The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00193

Full Text








THE INSECT PEST SURVEY

BULLETIN





























Volume 16 Supplement Number 5


B U RE AU O F

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

UN!I T ED S TA TE S

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

A ND

THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL

AGENCIES COOPERATI NG











Digitized by the Internet Archive





in 2013










http://archive.org/details/insectl 936no55





INSECT PEST SURVEY BULLETIN




Vol. 16 Supplement to No. 5 July 15, 1936



THE SPECIES ND~ DISTRIBUTION OF GRASSHOPPERS IN TEE 1935 OUTBREAK

Robert L. Shotwell Entomologist


In the adalt-grasshopper survey conducted late in the suwmer and
early in the fall of 1935, specimens were collected in typical environments. These specimens were counted to determine the percentages of each species in the total number taken ih each habitat. Similar collections were made in the summer of 1934 in four States -- North Dakota, South D kota, Montala,, and Wyoming -- and the results were published as supleme? 9, volume 14, of the Insect Pest Sry, Bulletin. In 1935, this worm was e- -ended to include seven additional States -- Colorado, Iowa, Michigan, Minre oa, Uebraska, Utah, and Wisconsin.

Natural Vegetation Areas in W7hich Collections re Ma.

The general type of vegetation areas in whic-' colictionS were made are outlined end the important plants listed below. I/

1. Northeastern pine forest (jack. red, and white mines)--i, sconsin and
Michigan.

2. Northeastern hard-wods (birch, beech, maple, hemlock)--Wisconsin and
Michigan.

3. Southern hardwood (oek and hickory)--W7isconsin and Michigan.

Other plants found in Wisconsin end Michigan areas include:

Grasses: Quackgrass (Agropyron rpens), cheat (Bromus secnlinus), downy brome (B. tecto-Tm), green and yellow foxtail (Chaetochloa viridis and C. galeuca), squirreltail (Hordeum jubatum), ticklegrass (Panicum capillare), switchgrass (P. virgatum), and Poa spp.

1/ The natural vegetation areas were described largely from the work
of H. L. Shantz and Pr-phael Zon in the Atlas of American Agriculture, part 1, The Physical Basis of Agriculture, sect. E, Natural Vegetation (October 1924), issued by the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, under the supervision of 0. E. Baker. The collections were made by field agents of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, in cooperation with the various State entomological agencies.


213-








214


Clovers: (.Trifolium spp.).

Must ,.rd-: Ball (Ye .IL a p! Lqiculata), tumbling
hedge (Erysim= officialsi, and tansy (Sophi 1 nci s-.)

Other hosts are peppergrass spp. chickweed (Stellaria
modia) pigviced or goosefoot (Cheno-oodium spp. ) dock (Rumex spp. mare, st,7 '.il (Le-ptilon canadense) goldenrod Solida ) sticktight (Bidens spp.) cocklebur (!, mthiuq) ragweed (Ambrosia spp. sowthistle ( Soncilus spp.) zild lettuce (L,- ctuca spp. dandelion (Leontodon spp plantain spp spp. Verb n,- srp. dodder (Cu-Icuta spp.) and 1,,IrMovi spp.

4. Tall-.-rass -Pr,- iries-(a) Bluestem sod: All of Iow,-., southern Tid western Minnesota, the
extre,,1e eastern part cf the Dakotr.s, --nd Nebraskr PrincipFl grasses are big
lue s t em (A:- f-,)rc-tus) little blucstcm (A. sco-pr-rius) Indinn grass buff,- lo grass (BucIlloe -'nd s i de o- t s
grama (Bout ci-,-!:iI')end-,!.a) ill the western porti,:)n of tTe area, also quackgrasse

(b) wheat ss Just west of bluestem sod area
in the hasten,. pcrt -,-f th,-, 1),-kotas -i,.d Nebrask.I. gr,-7ses -.re
ncedlegr,- ss (Sti D7, slender -,rheatgrass p=: f lo I-,M)
Indian ,rass, -uaff,- lo side-oats gra.ar., nd

Other plr7 nts in the tall-grass pr,,- irie arcLs are 3.-:7ibsqu,- rters
(Cheno-ood-1-gr-.); m rxs' i-cldcr (.Iv!,, -,--nthif :lia), frenc"aweed -_rve-rise),
pepperfr,-,,ss (; ) 1 C,,i,-nt ( t -,orosir. ).rte: Asifoli a and
trifida wild lct-tuce (Lp.ctuca) wild licorice (C]-lycyrrhizn le-pidota) smartweed (Polygcnix ) goldenrod ( guriwced (Grindeli-7 squarrosa)
sweetclover (Melilotus), C,-inadp. thistle (Cirsiun arvense), ar).-CLolion (Leontodon) and ri rlrel s-tail (Leptilon can,-,,de--se).

Alon,,- wr,.ter c =ses and in gullies are the f ollovinC Lmportnnt trees
- nd shrubs: Eir, (ul-us) ash (Fraxinus) boxelaer (Acer ne, nO.o), ana a,,,k (k =c, s macrocar-pa.) Populus, chokecherry (Prunus virgirliana) buckbrush
1
(SYmT)horicar-ous rocemosus) Juneberry (kmelancl-.Lier c,- nr densis) roses (Rosa), curr,Ints and Ecoseborries (Ribes) and hawthorn (Gr-,tae, -us)

(c) Sancls,- e; sandgrass: Central Nebraska, Arterlisia filifolia -.and Cal"')-movilfa lon"Jfoli' .

5. Shcrt-grass, or plains prasslnnd.

(a) Gr! =. ,i;7 ss r nd western needle,-_r ,ss. Western ITorth D,' ,kota, p!,Irt of eastern nd extreme northeastern Montan,t, just c-.st of the Missouri River
- nd north of Moro,- u River in South D-kota. Princip,- l grasses are graria (Bouteloua. gracilis), western needlegrass (Sti-Pa comata), juneerass (K -eleria cristata,), and buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides). Other important plants. are purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia), silvery psorale (Psoralea
,Rr 70p _Yjl,) sage (Artemi sia spp. and many of the plants from the tallt-rass area.






215


(b) western whpr- Agrass and sagebrush: Badlands of North D ,I-_ct!,.,
lar-c area extending diagonally froth northwest to southeast in the eastern h,7 lf
of Mont,,ha and of-.st of Big Horn 1,11ountains, Wyoming, -nd 0. tr ;mc northwestern
p,, rt of ]Dakota, all ..ore or los s broker, country. Principal gr1r.sses are
western wheatgrass (Lropyron smithii), niggerviool, (Carex filifolic-') s-Pp.
Koleria, and CalamaFrostis. Principal plants are spge (Artenisia crina nd
A. f rifida) gumveed, buckbrush, and many other plants nd shrubs common to the
short-grass area.

4 (c) Gr,-ji,-:L grass: Gelneral easter-n two-thirds of Mont,- np en.st of Big
Horn Mountrdns in Wyom in -, extending to the Black D lls and down alon,-' the
boundary between South, Dakota and into Col(-)rr do close to the moiu-itains.
The princi-oal --,-.ss is gra -j telourL 6r,- cilis). Other ,-:rasses niegerat Porl sop. Prominent
wool (Carex filifolia), junegrass (Koleria crist- r ), nnd
spring f lovers are white m ountain-lily (Locicocrin-on mont,--num. pasque f lowcr (Pulsatilla hirsutissim -.) phlox hoodii), teXtile) ,
and groui--d daisy (To;7rsendi,-, ey-,-:1 ge (Arta-A.sia friei -- ) is
abundant with -rass. In overgrazed or rocky or barren a.-' as matchweed
(Gutierrezip. saroth r-_ S,-Lja.-n-,';.1a densa (cl-)b-foot mos ), plantain (Plantago
p] rshii), and Pc,:,, .cclinda are prominent. Along coulee '_oms is western
wheatgrass (Agro-, ron smithi-i). The trees end shrubs i--- Ihosc? --ommon to the
entire short--r,7,,ss area.

(d) Grama grass ,Lnd mount,- in Along the cr stcrn fr--,-L1t of the
mountains. Princip,- -.nd pl,,,,nts arc ,,,ramr- '7o-ati ,lnua gr--- cilis),
niggerv7ool (Carex f ili f oi-'-, molant,, in s ,Ige (Artemi,-- f ri-idr ) y,-=u u
(Achille,- miller olium) 1'r ogon-j-rn spp. penstemons, wild ro ses, --nd lu-yines'b

(e) Gram i nnd buff!-,lo Frass '"..1ost, of e,-,.-tern Color,--do, viestern 'Nlebraskn
and strip e -.st (rInd west, south of the 7hite Rivor in South D kotlr'& Occurring
in qqix ,l quantities re grrm,-' grr ss (Pouteloua Er, and b-affalo grr ss
(Buchloe d -,ctyloides'. Other grrisses un1 r more moist conditi-ns are western
needlegrass (Sti-c! i comr t,- ), wiregr'-'ss (Ari! tid, i lon _-,isqt,, ), P.nd s,-.nd sporobolus
(SEorobolus cry-pt!,ndrus). Most of the pl,- nts are, lo,-gro7.in- and include
plantain -purshii), annual fescue (Festuc,-. octofi-r-') pennyroy, l
(Hedeom,). hio-oida) bcg-rtick (D :ppal,- occident,,,lis), so,- P,.-Teed or Spanish
bayonet (Yuccr pricklypc, ,r (02unti,- ) and, -,,here the soil is wetter,
mare I s-tail (Leptilon canadonse) i7 nd gtLmweed (Grindcli squr _rr sn). Along
the streams and rivers are species )f Po-oulus and Silix.(f) Wircgrr ss: Scuthwostern Ybrask,- An open cover of grama and
buffalo grass with a sc,-,,ttered grc',,Tth of -,7ireg-rass, (Aristida lon, ,:iset7 ).
There are m-,ny decp-rocted pl,, nts such as Psor,,_' lca tenuiflor,7 r-nd bush morning-glory (I-oomoea lystophyllr ) .

Foothill, or -7estom ellov pine and Dcuglas fir forest

Black Hills and eastern front of mr,.in rnnge in Colorado. The chief
trees are rock or western yellow pine (Pinus -.,nd Dou ;l,-.s-fir
(Pseudotsuv-. mucronata) or- the north sl-opes. In the southG stcrn p,,,.rt of
Color do is the pinyon pine (Pinus edulus). The grasses ire gr- ma (Boateloua
9r-,cilis), junegrass (Koleri crist,,.tn.) ; nun, erous shrubs of the gcner ,.
Sym-phorocarpos buckbrushh), Rhus ( sum(.c) Ribes (Cooseberry Ind currant)






216


Cercocarpus (mountain mahogany), Crataegus (hawthorn), Rosa (rosebushes), and Prunus (chokecherry).

7. Montane (collections made cnly in Colorado)-Represented by lodgepole pine (Pinus murrayana), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanni), Colorado blue spruce (L. pungens), and qudkirng aspen (Populus tremuloides). Along streams are found willow (Salix), birch (Betula), and honeysuckle (Lonicera). In the openings are sedges (Carex), sages (Artemisia), sandwort (Arenaria), lupines (Lupinus), shrubby cinu- oil (Dasiphora fraticosa), locoweed (Astraculus), larkspur (Delphinium), paintbrush (C-stillej), and many others.

8. Alpine meadows, above timber line -Characterized by tiMber-line effects on Engelmoann spruce, causing them
to grow alonK the ground, dwarf willows, and other plants, monkshood (Aconitum),
bluebell (Mertensia), sedges (Carcx), phlox, goldenrod (S1idago), cowslip (Primula), gentian (L'systephana), and many more.

9. Sagebrush, or northern desert shrub -All of Wyoming west of Laramie and Big Horn Mountains, except the mountain areas and all of the Great Basin region ir Utah. The plants are sages (Artemisia tridcat-ie, A. nova, and A. rigiC,) salt sages (Atrilex corrugata, A. nuttallii, and allied species), matchweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae), big and little rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus nauseous and C. stenophyllis), winter fat (Eurotia lanata), and certain annuals, military grass (Bromus tectorum), alfilaria (Erodium cicutarium), and other desert species.

These natural vegetation areas overlap and the plants thot dominate one area may be important throughout another. Most of the collections were made either in or close to cultivated crops. In some instances special efforts were made to collect in the native environments away from the influence of cultivation.

The cropped area and pasture and hay grassland environments are varied because of differences of natural vegetation and climate. In the eastern and more humid portions of the survey territory, the fields are smaller and more cut up by fencerows and roadsides, and the bordering vegetation is much more rank and lush than in the drier, more arid western part. Therefore, a wheat field in eastern Montana furnishes a different environment than does a wheat field in Iowa, Wisconsin, or other States having greater rainfall. The grain fields in the more arid short-grass region are surrounded by large tracts of
open range, and the populations there are influenced by the surrounding shortgrass species of grasshoppers. The percentage of the total land area of the State in harvested crops is about 60 percent in Iown and 4 percent in Montana. With the breaking up of the native vegetation into farms, many new plants have been introduced in the form of crops and weeds.







-217


A study of the collections made in the different natural vegetation areas indicates that the greatest number of species occurred in the shortgrass or plains-grassland region. Michigan and Wisconsin lie in the hardwood and pine-timber region, with rank vegetation. The collections from these States represented only 12 species. In the collections from Iowa, Minnesota, and other tall-grass prairie areas the number of species was 22. The collections from the western parts of the Dokotas, Nebraska, eastern Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado averaged about 44 species. At elevations of from
4.'000 to 5,000 feet in Colorado or foothill region the number was 40; in the lower montane zone, from 6,000 to 7,500 feet, there were 32 species; from 8,000 to 8,500 feet there were 14; and above 10,500 feet there were only 5 species. These figures have only a relative significance and do not represent the actual number of species occurring in the natural vegetation areas. Utah in the northern desert-shrub region yielded 24 species.

When collections were made in a crop, special effort vwas made to sweep only in that crop. Field-margin collections were divided between soddy and weedy types. Pastures were fenced, and consisted of native or introduced grasses of relative small acreages surrounded by cultivated crops. The native grasslands were large tracts not affected by cultivation. For each State the total number of each species is shown as a percentage of the totrl number of specimens collected in the State during the survey. The relative distribution of species is listed for the States '-nd the five most important species in each environment are also given.

It must be understood that the collecting wrs very general in character rnd not all the species are represented. In future work more attention will be paid to careful collecting in specific natural vegetation areas, as contrasted with introduced conditions. This should give some information relative to the effect of cultivation on grasshopper populations. When thousands of acres of lush grain appeared in the prairies of South Drkote, there came an enormous increase in population of Melanoplus differentialis Thos. and iv. bivittatus Say, until in 1931 the hordes of these pests stripped bare an area of 30,000 square miles. Then, as increasingly dry years followed, climaxed by the gret drought of 1934 nnd the subsequent destruction of crops and depletion of native vegetation, these two species all but vanished. In 1935 along river courses, they are again staging a comeback in certain places.

COLORADO

The collections in Colorado were made in 11 different environments, as
shown in the table of the distribution of species. These represent the general habitats found on the plains, in the foothills, on the mountains, and in high mountain and alpine meadows. The elevations for these ranged from 3,500 to 12,200 feet. The annual precipitation ranges from 10 to 25 inches, with the rainfall increasing in amount and frequency with the increase in elevation. These natural vegetation zones are as follows:

1. Plains--grama, buffalo grass association -Dry and somewhat xerophytic, with an annual precipitation of -bout 10 inches.






218


2. Foothill region -- rock pine and Douglas-fir -Elevation from 5,000 to 6,000 feet, approximately, with annual precipitation of 15 to 20 inches.

3. Lo'o mountain-- 6,000 to 7,500 fooeet

4. High mountain -- 8,000 to 8,500 feet

5. Alpine -- 10,500 to 12,200 fooeet

Altogether, 3,257 specimens, including 58 species, were oollected. The plains-grassland collection had the greatest number of species -- 37; the foothill region had 40; the lower montane zone had 32; the higher montane zone, 14; and the alpine, only 5. The 5 most important species for each habitat are listed.

The worst infestations in 1935 were in the north-central counties
fringing the mountains, where succulent food was more abundant. In the more arid regions of the eastern counties severe drought, coupled with effective control campaigns, has greatly reduced the heavy populations that occurred in the severe outbroks of 1930 and 1931. Mclanoplus nexicanus Sauss. was first in numbers over the whole area. ivi. bivittatus and M. differentialis have fallen off, owing to drought and lack of succulent food.






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Colo rado

~-ais ~s~an~Foothill gasadPercent Percent
1. vinoplus paclkarail -------- 14 1.1veanoplus a.Lmexicarms -------- 16
2. Phlibostr-oma quadrinaculatumll 2. Mvelanoplus packardii -------- 14
3. Aulocara elliotti----------- 10 3. Melanoplus bivittatus --------8
4. 'Aelanoplus mexicanus ---------9 4. kalocara elliotti ------------7
5. Canulia pellucida------------9 5,. Melanoplus angustipennis--- 6
6. Thirty-two other species----47 6. Thirty-five other species --- 47

MoAuntain~ 7,000-7,500 feet Mountain, 8,00-8,500 feet
1. Caznula pellucid -------------25 1. Chorthippus curtipennis-----58
2. Mvelanoplus mexicanus -------- 12 2. Camnula pellucida-----------18
3. ivielanoplus bivittatus ------- 11 3. ,,.elanoplus mexicanus--------- 5
4. Ageneotettix (leorumn----------7 4. Cratypedes neglectus ---------4
5. i ieanoplus femur-rubnum ------ 5 5. Trimerotropis sparse --------- 4
6. Twenty-seven other species--40 6. Nine other species -----------11

Alpine bove 10,50 feet Pasture
1. iielanoplus dodgei ----------- 53 1. ',7elanoplus ilexicanus -------- 28
2. Gomp)hocerus clavatus --------30, 2. Aulocara, elliotti ----------- 14
3. Melanoplus mexicanus ---------4 3. iM;elanoplus pEckardii -------- 13
4. Lelanoplus infeantilis --------2 4. Acoloplus turnbullii'---------9
5. Aulocara elliotti ------------2 5. ielanoplus fluviatilis -------7
6. Ho others 6. Sixteen other species ------- 29

Small Frain Ro Ads id~e
1. Me lanop lu s fcrur-rubrum-----18 1. Ac oloplus turnbulli --------- 10
2. M;Ilanoplus mexicanus -------- 13 2 ,liulanoplus feriur-rubrwn------90
3. 1vielanoplus bivittatus ------- 10 3. !LIelanoplus rne.-xicanus ---------9
4. iMelanoplus lak imu s---------- 10 4. Ilelanoplus p 2,ckard i i---------9
5. Melanoplus pakrli----85. ,'el1anoplus lakixnus -----------6
6. Twenty-four other species---41 6. Thirty-two other species----57

Leg= s We (,d patch
1. iLielanoplus femur-rLbrurn-----27 1. Mielano-plus mex.icanus -------- 16
2. 1iela-nopolus b ivittatus ------- 19 2. Derotmema haydetni ----------- 14
3. Melanoplus mexicanus -------- 13 3. 1.ielanoplus bivittatus --------8
4. 14elanoplus lJkirnus -----------6 4. Dissosteira. longipennis------8
5. 'ilanoplus (ifferentialis--- 6 5. 1velanoplus an~ustipennis---- 7 6. Twenty-five other species---29 6. Twenty-one other species----47,

River bottom Percentage of grqndl tota-:l
1. flerotmerna haydeni ----------- 12 1. ,Melanoplus mexicanus -------- 12
2. Aeoloplus turnbulli ----------8 2. sielanoplus femur-rubrum-----10
3. ivielanoplus mexicanus ---------7 3. Mulanoplus packardii ---------8
4. Mvelanoplus bivittatus --------7 4. kielanoplus bivittatus --------7
5. Li:elanopolus packa-rdii ---------6 5. Aeoloplus turnbulli ----------7
6. Twenty-seven other species--60 6. Fifty-four other species----56






-222


IOWA

All ;f the collections were made in the western third of the State. The whole of Iowa lies in the bluestem sod area of the tall-grass prairie region. Most of this original vegetation has been entirely replaced by cultivoted crops and the country is cut up into small fields having a great length of fencerows, roadsides, and other types of field margin. About 60 to 70 percent of the total land area is under cultivation.

A totp.l of 2,991 specimens were collected, representing 21 species
taken in 5 habitats. This is only about half the number of species taken in the short-grass region. The distribution of the 5 :iost important species is
given for each habitat. Melanoplus femur-rubrun was, perhaps, the most numerous species. M. mexicanus wes second. There was a rather even distribution of grasshoppers over some 27 counties in the western third of the State.
This is an increase over last year.

Iowa

Small grains Roadside

Percent Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus-------59 1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum ----84
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum----24 2. Melanoplus mexicanus--------12
3. Melanoplus differentialis-- 5 3. Melanoplus differentialis--- 2
4. Aeneotettix deorum -------- 4 4. Melrnoplus bivittatus------- 1/2
5. Melanoplus packardii------- 2 5. Brachystola magna---------- 1/2
6. Six other species---------- 6 6. Five other species---------- 1

Leudes Weed tch

1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum----60 1. Melanoplus mexicanus-------- 65
2. Melanoplus mexicanus-------36 2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum -----28
3. Ageneotettix deorum -------- 2 3. Ageneotettix deorum--------- 5
4. Melanoplus differentialis-- 1 4. Melanoplus differentialis--- 2
5. Melenoplus bivittatus------ 1/2
6. Six other species---------- 1/2

Pasture Percentage of grand total

1. Melanoplus mexicanus-------65 1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-----52
2. Mclanoplus femur-rubram----24 2. Melanoplus mexicanus--------41
3. Ageneotettix deorum -------- 6 3. Ageneotettix deorum--------- 3
4. Melanoplus differentialis-- 2 4. Melanoplus differentialis--- 2
5. Dissoeteira carolina------- 1 5. Dissosteira carolina -------- 1
C. Nine other species --------- 2 6. Sixteen other species------- 1




















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224


MICHIGAN

A portion of the State lies in the northeastern pine forest region, part in the northeastern hardwoods, and part in the southern hardwoods. The densest white pine forests in the country were once found on the sandy lornm soils cf Michigan. Most of these h-ve booeen denuded, leaving largc areas of cut-over stunp grasslands which forn ideal breeding grounds for Cannul pellucina and M. me:icanus under combined conditions of drought and overpasturing. Some 250 spccicn of weeds and ,rlsses are listed for this State and they abound in these stump lands. They are listed mostly as to genera under the natural vegetation of this State.

Most of the collections were made in some type of grassland, small grains and legumes being the only crops included. Some 6,673 specimens, representing 12 species, were collected. The number of species here is about one-fourth that of the short-grass region, one-half that of the tallgrass prairie, end about equal to the number of species found.at elevations of 8,500 fet and higher in Colorado. The -mount of plant cover has something to do with the population end variety of species, the denser the cover
the less the population and the number of species.

In all of the collections M. mexicanus made up 72 percent of the total. This species was dominant by far in both the Upper and Lower Peninsulas. C. pellucida was secondd, being more numerous in the Upper POninsula. M. femur-rubrm was probably third in numbers, at least in the Upper Peninsula, with Agencotettix deorum in about equal numbers in the Lower Peninsula.

In 1934 C. pellucida. outnumbered Iv. incxicanus two to one in the Upper Peninsula, but in 1935 M. mexicanus outnumbered C. pellucida more than three to one. Cold rains and foggy weather during the hatching season reduced all grasshopper populations here and more especially C. pellucida. In the Lower Peninsula, M. mexicanus outnumbered C. pollacida ten to one. The average infestation in the Upper Peninsula in 1934 was about 2.5 times as are, t as in 1933. In the Lower Peninsula, that is in 30 counties in the upper half, the 1935 infestation is about 25 times as groat as in 1934.







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-226




P s u ePercent u c g a sPercent
1. idielanoplus mxcn-----70 1. iaThroplus mexicanus ----------- 74
2. Carnl2. pallucicia --------------12 2. Cammn.1a pellucid ---------------13
3. 4jIelanoplus feirn-r-rubrum -------5 3. ..Lelanoplus foemur-rubram ---------6
4. Agericootettix doeorum-----------4 4. Chorthippus curtiponnis ---------3
5. Arpiia pseudonictana ----------4 5. Encoptolophus costalis ---------- 1
6. Seven other species---------- 5 6. Three other species------------- 3

!,i ixed Cut-over
l. Mvelanoplus mexi z-anus---------2 1. i.,elanoplus mexicanus----------- 74
2. ieanoplus femuar-rubrum-------9 2. A geneotettix deorumn------------ 17
3. Cainnula pellucida ------------- 3 3. Arphia pseudonietan ------------- 6
4. Erncoptolophuas costalis --------2 4. lVielanoplus dawsoni--------------1
5. Arphia pseudonietana ---------- 1 5. Encoptolophias sordidus- ---------1
6. Five other species ------------3 6. Three other species -------------1

Small gr-2.in e-es
1o iela nop lus me x icanu s--------- 70 1 ielanoplus me.-iceanus ----------- 53
2o Camnula pellucidL ------------- 10 2. ilelanoplus femur-rbrum-------- 27
3. Eiacoptolophus sordidus --------8 3. Idelanoplus bivittatus -----------7
4. ivi-anoplus femur-rubram------- 5 4. Ageneotettix deorwn -------------3
5. Arplis pseudonietania------- 3 5. CamnuJ.. pellucida --------------- 2
6. Three other species -----------4 6o Six other species ---------------8

i K Wa-ste, Wild a:nd Abandoned Land
1. d.elanoplus mexicanus --------- 71 1. idelanoplus inexicanus ----------- 77
2. I-i-,lc'nojp)us femur-rubrum ------ 10 2. Ageneotettix deoruin------------ 10
3. Carmnula pelluicida ------------ 10 3. Cainnul.a pellucid,:---------------- 4
4. ,iolanoolus bivittatus ---------4 4. Arphia pseudonietana ------------4
5. Arphia pseudonietana ----------1 5. Encoptolophus' sordidus ----------3
6. Si:: other species -------------4* 6. Two other species ---------------2

Percetg of grand total
Percent
1. 1 ieanoplus mokicanus ------------- 72
2. Camnnula pelcd-------9 3. ilielanoplus femur-rubrua-----------6
4. Ageneotettix deorurn---------------4
5. Arphia pseudonietana --------------3
6. Seven other peis------6






227


MINIESOTA

All of the collections from Minnesota were made in the western
part of the State. This lies in the bluestem sod area of the tall-grass prairie region. The important grasses and other plants are those comon to this natural vegetation area.

There were 3,896 specimens altogether in the collections taken from 9 co;non habitats. These comprise 32 species all of which are listed, together with their di~ :ribution. The 5 most important species in each environmen: are given --th their relative abundance in percentages of the total number collected in each habitat.

Melanoplus mexicanus ranked seventh in numbers for 1935, whereas
in 1934 it ranked third. Encontolophus costalis hos supplanted IM. bivittatus in sec-nd place. M. femur-rubrum at fourth place and Agene'-tettix deorumn at fifth place have displaced I. packardii and Diss steira carolina, respectively. The whcle grasshopper population has been greatly reduced by vigorous, woll-orgarnized control campaigns during the past several years. In 1934 there were 30 counties needing some control measures. The survey in 1935 showed only 2 counties needing poisoned bait.







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-229

bMinne sot a
Small yans eu s
Percent Percent
1. aelanoplus bivittatus ------- 28 1. ivielanoplus femur-rubrum ------ 28
2. Cam.,.nula pellucida----------- 27 2. Camnula pellucida------------ 21
3. Melanoplus dawsoni -----------9 3. Ageneotettix deorum ---------- 10
4. Encoptolcphus costalis -------7 4. ilelanoplus dawsoni ------------8
5. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------6 5. .Encoptolophus costalis --------7
6. Fifteen other species ------- 23 6. Thirteen other species ------- 26

Roadside Pasture
1. Carnnula pellucida----------- 24 1. Camnula pellucida------------ 18
2. Encoptolophus costalis ------ 19 12, E~ncoptolophus costalis ------- 14
3. Dissostiera carolina -------- 12 3. A. cieorum --------------------10
4. iMelanoplus bivittatus ------- 10 4. ilielanoplus dawsoni ------------9
5. i~ielanoplus femur-rubrun------9 5. Orphiileila speciosa -----------9
6. Twenty other species ---------2 6 6. wenty-oeohrseis--4

?Fail1r oad River bottom
1. ivelanoplus rnexicaus -------- 36 1. Ii(c stobr, gra kiow --------------31
2. Ageneotettix deorun---------30 2. Ageneot--ttix &eorum ---------- 11
3. Dissostiera carolina ---------8 3. iveeanoplus gladstoni --------- 12
4. Camnule. pellucida----------- 8 4. C. pellucidc -------------------9
5. M. fernur-rubrum--------------6 5. Encoptolophus costalis --------8
6. Five other species -----------12 6. Pifeteen other species ------- 29

Coulee WJeedI patch
1. Camanula pellucida ----------- 26 1. Cannula pellucid ---------------43
2. zEcoptolophus costa-lis ------ 24 2. Eneoptolophus costalis ------- 16
3. Melanophus f'emur-rubrwn-----18 3. 1vielanoplus dawsoni ----------- 13
4. Ageneotettix deorum--------- 10 4. Dissostiora carolina--------- 5
5. M. gladstoni -----------------3 5. Mlanoplus femur-rbu -------5
6. Ten other species ----------- 19 6. Nine other species ----------- 18

Ditchi bank Porcontage of grand total
1. Mielanoplus -bivittatus ------- 66 1. Cannula.plui~------2
2. Camnrula pellucida ------------ 14 2. Encoptolophus costalis ------- 13
3. Encoptolophus costalis -------6 3. M ,elanoplus bivittatus -------- 13
4. M. fernur-rubrum--------------5 4. Ialanoplus femur-rubrum------ 9
5. M*. mexicanus ----------------- 3 5. Agoneotettix deorum-----------7
6. Five other species -----------6 6. Twenty-seven other species --- 37






230


MONTANA

All of the collections in this State were made in that portion east
of the Continental Divide. It is in the short-grass area which is subdivided
for the State as follows:

1. Grama and western needlegrass:

PFart of extreme east-central and extreme northeastern portions.

2. Western wheatgrass and sagebrush:

Large area extending diagonally frpm northwest to southeast through eastern half.

3. Grama grass:

General eastern two-thirds of State.

4. Groma grass and mountain sage:

Along eastern front of the mountains. The chief crops are small grains and alfalfa and there are large tracts of grazing lands that have been severely damaged during the last outbreak.

There were 10,401 specimens in the Montana collections, representing 42 species in 10 habitats. The distribution is given for all environments and the 5 most important species are listed for each habitat. Melanoplus mexicanus is still the dominant species in most places. In 1934 it was also the dominant species on the rangelond forming from 7 to 45 percent of the population. In 1935 M. mexicnus wrs fifth in abundance at 9 percent of the population. Cordillacris crenulata Brun, Mestobregma kiowa, and Ageneotettix deorum were the dominant species this past season.

Infestations have shifted from the northern counties to the Yellowstone Valley, where the worst outbreaks occurred last summer. For l0 years--1923 to 1934--this valley had been practically free from grasshopper trouble.








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1,o ntaz, q

Small-grains and roa~side Small grains
Percent Percent
1 ivielanoplus mexicanus ----------- 57 1. li.elanoplus mexicanus --------- 73
2. Ideloanoplus, packard.ii ----------- 17 2. Melanoplus. packardii ----------7
3. 4geneotettix deorumn-------------8 3. Melanoplus fernur-rubrrn-------oQ
4. iMelanoplus femur-rubrum ---------5 4. Aulocara elliotti -------------2
5. Aulocara elliotti ---------------3 5. Cwnnula poellucide ------------- 2
6. Thirty-one other species ------- 10 6. Fourteen other species ------- 10

Sodd.y roadside Wed roadside
1. Lelanoplus mezicanus ----------- 20 1. ivielanoplus mexicanus --------- 39
2. Aulocara elliotti -------------- 15 2. ielanoplus femur-rubrum ------ 28
3. Agenetettix deorum ------------ 13 3. Aulocara elliotti -------------7
4. IMestobregma kiowa -------------- 12 4. Camnula pellucidea------------- 4
5. Aaphitornus coloradus----------10, 5. Ivielanoplus, packardii ----------4
6. Thirteen other species --------- 30 6. Eighteen other species ------- 18

Plains grassland Le~,e s
1. Cordillacris creniat a--------- 15 1. Melanoplus mexicanus --------- 44
2. liestobregma kiowa -------------- 14 2. Me,,lanoplus femur-rubrum ------ 36
3. Igeettxdeou------1 3. i,,elanoplus bivittatus---------6
4. Aulocara elliotti -------------- 10 4. Car-nnuaa pelcda------5
5. Idelanoplus mexicanus ------------9 5. idanoplus packardi----------3
6. Twenty-six other species ------- 40 6. Nine other species ------------6

Low mountain grassland Reversion
1. idelanoplus infantilism ---------- 44 1. Idelanoplus mexicanus ----- 25
2. Aulocara elliotti -------------- 15 2. Aulocara elliotti ------------ 16
3. 11elanoplus mexicanus ----------- 13 3. Agenetettix deonnn ---------- 12
4. Ilelanoplus femur-rubrum ---------11 4. 1Lielanoplus packardii --------- 10
5. iestobregna kiowa---------------5 5. Nelanoplus, angustipennis-----10
6. Five other species ------------- 12 6, Fifteen other species -------- 27

River bottom C oule e
1. Propanopterna femoratumi,-------- 29 1. blelanoplus mexicanus --------- 39
.lelanoplus mexicanus ------------11 2. M elanoplus bowditchi --------- 18
3. Ce~anula pellucid.a --------------11 3. Drepanop tern-, fernoratum ------ 18
4. Ageneotttix deor-iA------------- 8 4. iAgencotettix deorurn---------18
5. Aulocara elliotti ----------------7 5. Aulocara elliotti -------------7
6, Twenty-three other species-----34 6. None

Percentage of gand total
1. welanoplus noXicanus -------376'
2. idelanoplus f ermur rub ruin--- -10
3. Agenotettix deoriin--------- 7
4. _iulocara elliotti -----------6
5. Idestobregria kiowa -----------5
6. Other species -------------- 36






234'NEBRASKA

The collections made in Nebraska were divided into two lots:
(1) TL.ose taken in the' extreme eastern part and (2) those in the middle and western parts. Nebraska is comprised of the following natural vegetation areas:

1. Tall-grass prairie in eastern portion:

(a) Bluestem sod association in the extreme east.
(b) Needlegrass and slender wheatgrass association just west of (a).

2. Sand sage-sand grass area in the middle of the State. Here the soil is
far too light for safe cultivation and very few collections were made.

3. Wiregrass aesocietion containing an open cover of grama grass, Buffalo
grass and wiregrass.

4. Grma-buffalo grass association in the extreme west.

In all parts of the State there are the common weeds A-brosia,
Chenopodium, Amaranthus, Lactuca, Polygonum, Salsola, Leptilon, C-rindelia.

Twelve species were colleQted in the tnll-grass area ane 33 in the short-grass area. Most of the collections in the eastern prrt wvrore made along roadsides, in legumes, and in rape. There were 844 specimens collected in three habitats with Melanoplus mexicanus by far the most important species. In the western part most -,f the collections were made along roadsides and in legumes, and 958 specimens were t-ken from six habitats. M. fomur-rubrum wys the dominant species in a tot 1 of all collections. This was due, perhaps, to the fact that most of the specimens came from rcadsides and alfalfa fields. The six most important species and their relative abundance are listed for each habitat.

The worst infestations in 1935 were limited to the eastern counties
bordering the Missouri River. Here the general population has increased over 1934. In the western part, where farming is somewhat spotted, infestations were light and spotted in 1935.









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Nab r sk,E.-'stern P,- rt

Rortd s i de
Percent Percent
1. MolcrrLoplus maxic,--nus ------- 57 1. Mej,, Opjus mexicrnus --------- 94
2. Melano-clus femur-.rabrum----29 2. IM e lrin o plus f emur-rab=.------ 3
3. Agencotcttix decorum -------- 4 3. 'Mol:,noplus bivitt,-,tus -------- 1
4. Melmoplus difforentir ,lis- 4 4. Molnmoplus differentirdis-- 1
5. Melanoplus bivittatus ------ 3 5. Dissostcir,, c,- rolin,- --------- 1
6. Sevon other species -------- 3 6. No others

Lc7=e s P q. r c c Li t,- of Crand tot,' l
1. molmoplus moxic!,nus ------- 21 1. Yelr .noplus mexicanus -----2. Mclrnoplus femur-n)brum---- 4 2. llol -_noplus femur-rubrum------16
3. ldelzmoplus differentialis-- 2 3. Mclzr .oplus bivitt-tus -------- 3
4. Molnnoplus bivitt,-.tus ------ 2 4. Agencotettix deomm ---------- 2
5. Encoptolophus cost,-lis-__-_ 1 5. 1,,Iol,-,.r.oplus bivittatus -------- 2
6. No others 6. Sevcn other species ---------- 4

Western part
Roadside Railroad
1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum----50 1. MelanoLlus femur-rubm-rq------49
2. Melanoplus mexicanus ------- 10 2. ',,Ielanoplus mexicanus --------- 13
3. Melanoplus bivittatus ------ 8 3. Ar
4. Aeolo-plus turnbullii ------- 6 eneotettix decorum ---------- 10
4. Mel.anoplus bivittatus -------- 8
5. Melanoplusdifferentialis-- 6 5. A-alocar,-, elliotti ------------ 7
6. Eighteen other species ----- 20 6. Six other species ------------ 13

e s Corn
1. Ylelanoplus f emur-rubrum ---- 30 1. IvIelanoplus rrexicanus --------- 31
2. Melmoplus mexic-,.nus ------- 26 2. Ilelamoplus angustipennis--30
3. Melanoplus bivitt;7 tus ------ 9 3. Ageneotcttix decorum ---------- 11
4. Melanoplus angustipennis --- 8 4. Dissosteira 8
5. Ageneotettix decorum -------- 5 5. llelanoplus packardii --------- 7
6. Sixteen other species ------ 22 6. Six other species ------------ 13

Sm,- ll grains Rercent ge of grr nd total
1. llelnnoplus mexicmus ------- 17 1. mcl,,.noplus femur-rubrum ------ 32
2. Metator pardalinus --------- 15 2. Melmoplias mexicmus --------- 18
3. Aulocrza elliotti ---------- 12 3. Ageneotettix decorum ---------- 7
4. Drepanoptcrn,% f emoratum ---- 12 4. 1,.Ielrmopl-as bivitt-tus -------- 7
5. Hadrotettix trifasciatus---10 5. Mlel,-,noplus angustipennis----- 6
6. Nine other species --------- 34 6. Thirty-three other species --- 30

Plvins grassland
J I. Ageneotettix deorum -------- 27
1 2. Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum ------------- -------- 22
3. Melpnoplus mexic-,,nus-------15 4. Sph,- r,-Zemon equal --------- 14
5. Melanoplus packv.rdii ------- 8 6. Eight other species -------- 14











NORTH DAKOTA

The collections made in North Dakota were divided into those taken
from the eastern half, or tall-grass prairie, or those from the western half, or short-grass region. The natural vegetation is as follows:

1. Tall-grass area (eastern half):

(a) Bluestem sod association--extreme eastern portion or along the
Red River Valley.
(b) Needlegrass-slender whetgrass--west of (a) to just beyond
Jamestown and swinging northwest to Canada.

2. Short-grass region western half):

(a) Grena and western needlegrass--most of the western half.
(b) Western wheatgrass and sagebrush--badlands of southwestern
quarter.
(c) Grmia grass--extreme west and southwest.

This is mostly the hard-spring-wheat area, with intensive farming
in the east end large-scale crop production in the west. The east is more mesophytic eand west xerophytic.

In the eastern half 673 specimens were collected, representing 22
species. In the west 5,447 specimens were tnken, representing 41 species. Melanoplus mexiconus was the dominant species in both portions. In 1934 Camnula pellucida was right up to the top in abundance in the eastern part of the State, but in 1935 it fell to fourth place. It ran from 50 to 75 percent of the total grasshopper population in the ee.stern. part in 1934, but in 1935 it was under 10 percent anywhere. June rains reduced the numbers of the particular species considerably.

The populations were low in the eastern quarter and in the southern
tier of counties east of the Missouri River. In parts of the north-central, northwestern, and southwestern counties, severe infestations still occurred, but the general population since 1934 has been reduced about 50 percent over most of the State.






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Eastern North Dakota

Small Fprains :Flax

Percent Percent
Ai pll~orus mexicanus -------67 1. Melanoplus mexicanus---7
A,. lviel !.nop us f emur-rubram.--11 2 eaolsfru-i.I-1
3. Encopt~pu otls-- 3. Encoptolo-phus costa-lis- 3
4. Ageneotettix &eorum --------- 3 4. Melonoplus bivittatus----- 2
5. Phoetaliotes nebrascensis --- 3 5'. Melanoplus packardii -------2
6. Eleven others --------------- 12 6. Seven others ---------------9

Roadside Pasture
1,1. Je )rop1us mexicants -------- 40 1. Mvelranoplus inexicanus ------ 28
2. Encoptolophus costalis ------ 23 2. E-?coptolop,-h-s costalis----l?
3. Otmnlo pellucid,,a------------II 3. ielunoplus f emur-rufbrum----1
4. Agpeneotettix deorum ----------5 4. Camnula pellucida----------- 9
5. Melvanoplus packardii -----5 5. Melanoplus dawsoni --------- 7
6. Seven others ---------------- 16 6. Eleven others ------------- 28

Eairoacl Percenta-~e of grand total
10 MVellano~lus mexicanus -------- 46 1. IV,, mexicanus -------------- 48
2- W. Iicoptoloph1-us cc stalis------17 2. hi, fexnur-rubrun----------- 11
3. ',E1'2noplus femru-ruorum---9 E-, Ecoptolophus costalis ----l11
4. Akeneotettix doox-um----------9 4. Carnnula. pellucida----------6
5# Ccnnlla pellucida------------ 7 5. Agoneotettix deorwn --------4
6. Four others ------------------12 6. Seventeen others ---------- 20,












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243

VWesto~rn North Dakota

SfiaLn 1gra ins Crosted wheat pcrass

Percent ParcentA
1. Ivlel--crO-PlUs ;2-exicanius ---------- 46 1. Cvamnula pellucida -------------- 39
2. Agonotet-tix doorun ----------- 15 2. ...olarnolplus rmexicanus ----------- 27
3. .olanoplus packardii -----------7 3. Ageneotttix. deorum -------------8
4. Dissostaira carolina-----------6 4. 1,ietator pard~alinus --------------7
5. .ola,oplus frxruun----4 5. Derotma ha:ydenii -------------- 4
6. Twenty-six others ------------- 22 6. Twelve others ------------------ 15

Upan pL,-4rieLe wes
1. Agenotettix acoruni----------- 33 1. 1Ce-anoplus uIc-xicanus ----------- 59
2. Phlibostrome. quadriaculatna--26 2. idlolcnoplus packax'&ii ----------- 15
3. I.,elanoplus iexicanus -----------9 3. Z..ielanoplus f er.iur- rub ra -------- 11
4. ,'Olanaplus Gladstoni -----------5 4. Iijelanoplus gladstoni ------------3
5. Drepanopterna femoratum --------4 5. Dissosteira caroline.------------ 3
6.* Fourteen others --------------- 23 6. Twelve others -------------------9

Fl1a:x Roadside
1. i'flelazoipus moxicanus ---------- 34 1. i~ielanoplus mexicanus ----------- 31
2. i'ielanoplus fe.r-rubr:mi------- 12 2. Dissosteira carolina -----------19
3. LIi~ator pardalinus -------------8 3. Ageneotettix deorum ------------ 12
4. Agoneotettix &eorum------------7 4. !Ielanoplus packcaii ------------6
5. Aulocara-- elliotti --------------5 5. Phlibostrorie quadriiaculatum-- 6
6. Eighteen others --------------- 34 6. Twenty-one others -------------- 26

i~a 1 ro ad Be ttonland
1 Ageaeotettix deorun----------- 32 1. Cannulapelca-------1
2. i.ielan:-oplus r.exicanus ---------- 19 2. 1.1tator pardalinus ------------- 15
3. _4.cr.uiiria rnaculipennis ----------8 3. ,,ncoptolophus 6ostalis --------- 14
4. 1 .ostobrcgmaa kiowa --------------7 4. i&J-_anoplus m.exicanues ----------- 12
5. Dissostoira carolina------------ 6 5. Agenotettix deorum-------------9
6. Twenty-one others ------------- 28 6. Fourteen others ---------------- 35

Pasture Percentage of grand total
1. Ageneotettix deorum ----------- 29 1. ivielanoplus mexicanus ----------- 29
2. PI-libostroma quadrimaculatum--17 2. Ageneotettix deorum ------------ 17
3. Mestobregma. kio-wa ------------- 13 3. Dissosteira carolina.------------7
4. Mveanoplus mexicanus -----------9 4. Phlibostron quadrimaculatum- 5
5. 1Metator pardalinus------------ 7 5. Camnula pellucida---------------- 5
6. Twenty-four others ------------ 25 6. Thirty-seven others-------------35







244SOUTH DAKOTA

All of the collections in South Dakota were made in the short-grass region. There are five types of association occurring in this area:

1. Grama and western needlegrass:
East of the Missouri and north of the Moreau Rivers.

2. Western wheatgrass:
Most of the area south of the Moreau River and west of the Missouri
River.

3. Grama-buffalo grass:
A strip east and west south of the White River and west of the
Missouri River.

4. Western wheatgrass and sagebrush:
Extreme northwestern portion in foothills.

5. Greana grass:
Also extreme northwestern portion on plains.

Most of the collecting was restricted to places other than cultivated crops. There were no collections in corn and only a small percentage (3 percent) in small grains. The bulk of the specimens came from the native grasslands; therefore, any statements regarding relative abundance of the different species must be modified by this fact.

A total of 2;741 specimens were taken, representing 47 species.
The dominant species in the whole lot were Ageneotettix deorum and Mestobregma kiowa, each equaling about 19 percent of the total number collected.
Melanoplus mexicanus ranks third, at approximately 13 percent.

M. bivittatus and M. differentialis were still not very abundant after the drought, which decimated their numbers; however, observation showed that these two species are building up again in the cultivated crops along river courses.

In 1934 M. mexicanus wrs the dominant species in this part of South Dokota, but this year it has fallen to third place. Strange to say, Mestobregma kiowa was the most numerous of all species in alfalfa, constituting 42 percent. These collections were made in Sepicmbcr when the alfalfa was short and dry. In 1934 M. mexicanus constituted from 40 to 80 percent
of the populations in alfalfa in this area, but in 1935, only 7 percent.

Threatening infestations were found all along the river courses in the central and western parts of the State. The worst infestations were along the Missouri River bottom in Hughes County.







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South Dpkot,STardl. gr--uns P,-.sture gr,- sslrmd
Percent Percent
1. !,,Icl,-noplus mexicr-nu -------- 52 1. Ageneotettix decorum ---------- 26
2. Dissosteir- c,- rolinn,-------2? 2. Mestobregma kiov7n ------------- 22
3. Ageneotettix decorum -------- 5 3. J ejanoplus mexic,-.nus --------- 15
4. CMuul '. pellucid,.t ---------- 5 4. Spharf-gomon collar ---------- 6
5. llelrnoplus femur-rabrum ---- 5 5. Met tor p,- rdalinus ----------- 6
6. Five others ---------------- 6 6. Fifteen others --------------- 25

Road s i d e Low mount %in grassl,-,nd
1. MODnoplus mexicr nus ------- 26 1. Ageneotottix doorum ---------- 22
2. Mestobregma kiow-L ---------- 9 2. 'Mostobreginri. kiow ------------- 18
3. Agereotettix deo=m -------- 8 3. Auloc,--x,- elliotti ------------ 15
4. Derotmem-!- haydenii --------- 7 4. Metitor pardalinus ----------- 10
5. Mel,-.no- lus femr-rubrum ---- 5. lv'elanoplus rmgustipennis ----- 9
6. Twenty-two others ---------- 44 6. Eleven others ---------------- 26

Plr ins gr isslcncl Weedy patches1. Mestebreg.-i1r. kiow. ---------- 26 1. 1,,,Tcl,?moplus mexic ,mus --------- 16
2. Agenectettix deorLLm -------- 25 2. Drepunopterna femoratiza ------ 12
3. Phlibostro.-.a-, quadrin,,, cultbmr-ll 3. Auloc,- ra elliotti ------------ 12
4. Mcl,-. -jopjus mexicprus ------- 8 4. Dissesteira carolina --------- 9
5. Amphitornus color -,,dus ------ 7 5. Hadrotettix trif,,.sci,-Aus ----- 7
6. TTenty-two others ---------- 23 6. Sixteen others --------------- 44

Le ,- 11 o River Bottom
1. Mestobrog.ia kiowr ---------- 42 1. Mestobre&-ia kicwa ------------ 15
2. Agenectettix decorum -------- 19 2. Agenectetti:,- deorun ---------- 14
3. Mel,,,roplus r- exicjpus ------- 7 3. Dreprzopterna f e---aor,- tum ------ 11
4. Melmaoplas f eniur-rubrix----- 6 4. Aeoloplus turnbullii --------- 8
5. Drepanopterna 5 5. Mlclrnoplus lpkinus ----------- 8
6. Ninete,. n others ------------ 21 6. Twonty-three others ---------- 44
Railroad ri-ht-Lf-= -,r --nd to tPI
Percentage of
1. Melmaoplus r,cxic,-nus ------- 43 1. Agencotettixde-aru ------------- 19
2. Agenectettix dooru.,n---------26 2. lVicstobregma kiow(-) ------------- 19
3. Mestobreg-i, kiow,- ---------- 8 3. Molpnoplus mcxic,mus----------13
4. Mol -Iloplus pr.ckardii ------- 6 4. Phlibostroma qu,,-Arim, cul t=- 5
5. Spharagemon collr re -------- 5 5. Aulocara elliotti ------------ 4
6. Seven others ---------------- 12 6. Fcrty-two others ------------- 40






2148


MiH


1viost of the -m-itural vogetn.tion of the St,-Ao is desert shrub compose d of sagebrash, or northern-de sort shrub, rr.d grer sc-.7ood, or s,,*).lt-desert shrub.

The collections contr ined 2,040 specimens, repro senti.-g 23 sy)ocies t,-ke-.-- ir. about 8 environments. The doni.nnnt species -r s Mcl,--noplus mexicmus with M. fomur-rubrLm a close second in mu.ibors, ,nd Triimerotropis vinculata third. The w -,rst infestations Wore in the north-centr,-I part, rmd there vmro light infestations throughout the farming, district.






-249


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-250

Utah

Alfalfa for seed P ast ure
Pe rce nt Percent
1. i'IeTl&nojlus packardii' ------------ 32 1. Trimerotropis vnuaa---2
2. iqeianopolis mexicanus ------------28 2. !hestobregma kiowa---------------22
3. i4elanoplus fernur-rubr=m---------18 3. !vilanoplus femur-rubrwn --------15
4. Trimerotrop is-vinculat ---------- 12 4. Mvelanoplus mexicanus----------- 15
5. Dissosteira carolina ------------ 4 5. Dissosteira carolina -----------10
6. Five other species -------------- 6 6. Throe other species ------------11

Alf alfa Mve adow
1. ivelanoplus mexicanus---- ------29 1. Camhula pellucida--------------28
2. Melanoplus fernur-rubmmw--------- 22 2. Chorthippus curtipennis-------- 25
3. Triinerotrop is vincul.a,ta---r------20 3. 1velanopli ----------------------21
4. Canula pluia--.-----9 4. mlanmoplus fernur-rubrumn-------- 9
5. EMelanoplus, packardii ------------ 9 5. Melanoplus mexicanus ----------- 9
6. Fifteen other species ----------11 6. Five other species ------------- 8

Stubble and lfalfa Small grgain
1. idelanoplus mexicanus ------------ 30 1. Ldelanoplus mexicanus ---------- 33
2. ldelanop lus fenur-ribrm ---------26 2. Camnuala pellucida-------------27
3. Iiulanoplus pLackardii ----------- 16 3. Dissosteira carolina----------- 20
4. Trijarotropis vinculata---------- 9 4. Trimerotropib vinculate-------- 20
5. Dissosteira carolina------------- 6 5. No other species
6. Eleven other seis-----1

Orchard ivi ixture
1 Triraerotropis vinculata.--------42 1. 11e laop lu s f ernur- rub rum-------- 27
2. ivelanoplus fenrur-rubrum -------- 21 2. MVelanoplus rmexicanus ----------- 26
3. Melanoplus packardii -----------12 3. Trimerotropis vinculata --------25
4. ime~ei aculipennis ----------- 8 4. ldelanoplus packardi-----------1
5. Dissosteira carolina ------------- 4 5. Dissteira ca,,rolina ----------- 3
6. Three other species -------------13 6. Ten other species -------------- 9

Corn Stubble
1. MVelalaoplus foraur-rubrun ---------32 1. Melanoplus femur-rubram --------30
2. IDissosteira carolina ------------ 23 2. 1L elanoplus inexicanus----------- 28
3. Trimertropis vinculata --------- 14 3. Triracrotropis vinculata ------- 12
4. ivelanioplus reins------9 4. Carmnula pellucidea--------------8
5. 1Melanoplus packarclii------------- 9 .5. Dissosteira carolina ----------- 8
6. Three others --------------------13 6. Seven other species ------------14

'Percente~ of grand total1
1. idlelanoplus raexicanus --- *------27
2. Melanoplus feuiur- rubrun -------23
3. Trim~erotropis vinculata-------- 17
4. Lielanopius packardii-,------- 11
5. Carmnula pellucida ------------- 7
6. Nineteen other species--------15







251


WI SCOTSIT

The whole of Wisconsin is in the eastern forest region and the natural vegetation arees are as follows:

1. Jack, red, and white pines--northern part-.

2. Birch, beech, ma-ple, and hemlock association--northern part.

3. Ok hickory association--southern part.

Like Michigan, there is a lot of cut-over stump land, small
pasture, end hay meadow which, under extreme drought and overpasturing, furnishes ideal breeding grounds for Melenoplus mcxicnus and Cnmnula pellucida. The vegetation is very lush, affording rn rbund-nce of plrnt cover.

Most of the specimens are from pasture grassland. Altogether,
789 specimens were taken, representing only 9 species. Only 3 habitats were included. According to the collections, E. femur-rubrum formed over 80 percent of the population. C. pcllucida has been the dominant species for several years. The rains or foggy weather ii June just about wiped out this species, as well as the general infest-tions. The severe infestations have shifted to the southern part of the Strto.



















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-25

'Wisconsin


Pasture grassland Sim.all grains
Percent Percent
1 1-j liC l JiO f'. felur- rub nL-.i -----76 1. ivelanoplus fei.iur-rubrum --- 94
2. 1".elanoplus nmexicanus -------18 2. 1ielanoplus :,exicanus----- 3
3. C,-'Inula pellucida---------------3 3. Chorthippus, curt ipenn;is- ---- --1
4. ,,ostobrejima kiova ---------------1 4. Dissosteira carolina.----------1
5. Encoptolophus costalis ----------1 5. Canula pollucida -------------1
6. TwI.o other species ---------------1

Al fal fa Prcetage of grn total
1. Lielanoplus fermur-rubruni------- 100 1. 1 Me lan-.oplus fe:-.ur- rubirri------83
2. Idelanoplus niexicanus --------- 12 3. C -Tnula pellucid------------- 2
4. lvestobre&ia kiowa ------------- 1
5. -Encoptolophus, costalis --------1 6. Four other species ------------1








254


WYOMING

All of the collections were made in either the short grass or
northern desert shrub areas. The natural vegetation areas in this State are subdivided as follows (the mountain regions are not included):

1. Northern desert shrub or sagebrush area:
All of the State west of the Larnmie and Big Horn Mounta-ins except
the mountain areas.

2. Short-grass region:

(a) Grama grass--most of the extreme eastern part of Wyoming to the
Black Hills and down the eastern border.

(b) Western wheatgrass and sagebrush--a strip just east of the
Big Horn Mountains.

(c) Grama and mountain sage--a narrow strip fronting the eastern
slope of the Big Horn and Larnmie Mountains.

There were 4,385 specimens in the collections mostly from alfalfa. Six habitats are represented and 42 species were taken. Melanoplus mexicanus was dominant, with Camnula pellucida a close second. It was only in this State that M. bivittatus ws at all numerous. It ranked third. Practically all the collections were confined to the northern counties.

The infestations were mostly limited to the six northern counties. Outside of these there were few and light infestations. The distribution of the species was about the same in the crops. In the plains grassland
C. pellucid a was dominant in 1935 at 23 percent and a minor species at 60 percent in 1934. This was the greatest change.







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Small grains Co rn
Percent Percent
1. Me lanocplus mexicanus -------- 26 1. M.1elanoplxus mexicanus -------- 26
2. Melazol-us bivi ttatus ------- 25 2. vMelanoplus angustipenui s---- 15
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum ----- 20 3. ivestobregma kiora ----------- 15
4. Camnula pellucida ------------0D 4. Ageneotettix deorua----------9,
5. Melanoplus -akri----- 5. Camnuala pellucida------------C
6. Fourteen others --------------13 6. Fourteen others ------------- 29

Lgums Creek Bottoms
1. Melanoplus mexicanus -------- 25 1. Meanoplus f rnur-rubru2----26
2. Camnula pellucido ------------- 25 2. MeJ-troplus mexicenus -------- 10
3. Melanoplus bivittatus ------- 23 3. Ilchnnplus bivittatus --------9
4. lilanoplus femur-rubrur-----15 4. AgcneotettiTx deorum ----------8
5. Melanoplus pt-ckardli---------3 5. Metr-tor pardalinus -----------8
6. Twenty-nine others0---------- 30 6. Sixteen others -------------- 39

Roadside Plains gru- ssland
1. Mel!,noplus femur-rubrum----- 42 1. Camnula- pellucidr ----------- 23
2. Melanoplus mexi camus--------362 2. Melanoplus mexi ca-nus -------- 19
3. lleirnoplus bivitta-tus,-------11 3. Ageneotottix deorum --------- t
4. Cpmnulfa pelluacidna------------6 4. Aualoca-ra elliotti ------------6
5. MeLanopluo pa-ckardii -----35. Melrnoplus bivitt!atus --------6
6.- Hine, otes---------- 6. Twenty-seven others --------- 33

Percent-7ge of grn total l

1. Melrnoplus mcxi caus ------- 23
2. Ca, mnulc. peliuacidr ---------- 21
3. Mlelrmoplus bivittntus------18
4. i::'cknoplus femur-rubrum ---- 16
5. Ageneotettix deorum ---------4
6. Thirty-seven others -------- 18







258


DOMINANT SPECIES IN STATES MMES ITIO COLLECTIONS ARE RECORDED

Thcre re five St-,tes for rhich .7c have no coll.ee'tions ,nd these
-,re listed with their dominant species. ttcmpt Is, m-de to show Pny distribution other thnn. the order of their im-portance for the first three. All of the infestations were light in these St, tesARIZONA

Mel-zo mexicanus, L . .Wqr-.r rup, Trimerotropi p
M inup Scudd. M., ( :If f nt i, 1 jLs RLgtus, ScuddDissosteira c,- rolina.

CALIFORTIA
Crtmnulr p -it-as soudd. M
MelancDlAs mexic
,f llu-ckd, --,nu 9 91 -n,femI),r-a:iib-rum, LA. diffei-enti,-tli.s,,Occl,-,tleonotus OPIEME, Scudd., Hip-Piscus, califo-j!nicus Scudd., Szhiato eDustj Scudd. S. v Salidd. Dissoste* atE M.
s-PiLrC =IT _k,, rdi 1 ?ra femoratum Scudd., Oed,7.leonotus borckii var, p., gj-fjci. s d., Trimerotlop Scud __jg vincul,

IDLY-0

Melano lus mexic,-mus, Ognnuln, polli. c bivittntus, Dissosteira carolin(.L., q ,jtypqdcs neglects.

KjuqS.AS

Mel,?no-olus mexicanus, M. (Lfferentir lis, M. bivitt,-Aus, M. femurrubrm-.

NEVILDA

The only species recorded in the report for Nevada was C,-,Mnu-1-,,! e 1 luc i d,,..

NE7 MIEXICO

LA q,.,- n 2 p tus, M. different lis, femur-rubrum.

OREGON

0,-.mnula -pellucida qpj,,LtnQplus femur-rubrum, M. bivitt"Aus.







259

SUTIVIARY


ProbablCoy the greatest change that took place in the relative abundance of species w's that which happened to the Canmnula pellucida and Melanoplus mexicanus populations in North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. C. pellucida either equaled or exceeded M. mexicanus in 1934. In ma&y places heavy infestations of C. pellucida hatched in June but cold, foggy weather practically wiped out those outbreaks, reducing the numbers of this species almost to a minimum. f.. mexicanus was also affected but not to the extent that C. pellucid-a was. M. mexicanus was dominant in about 10 States and C. pellucida in 4 out of the 18.

Ageneotettix deor m es nn important species in all the States east of the Continental Divide. It is widely distributed rand abundant in small grains, field margins, legumes, and grasslands. Another important species was Encoptolophus costalis, which was numerous in MIichigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and eastern North Dakota. Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum was prominent in the short-grass are-s in pasture and on the range. Other important species of the rangeland in the short-grass areas were Cordillacris crenulata, which was dominant in Montana; Aulocrra elliotti, Drepanopterna femoratum, Mestobrema kiowa, and M. infantilis. Considerable dan~ge was done to the rangeland and it was observed that under ordinary conditions of correct grazing native grasses will support populations of 7 or 8 per square yard without visible damage. When these increase to 15 per square yard the damage becomes severe, end at 20 or 30 the foliage is kept chewed to the crown, making the range unfit for pasturing.

M. femur-rubrum was important and dominant in many places, reaching its greatest abundance in the legumes. It was the dominant species in 3
States. M. bivittatus was of importance in 5 or 6 States, but the numbers of this species are still down. Both this and 1,. differentials are building up again along the water courses of South Dakota and Nebraska.

With increased moisture in the drought areas, M. bivittatus and
M. differentialis will have more succulent food and a chance to build up again. Increased moisture in Wisconsin and Michigan last summer caused tall weeds and grass to grow up in favorite egg-laying places of C. pellucida, which are unfavorable conditions for this species. Therefore changes in weather also bring about changes in the optimum conditions for the development of certain species.





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