureau
of Entomology. Optical rotation tests of the samples were made with a 10 cc
tube polarimeter at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.

With the approach of spring weather, the nursery and greenhouse in-
dustry is becoming more active, but it is evident that the general business
depression is having more effect on this business than during the previous
two years.

The Hartford Office has been busy preparing for the Flower Show to be
held in that city during April--advising the Society of Americran Florists and
Ornamentali Horticulturists on the Japanese beetle regulations so that members
intending to exhibit at the show may be informed of the requirements to ob-
tain certification of their material to leave Hartford at the termination of
the show.

Distribution of approximately 10,000 "Shipper's Guides" to classified
nurserymen and other interested shippers and to all post offices within the
Japanese beetle regulated sections has been completed. With these "Guides"
in their hands, shippers will no longer be in a position to attribute viola-.
tions to misunderstanding of the quarantine map as a guide in determining
whether particular cities and tow.-ns are -ithin or outoidw 7L!F''ultcd zones.






MTXICAN FRUIT "'ORM

Infestations of Anastrepha ludens were found in 35 groves extending
from San Benito to Mission during the month of March. This makes a total of
40 premises in which infestations have been found this season to the end of
.1Iarch. The infestations were more general in Hidalgo than in Cameron County.
LIore groves were found infested in the Weslaco, Pharr-San Juan-Alamo, and
Mission districts than in the others. In certain sections of several groves,
infested fruit could be found with ease, but in the majority of groves infested
fruit was found only after intensive inspections. A number of growers and
other interested persons were given the opportunity of visiting several of the
groves in which infested fruit could be fairly easily found. Here they were
given the opportunity of finding infested fruit themselves and of observing
the work of the maggots in the fruit. It is expected that the visits of these
people will have a very favorable reaction ainong the rest of the citizens of
the Valley, many of whom have never seen a live spec iten of the fly in any of
its stages.

Following the finding of infestations, the County Committee established







-16-


"infested zones" as required by the State law. The fruit in these groves was
required to be harvested within a period of five days after notice of the es-
tablishment of the zone. The fruit from the noninfested groves within these
zones was required to be sterilized if shipped to the Southern or Western
States, or to be shipped north and east without sterilization. The fruit from
infested groves was required to be sterilized in St. Louis or Chicago and con-
sumed in the Northern and Eastern States. Fruit from the infested trees or
infested portions of groves was destroyed by burial. Approximately 4,387 es-
timated packed boxes, 1,117 field boxes, and 4,706 bushels of fruit fr= in-
fested groves were so destroyed.

Prior to March 5, fruit produced outside of infested zones was allowed
free movement. However, due to the continued finding of infestations it was
deemed advisable to close the Southern and Western States on that date to Val-
ley fruit with the exception of that which had been sterilized. Cold storage
plants, capable of maintaining sterilizing temperatures, were designated in
Dallas, Ft. Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Harlingen. Fruit was allowed to
be moved under bond to these plants from the Valley by truck and by rail.
These bonds were in amount of 100 for a single truck or $300 for a fleet of
trucks or railroad. Fifty-six truckers and the two railroads posted bonds
covering the handling of this fruit. Subsequent to Miarch 5 and prior to the
closing of the harvesting period on March 25, approximately 182 cars of fruit
were placed in sterilization in the Texas plants. These were about evenly
divided between grapefruit and oranges.

With the continued finding of infestations it was decided to begin the
host-free period on the morning of March 26 rather than on April 11, which
date had been set under a revision of the regulations. Growers and packers
were accordingly notified of this closing date, and in spite of a weak market
had practically all of the marketable fruit out of the Valley within the
specified time, even moving a considerable quantity of Duncan grapefruit on
the last two days, the host-iree period opening on the morning of the 26th
with as little or less fruit remaining in the groves than on any previous
opening date. This was considered remarkable in view of the large amount of
fruit produced this season, the consistent low prices throughout the season,
and the straitened financial condition of many of the growers. No willful
refusals to clean up groves were encountered. Several abandoned and absentee-
owned groves in the Brownsville district were cleaned by the county with con-
vict labor.

The operation of traps in Matamoros resulted in taking seven adult A.
ludens in five premises. Immediately upon finding each of these adults the
application of poison bait was inaugurated in the four blocks surrounding the
infested premise. Forty-seven specimens of A. ludens were taken from mangoes
and oranges imported to the market in Matamoros. Upon finding the infesta-
tions in mangoes the Mexican inspector, Sr. de la 0, notified the merchants
that the next importation of mangoes would result in a fine of 50 pesos
against the merchant bringing them in.

No larval infestation was found during the month in the fruit produced







-17-


locally in Matarmoros. At the time of baiting the traps all drop fruit is
picked up and carried to the office of the ':exican inspector where it is
carefully inspected. During Iiarih, 2,381 sour oranges, 5 grapefruit, and 12
sweet limes were so examined with negative results. The negative findings
in locally produced fruit in Matamoros throughout the season indicates that
the trapping and baiting program carried on there is highly successful.

Following the closing of the Southern and Western States to unsteril-
ized Valley fruit, rumors reached the Harlingen office that fruit was being
carried out of the Valley over the ranch roads to the northwest in Starr
County. A careful check of these roads revealed that it was possible for
trucks to pass on two of them. Accordingly on the 24th inspectors were sta-
tioned on these roads to intercept any fruit that might be carried out by
these routes. On the night of the 24th two trucks driven by R. S. Cameron
and like Ferrero, carrying 210 "-nd 90 bushels of fruit, respectively, were
intercepted. These trucks were taken to Rio Grande City, where the drivers
were charged in the Justice of the Peace Court with violating the State quar-
antine. Upon pleading guilty they were fined ,l10, and costs amounting to $9.
In addition their fruit was confiscated and buried. On the following night
three trucks driven by J. C. Brazil, C. C. Close, and .. C. McRory, contain-
ing approximately 300 bushels of fruit, were intercepted, and upon pleading
guilty the drivers were fined f.10, and costs amounting to $9, and the fruit
was destroyed. The news of these arrests evidently circulated rapidly among
the truckers, for though these roads were patrolled several weeks longer no
further interceptions were made.






PINK BOLLWORI4
The month of March marked the end of the ginning of the 1931 cotton
crop in the areas under regulation 6n account of the pink boll"7ormn and the
Thurberia weevil, with the possible exceptions of one gin in the Salt River
Valley of Arizona, which is expected to close down early in Arril. Opera-
tions during the month were mostly confined t-o ginning of bollies and rem-
nants. Practically all oil mills in the r,'.11sted area hkve also finished
their season's runs. At the close of the ,.,1 the gins and oil mills are
required to be thoroughly cleaned of all ., orttor.seeod, or other parts
of the cotton plant under supervision of Ihe insoIectors. This cleaning in-
cludes the yards and storage houseas well as the machinery.

The compress and fumigation plants will continue to operate at inter-
vals for some time to come as cotton on hand is shipped out.

On3 hundred and thirty-one interceptions of material liable to carry
the pink bollwvorm were made at the road stations maintained by the project
during March. Of these, 3 were found to contain infested material. On
March 3, 31 cottonseed were found on the bed of a truck which came from the






-18 -


Big Bend, and upon inspection one dead pink bollworm was found. On the same
date at the Alpine station about one-fourth pound of cottonseed was taken
from a truck proceeding -from Presidio-and en route to eastern points. Three
dead pink.bollworms were found in these seed, Thirty-nine cottonseed, one
of which contained a dead pink bollworm, were intercepted at the Van Horn
station op March 23 in a burlap sack"carried in a car from Presidio en route
td Arizona. Some of the other interceptions made during the month showed
damage in material evidently caused' by the pink bollworm.

Scouting during March has been confined to laboratory inspection at
San Antonio. and El Paso. In the San Antonio laboratory 154 crates of bolls
collected last fall were examined ifth' negative results.. Each crate contains
about 1,000 bolls and the material examined. during the month,represents
samples from the States of. Arkansas,'Florida, Georgia,.Louisiana, South Caro-
lina, Tennessee., and Texas. 'It'is of'"interest to note.that examination of
bolls 'from the Trinity Bay district of "Texas and the Cameron Parish*district
of Louisiana, yot& of which were formerly infested, was completed during the
month with negative results. At El Paso-. examination of seed collected from
gins within thc raulated area: was continued as in February. Five hundred
and twenty-two 1-p.ound samples were inspected and lln specimens of the pink
bollworm taken. In 10 pounds of seed originating at Hot Springsj in. the
lower part of HudspethCounty, 84 pink bollworms were found. The results from
the examination of seed are checkirigup very closely with those obtained from
inspection of gin trash in regard to the intensity of the infestation at the
various points. So far none of the seed oh hand at El Paso from outside the
regulated area has been examined.

"ork on the survey being.carg -ied-on -in Arizona to determine the dis-
tribution of the Thurberia plant and weevil was continued during March, aided
by rather good weather conditions. In the vicinity of Superior some small
colonies of uninfested plants not hitherto, reported were located. In the
other areas no new colonies were found nor were any new infestations found on
the formerly reported colonies., This.work :is'being done in the desert and
mountains, the men usually following up the water courses or canyons, and it
requires .sometimes considerable climbing. Two of the inspectors suffered
sprained ankles recently and another was lost overnight but without, serious
consequences. :Each inspector carries a case of anti-venom to be used in case
of rattlesnake bites. ..As far as is possible, the lower ranges and desert -
areas are being worked before the advent of the extremely hot weather.

The troublesome stub cotton problem in the Salt River Valley of ArizonW
particularly in the two communities found to be infested last year, now seems
to be in a fair way of solution. The unusual amount ,of rain during the wlntez
together with the cold nights experienced to the end of, the month, has killed
large part of thist,.cotton and retarded the growth of the remainder. Plans are
now under way to, eliminate what remains, in cooperation with the State of Ari-
zona. .

It is still too early to determine how much reduction there will be in







-19-


the cotton acreage in the regulated area next season. Planting has already
begun in the Salt River Valley and the Big Bend area and will soon start in
the other districts. Considerable difficulty is being experienced in secur-
ing money to finance the coming crop. In the Elephant Butte irrigation dis-
trict, which takes in the Mesilla and El Paso Valleys, it is probable that
a moratorium on charges for irrigation water will be declared. However, no
doubt there will be a considerable reduction in cotton acreage throughout
the area.




PRZVM-iTING SPREAD OF MTHS

S. S. Crossman, who for a number of years prior to last August acted
as first assistant on this project, has returned after serving in a similar
capacity on the Japanese Beetle and Corn Borer projects during the first pert
of the present fiscal year. He will be stationed at the headquarters of'this
project at Greenfield, :ass.

Up to and including March 31, there were 26 high-pressure truck spray-
ers overhauled, repaired, and painted. This '..ork has been under way continu-
ously since Novorit.er. It is expected that all of the sp-.r.'.ing equipment will
be reconditioned before the close of April, and this will allow ample time to
thoroughly test and make final adjustments on this equipment before sending
it into the field preparatory to starting spraying operations. Spraying us-
ually begins about June 1.

In addition to making mechanical repairs on the high-pressure truck
sprayers, a large number of cab tops had to be rebuilt on account of dry rot
in the woodwork that in some cases completely destroyed the frames of the
roofs and sections of the sheathing. Commercial bodies, which are inter-
changeable v.'ith the spraying unit and tank, were also carefully repaired and
painted. These will be ready for the tru.'.'Ln. of spraying supplies and equip-
ment to temporary storage points in the field. Tihe supplies are chiefly arsen-
ate of lead, fish oil, and spray hose, and this trucking usually begins early
in May and continues intermittently during the spraying season.

The light motor equipr.ient, consist ingL;_Qily o9'- 'iver t je tr 'l.:2
has been carefully overn.uiJd,and although the majority of these trucks are
1928 or 1924 models, most of tlem have been put in serviceable condition.
These trucks art. in continuous use throughout the year by scouting crews work-
ing in the barrier zone and are operated over some of the roughest mountain
roads in New Znglind.

Numerous other essential though smaller jobs of repairing and overhaul-
ing are constantly under '.ay. This V;:crk consists principally in putting the
portable auxiliary pumpers into condition, cleaning and waterproofing oil coats
and hats, repairing storage batteries, building tool boxes, and many other






-20-


small jobs on accessories for field and shop use.

The portable pumpers referred"to are used in conjunction with spraying
work to pump water to the sprayer trucks from.sources that are inaccessible
by the tru(k spraying machines.

In addition to the above mentioned mechanical work, several large
freight shipments were handled and stored. During the month of March, the
more bulky lots consisted of 75 tons of arsenate of lead, 100 tons of bitumin-
ous coal, 10^ tons of barbed wire, ,- ton of barbed wire staples, 5,000 gallons
of fish oil (approximately 100 barrels), paint supplies, floor covering, and
motor vehicle repair parts.

For the purpose of making periodic tests to determine whether the safe-
ty devices are functioning properly on motor vehicles,owned and operated by
this activity, a space has been marked off in one of the storage buildings. On
the wall side of this building there is a piece of beaver board painted white
which is mounted on a white pine frame. This is used for testing headlights..
Two feet of the board is marked off with black lines that are spaced 1 inch
apart. The first line is 24 inches from the floor, while the last line is 48
inches. There is a white base line drawn on the floor which is 25 feet from
the wall. This line is used in placing the cars prior to testing. On each
side there is a steel wire frame covered-with black sateen. The frames-are
14 feet high and 30 feet long. There are adjustable turnbuckles on the ends
of the frames so that light may be excluded as desired. This space is used
for focusing the headlights properly. There is also a brake meters tedhtestLn
the braking equipment of the vehicles, The vehicle to be tested is driven at
20 miles rer hour and stopped as quickly as possible. The brake meter regis-
ters the performance of the brakes in accordance with the requirements set by
the State authorities. Windshield wipers, horns, rear view mirrors, taillights
and dashlights are also inspected in addition to the headlights and brakes.
Any adjustments as well as replacement parts that are -necessary to bring the
vehicle up to the proper standard of safety are taken care of. A certificate
is issued by the officer under whose direction the testing is done, certifying
that the safety equipment on the car was tested and found to be in satisfactory
working order. This certificate is carried by the operator of the vehicle at
all times and presented to proper authorities if requested.

Intensive scouting work carried on in the northern portion of Bridge-
water and in the southern portion of Hillsboro Townships, N. 1., is fast draw-
ing to a lose. This work started February 12, and from present indications,
the scouting work planned will be completed about the middle of April. There
have been approximately 2,800 acres of woodland examined in Bridgewater Town-
ship and about 2,500 acres in Hillsboro Township, but no gipsy moth infesta-
tion has been located. Approximately 200 acres more are to be scouted in Hill. ,
boro, N. J., and when this is done, it is planned to transfer the men from thi*
place to Bridgewater in order to scout approximately 1,500Q acres more there.
Upon the completion of the scouting work in New Jersey, the men will return to
work in the New England section of the barrier zone.







S-21-.


Scouting work was completed in Rup.ert, Vt., on 1_reih 15, 1932. Ap-
proximately 10,479 acres of woodland were scouted with negative results.
The men working there :ere transferred to pawlet, Vt., at which place about
3,000 acres of woodland have been examined to date without locating any gipsy
moth infestation. There are two crews also working in Dorset, Vt., where ap-
proxima:tely 13,300 acres have been examined with negative results.

Three scouting crews continued examining wooded areas in New Mcrlboro,
Sandisfield, and Sh.-ffield, M.ss. Five additional infested sites were located
in Massachusetts, xhnih makes a total of 38 infested sites aggregating 3C1 new
gipsy moth egg clusters fo-und and treated with creosote. Twenty-two of these
infested sites are -located in New Marlboro, 3 in Sandisfield, 12 in Sheffield,
and 1 in Tyringham.

Three scouting cre-'s w;ero engaged in an intensive survey of wooded area-
in Salisbury, Warren, and 1;.-hiniton, Conn., during Harch. One additional in-
fested location .:as found duriLng March in Connecticut, which now makes a total
of 8 infested sites consisting of 124 new gipsy moth egg clusters found and
treated .with creosote up to and including Iarch 31. Three of these infested
sites are in Canaan, 2 in Salisbury, and 35 in 'arren. It is expected that the
scouting work in iashington, Conn., will be completed on or about April 2, and
the men working there now will take up scouting work in Warren, Conn.

There .Were 67 shipments of quarantined products inspected and certified
in Iew Jersey during 'Tarch, on which no gipsy moth eg : clusters were found.
This is an increase of over 100 per cent in the number of shipments offered
for inspection during February. This ir-reiese is, 'of course, to be erpeleted
now that the spring shipping season has b,-in.

On Long Island there was also the -'.",.-cted in.r-a..:; in the volume of
nursery stock examined for shipment. During the month there were 33 shipments
inspected and certified, on which there were no gipsy moths found.

The New York Conservation Ceoartment advises that there were 36 scout-
ing crews engaged in the examin'itioi of -voodd areas during :!arch in the fol-
lowing barrier-zone to mns in Ne,; York: Kingsbury and Hebron, in -aIshington
County; Ne-w Lebanon, in Colzubia County; Stanford and V:ashington, in Dutchess
SCounty; Phillipsto-an and Car:xiel, in P',tn. County; New r.Salem, Pound Rid;e, Os-
sining, and Mt. Pleasant, in f'.3stchester County. A gipsy moth infested site
consisting of 1 old.'and 6 new egg clutc.rs was found in th- tovm of Rye, '-..st-
chester County, during T.1arch.

There are 4 scouting cre'.-s at .cork on Long Island--3 in Islip and 1 in
the Borough bf Qu.:.ns. During the month a gir.Jy ,aoth infestation consisting
of a single egg cluster ::as located and treated on t.hi-' east side of the Bor-
ough of Quoens near the village of Creedmore.

Insp-ection is also being made nro'md isolated colony sites found in
previous yuars in Southold, Southapapton, Easth;.mnton, :and Brookhavcn, Suffolk









-22-


County, L. I., and also in Rhinebeck and L.ilan, in Dutchess County.

Upon completion of the Christmas tree inspection work in December, a
great reduction in the volume of shipments offered for inspection in the New
England gipsy moth quarantined area was noted. This lull in the shipping
season extends itself until the spring when the nurseries begin digging and
shipping. VMhen the district inspectors are not actually engaged in inspect-
ing products during this period, they are performing such services that not
only enable them to more efficiently enforce the quarantine in their respec-
tive districts but also to take constructive measures which tend to prevent
long distance spread of the gipsy moth, brown-tail moth, and satin moth.
Nurseries and small areas adjoining them are scouted to determine the degree
of infestation, thus securing information as to the likelihood of shipments
being infested. Shippers of quarantined products are interviewed to ascer-
tain the requirements as to the personnel needed to handle the required in-
spections when shipping begins, based on the estimated approximate volume of
spring business. The premises of firms shipping under permit are inspected
at this time as well as various places used to store finished products. If
improvements can be made to further reduce the possibility of infestations
being found on these products shipped under permit, recommendations are made
to the firms concerned by the district inspectors. Arrangements are also made
wherever necessary to expedite the inspection of quarantined products. The
inspection of tourist camps further reduces the possibility of long distance
spread of these insects by being transported on visiting automobiles, because
wherever any infestation is discovered by the district inspectors, eradication
measures are recommended to th. tourist camp owners in the case of small in-
festations. Viore large, infestations are found, the matter is reported to the
State authorities for their consideration. Exterminative measures, such as
spraying with arsenate of lead, have been employed by the State and a report
of the work given to this office. A later check-up is made of the tourist
camps that were found infst6d in order to determine whether the owners fol-
lowed out thi recommendations of the inspectors and to ascertain the effective-
ness of the eradication measures applied. There have been 97 tourist camps
inspected during the current fiscal year, and a total of 208 new gipsy moth
egg clusters and 65 bro-.-n-tail -iebs erer found.

Nursery products which originate within the gipsy moth quarantined area
are divided into three separate classes with reference to the methods of in-
spection and growing conditions. For our convenience, these classifications
are stored stock, collected stock, and stock dug in nurseries.

Stored stock is dug during October when weather conditions permit, at
which time it is inspected for the presence of the gipsy moth. It is then
stored in bins where it is graded and marked. This practice enables the nur-
serymen to ship during the winter and early spring before the frost in the
ground would allow digging. Vihen the shipping season ends each year, such
stock as is left over is usually burned or otherwise destroyed. Upon shipment
of this stored stock, a certificate is issued based on the previous inspection.








-23-


Collected stock consists of native trees and shrubs not grown in nur-
series. If the inspection of the trees or plants intended for shipment dis-
closes infestation with either the gipsy moth or brown-tail moth, certifica-
tion is refused on the intended shipment and also to other similar shipments
Sof trees or plants originating in the same locality. It is obvious that under
V the existing quarantine the collector must avoid as far as possible heavily
infested woodlots, and must ocean the trees of any moth infestation before
presenting them for inspection.

Stock dug in nurseries is taspected upon State certification that the
nursery is apparently free from infestation with gipsy and brown-tail moths.
These nurseries are inspected yearly by the State as soon after the egg laying
period of the gipsy moth as possible.

During this time of the year there is a considerable market for white
Cedar poles ranging from 25 to 40 feet in length and measuring 41 inches or
:more at the butt end. These poles are weighted at one end by means of cement
blocks which have bolts inserted in them, A rope is attached to these bolts
t and is then run through a hole which is made near the butt end of the poles
Sthus tying the polo and the cement block together. They are set out 50 to
100 feet apart in the water for the purpose of marking off areas along the
coastline that are leased from the controlling State by fish and oyster con-
cerns. It is necessary to replace these poles frequently as they deteriorate
quite rapidly or else are broken off by storms or ice formations. At high
water the poles project from 3 to 6 feet above the surface of the water. Dur-
ing the month there were 1000 poles shipped by boat and 300 more by freight.
Inspection-is accomplished by placing the poles on wooden horses. Approximate-
ly 4 feet of the pole is examined at a time. All loose bark is removed with a
knife to reveal any concealed egg clusters. There were 18 new gipsy moth egg
clusters creosoted and removed from the 1,300 poles already shipped. The
oyster buoy poles were harvested in the vicinity of Rehoboth, Mass., and were
consigned to Bridgeport, Conn. As white cedar is abundant in swamp areas, it
.is necessary to wait until these areas are frozen over before the trees can
be cut with advantage.

The association of paving blocks for streets with insect control work
may seem remote, but a recent award to a granite company located in the gipsy
moth quarantined area to furnish 5,000,000 paving blocks to the City of New
York has been made. Should these be newly quarried, actual inspection of in-
dividual blocks will not be required, as they may be certified in carload lots.
It often happens, however, that products of this nature are stored for long
periods fn such a manner and in places that afford to female gipsy moths unin-
1terrupted opportunity for deposition of their eggs on these finished products.
Conditions of this nature necessitate extra work on the part of the inspectors
.' as each individual piece shipped must be inspected, and all egg clusters found
are treated with creosote and removed before the shipment is certified for
movement.




uIuIiERIUTi OF FLORIDA -
3 122 uiI/IIIijIiiii 71
3 1282 09245 0971 ,
-24-
A:
The inspection records for March clearly indicate that evergreen :
materials are being used more and more for decorative purposes throughout *
the year. From southern Vermont, B tons of mixed spruce and balsam boughs
were inspected and certified for shipment to New York City to be used for :
Easter decorations in stores, lodge halls, and churches. The boughs in this S.
shipment were approximately 3 feet long and were shipped in bales weighing
about 100 pounds. There were also 22 bundles of Juniper inspected and oerti-
'Tied. This material is to be used in making sprays fdr decorations. '
.


y


P.




Full Text


Ramularia cynariae was found on three specimens of globe artichokes from France (in shinost stores) at Philadelphia. This fungus has been reported from parts of Europe and South America on this host and is said to cause severe damage at times in France.

Cladochytrium tenue was found on Iris leaves from Japan (in baggage) at Seattle. The fungus has been reported from the United States, but is not common here, and from Germany, Poland, Finland, and France.

The first report from the United States of Phoosis incarcerata on Rose was obtained by the determination of a specimen of this disease on Rosa elegantula imported under special permit and growing in Yonkers, N.Y. This disease is reported from Europe but the literature contains little as
to its importance.

INSPECTION ACTIVITIES EXTENDED ON ME~XICAN BORDER

In an effort to determine the volume and kind of traffic passing through the ports of Dolores, Tex., and San Luis, Ariz., at which there are/fresent no plant quarantine inspectors, these ports are being investigated by Messrs. 0. D. Deputy, of Brownsville, and C. E. Bellis, of Nogales. Information has recently been received to the effect that Dolores is open to the public two days a week, and San Luis was made a port of entry in the spring of 1930.

Effective February 1 the ports of Brownsville, Laredo, Eagle Bass, and Del Rio, according to instructions issued by the Treasury Department, will be open to the public twenty-four hours per day. Heretofore these
ports closed at midnight and opened at 6 a.m.

Mr. E. M. Dieffenbach has been in Washington since the first of the year preparing plans for the proposed car fumigation house to be built at
Presidio, Tex.

FRUIT FLY HOST MATERIAL FOUND IN SHIPS? STORES OF FOREIGN VESSELS ARRIVING COASTWISE

The importance of making as thorough inspection of vessels arriving via United States ports as of those arriving direct from foreign countries was illustrated recently at Norfolk, Va. Oranges from Spain in one instance and from South Africa in the other were found in shipst stores of two vessels from foreign ports. One vedsel had previously called at one United States port and the other at two United States -ports without any contraband being found. Upon arrival of these vessels at Norfolk the contraband material was discovered, seized, and destroyed.

UN IFORMS

The Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines has recently issued revised specifications for standard service uniforms and instructions for their use. The most important change in the revised uniform specifications is the cap






-4

Tony Constantino, of 'Richmond, Va., pleaded ";Uilt.y, to0 the interstate transportation of one crate of Florida-grown- tan,;eritnes in violations of the regulations and was fined ,;5

M.,eador-Poulso --:)s .Ir Inc. of Ricbnlmorid, Va., -leadec, nobo contendere to the interstate snmetof isD crates of F-mdarow eppers,: in
violation of the reTlations and w..as fines;ch.

The Railway E ,rcss A,;{wncy, Inc., plea~te-1 nobo oontendere to the interstate transportatUion of 1.5 crates of Floi-idca- 7own perppers in violation of the rultnsa',,d was fined $235.

Crenshaw-Currie .o., Inc., of Richmoind, Va., pleaded nolo contendere tUo the interstate Shiomnet of 10 crates of Florida-grown peppers in violation of th!,e re,, Ulatio.Is, and to defacing eid destry;in-'2 rerml.t certificates, and was fineA >~

APPROPR IATIONS

Since the issuance of the January News Letter, zhe subOommnittee of the Senate Cor.cu~ittee orn A o~-r~riations held eirsto consider the As,,ricultural Appropriation tili foe 193", and i-e-porte- t!1e same to the Senate. The Senate subcop: -ittee res'-reri the 7'l 00 ,iih th-e s ub ori~ttee of the House Cormttee on rzpitoshad oiedfrom the item "Control and Prevention of S rXof th e Europea-n Cur Poor and the bill was
passed by the Senate Tanu, .ry n'3.

DIPECTOIR-Y OF' FIELD k,(T-TTT1

The !biLr-scor:: of FiLeld 11ot-ivities of the ,'d _Ijnistration, issued
April 1, 1929, is nowi in nr,.oces7 of riio.It s nhooed that copies of the revised edition will be available in about twio montl-s.





Mr. A. G. Gallo,-iay rnviin 3rownsviil1,, Tex., Januar ,y 11, and is proceeding from that point to Laredo and 1Eafile Pass to inspect car fumigation plant s. Ie wll thIe n. !yIo to El Paso to -aetests on car fumigation in cooperation ithL- the Divi!sion of FoerIPlant urctns

The work on testin:- methods of sterilizinm fruits, veg etables, and nuts in Florida is being continue.-, by L.. j.Luie

Mr. i). T.. 1Mackie, Senior Entomologist of the Calif'ornia Derseotment of Agriculture, and connecte(! qith this Adinitration as an aent, -eot that he has iaade some tests on the sterilization of'an: ann,, ,ears for the nealybug. He repor ts good resul Us in thre destiruotion of this insect in pears at about trie orrdiinery cold StOragQe tioruesfor t.hi s fi-uit.




11


The following note is taken from The National Nurseryman of January 1, 1931:

'Foreign Pick-Uns' is the title of the August and Sentember issues of Nursery Disease Notes issued by the nurserymen's plant doctor, Dr. R. P. White of New Jersey. From what we learn, neither
Eurooe (England?) nor Continental Europe is quite the "Bug-free"
paradise we had imagined. They seem to have all the ills that flesh
is heir to."


DOMESTIC PLANT qUARANTINES

BLACK STEM RUST

A request to amend the Federal black-stem rust quarantine to prohibit the movement of Mahonia (except 1. reoens) between the States of Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Montana, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, was recently presented to the Secretary of Agriculture by the National Plant Board. The request was referred to the Bureau of Plant Industry for recommendation and during recent months it has been the subject of a number of conferences between the officers of the Bureau and of this Administration.

TRANSIT INSPECTION

Transit inspection at Kansas City was temporarily discontinued on January 13, and Mr. T. L. Thomson, who was in charge of the work at that station, has been transferred to Indianapolis where he will check car-lot shipments of shelled corn and examine livestock shipments from the European corn borer regulated area to determine whether cornstalks and cobs, which might carry the corn borer, have been used for bedding the stock. Wholesale nursery stock shipments moving by freight will also be checked for violations of other domestic plant quarantines.

The construction of the new Northwestern Railroad express terminal at Chicago, which will be comoleted about Anril 1, consolidating three terminals into one, will facilitate transit work by making Dossible the inspection at one terminal of all nursery stock arriving at Chicago for delivery in that city, as well as all incoming and outgoing express on the Chicago & Northwestern. The terminal will cost t3,000,000, and will cover a floor area of approximately 370,000 square feet.

The freight survey begun in November in the Northeastern States his been extended to the Middle W'est, where it is being carried on by Mr. John M. Corliss, in collaboration with Mr. R. A. Sheals, field supervisor. The names and locations of i-noortant LCL transfer points and orincioal stations
forwarding straight LCL cars to other stations or break-bulk points are being secured. This information will also give the average number of cars forwarded daily and the proportion of the total number of cars dispatched in
each direction.









J.APANESE CERY ITRCPTION

In a communication addressed to the head of a Pacific stemship company in Seattle, Wash., Mr. A. G. Webb, Port Inspector in that city, calls attention to an attempt made by an officer of the Hawaii Maru to bring ashore a package of 25 Japanese flowering cherry trees. The shipment was represented as a present for the Tacoma Park Board, which body disclaimed all knowledge of or responsibility in the master. The trees were held under seizure by the Customs Service for destruction.

ATTEMPT TO SMUGGLE CACTI

Through the timely efforts of inspectors of the Administration
and the splendid cooperation of the Customs Border Patrol, an attempt to smuggle into this country two truckloads of valuable Cactus plants
across the Mexican border near Nogales, Ariz., was frustrated last spring. The smugglers were arrested and temporarily jailed for violation of the customs laws, and the trucks and plants were confiscated. Both members of the smuggling party were later released pending a hearing on their case before the Federal Court at Tucson. The leader of the party has since left the country, a fugitive from justice.

QUARANTINE 37 SLIGHTLY REVISED

A slight revision of quarantine No. 37, the Nursery Stock, Plant, and Seed Quarantine, was approved by the Secretary of Agriculture on
December 22, 1930, to include in the new edition the single amendment of Regulation 3, proTulgated July 29, 1929, and other minor changes in wording. The amendment referred to provides for the exclusion after June 30, q1931, of all fruit stocks not already excluded under the provisions of Regulation 3. The footnote to Regulation 2 is extended to include a reference to the notice requiring a special permit for the
entry of Aglaonema. Regulation 3 is revised to provide for the exclusion of elm (Ulmus spp.) seed from Europe; for the freedom from oulp of nuts and seeds enumerated; and for the im 'ortation of the plant material permitted entry under Regulation 3 from countries not maintaining insoection for oublic-service ourooses instead of for experimental pur-oses only.
Regulation 4 is revised to include a brief statement of the procedure followed in handling material refused entry. In Regulation 7 provision is made for the entry of Regulption 14 material at the port designated in the permit instead of at Washington, D. C., or--as to trans-Pacific shipments-at San Francisco. This will make it possible to oermit the entry at San Francisco of nontrans-Pacific shipments arriving at western ports and to approve additional ports of entry should that become feasible. The footnote to Regulation 14 is revised to indicate briefly how unauthorized Regulation 14 material is handled upon arrival. Anoendix A has been revised by removing Porto Rico from item (a) as a territory into which potatoes might be imported from any foreign country for local use, this change being in accordance with an amendment to the potato regulations effective August 1, 1930. Aopendix B has been revised by adding Brazil to the list of foreign countries which have provided for inspection and certification.






19


As was to be ex-pected, confiscations of un-nermitted fruit at road traffic inspection stations were heavy during the month due to the large amount of holiday travel. It was necessary to confiscate and destroy 10642 boxes at the two stations. Owners returned 3041 boxcs to the quarantined area for proper permitting.

PINK BOLLWORM

Inspection Laboratory

The official onening of the pink bollworm inspection laboratory at
San Antonio, Tex., which was held on January 9, marks a distinctive ste-p forward in inspection methods. Fitting ceremonies were observed in connection with this formal opening. The various steps followed in inspecting the boils have been worked out very satisfactorily, and briefly they are as follows:

(1) The green boils are first passed between rollers to
crack them.

(2) They are then soaked in a vat of water for about 2~4 hours
to dilute the formalin.

(3) The boils are now sent through a centrifugal machine to
remove the water.

(14) Inspectors then remove the lint and examine the burrs for
typical signs of the pink bollworm.

(5) The lint is sent through a drying machine and then ginned.
The gin is equipped with a special beater which separates
any substances like the pink bollworm from the lint.

(6) The seed are then imbedded in paraffin blocks and run
through a slicing machine. This machine is set so that
each seed is cut. Inspoectors then examine the slices.

The possibility of overlooking a pink bollworm infestation in the material examined seems to be reduced to a minimum.

There are approximately 10,000 samples of green boils ready for examination, representing -practically every countyin the principal cotton-growing States. These green boils were collected late in the season when an infestation, if present, would have had time to build up to a maximum; also, when the
number of green boils was at a mini-mm.

The boils were collected in tin cans, each can holding 100 boils. The cans were filled with a solution of formalin, placed in crates, each crate
holding 10 cans, and ship-ped to the collecting -points. The plan followed was to collect 100 boils from each field selected--20 from each corner and 20 from the center. Our inspectors were given valuable assistance and cooperation in






5



7
SOIiTp, 2'LCE"7L 'j T T P =C7E

Entomolof ical

The Mlediterrant3an fruit fly (,Ceratitis cE-Ateta) was tal_-en at
,a, e from the kzo., sents the second
Boston in oran.,es in ba.,! --s. ",is repre
interception of t'.Iii-- fruit fly in oru,-'e from the t"-zores. Follo.Tin are the previous interception records of t-his insect fro- t' e zores: Once in Cuava, ora:, --;, and .,eEch, t,,,7icq i i pear, an(. t1iree times in apple and loquat.

The puiDaya fruit fly (' cxo r p ij -nas i.Aei-cepted. at
Miami, Fla., iii papaya from the BahaLia Islands. The only '.-nown host of this tropical fruit fly iS the paDaya (C6rica This fruit fly,
which occurs in southei-n Florida, is -viidely distrl* )uted in tro-,-,)ical ,Lmerica.

T1-e larvae of E7'xoso-.-i_@ lusitanica (Chrysomelidue) were -.7ound in <.iT)ollino bulbs ri co! 1'103.111 T i7i cargo from Dr. &. Eovin of
the Bureau ma-kes the com-ent in rer,-ard to this insect: "The de'11-er! ,inerl by 1'11r. 1E. "3. T)ro ve ti'let the larvae
belong to the species Z-Xosc.--ia 1-usitanicca L., a e-laus an(-i species hitherto unknown in t-ie imn, _, T, ure

Alei.L,,othrixus floccosiis (7Thit fly) ,,jas fo-Ind at !-'_,erce ".es (Th;ayer International 3rid ,e), Tex., on a honeys-uckLe lea-f f-on 1,i6-.iCo. J-his aleyrodid ha bten interce-- ted on citr,,-s froir, Prazil and Porto
Rico, on ora:1ge ijeaf f= -1-azil, and on Ln leaf fr.o-m .!exico. It is reported as Dc( urrin-- in Florida, Cjiana, krf--entina, the Ca.,al 'Zoiae, Chile, al_', PEr,--uay, and is carrmlon in the, 'Vest Indies.

a scale ins 3ot no re7)crtE.J fror. the UniT
ted States, was Lrlter( e,, te L L." "e-7 Orleans on ir. 7 m Honduras.
a- o, i- li- 'e, s-ieet lime,
Ihis coccid '-as bee-i oa avoca-lo, ba- -,a o n- U and tanL_, erirG, I --ta a U _E_ I.Co, Paiarna,
and Salvador-. This iL t'-e fir-c-t. interce-otio,,L recoi d -ve of this i,-isect from Honduraz-.

Ort'hezia la-olarac.ta (Cocpidae) was found at Se,:ttle, Vash., in soil in baggage fropi Sco1.-la2,,,d. This reDresent-E7 the third inte-f-ception of this scale insect by inspectors of Ghie Plant Con- ;rol 1_drlinistrati)n., it havi.-L : bec n -'.,-.ken on i-is sc tosq fro,:-_ in pacx in; about unkno-an z1ant-.- N01"Wa-17. It is r,_---- orted in liter-atu,-e as also occurring in Gre _YLland Irela,-,d a:,.d En, la.--.,i or. r,;rass and
Saxifraga aizoo-l..

The bea-. pod 'Jore_- testulali 7) aas tv!:(-n several ti.lies at New York in Lima beens ili from Cuba. 1hiS r-ra"id, not r- rooted
from the United States, is v7idely distri' .-uted over t' tionical -:iorld.






15


GIPSY MOTH M ) BIMT-TAIL MOTH

There was a reduction of approximately 50 carloads in the volume of Christmas tree shipments from the New England quarantined area, which required inspection for the gipsy moth during November and December, as compared with the previous year.

The shipping of a larger quantity of Christmas wreaths and ornamental greenery during the holiday season necessitated more inspection work on this class of products than in any previous year, and the sale of this type of Christmas greenery appears to be on the increase.

An appreciable increase in the shipping by trucks of holiday evergreen products occurred this year. Shipping of these products by this means has consistently increased during the past few years.

A relatively recent novelty developed in New England for the Christmas holiday season has been the sale and shipping of potted evergreens for ornamental purposes. Small evergreens, principally spruce, are placed in pots or sections of birch logs. These serve as ornamental decorations during the holiday season and may also be carried through for spring planting. The sale of these has occasioned considerable additional inspection work when shipment
was made to points outside of the quarantined area.

Scouting work in the barrier-zone area has progressed satisfactorily although there has been considerable snowfall up to the present time. The heaviest snowfall occurred in the northern part of the area in Vermont, but as scouting work in that section had been completed for this year, snow conditions have not seriously retarded field operations.

Additional field workers were transferred from the barrier-zone area
in New England during December to assist in the intensive scouting operations in New Jersey in connection with the eradication project against the gipsy moth in that State. Early in January the force in New Jersey comprised nearly 100 employees, most of whom were carried on the State payrolls by cooperative arrangement with this activity.

A report was received in December from the New York Conservation Department stating that approximately 85 egg clusters of the gipsy moth had been found u-P to December 23, 1930, at 19 iooints in the vicinity of Roslyn, L. I., where a large isolated infestation of the insect was discovered early last year. Intensive scouting operations are being continued by the State in the vicinity of the RosXyn infestation.

JAPANESE BEETLE

A survey of nurserymen, greenhousemen, and other ship-oers of quarantined articles has been completed in the territory in Norfolk, Va., and environs which was added to the lightly infested regulated area with the revision of the quarantine regulations effective November 10, 1930. The area under regulation in Norfolk, Portsmouth, and vicinity is comparatively isolated





6.


Pathological

On October 11, 1929, a fungus specimen was collected from a dead plant of Laburnum alschingeri on an estate in Essex Fells, N. J., which was determined as Phomopsis rudis (Nke.) V. Hohn, the conidial stage of Diaporthe rudis (Fr.) Nke. by Dr. C. L. Shear and Mr. W. W. Diehl, of the Bureau of Plant Industry. This constituted the first report of this disease from the United States. The disease has been reported from Europe, and as this plant was imported from England under special permit, considerable interest was attached to this specimen. The entire plant was secured in January, q1930, and the determination was verified; whereupon the inspectors of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration who inspect
special permit material in the field were asked to look for symptoms of this disease on Laburnum and close relatives during the growing season of 1930. As a result several specimens of Laburnum, Genista, Cytisus, and Caragana were submitted and the following records have just been completed: Phomopsis rudis on Laburnum watereri, L. parksii, L. alpinum, Genista praecox alba, and Diaporthe rudis on Cytisus nigricans carlieri from Essex Fells, N. J.; Phomopsis rudis(?) on Caragana sp. from Tippecanoe, Ohio; Diaoorthe rudis on Laburnum vulgaris(?) from San Francisco, Calif., on L. adami from Locust Valley, L. I., and on Cytisus purpureus incarnatus and C. purpureus pendulus from Yonkers, N. Y.

Some of the other specimens collected in a-survey for Phomopsis
were determined as follows: Cucurbitaria caraganae, Coniothyrium sp. and Phoma sp. on Caragana decorticans from Foster, Ohio; Cytospora sp. and Sphaeropsis malorum on Genista (?) sp. from Locust Valley, L. I.; Gloeosporium (gargaricum?) on Cytisus Dorothy Walpole, and Physalosoora sp. and Diplodia sp. on Genista praecox alba from Essex Fells, N. J.; Fusarium sp. on Laburnum vossi from Perry, Ohio. Determinations for a few of the collections have not yet been received.

Sixty-eight interceptions of Elsinoe canavaliae have been made at
New York on Lima beans arriving from Cuba (in cargo) since the preparation of the note appearing in the previous issue of the News Letter. Fifty-one
determinations of Bacterium phaseoli, six of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and four of Diaporthe phaseolorum were made of interceptions of these beans
in the same period.

A heavy infestation of Tylenchus dipsaci in a potato from Germany
(in ship's stores) was. found at Philadelphia. Tylenchus pratensis was found in horseradish from Germany (in cargo) at New York,and twice in lily-of-thevalley pips from Germany (in cargo) at Detroit. A potato from South Africa (in ship's stores) was found at Philadelphia to be heavily infested with Aphelenchus avenae.

A specimen of holly leaves from Canada (in mail) was badly infected by Phacidium mualtivalve. Although the fungus has been reported in Europe, this is the first report of it on this host for America.






2


ADMINISTRATIVE

GENERAL DIRECTIONS FOR PREARING NOTES

Persons responsible for the preparation and submission of material
for the News Letter are requested to comply with thp suggestions numeratedd below. Such compliance will materially simplify the work of the editorial office.

(1) All copy should be double spaced, to facilitate editing
and the cutting of the stencil.

(2) Use two commas in a triple series. Example: Sand, soil,
and earth must be certified.

(3) Use figures fqr all enumerations of weight, measure, distance, cl-ck time, money, percentage, degrees, proportion,
and age. Spell all isolated amounts under 10, and use
figures in groups of enumerations when any one enumeration
is 10 or m6re.

(]4) Percentage should be expressed as 15 per ctnt, 21.2 per
cent, 0.75 per cent, etc.; not as 154, etc.

(5) Ue degree marks to indicate temperatures, as 720 F.,
2 C., etc.

(6) Abbreviate the State after city, town, village, county,
island, mountain, river, or any other geographic term
when the name is given. The following are the approved
abbreviations:

Ala. for Alabama. Mich. for Michigan.
Ariz. for Arizona. Minn. for Minnesota.
Ark. for Arkansas. Miss. for Mississippi.
Calif. for California. Mo. for Missouri.
Colo., for Colorado. Month. for Montana.
Conn. for Connecticut. Nebr. for Nebraska.
Del. for Delaware. Nov. for Nevada.
D.C. for District of Columbia. N.H. for New Hampshire. Fla. for Florida. N.J. for New Jersey.
Ga. for Georgia. N.Mex. for New Mexico.
Ill. for Illinois. N.Y, for New York.
Ind. for Indiana. N.C. for North Carolina.
Kans. for TKansas. N.Dak. for North Dakota
Ky. for Kentucky. Okla. for Oklahoma.
La. for Louisiana. Oreg. for Oregon.
Me. for Maine. Pa. for Pennsylvania.
Md. for Maryland. P.I. for Philippine Islands.
Mass. for Massachusetts. P.R. for Porto Rico.









PHONY PEACH DI SEASE

Transit ins-pection activities at Birmingham, Ala., directed-primarily to the enforcement of the phony peach disease quarantine, wore resumed on January 5 for the first time during the current shipping season. Nursery stock movement throughout the southern area during January has been very light, but judging by -past seasons, the volume is expected to increase the
latter part of the month and approach a maximum in February.

During the month of December, 857 shipments of peach and other restricted nursery stock were certified by Administration inspectors for nurseryrnen at Concord, Ga. Shipments were made by mail, express, and freight to 18 eastern and southern States.

A supplementary conference to consider possible future action on the phony peach disease quarantine will be held on February 14 at Atlanta, Ga. The Southern Agricultural Workers will be meeting in that city during the week, and the question of the retention or discontinuance of the quarantine will be discussed by those interested in plant diseases and in the horticulture of the Southern States.

WHITE-PINE BLISTER RUST

At the request of the State Forester of Delaware, Mr. R. A. Sheals, of this office, made an investigation on December 29 ahxd 30 to determine whether white pines were being moved from infected States into the noninfected State of Delaware and planted near Wilmington. He discovered that the pines suspected of coming from adjoining infected States to the north were, in fact, largely being secured from an estate near Wilmington. No quarantine violations were discovered.

The leading nurseries growing five-leafed pines in the Pacific
Northwest are making excellent progress in Droviding -permanent protection against blister rust infection,according to the findings of Mr. C. R.Stillinger, who made ins-oections in and around them during the past fall. The vicinity of each of the important white-noine producing centers has been covered at least once in an effort to eradicate all the currant and gooseberry bushes in the environs, and a martial recheck has been carried out. The nurseries concerned are located in Montana, WKashington, and Oregon.

The cost of protecting white-pine stands from the blister rust averaged 19.6 cents per acre in New England and New York during 1929, according to the Blister Rust News, the operations covering 919,755 acres. In Pennsylvania State Forests, the cost averaged 69 cents per acre on 4,877 acres. The operations consist in eradicating currant and gooseberry -plants-from within the infecting range of white pines.

SATIN MOTH

An amendment to the satin moth quarantine has been issued effective February 1, adding new territory to the regulated area in New England. The effect of the amendment is to prohibit the interstate movement of poplar






'-3

R.I. f or Rhode Island. Vt. f or Vornnt.
S.C. for South Carolina. Va. f or Virginia.
S.Dak. for South Dakota. Wash, for Washington.
Tenn. for Tennessee. W.Va. for West Virginia.
Tex. for Texas. Wis. for Wisconsin.
Wyo. for Wyoming.

-Alaska, Canal Zone, Guamn, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa., Ohio, Samoa,
Utah, and Virgin Islands should not be abbreviated.

In submitting manuscripts for the annual report or other printed publications, in addition to the foregoing directions, paragraphs should end on a page and not run over to the next page, and tables zhmuld be on
separate sheets6.

ATTLNIAXICE AT THE CLEVELAND MEETINGS A. A. A. S.

The Ad-ministration was represented at the annual scientific conferences held under the auspices of the American Association for the Advancernent of Science at Cleveland, Ohio, December 29, 1930, to January 3, 1931, by Messrs. Lee A. Strong, S. A. Rohwer, E. RI. Sasscer, W. A. McCubbin, A.F. Burgess, L. H. Worthley, Erle I. Brewer, and Max Kisliuk, Jr. The reports of recent activities by the Administration in these cases were received with interest by the American Association of Economic Entomology. Mr. Strong reviewed the work done during the past year. Mr. Sasscer discussed export certification. Mr. Burgess read a paper on the eradication of isolated gipsy moth outbreaks, and Mr. Brewer read a paper bearing on the European corn borer situation in the United States at the close of 1930. !Mr. Burgess, the secretary of this Association, was reelected. Mr. Sasscer acted for Doctor Fracker as secretary of the horticultural section. Doctor Fracker was reelected to that position.

CONVICTIONS FOR VIOLATIONS

While Quarantine No. 68, on account of the Mediterranean fruit fly, was lifted effective November 15, 1930, there are still pending in the court a number of alleged violations of this quarantine. The following cases were recently terminated:

B3ourk-Donaldson-Taylor, Inc., of Denver, Colo., pleaded guilty to the interstate shipment of 35 boxes of Florida-grown grapefruit in viola2tion of the regulations and was fined t5O.

The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad Company, the common carrier which transported the above grapefruit, pleaded guilty and was also-fined t5O.

Sam Feldman, of Steubenville, Ohio, pleaded guilty to the interstate transportation of 2 boxes of Florida-grown tangerines and 1 box of Florida-grown peppers in violation of the regulations and was fined 0 and costs.






14


Department and other Departments of the Federal service having need for the same. These units consist mostly of tractors, plows, corn stubble pulverizers, oil-burning carriages, trailers, and a few trucks. Approximately 1,000 of these units, including all the trucks except a few Defiance, all the McCormick-Deering and John Deere tractors, and some of the Oliver and Vulcan plows, trailers, pulverizers, and oil-burning carriages, have been allotted to the Forest Service, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bureau of Dairy Industry, Bureau of Entomology, Bureau of Animal Industry, and Biological Survey of this Department. The remaining 1,700 units, consisting of Fordson tractors, Oliver and Vulcan tractor plows, McCormick-Deering corn stubble pulverizers, oil-burning carriages, and Defiance trucks will be allotted in the near future by the Chief Coordinator to other Departments of the Federal service having need for the same. The movement of the units allotted to the Bureaus of this Department is in full progress and all of these units as well as those later to be transferred to other Deoartments of the Federal service will be moved from Camp Perry, Ohio, before June 30, next.

Clean-un operations of the isolated infestations in Kentucky and Ohio were started under the direction of Messrs. J. TT. Ayars and William Kammerer. This will consist of plowing and the hand-picking of debris, and disposing of the drift along the river banks. All of the isolated infestations this vear are Plong the Ohio River.

The headquarters of the European corn borer--Japanese beetle work in Connecticut has been completed and we are now occupying the new building which was constructed for the repair shop and storage. The office building has also been completed.

Arrangements have been made with the Division of Agricultural Engineering, Bureau of Public Roads, for the permanent establishment of engineers in the New England area, with headquarters at Norwalk, to cooperate with the corn borer project in the development of machinery for corn borer control in this area.

Effective at the end of December, Mr. H. T. Cronin, who has been in charge of the fiscal division of the Mediterranean fruit fly project from the beginning of that work, was transferred to South Norwalk, Conn., to work with Mr. Worthley on the European corn borer and Japanese beetle projects.

A revision of the European corn borer regulations has been issued effective January 22, adding new territory to the regulated areas and slightly modifying the shipping restrictions. The nost imortant of the changes consists of transferring U'ew York City, Long Island, and certain adjoining territory from the one-generation to the two-generation re elated area in consideration of new discoveries of the two-generation strain during the past year.





16


from The other regulated zones. Shl.wients of nursery stock, sand, Boil, earth, peat, compost, and manure may be moved from this isolated area without restriction only when trans-ported across Chesapeake Bay to points in N~orthampton or Accomac Counties on the eastern shore of Virginia, or when transported by boat from a dock within the Norfolk,-Portsmouth area directly to another port in either the lightly or generally infested areas without docking at a port in an unregulated area. Quarantined material may thus move without certification via ships from Norfolk whose first ports of call are Baltimore, Philadelphia, or New York. Due to the nature of the infestation in this isolated area, it has not been found necessary to regulate the movement of farm products. These latter articles may, therefore, be transported from Norfolk and vicinity without restriction under the quarantine regulations.

At the direction of the Coordinator of the Third Area, two 50.-gallon drums of denatured alcohol from a total declared surplus of 140 drums were shipped to Norfolk, Va., for the use-of the United States Shipping Board at thet point. Arrangements have also been made for the transfer via naval trucks of the remainder of the surplus, 39 drumns or approximately 1,900 gallons, to the United States Naval Air Station at Lalkehurst, N. J.

File of the project Is trucks were loaned to the Post Office Department for their use during the Christmas rush. ?our sedan. delivery trucks were turned over to the Camden, N. J., post office f rom December 18 to 29, inclusive. A one-half-ton truck with pick-up body was also assigned to the post office at Dover, Del., from December 15 to 26, inclusive. With the exception of the loss of the rear license -plate on the truck borrowed by the post office at Dover, Jel., all trucks were returned in good condition.

MEITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY

Activities connected with the reorganization of the Mediterranean fruit fly work, to place it exclusively on an inspection basis, occupied most of the time of the remaining personnel of the -project during December. Regarded as of major importance in this connection was a series of conferences with the field forces, ten of which were held between Decem-.ber 5th and 18th. Dates and. districts in respect to these events were as follows: December 5, District 1, Orlando*, December 8, District 3, Winter Haven; Decemnber 9, District 5, Tampa; December 10, Districts 8 and 9, Sebring; December 11, District 10, Fort Lauderdale-, December 12, District 2, Melbourne; December 15, District 14, Tavares; December 16, District 6, Ocala: December 17, District 11, Daytona Beach; Decemiber 18, Districts 7 and 12, Jacksonville.

All of the meetings were attended by Mr. THoidale, in charge of the
project, and most of them by Mrx. Kimball, directing field inspection. Others from the Orlando headquarters who were present at some of the conferences included Mr. Fox, administrative officer, fiscal division, and Messrs. Langford, Gaddis, and Johnson, assistants to Mr. Kimball. While here from Washington, Mr. Connor went to a few of these gatherin.-s. At the conclusion of the series, an individually typed and personally signed letter from Mr. Hoidale was






10


Appendix C, the list of State inspection officials, has been revised to bring it up to date.

In accordance with this revision of the quarantine it has been decided to permit the entry of Cactus and other succulent plants from Mexico through the port of San Pedro, Calif., in addition to the ports of San Francisco, Calif., and Washington, D. C., as previously authorized.

AIR LINES COOPERATE IN QUJARANTINE RFORCEENT

On December 8, 1930, Assistant Secretary of Commerce Clarence M. Young sent out a memorandum to all air transportation operators advising
them of the restrictions on the entry of. plants, fruits, and vegetables, etc., from foreign countries. This memorandum suggests the desirability of advising all passengers leaving foreign ports for the United States of the plant quarantine regulations of this country. This information could be included in circulars issued by the company, and could also be given in a brief sign, both in English and the language of the country concerned, to be posted in a conspicuous place so that all passengers would have an opportunity to read it prior to boarding the plane. The operators were requested to advise their respective stewards under no circumstances to permit the disposal through toilets while lanes are passing over American territory of fruits found in the possession of passengers. Finally, the operating companies are instructed under no circumstances to permit plants, fruits, vegetables, etc., to enter the United States unless the owner has previously secured a permit.

With respect to the approval of new airports as terminals for
lines operating to foreign countries, the Plant quarantine and Control Administration has an agreement with the Interdepartmental Airways Comittee whereby approval by that Committee shall be contingent upon sanction of the Plant quarantine and Control Administration. The following departments are represented on this Committee: Treasury, Commerce, and
Labor.

NOTES

Believe it or not, a doll may have a olant disease. H. R. Conway intercepted at El Paso, Tex., July 17, 1930, in hand baggage from Mexico, a curio made from-a corn stalk and ear, on which there has recently been identified a species of Physoderma, a fungbus causing downy mildew of corn.

Owing to the finding of parasitic nemas in certain new host materials, particularly notatoes, entering at various norts, there has been considerable interest evident in nem-a infestation. Max Kisliuk, of the Philadelohia office, is credited with a fast one in this connection; anparently with the hone of seeding up the identification process in Washington, he carefully sticks a nin in the specimen at the noint where the nemas are to
be found.






21

lightly infested areas, including that area in a noncotton zone in 1930, under strict rules and regulations believed adequate to effect eradication, at least in parts of the area.

Measures of eradication being applied consist principally of burning of cotton remnants left in the fields, plowing and irrigating the land during the winter, and delaying planting in the spring. By this means, many overwintering larvae will be killed in the fields. Cotton planted late-Pima, April 1; Upland, April 20--will come into fruiting after the spring
peak of emergence of the moths is over.

In addition to the above, the plan calls for the keeping down of volunteer or stub cotton which otherwise would offer early opportunity for the insects to propagate. This program is being carried out without expense to the Government, except for supervision. Growers and others interested in cotton are entering whole-heartedly into the program of eradication and are thus modifying the cultural program.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 3 1262,09241 5347










A NEWS LETTER


PLANT QUARANTINE AND CONTROL ADMINISTRATION

UNITED STATES DEPARTMT 07 AGRICULTURE





Number 2 (NOT FOR PUBLICATION) February, 1931.






UNITED STATES DEPARTI2T OF AGRICULTURE OFFICE OF TH SECRETARY
WASHINGTON


January 15, 1931.


TO ALL 1 MBERS OF THE DEPART, T OF AGRICULTURE:

No group of people can appreciate more than you what hardships hundreds of thousands of our farmers in the drought-strickn states face this winter. The situation is so acute that the American Red Cross is suoplementing the work of local agencies by Droviding a total of more than t15,OOO,00 to buy food and clothing. Ten million dollars of this amount must be raised within the next few days.

You have in the past contributed generously to local charity organizations, to the Department's own welfare fund, and to the Red Cross to aid sufferers in disasters at home and abroad. You have never previously had the opportunity to contribute to a cause so near to your own work as you have today. I have supreme faith in your generosity and in your desire to help. I urge all of you to contribute to the Red Cross call to the full extent of your ability.


ARTHUR M. HYDE,
Secretary.









requirement, which specifies a Pershing type armz- officers' service cap. The specifications for the cao are identical with those for United States ar m officers with the exception that the color of the cloth covering and braid is to be forestry green.

Briefly, the standard service uniform for the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines consists of a three button single breasted sack coat of conservative design, and straight cut trousers with or without cuffs. The suits may be made of unfinished worsted, serge, whipcord, gabardine, or tropical worsted; color, forestry green. White collars, black four-inhand ties, and either tan or cordovan shoes are required to be worn with the uniform.

All inspectors are required to be neatly dressed in this uniform at all times when meeting the public.

CACTI NOW POPULAR

During the last two or three years there has been a notable increase in requests for special permits by specialists and botanic gardens to allow importation of Cacti and succulent plants. This is due to the greater interest being taken in these plants by the general public and by the establishment of a New National Society,--The Cactus and Succulent Society of America, with headquarters at Los An;:eles, Calif.

The florists have also placed on the market miniature cactus gardens made uo in various types of receptacles. These miniature gardens became interesting objects for the living or dining room, and are quite popular with the plant lover. The plants require no special attention regarding culture and lend themselves readily to the ordinary dwelling house conditions.

Among the plants requested we find the following interesting genera
indigenous to Mexico: Pachycereus; Mammillaria; Neomammillaria, Strombocactus; Echinofossulocactus; Mamillopsis; Thelocactus; Pelecyphora, and
Ast rophytuTm.

A EIJROPEAN POPLAR BORER INTERCEPTED

On December 4, the Washington inspection house staff found larvae of Trochilium apiforme, a clear-winged hornet-moth (Sesiidae), in a shipment of poplar (Populus alba) coming from Germany to the city of Cleveland under special permit. The plants were held for return or destruction. T.
apiforme occurs in the northern United States. In Europe it is listed as of economic importance and is reported to have caused damage to poplar or aspen trees in Russia, Italy, and Sicily. The larva bores in the wood, pupating in a cell of frass near the exterior. One account indicates that
the larvae have lived for two years in the trunk and roots of Pooulus tremula and P. nigra (Sicily).






17


mailed to each inspector who had attended one of the conferences, in which additional stress was placed on some of the points brought out therein.

Examining trial of Mr. Byrd, field inspector, formerly employed in the quarantine line division, held at Madison, December 22, was on charge of illegal parking, later changed to manslaughter. A Department truck driven by Mr. Byrd, while parked on the roadside during adjustment of ignition trouble, was run into some weeks ago by a passenger car containing a -man and his wife, both of whom were killed in the collision. The defendant wac bound over to the grand jury under $500 bond. An assistant United States district attorney was assigned to the case.

Increasing tendency to neglect grove sanitation was in evidence
throughout the month. Indications that the picking up and disposal of drops might be continued in considerable degree, observed after the lifting of the Federal quarantine, failed to be maintained in practice. When special reports from district inspectors were requested as of December 20, it was found that only a very small percentage of commercial properties have ke-ot up the practice in accordance with the regulations formerly in effect.

Marketing conditions in the citrus industry have become acute, ruling prices returning many growers less than cost of-production. The consequent demoralization has extended into the ranks of the selling agencies, and is affecting the cooperative organizations. Numerous meetings to consider ways and means of attaining improvement were held during, the month, but without any noticeable results.

Few refusals to permit entry of property for ins-pection purposes were reported in December. In one somewhat aggravated case, that of Mrs. Ida Peierson Hancock, of Lakeland Highlands, Polk County, the circumstances in detail were placed before the State Plant Board, which has instructed its attorneys to take steps loolcing to legal proceedings if they are found to be necessary.

Orlando officesof the Administration were favored during December by the second visit which has been made them by Mr. Connor, business manager. Arriving on the llth and leaving on the 20th, Mr. Connor made several trips through the field and went into -matters quite thoroughly in all of the divisions at headquarters.

Men designated by the local newspapers as "bug racketeers" have been operating in Tampa and vicinity, representing themselves as Government inspectors authorized to spray trees and plants for protection against insects, and collecting fees from property owners for the service.

Two International speed dump trucks, which had been ordered transferred
to the pink bollworm work, were called for by Messrs. Hensley and Pulliam, inspectors on that project, who came from San Antonio, Tex., with letters of introduction from Mr. Puckett, administrative officer.









Monthly report for December of the identification division showed that for the period 314,3614 specimens were examined. Of this total 26,1492 were from the Mediterranean fruit fly project, and 7,972 from the Mexican fruit worm project.

Approximately 135 units of corn borer equipment transferred during May and July, 1929, from Camp Perry, La Carne, Ohio, to Orlando, Fla., for use in the Mediterranean fruit fly eradication work in Florida and now stored at Orlando, have been declared surplus to the needs of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration and practically all allotted to various Bureaus of this Depoartment. The units consist of McCormick-Deering tractors, John Deere tractors, McCormick-Deering corn pulverizers, oil burning carriages, trailers, and some large trucks, principally the Defiance. Approximately 762 large tires and 810 tubes theref'or have been declared surplus at Orlando and allotted to various Bureaus of this Department having need for the same. Shi-pments of these units of equipment and the tires and tubes from Orlando have been started and will be completed in the near future.

MXICAN FRUIT WORM

The fourth round of grove inspection for the season was completed
during the month of December with negative results. Nine hundred and fiftyfive collections, totaling 9,7,01 suspicious snoecimens, were made during the month. G-roves were found to have been maintained in an excellent condition during the month, making it necessary to withhold "certificates of grove inspection" on only about 14 per cent of the 5,069 groves inspected.

For the first time since the infestation w~as found in Matamoros, Mexico, in September, 1929, a month has elapsed without catching an adult Ariastrph ludens in the traps in Matamoros. The last adult was caught November
14, making practically two months in which no adults have been caught. About 100 cylindrical fly traps baited with orange extract are maintained in the
-patios of houses in Matamoros. Inspoection of fruits growing in the patios also gave negative results. 'During the month 32 larvae of A. ludens were taken from oranges offered for sale in the market at Matamoros. These oranges originated at Montemorelos, Nuevo Leon, which is located about 100 miles below the border.

flue to a wea-k market, as a result of the general depressed economic
condition over the country, the movement of fruit by rail from the Valley was sluggish throughout the month. Practically all the packing houses closed down around the 20th, with several opening up again in a light way during the latter days of the month. However, the shipment of single boxes and gift packages was the heaviest for any month in the history of the industry. To December 31, 1,634 carloads of citrus had been shipped by rail, and approximately 383 carloads had moved from the quarantined area by truck and passenger car. It is estimated that between 65 and 70 per cent of the present crop has been harvested.
Coloring and sterilizing tests of Valley-pgonfutweecniudi
the specially constructed room in Brownsville with good results. Some work was also started on the effects of low tempoeratures on Valley fruit.






13


and willow trees and parts thereof capable of propagation from this additional territory to outside points.

NAICISSJS BULB QUARANTINE

A conference to review the plant pest situation with resnect to
narcissus bulbs and to consider the advisability of modifying the present restrictions on the entry from foreign countries and interstate movement of narcissus bulbs, hns been called to meet at Washington on January 29. The purpose of the conference is to review the entire situation with a view to promptly determining whether the present restrictions are necessary for the protection of American agriculture and horticulture from pests.

DATE SCALE

During the past calendar year fewer infested palms were found in the Coachella Valley than during any year since the work was inaugurated in 19114. During the month of December 25),759 palm inspections were made in California
with no scale found.

Because of low temperatures some smudging was done by citrus growers in the Coachella Valley. The resultant soot on the date palms In the vicinity increased the difficulty of inspection.

During the past four months 3,109 fan palns were inspected in areas in the Coachella 'Valley where date palms heavily infested with Parlatoria scale have been found in the panst five years. Forty-five fan palms were found lightly Infested, and these all within 300 feet of a rather heavily infested date palm which had been overlooked by the sdout Inspectors. From the inspection records it seems that the Parlatoria scale will not readily establish itself on the ordinary ornamental fan palmi or, should it become established, will eventually die out. The only fan palms found infested on which the scale seemed to ha9ve increased greatly in numbers were young palm-.s. However, as infested fan palms might serve to reinfest date palms, all fan
palms in the immediate vicinity of past or present date palm infestations are being inspected.

EUROPEAN CORN BORER

Due to the fact that there has been so much movement of ear corn from Ohio and Indiana into the free area of Kentucky, it has been necessary to establish mnen on bridges crossing the Ohio River to make inspection to find out where the corn is coming from. It was found that a large amount of the corn on the cob intercepted at these places is coming from the quarantined area and it became necessary to order its return. This is the first tim.ne we have ever had to operate quarantine stations at this time of the year, and it is not anticipated that they will have to be operated for any great length of
t ime.

Approximately 2,700 units of corn borer equipment stored at Camp Perry, La Carne, Ohio, have been declared surplus to the needs of the Plant Quarantine and Control Administration and transferrable to other Bureaus of this






20


this work by State entomologists, county agents, vocational agricultural teachers, and farmers.

The laboratory inspection has for its purpose the covering lightly of a very large area for which no facilities are available for covering in any other manner. Considerable attention was given to selecting fields from which the samples were obtained, and it is felt that the above method of inspection should give a fairly accurate idea of the presence or absence of the pink bollwormn in the main Cotton Belt.

The laboratory method of inspection has a number of advantages over the field method. In the first place, a much greater area can be covered with the available funds and in a much more thorough manner. Present indications are that a much larger number of bolls will be examined per day by the laboratory method. Even though the same number of bolls could be examined, the laboratory method would still be more thorough, in that each seed is examined, whereas this is impossible under field conditions.

The most effective time for finding an infestation in the field is
during October and Novemnber. Material for laboratory inspection is collected when it is in the best stage for inspection. Therefore, laboratory insp0ection is always conducted as if done during the effective period. However, field inspection is important in delimiting infestations. Approximately 22 inspectors will be engaged in laboratory work, which will run from about January to July, or during the time when no very satisfactory material is available for field inspection. These inspectors will thus be doing effective work either in the laboratory or in the field throughout the year.

Road Stations

Living pink bollworms have been foujnd in several recent interceptions of material coming from the heavily infested Big Bend area of Texas, one of which is esoecially outstanding duei to the fact that it was made at 1 o'clock in the morning. This particular interception was made by Inspector H{. G. Thompson at the Ft. Davis, Tex., station and consisted of two cotton picking sacks which contained approximately one-eighth pound of seed cotton. An exa'ination of this seed cotton resulted in the finding of five oink bollworm larvae, three of which were living. These interceptions demonstrate very clearly that even a small amount of seed cotton from a heavily infested area is capable of spreading an infestation.

Arizona Situation

The eradication program for the pink bollworn in the Salt River and Gila Valleys of Arizona is getting well under way.

Due to the light, but rather widespread, infestation that developed in the 1930 crop in this area, it has been determined most advisable to continue the eradication by a moO'Afied -program. The heavily infested snot In the lqi29 crop, consisting of about 37,000 acres of cotton, was brought under control by means of a noncotton zone in 1930. In 1931, cotton will be -produced in the