The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00191

Full Text






THE INSECT PEST SURVEY

BULLETIN



























Volume 15 Supplement Number 9


BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AND

THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL

AGENCIES COOPERATING
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/insectl935no99









I-ITS ECT PEST SURVEY BULLET! N

DECEMBER 19 15

-----------------------------------------------------------------------Vol. 15 Su-o-olement N 0 0
--------------------------------------------------------- 7 -------------COLONIZATION OF FOREIGN PARASITES OF TIE EUROPEAN CORIT BORER IN TIHEE UITIZED STATES' FOR 1935


By W. G. Bradley' l/ Assistant EntonaoloEistj and
E. W. Beclk, Junior Entomologist, Divisio,." of Co..,oal and Forage Insects, Eurcau of Entomology and Plant Q j-.rantine
U. S. De-partment of

71 a' s re-Do r, i 7 e s the pro.,re s s --iade i n 15 7,7 in t1---- cli st r 4butioi- of' e-l -o v-ic s-recie6 of' -,-),-,rasites of the Zur -pean corn borer, in bot-a t1ae one- ana areas, as a Co --I' -IU-1-4 0_71 of t' e 1Q )',
gram. Except for subordinating other consideratiolIs to t1ie i c 1 e nt, handling, ; of" Inare lata -!.)unctoria Romani3 the 7aropean iclaneumo no ch ,- 7".-je
-)-ocefure vf, s inade -'Qotal rf--lea ,es in L s e i De e r 31,
10' 5 are in n -an -ie rc-Je 7
1 35, since ji parasite a ,t-ivizie-l presE--,ted in
table 2.

In additio:- to t-i(,, T)[ -:asite rzterial Eu::ope t'Iroup i
t',.-ie facilities of the D'..vis,-on of Foreic n Parasi-'5 Inti-oecaction) a sup-o177 of C'eiias 4Q -lz flavoorbitalis (Can.) was mal-- availa ble t-arou-'in the cooperation o-f t (,, Canp,( 'Aan De-partment o--" A -ric-,--iturej Entoi- ,.olo,-ical
3rancli) in conti----- -,d- ininortations of narasit- from. '"ie Grier.u.
T'.-iis siDecies was -o -,,-I-ticularl-v for in mole scut"Iern, socticnz now infested by borer.



l/D. '7. Jones, C. A. Clark) and Z. D. Buriress as ,,isted in
release of t'he Darasites in t'-,.o re -io:,-s of t-iei:: res7ective asslcr-nts ,





-433-







-434





T,-ble l.--.Sur.riqry of releases of imported Parasites in


: Lyde 1 la : C r c ra--- s t -a s :
State : stabulans w-,.r.:lna.reolata: flr.voor-: --,,racon 'T 0 t al
: griscs,-ons punctoria: bitalis :atri3ornis:

Connec'L-,icut----: 1)923 li!39 771 7 7

iigo4 illgo4

jL -)27 1IQ27

MassachuccttF -: 719211. 7, F2'Ylic'hi,-an ------- 5)990 5)9go

ITe7 Ham-)si:iire--: 5 569 51569

New JerFe,-----: 6 4061 565 533 7

New York ------- 11,767 11,712 6c)- 1' 079
L-. L) 20
01"i o ----------- "5 1-99 7

Vermon t---- "13 313

Virginia ------- 3)956 600 41556


Total ------- 92,922 .7;303 2s5S4 7 102)796














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All perasites we re taken to the point of release,in the containers in which they were packed for distribution at Eoorestowm, NIT. J., where all emergence was taken. Figure 1 shows the technique utilized in allowing tachinids to escape from the shipping container. A similar technique was utilize& with the Hymneoptera.

In order to receive the maximum benefits from the arP-site releases it is essential that these liberations be timed to sy7nchronize the maxima oviposition period of the parasites with the optimum stage of host development to receive such ovipositions. A practical accomplishment of this synchronization is Cifficult for many reasons, as the following: (1) Specific information is lackLing concerning the length of life and oviposition period of various species of parasites under field conditions; (2) the effect of seasonal variations in shifting the development of their host, the corn borer, under field conditions, cannot be foretold; (3) since obviously
it is impossible to var". to any great extent the normal date of emergence of one s-necies of internal parasite more than that of another after the host material has be.n placed in a developmental environment, this necessitates the selection for emergence that period which is optium for the most important species expected to emerge from the material at hand.

However, all releases of corn borer parasites are timed to synchronize with the aver ge first anperrance of optiram host development, as this procedure has previously proved effective with releases; whereas, a number of past releases that have preceded or been delayed beyond this period have not proved successful. In planning the emergence schedule
for 1935, major emphasis was placed on accomplishing the desired synchronization with respect to two species, namely, Inareolata punctoria from the Italian host material, for synchronization vith third-instar larvae in both the one- and two-generation areas, and Cremastus flavoorbitalis from the oriental source, for synchronization with fourth-instar hosts in Canada. Fortunately, such factors as the demands of the different parasites for varying host stages, on which to oviposit, variations in the length of the developmental period of the host, and the duration of the preovi-osition period, permitted a fairly close synchronization of all parasites as well as those selected for chief consideration.

The more pertinent information bearing on the accomplishments of
the 1935 colonization program are presented in the following discussions:
1. Inareolata -unctoria Roman. (Ichneumonidae):
Major emphasis was p-laced on the option handling of this parasite, as it was the least -idely distributed of the parasites that have been demonstrated to be the most valuable species imported to date. A total of 7,303 adults were released in 13 colonies, 12 of which were dispersion colonies and 1 a supporting test release at Milford, iew Haven County, Conn. Table 3 sumi:mrizes the releases of this species and map 1 indicates the extent of colonization prior to 1935, and the counties receiving releases during thet season.









lable 3.--PReleases of Inareolata pnctoria In 1235

State :Tow7nship Cony: Parasites : Pe -riod ofL release
:ot liberatedi : (dates inclusive)
Number
Connecticu~t~: Milford :Nex Haven 5 52 July 12
:HaddaL :Midec.le sex : 5s6 July 20
Total---. -* l~3 Jul-; 12 20

NeW. Jerrsey---: Brick :Ocean 565 : July~ 5
--~~ 6- 5fo

1,,elw York-----: Berne :Albany 517 : Julyr 9
Porter :Nialgara : 59 July 29
:Yates :Orleans :~595 Do.
Thta-- -- l1712 : July 9 28

hai o--- -- -- -- Perkins :Erie 588 : _- u ust 6
Ge rman :Fulton 598 : u J'.l 2 3
PdchmonC :Huron 586 Ju7y 30
Jefferson:Mercer 598 Au-73)st 2
Danbury Ot tavia 349 Aurnst 13
Seneca : Seneca 593 : Ju 1 3 0
;;illsh-ire:Ve- Wert W % Au ;ust 2
Total--: -- -8S Jjly 23 August 13
G rtnd. totpl--: 72303 Jul Y 5 -A~t1


The third instar of the host is preferred for -oarasitization by this species. In general$ releases this year were delayed. somewhat beyond. the rele~n-se date o-otinum for the season. The average ,e ol:ti-,u 7-day period (or the avcerau-,e 7-d-ay period after the fir-t host larvae pass into z;he third instar) for rele~so of this s-)ecies was found to be June 23-2? in the twogeno-ration c-rea (data from New7 England), and Jul- 15-25 in th--e one-aZenerati(D>_ area (d-ata, fromi Ohio). Thie actual synchronization obtained. th;is season, is sh-ow-n in charts 1 to 4) inclusive. These ch-arts show th-at 95 percent of the releases in the Middle WVest and thIose in Connecticut were made after the period of maximum host abundance had passed, but, that in northlwestcrn New-, York and in New Jersey the parasites Tere in thld before the 'neak of the preferred instar. However, in all cases, except the release in Albany County, N. Y., the liberated- adults should have fo~ favorable host instars present in the field at the time of their release.,

2. Lyc1ella stab.ulans vsa. grisescenis R. D). (Tachin-idae):

A total of 92,0)22 adults of this s'necies were released in, 41 colonies, 39 of thesec bcin, : dis-oersion colonies. One test colony of this species was started in Atlantic Townsnip, ::onmoutih Count,) J., )anc one in Lee Tornship, Accomn~c County, Va. T.able 4 summarizes thei releases of th--is spoecies and map 2 shows the extent of colonization prior to l935 an-d thle loc -lities, that received releases durin,- that season.











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Table 4,Releases of Lydella stabulans var. grisescens R. D. in 1 35


o--- roic! se
State L o,,7n s1-, i county
7 7

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Indiana ------- -(11 7
10
r e. ch on:

Total----:

Maine~ yofic ju-_ e l'To

Ma s s a CIi-a s c 'C c - 7 s t 0 71 7 _,n

e
CI-', I.ton JTotal----:- jui-- 6

Mic!iiOan-------: 7, .1C o An',Lc a c


Nei-! c 7 isboro 1 7 0- 2
7"
t r d :S. IF 0 1 4
Tot.?,l- U7- io l' Jul 6

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I i 1-1 t 0
Al, 1, -_Ic 1_ -Outil 1
r 70.
T o t P 1 -
4,S 1 j-J 1S 17

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t on
n 7. 70 11'.e ry
j -f r 2 0 11 -%- oIiar e Total~ Do.


Rele ,se noint for e rrly an ,. late emcr-4i -- in Jv4 .u-ls. S.-. all lot--.






-44o


T,7'j I e _-1,21oases o" i-'-, lla stabulans var. R. D. !-- 10,75



State Township oun t y : Paracites : Period off release
: li'cereted : (Dates inclusive) Nbumb e r
o___ el'
Mo o re : '17 rl: 1 13C1 Jul- 1
Li' crty : Delaware lt ',96 july 9
Pike : Knox 1,995 -o.
Av o 1-1 : Lo ra in 115q6 july 19
Pike : 11, C-1 i c on 21996 J-,; 1 y 10
S t 01--e ia i c on 2)993 --,o.
j C, c s o n 14e rce r 1 qS3 L7--- ---- 12
02 77
:'rry ""' i 1) C, -00,
Morrow 1100 7 : j-0 ly 9
Oii Snelley JIC02 : Ju 1 12
;',,oro S t a c k
Do.
Total-: 25)Qc.G '71-L" 1 19

Vermont------: Gr Isle : Gr?,nd Isle 3 c 6o 17
T41
ney : 2'Ll t I a i i d 1)961 19
114_'-. ,Iesex : 17- ,._"1i:v7ton Do'
.7, a t e sor
T ot 1 J-j le 10 Jull 17

1 7 -7
Lee A c oma c va n e 15
F r o v,, i -i IT c 7 t'_-i p-m-) t o n 1 70.
To t- IGrand total-., 0
4 )2 15 Jul- 1-,


"vais taclalni.d nor-r ,lly 'has a orcovii-o-i"o- ner4 o-' of f-oM 10 to
.e f C-d !,.I i r 4 t'-je 01)1-inix.i st -,ge t- ost -cr s,:,c2ess14 days. t' L -V
ful 'c-, thi6 therforc, it _s lesir--ile t', ',t
be ;).-.1o 10 2 wee'_-3 be' --e bol-Ors i ie c -rt
to t1ie two-genero v1-'.on area tai, eric- i. ras
side-,cd to T U"'Ie -00-26 and "',)r thc nr.- the
,Tee' 7-F' Jv 17h;7 'ro: _- D-7 v -e
nd c The ext-, of i cl-i --- o o' 7asit "-"it' 1'_' e f e -2 an-" the c-.c nt i h; ti
_l C, ('-nte, in ch,.2''_ 91 1c lu s e .-se
cha, s h,; ,t in -., :'-actically ell ca,:,-z %*!ere nearl-, idc.1- 10
The 6 0 ET 1. t s s a t &ra nd I s 1 e ) Vt t wo 1 :1 p r c ly
Sync. ronizc- verly 1.-Tell vit*i t:ic singlegenerptio i occur tner' 'j

3. !rc7-i! I is fl,.)yoorbitalis (Cn.-neron) (Iclineumcniclae):

Tivc, zolo-i4.c off' t'liis parasite Were, rOlC SC":' in t1le more soutliern
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-441

of t1iis s-oecies iii the United States. This s-.)ecies was provi,7v.sly colo.-iZod in Lucps and Henry counties, ghio, -,nd releases .Ye-e Tmdo i-- 113" '1--tford an-_ New H -Iven Counties) %Coi- n, Suffolk 'LT. Y. 1.11on7.iouth Co-mity, IT. j.
-nd Accomac Count,,-, Va.

TL ble 5---Rel.eases__o Cremastus .1avoorbitalisin 197 5


S t, t e 1_01711shi o Clounty : Parc sitcs : Pe ri o cl of f c I e- 7 F e : liberated : (DItes
Numb e r
C o nne c t i cut E. '.',-,r'U -fo re,: HFrt- f o rd 172 A-0--ust 11'.
1.1 i lf a r :.'Cw Faven: A-(, 1
771 1 14
'-0
New Jersey----:Atlantic Mommouth Au 1_':u s t 5
-0tal---- 5 (3 3 Do.

New Yor'-_------:.' iver'Aeaa 3 i-1-f --- o lic 6o', Jul 30
1 o t a 1 6oo o .
Viroinia ------ :Lee :Acco".,.ac 60- J
-D u'-r 26
Total ---- 6co Do.
_G -anl. lotal- 25 7 4 2u Au;-Ust 14

It 17as that pr cticall-- all ad-.3.1's o" C. lavoo-bi'alis,
estima-1'e(! to beco-.,. c !:,w,,J].ab-_1e for colonization, woul-f- be forward. _eo. to 3elleville, Ontario, for rele.-se in Cana -. T1ic.-cfore) emer,,ence was pll-Inned to c-,ncllironize ,7it:i t'le develo,)_D _,ent of t-ie one-111-'e'rierat-lon stran. Hovevcr, emergence gre,- tl,,,- exceeded ex- Dect,_ticn, pel."itting a nuTiber of releases to be in tae more southern CListric"-s of "' e infes ed area, in
the United St ,tes. While o-, )ti-mizi synchro iiz _-,tion i7,-Is -.,iot acco.:1--,)lis_,,1Cd, it
is 110-0e t"nat sufficient contact was made to furnis'a an esti-1.1ate of ti-le -.)osI*
Sibilit4eS Of t' iis sl)ecies in the respective enviroimcnts. ch, xt 10 shorls this syncIlronization.

Yliscella-neo-, s s -)ecies:

Seven aJults of the oriental braconid Bracon atricornis Smit]a were rele,sec! on Au- st 11, at the test -,-.)oint in East Harti.
__0 ford Tomshi-p, Hartford
County) C.O.-In.

lonclu ions:
'he sc -son of 10 1_) in Ceneral, is consi 'Lel'e'f- to "Lla-ve been much more favorpblo for tile colonization oi -oarasites t. Iar. t.-I, t of j -, because of less nrolon. ed -.)e:7io 4s of dry, 'hot weat' -i,,,r. Tic me.-ps accom-oanying t'_11S re-OOrt t-at colonies of t'.ao tacIlinid Lydell i stab-2.1cns var.,,-,rises -e-s.
naors or lr sz l-,i( el-,,r 11,-,vc bee-n )l!-ceC,- t'ie c re
area corn borer 0.. to be considered
ca-oable o-k" enabli-n the to be e-Itablis"Ied.
-inc-;morLi,!. 'narrcol,7,ta -w,_-_ic'oria while considIn the c,:.se o t1le icI
erably less territory has been colo-nized, wit'-i t'lie com.-ple 1 .1 of the current season's rele,7ses, these colonies have been exten(led to the imore lir htly infested areas.

































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