INS EC0T P ES T S UR V EY B U LL ETI N
Vol. 14 May 1, 1934 No. 3
TM MORE INORTAITT RECORDS FOR APRIL, 1934
In the Great Plains re,-ion, where the intensive grasshopper control campaign is being centralized, no repoorts of hatching of the important economic species were received during April. In certain limited areas of North Dakota where the soil is light and sandy, as high as 25 percent of the eggs were destroyed, apparently by drying. Other than this,conditions throughout the infested region have been favorable for grasshoppers. Eggs were hatching in Montana during the last week of this month. In the Southwest there was a localized serious outbreak in the Salt River Valley of Arizona, involving about 85,000 acres, and some damage was observed in alfalfa and in young citrus plantings about the middle of April. In Idaho the two-striped grasshopper began hatching during the second week in April at Ernett, Gem County; in other parts of the State no hatching of any of the economic species had occurred up to the last week in the month. Eggs of the clear-winged grasshopper were as numerous as 8,000 per square foot of sod in Caribou County.
The army cutworm was appearing in numbers in wheat and alfalfa fields in southern Nebraska, central Montana, and the eastern half of Colorado. Considerable damage was done in a number of localities. Reports of cutworm. injury have also been received from many points in Kansas. The pale
western cutworm was very abundant and seriously damaging fall wheat in Utah.
The chinch bug situation has not materially changed since our last
report. Heavy flights from hibernation quarters occurred during the first and second weeks of April in Kansas and Missouri.
May beetles were reported as damaging pecan buds and foliage in
Georgia and Mississippi. Brood C adults were being found in large numbers near the surface of the soil in Wisconsin, and heavy flights occurred in Texas during the first week of the month.
The green bug was attracting considerable attention by its depredations on wheat and barley in southern Missouri, throughout the wheatgrowing sections of Kansas, southwestern Nebraska, north-central Oklahoma,
and the eastern half of Colorado. Considerable damage was reported from some sections.
Grain aphids, ffiooalos!iphu nr nifoliae Fitch and Macrosiphum granarium Kby. ,were very numerous in southwestern Washington and the Willamette Valley of Oregon.
Corn ear worms were appearing in corn during the last week of the month in Southern Florida and in the southeastern corner of Texas.
The pea aphid was attacking alfalfa and English peas over a very wide
territory, extending from Indiana through Missouri and Nebraska to Colorado,
and southward to the Gulf. In Kansas the outbreak was probably the most wide spread and injurious of any since the outbreaks of 1921, the damage being particularly severe in the northeastern part of the State. In the West this insect was doing very considerable damage to alfalfa in northern Utah and in the valleys of "estern Nevada. Austrian winter field peas are seriously damaged in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, and heavy infestations of vetch were reported from western Washington.
Pupation of overwintering larvae of the codling moth started during the second week of April in southern Delaware. During the third week of the month pupation was observed in central Maryland. First adult moths were caught in bait traps at Cornelia, Ga., on April 14. In Ohio practically half of the larvae had pupated by April 12. In Illinois pupation started in the southern part of the State during the first week in April but no pupation had been observed as far north as Urbana u to April 20. In the Pacific Northwest emergence started in Idaho and Washington on April 12, which is extremely early. The first adult in Idaho last year was recorded on May 24.
TThe eastern tent caterpillar was reported as generally .prevalent in the New England, Middle Atlantic, and South Atlantic States, extending westward into Tennessee and Mississippi. The infestation in Tennessee is the heaviest that has been observed in that State during the past five years.
The apple aphid and the apple grain aphid began hatching in the New
En.land States about the middle of April. They appeared to be generally prevalent throughout the New England, and northern Middle Atlantic States, and comparatively scarce in the South Atlantic and lower Mississippi Valley States. The worst infestation of the woolly apple aphid that has occurred for many years was reported from the Willamette Valley of Oregon and from Idaho.
The first emergence of the plum curculio was observed during the third
week in April in Delaware. It appeared in numbers in Georgia during the first few days of April and was generally distributed in the orchards by the 10th, eggs were found in the fruit on the 18th, and the first larvae were found in peaches on the 24th. In South Carolina the first adil ts were observed on April 2.
Adults of the striped cucumber beetle were found hibernating in considerable numbers in a dry, open hillside woodlot in Maryland.
A sr.cnuc;r. reak of buffalo gnats was under way during the latter part of the montL in Arl-ansas. Hundreds of heads of livestock were reported ki1 lled.
GENE RAL F E-E D E.R S
GRASSHOPPERS (Acridi dae)
North Dakota. J. A. Munro (April 21): As high as 25 percent mortality of
overwintered eggs has been found in light sandy soils in severe droughtstricken areas of the State, while in the heavier types of soil the
mortality is very low. Apparently the mortality is due to desiccation
of the eggs in abnormally dry soil.
Mississippi. K. L. Cockerham (April 16): On April 16 a report was received
at this office that' a serious outbreak had occurred on two truck farms 4 miles north of Biloxi. An investigation showed nymphs quite numerous
in grassland around the edges of the truck field and serious damage to tomato plants set in the fields near the grassland. Poisoned bait was
applied on these truck farms in an effort to prevent further serious injury. Although the specimens have not been identified, they are believed
to be nymphs of Schistocerca americana Drury.
Nebraska. M. H. Swenk (April 15): A threat of more or less damage at this
time involves two or three principal areas in the State. As during the
past three seasons, the most serious threat lies in north-central Nebraska,
*along the Niobrara River and the South Dakota boundary. This area includes the northeastern corner of Cherry County from Crook ,ton east, all
of Keyapaha and Boyd Counties, the northern sections of Browun and Rock Counties near the Niobrara, about the northern half of Holt County, all of Knox County, and the northern part of Cedar County. In portions of
this area grasshoppers were very injurious last year and eggs are now,,-----present in numbers as high as 25 eggs to the square foot. iYext to this
north-central area, an area in Keith and Deuel Counties and western
Perkins County seems to hold the threat of most serious injury. A third
district where the threat seems less severe includes southeastern Rock County, with major sections of Loup, Garfield, Wheeler, and surrounding
Arizona. C. D. Lebert (April 18): Scouting records to April 10 show the
infestations of Melanoplus mexicanus Sauss. in the Salt River Valley to
be as follows: 85,000 acres, light infestations; 10,'_'@', inedium infestations; and 1,500 acres, heavy infestations. Winrc-d aClJts -ere noticed April 6. Actual crop damage is becoming apparent in alfalfa
fields and in a few young citrus plantings adjacent to alfalfa fields in
the Mesa area. Farmers are using poisoned bran mash in these areas to
Idaho. C. Wakeland (April 25): Melanoplus bivittatus Say began hatching at
Emmett, Gem County April 11. Economic species are not yet hatching in
other parts of Idaho. Heavy outbreaks are expected in southeastern Idaho and in Jefferson County. An egg survey in Caribou County showed as many
as 8,000 egg-s of Camnula ocllucida Scudd. pr square foot of sod. All of
the heavily infested counties arc completely organized for control.
Orders have been placed for 23 carloads of poisoned bait. Some of the districts most heavily infested last year will show decided decreases
this year, owing to parasitization by sarchophagids (most important),
beefly larvae, ground beetle larvae, and blister beetle larvae.
Utah. G. F. Knowlton (April 23): Nymphs were hatching at Promontory on
March 14. First and second instar nymphs were taken at Willard on March 31. Young grasshoppers are now causing some damage to young sugar beets
C. J. Sorenson (April 24): Grasshoppers are beginning to hatch in Cedar
Valley, Utah County.
MORMON CRICKET (Anabrus simplex Hald.)
Idaho. C. Wakeland (April 25): Mormon crickets began hatching March 1 in
eastern Idaho, and are now in the fourth and fifth instars. Hatching
waimore than a month earlier than last year and development correspondingly advanced. Infested area is estimated at 50,000 acres, exclusive of
that on the Fort Hall Indian Reservation, 44,000 of which are on public
domain and 6,000 on private lands. The large infestation in Fremont
County, estimated at 30,000 acres is being dusted and the area on the
Indian Reservation is being poisoned. It now appears that eggs will be laid late in May or early in June, at least a month earlier than usual.
CUTWORMS (Noc tuidae)
Nebraska. M. H. Swenk (April 15): Numerous reports of the army cutworm
(C. auxiliaris) in wheat and alfalfa fields have been coming in during
the last 10 days from Kimball, Deuel, Lincoln, Merrick, and Pawnee
Kansas. 11. R. Bryson (April 24): Between March 31 and April 16, reports of
injury by Chorizagrotis auxilaris Grote were received from Wichita,
Sedwvick County, Miltonvale, Cloud County, end from Riley County. This insect, although moderately nbundant, has not caused appreciable injury
except in local areas.
Montana. A. L. Strand (April 2): C. auxiliaris is generally prevalent over
the central part of the State, particularly in Fergus, Stillwater,
Yellowstone, Lewis and Clark, and Gallatin Counties, damaging winter
wheat in all parts of the area infested.
Colorado. G. M. List (April 21): Reports of army cutworms have been received
from several localities in the eastern half of the State, where considerable damage is being done in wheat and alfalfa fields.
Utah. C. J. Sorenson (April 24): The pale western cutworm tPorosagrotis
orthogonia Morr.) is very abundant; it has caused serious damage to fall
FALL ARMYWORM (Laphy ,Tna frugiperda S. & A.)
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 27): Grass worm o*adrrence in large numbers
is indicated by reports received from the southern part of La Fourche
Parish about April 19.
WHITE GRUBS (Phyllophaga spp.)
Georgia. J. B. Gill (April 25): May beetles were reported as damaging buds
of pecan trees in the Tifton territory. One report of damage to Cedrus
&eodara was received.
Michigan. R. Hutson (April 20): White grubs are moderately abundant in the
southern half of the Lower Peninsula.
Wisconsin. C. L. Fluke (April 19): Brood "C" beetles are near the surface
in Lafayette and Green Counties, ready to emerge when weather becomes
warm. Very few grubs have moved up.
Mississippi. C. Lyle (April 23): A correspondent at Grenada, Grenada County,
reported on April 6 that May beetles were injuring the foliage ot her
young pecan and walnut trees.
J. P. Kislanko (April 20): Several species of May beetles are numerous
and injuring pecans and water oaks in Wiggins and Hattiesburg.
Louisiana. H. L. Dozier (April 30): The earliest flight of May beetles at
New Orleans took place on April 3.
Texas. F. L. Thomas (April 24): Heavy flights of Phyllophaga congrua Lec.
were noted in Liberty County during the first week of April. P. bipartita
Horn and P. praetermissa Horn also are active, but are less abundant.
GREEN JUNE BEETLE (Cotinis nitida L.)
North Carolina. W. A. Thomas and L. B. Reed (April 13): Larvae of the green
June beetle are doing considerable damage to lawns in the Chadbourn area.
Apparently the infestation is somewhat heavier than normal.
Tennessee. J. Milam (April 20): White grubs of this species were gound in a
tobacco plant-bed at Clarksville. They are also numerous in gardens.
LEAO CUTTER ANTS (Atta spp.)
Texas. Bur. of Ent. (March 9): For several months this Bureau has been the
recipient of numerous appeals, originating both with local chambers of commerce and private individuals in western Texas, for information and
aid in the control of leaf cutter ants.
A i AN] ~4ARh
CEREAL AND FORAGE-CROP, INSECTS
WHMAT AND OTHE. SiL.ALL GRAIITS
CHINCH BUG (Blissus leucopterus Say)
Ohio. T. H. Parks (April 24): Chinch bugs are present in more than normal
numbers in their hibernating -places in fallen leaves along fence rows and
borders of woodland. Very few are present in old cornstalks or shocks.
There is not much opportunity for spring burning, as the ground cover has
Illinois. W. P. Flint (April 20): Weather conditions have failed to-reduce
to any appreciable extent the numbers of hibernating chinch bugs. Recent counts show from 4 to 5 percent winter mortality. Up to the present time
very little flight from winter quarters has occurred. The bujs are extremely numerous and active in their winter quarters, and general flights
will start as soon as we have sufficiently high temperatures.
Michigan. R. Hutson (April 2C#: Chinch bugs are very abundant in Monroe and
Iowa. C. J. Drake (Aoril 12): Chinch bugs are present in great numbers in
southern Iowa. In some cases we are finding over 4,000 bugs in one square
foot of dense grass. Very few bugs have left winter quarters.
Missouri. L. Haseman (April 24): The situation becomes more alarming with
continued dry weather. Bugs have been moving from winter quarters on warm
days and are abundant in barley already.
Kansas. H. R. Bryson (April 23): A heavy flight occurred at Manhattan about
April 5-7. A similar one was reported from Hoyt on April 18. The bugs
are quite abundant in wheat, barley, and rye fields.
Nebrasha. M. H. Swenk (March 15 to April 15): There is a probability that
southeastern Nebraska will be faced with the most serious outbreak in many years. The principal threatened area extends along the southern
boundary of the State from Richardson County to Redwillow County, and
north to northern Otoe and Lancaster Counties, as well as to Seward,
Fillmore, Clay, Adams, Kearney, Phelps, Gosper, and Frontier Counties.
Everywhere in this area the population is above normal.
Oklahoma. C. F. Stiles (April 21): Chinch bugs are present in small numbers
in oat fields at this time.
GREEN BUG (Toxoptera -,nramim Rond.)
Missc'uri. L. Haseman (April 24): The Ereen bug has been attracting much
attention for the past two or three weeks in wheat, barley, and timothy
in southern Missouri.
Nrbraska. M. H. Swenk (April 15): A report received from a Banner County
correspondent on April 12, stated that 100 acres of a field of wheat had been killed out by the green bus, specimens of which accompanied
the report. This aphid was also found to be abundant in the wheat fields
of the extreme southwestern counties of Nebraska, by L. M. Gates during
the past week.
Kansas. H. R. Bryson (April 24): During the past month reports of infestations have come from 18 localities in as many counties, representing
practically all sections of the State in which wheat is grown. The cool
weather has been decidedly disadvantageous to the parasites and predators
and very advantageous to the bug.; The complete absence of precipitation has been a contributing factor in increased infestations and the growing
severity of old infestations. Reports indicate that injury is on the
increase. The wheat has been retarded in its development.
H. B. Hungerf6rd (April 9): The green bug was causing some damage to
oats and -wheat in southeastern Kansas on April 1. It is present in oats
and wheat in Douglas Countyj and parasites are present.
Oklahoma. C. F. Stiles (April 21): The damage has increased during the past
two weeks but seems to be at a standstill at present. Ladybeetles in all
stages are very numerous in infested fields; and I believe they will
check further spread. Internal parasites are present in small numbers.
The cool weather during the past week seems to be holding them in check.
The infestation is heaviest in Oklahoma, Logan, Payne, Pawnee, Osage,
Noble, Kay, Garfield, and Grant Counties. There is a little infestation
as far west as the western limit of Harper County.
Colorado. G. M. List (April 21): The green bug infestation is general over
the eastern half of the State, being serious enough in Larimer, Weld, and
Adams Counties to destroy a considerable acreage of wheat. Ladybeetles are quite abundant, and it is hoped that relief will come through their
GRAIN APHIDS (Aphiidae)
Iregon and Washington. L. P. Rockwood (March 31): Very populous colonies
of Rhopalosiphum prunifoliae Fitch have been observed, especially on
volunteer barley, but also on oats and wheat. Some yellowing of the tips of the leaves where colonies are established might be attributed to them.
We found them especially abundant in Clarke County, Washington, on March
21, but there are about as many in some fields in the Willamette Valley
of Oregon. They form more compact and populous colonies than Macrosiphum
-ranarium Kby., and I believe they are doing more damage. Alates of M. granarium were abundant on volunteer and early fall-sown grain in
January and February. They are now coming upon wheat and oats in some fields. They do not appear to be so abundant as R. prunifoliae in most
fields, although there was about an even mixture on oats in one late fallsown field in Clarke County, Washington, on March 21.
WESTERN WHEAT STEM.i M AGGOT (Hylemyia cerealis Gill.)
Colorado. G. M. List (April 21): The western wheat stem maggot has damaged
a number of plantings of wheat, especially in Adams, Boulder, and ,eli Counties. The infestation has been somewhat spotted, but some acreage
will be destroyed.
A CRAIE FLY (Tipula graminivora Alex.)
California. The crane fly which was.reported in the Insect Pest Survey
Bulletin, April, 1934, page 41, has been determined by C. T. Greene as
A. E. Michelbacher (March 30): To-day I examined the field in which the tipulid injury occurred. I found the adults present in great abundance.
An examination of the soil showed that most of the larvae had pupated.
CORN EAR WOREi (Heliothis obsoleta Fab.)
Florida. J. R. Watson (April 27): The corn ear worm is scarce. It is beginning to occur in corn in central and'southern Florida.
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 27): The corn ear worm is scarce in Louisiana,
generally, or unusually late in southern Louisiana.
Texas. S. W. Clark] (April 24): The corn ear worm is moderately abundant at
Edinburg and Weslaco.
PEA APHID (Illinoia uisi Kalt.)
Indiana. J. J. Davis (April 20): Reported as very abundant and apparently
seriously damaging alfalfa at Bloomfield.
Iowa. C. J. Drake (April 30): The pea aphid is very abundant in the
southern part of the State. We have received complaints from Fremont and
Lee Counties and indirect reonorts from other counties. The County Agent
of Lee County reported that 90 percent of a 25-acre field of alfalfa at
Donnellson, had been destroyed.
Missouri. L. Haseman (April 24): The pea aphid has been very abundant for
the past three weeks in the western half of the State, from Joplin to the Iowa line, where it has killed some alfalfa. It is scarce in the central
and eastern part of the State
Mississippi. J. P. Kislanko (April 19): English peas are heavily infested
in Jones County.
Nebraska. M. H. Swenk (April 15): The pea aphid was resorted attacking
alfalfa in Pawnee County the second week in April.
Kansas. H. R. Bryson (April 23): The pea aphid has become very abundant and
injurious in almost every section of the State where alfalfa is grown.
The continued dry, cool weather has retarded the alfalfa and has proved
advantageous to the aphid and disadvantageous to the pararites and
predators. T:e outbreak is probably tfie most widespread *md injurious
of any since 1921. Reports of injury have been received from 20 localities and 19 counties, in the northeastern part of the State, extending
in a line from Decatur County in the northwestern part, southeastward
to Cowley County.
H. B. Hungerford (April 9: The pea aphid is ruining the first crop of
alfalfa in Douglas County.
Colorado. G. M. List (April 21): The. pea aphid is quite abundant in alfalfa
fields in the Arkansas Valley and in the irrigated sections north of
there and east of the mountains. The growth of hay is being very
Idaho. C. Wakeland (April 25): The pea aphidr is unusually abundant on
alfalfa and is causing serious damage on the first crop. The mild winter allowed heavy populations to survive and the first generations developed
Utah. C. J. Sorenson (April 24): Aphids are seriously damaging alfalfa in
localized areas of Salt Lake, Tooele, and Weber Counties.
Nevada. G. G. Schweis (April 23): Pea or alfalfa aphids are causing great
damage in all the valleys of western Nevada. Many fields are completely
brown where the alfalfa shoots have been killed down.
Oregon and Washington. L. P. Rockwood (March 31): Austrian winter field
peas near Barlow, Clackamas County, Oreg., are seriously damaged. A
field of common vetch near Vancouver, Wash., was practically ruined by March 21. Several fields of common vetch in Washington County, Oreg.,
are badly damaged, large spots showing up now even in a period of favorable growing weather. A field of smooth heavy vetch in Washington County
that is very heavily infested shows some damage to tips of plants but
not nearly so bad as the common vetch. Alate viviparous females found our plots of Canadian field peas, seeded on March 15, as soon as they
showed above ground. Some cannery peas near Hillsboro, Oreg., showed alates well distributed and some already with large families and some
larvae three-fourths grown, on March 29. It is hoped that the warm
rains of the last 6 days of March will cause the fung-ous disease Emus aphidis Hoffman to develop into a substantial check to the aohids. The disease is well distributed in alfalfa fields and early fall-sown vetch and pea fields. It has already affected nearly 40 percent of the population in some fields.
SUGARCANTE BORER (Diatraea saccharalis Fab.)
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 5): Emergence of moths from overwintered
larvae began at Cypremort, on the extreme southern edge of the cane belt, during the first week of April. This is at least three weeks later than
usual. (April 27): Eggs are quite abundant in some fields of early corn
and advanced stubble cane. The first eggs parasitized by Trichogramna
were taken at Jeanerette on April 24, which is unusually early.
T. E. Holloway and W. E. Haley (March 31): Observations showed that
young cane planted on August 1, 1933, had as many as 11 live larvae per
100 stalks; cane planted September 1 had as many as 4 live larvae per 100
stalks. No borers were found in cane planted after October l,which is
the usual planting time.
SUGARCAIE BEETLE (Euetheola rugiceps Lec.)
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 6): Adults were observed in flight on warm
evenings of April 3 and 4 with temperatures of 75 to 800 F. Attack on corn and cane is just beginning. The beetles are as abundant as usual.
CODLING MOTH (Caroocapsa comonella L.)
New York. P. J. Parrott (April 23): In some sections of western New York
many overwintering larvae were killed by low temperatures.
New Jersey. T. J. Headlee (April 25): The codling moth is moderately abundanI
Delaware. L. A. Stearns (April 24): Pupation of overwintered larvae was just
commencing the.second week in April in southern Delaware.
Pennsylvania. H. N. Worthley (April 14): The record of survival at State
College was as follows on April 10: 23.9 percent survival in strawboard
bands in a screen-bottomed cage in the orchard and 9.6 percent survival
in strawboard strips exposed (except for screening, ) on the trunks of the
trees. In 1933 about 50 percent of the overwinte1_I..: larvae produced
moths. No such difference in the two types of- ca: -as been noted before,
and this would seem to be an effect due to exposure of the larvae on the
Maryland. E. N. Cory (April 24): The codling moth is pupating.
Georgia. C. H. Alden (April 21): The first moth was ca.::ht in bait traps,
April 14, at Cornelia.
Ohio. T. H. Parks (April 24): The colding moth is moderately abundant and
is we'7011l advanced in Lawrence County. About 50 ~e t '-re Dupated
April 12, when buds were in the pro-pink stage. Parasitization is very
Illinois. W. P. Flint (April 20): Codling moth duration started in southern
Illinois during the week of April 8. Cool weatherr has retarded pupation.
No punation has occurred at Urbana.
Michi.'an. R. Hukon (.,il 20): The codling moth is vt~r: abundant, with
from 30 to ii rnt mortality,
Missouri. L. ::ee.: ( Aril 24): Recert counts sw : '"<
bef-re .. :<.o nistic.
Kanas. I. R. Bryson (Apr il ): Repoi ts from the Arkansas River Valley indicat th'Uta lare percentage of the over:;'intering larvae hias been destroyed
throuca excellent sanitation methods antlied by the C. W. A.
Idaho. R. I. Hagele (April 18): Codling moth emcrgence started at Parma
on 4 ir 12, the earliest on record. The calyx spray was started April
Nevada. G. G. Schweis (April 23): The codling moth is moderately abundant in
Washington. E. J. Newcomer (April 20): The first moths were noted at Yakima
April 12, which is a month earlier than last year and several days earlier
than the previous earliest season. The calyx spray has mostly been
,applied, and in many cases the first cover spray will be on by May 1.
Oregon. D. C. Mote (April 24): Adults have been taken in bait in the
Willamette Valley for the past several nights.
California. E. 0. Essig (April 19): The codling moth is very abundant;
abnormally heavy flight of adults occurred in April.
EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR (Malacosoma americana Fab.)
New Hampshire. L. C. Glover (April 24): The eastern tent caterpillar is
moderately abundant. Hatching started the third week in April and
apparently there was no winter killing.
Massachusetts. A. I. Bourne (April 24): Tent caterpillars were observed
hatching at Amherst on April 15, and on the 17th at the Waltham Station.
Caterpillars were hatching without showing any amonreciable winter killing.
Connecticut. E. P. Felt (April 23): Apple tent caterpillars appear to be
abundant in Stamford, the small webs being very evident upon wild cherry.
W. E. Britton (April 24): The eastern tent caterpillar is moderately abundant; egg masses are abundant; there was little winter mortality.
Delaware. L. A. Stearns (April 24): Hatching was first observed April 17
New Jersey. T. J. Headlee (April 25): The eastern tent caterpillar is very
Pennsylvania. A. B. Champlain (April 24): The eastern tent caterpillar is
moderately abundant in Dauphin County. Hatching and forming of nests was
observed April 20.
H. E. Hodgkiss (April 23): Eggs are abundant, and even in the area of
lowest sub-zero winter temperatures the hatch is normal. In the northern
tier of counties the webs were being spun on April 20.
Maryland. E. N. Cory (April 24): The eastern tent caterpillar is very
abundant over the central part of the State.
West Virginia. L. M. Peairs (April 24): The eastern tent caterpillar wat
observed hatching at Morgantown on April 20.
North Carolina. W. A. Thomas and L. B. Reed (April 14): The overwintering
eggs began hatching at Chadbourn about the middle of March at a time when there was scarcely any foliage on the trees. The population is apparently much larger this year than normal and approximately half of the wild cheri
trees in this area have been completely defoliated. As many as a dozen
nests have been observed in a single tree of medium size. The larvae
have now about reached maturity.
Georgia. 0. I. Snapp (April 2): Caterpillars are more abundant than usual
at Dry Branch.
Tennessee. J. U. Gilmore (April 19): There are probably more tents around
Clarksville than there have been in the past five years. Complete defoliation of many wild cherry trees is now apparent. Little damage to
apple and peach has been observed.
Mississippi. C. Lyle (Aoril 23): Specimens collected from peach trees were
recently received fm Bay Springs, Jasper County, and Lexington, Holmes
County. Only slight infestations were reported in each case.
PISTOL CASE BEAR (Coleoohora malivorella Riley)
West Virginia. L. M. Peairs (April 24): The pistol case bearer was reported
as abundant in a few orchards in Jefferson County.
APPLE FRUIT MINER (Marmara pomonella Fusck)
New York. E. P. Felt (April 23): The work of the bast miner, M. nomonella,
in young apple twigs was reported from Bay Shore, L. I.
New Hampshire. L. C. Glover (April 24): The apple aphids (Acphis oomi DeG.)
has been reported as plentiful throughout the State. The eggs commenced
to hatch the second week in April.
Vermont. H. L. Bailey (April 25): A. oomi is scarce; young have hatched
and are on the opening buds of apple at Dummerston.
Massachusetts. A. I. Bourne (April 24): We noted the hatching of orchard
plant lice on or about April 15 at Amherst. Some of the earlier observations indicated that a very considerable percentage of the overwintering
eggs ?98 collapsing. At the present time, however, we are noting a
sizeable hatch in some orchards.
Connecticut. P. Garman (April 23): The green apple aphid is abundant in
some orchards. Ladybird beetles are :reported by groviers in several parts
of the State, indicating that they have passed the winter successfully.
New York. P. J. Parrott (April 23): The apple grain aphid is moderately
abundant in western New York. The rosy (Anuraphis roseus Baker) and the
grcen (A. oomi) aple aphids have not yet hatched.
N. Y. State Coll. of Agr. News Letter (April): In the lower Hudson River Valley the apple grain aphid (Ihooalosiohm runifoliae Fitch) was observed to be hatching on April 9; and nymphs were observed in Dutchess and Orange Counties on April 10. By the third week in the
month they were noticed in unusually large nurimbers in Oranze, Dutchess, and Greene Counties. The apple aphid was reported as starting to hatch
in Onondaga County the week of April 23. The rosy apple aphid,A. roseus, was observed hatching in Dutchess County on April 14; and one individual
was observed in Ulster County on April 12. (Abstract J. A. H.)
New Jersey. T. J. Hoadlee (April 25): The rosy apple aphid and the green
apple aphid are scarce, while the oat aphid is abundant.
Pennsylvania. H. N. Worthley (April 14): Aphid eggs: 232 twigs examined,
average survival 57.7 percent; minimum survival 41 percent; and maximum
75 percent, from Franklin County. In beakers of water in the laboratory the collapse of eggs continued, and only 8 percent hatched. The value of
these records as to survival in the field is questionable, for all lots except those at State Colleze were in the mail from 24 to 48 hours. At
State College aphids were seen on buds of flowering crab during the last
week in March, and on opening buds of apple in the silver tip stage on April 9. The large numbers indicated no abnormal effect of low winter
temperatures. Weather Bureau records at State College give minima of -60F. on December 29, -170F. on February 9, and -130F. on February 28.
Aphids observed so far are all green (A. 2j) and grd( prunifoliae)
H. E. Hodgkiss (April 23): Nymphs of the green apple aphid and the grain
aphid were hatching in the southern counties April 1 in unusually large numbers. Of the two species the grain aphid is more abundant. In the
northern counties they started a week later. Rosy aphid e'gs commenced to hatch in the most southern counties on April 10. State-wide observations indicate a very light infestation, Adalia bipunctata L. is abundant
on apple trees. Syrphid fly eggs were first seen on April 10 and since
then have increased in greater numbers than in 1932, when they were
Delaware..- L. A. Stearns (April 24): Initial hatching of grain aphids noted
during'the first week of April.
Maryland. E. N. Cory (April 24): Fruit aphids are moderately abundant, oat
Virginia. W. J. Schoene (April 30): The reports indicate that the various
species of apple aphids are very scarce in all orchard sections this year.
This seems to be true on trees sprayed as well as those not sprayed.
West Virginia. L. M. Peairs (April 24): rosy (A. roseus) and the green
(A. Pomi2) are scarce in Jefferson and Berkeley Counties.
Georgia. C. H. Alden (April 21): Fruit aphids are scarce at Cornelia.
Ohio. T. H. Parks (April 24): Apple aphids, mainly green and apple grain
aphids, are more abundant than usual on the opening buds. The cold rainy
weather of the middle of April killed many of these newly hatched aphids
in Jackson County. Some are still hatching at Columbus. Some eggs of
syrphid flies are present among these.
Kentucky. W. A. Price (April 24): Green fruit aphids are very abundant,
also rosy aphids.
Missouri. L. Haseman (April 24): Fruit aphids are scarcer than usual but
cool weather may enable them to build up. We have taken no rosy aphids
Kansas. H. R. Bryson (April 24): The apple grain aphid. has been reported as
very abundant on apple trees in the Arkansas River Valley in the vicinity
Idaho. C. Wikeland (March 30): All forms of orchard aphids are hatched;
scme of these appeared the last.of February. Infestations of the woolly
apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigera Hausm.) are the most severe we have ever
experienced. (April 25): Aphids are very abundant in apple orchards
throughout the State. Extensive spraying is being done.
Oregon. D. C. Mote (April 24): The woolly apple aphid (E. lanipera) is more
abundant in the Willamette Valley than it has been for many years.
SAN JOSE SCALE (Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst.)
New Hampshire. L. C. Glover (April 24): Very high mortality of the San Jose
scale has been reported from Hollis, Wilton, and Kensington. The specimens
inspected in the laboratory show less than 5 percent survival.
Connecticut. W. E. Britton (April 24): The San Jose scale is scarce, about
75 percent dead.
New York. E. P. Felt (April 23): The San Jose scale has suffered heavy
winter mortality at Freeport, L. I.
W. E. Blauvelt, N. Y. State Coll. of Agr. News Letter (April 9): Examination of over 5,000 young, black individuals show a high winter mortality.
In Tompkins, Ontario, Yates, Genesee, and Monroe Counties the mortality
was 97 to 100 percent. In Ontario and Yates Counties the low tomocratures in February rancd from -240to -300F. As low or lower temperatures
occurred in Onondaga, Livingston, Wyoming, Chautauqua, and most of Erie
County, and it is probable that a similar high mortality of scale occurred.
In Orleans and most of Niagara County the mortality in most of the samples
examined was from 80 to 86 percent. The temperature in these areas was
reported as about -150to -200F. in the zones near the l.-ke and about
-240 in the middle and southern parts. In a small area in the northwestern
corner of Niagara County, around Youngstown and extending south along the
Niagara River, the temperature reached only 10 to 12 degrees below zero
and the mortality of scale. was around 50 percent. The Hudson Valley
olesv of scale from Ulster and Col'mbia Coxunties showed a mortality of
from 80 to 90 percent. Examination of scale on currants from Orange
County showed a rather high survival.
Pennsylvania. H. N. Worthley (April 14): On 49 twigs examined, the average
survival was 45.2 percent; minimum 39 percent from Centre County; maximum
50.8 percent from Franklin County.
Illinois. W. P. Flint (April 20): Counts from several orchards in northern
Illinois, where the official temperature was -200F., sh6w from 50 to 60 percent of the scales alive. Apparently the period of cold weather was
not long enough to affect the scale seriously.
Idaho. C. Wakeland (April 25): The mild winter allowed heavy survival. Development is early; and undoubtedly this year will see a heavy increase
TARNISHED PLAIT BUG (Lygus pratensis L.)
Missouri. L. Haseman (April 24): The tarnished plant bug has been abundant
and active in central Missouri, and what is probably the same species was
reported as blighting some apple fruit buds in northwestern Missouri
EUROPEAN RED MITE (Paratetranychus pilosus C. & F.)
Massachusetts. A. I. Bourne (April 24): All our observations thus- far would
indicate that the European red mite will have an approximately normal hatch.
Connecticut. P. Garman (April 23): The European red mite is generally less
abundant than usual. Where present it -has passed the winter successfully.
Occasional orchards only appear to be infested.
Pennsylvania. H. E. Hodgkiss (April 2t): Eggs are more abundant on apples
and peaches than at any time since 1931.
H. N. Worthley (April 14): European red mite eggs: 206 twigs examined;
average survival 68.1 percent; minimum 0 percent at State College;
maximum 91 & percent from Franklin County.
Idaho. C. Wakeland (March 30): European fruit mite eggs have hatched in the
ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH (Grapholitha molesta Busck)
Delaware. L. A. Stearns (April 24): Fifty-four percent of the overwintered
larvae had pupated on April 19.
Virginia. W. J. Schoene (April 30): Adults are emerging in large numbers
in the vicinity of Roanoke, and it is expected that much injury will be
Georgia. 0. I. Snapp (April 24): First-brood larvae are now appearing in
peach twigs at Fort Valley, the largest being aboat one week old on this
date. Firt-generation eggs hatched about the usual time this year and,
therefore, the usual number of broods is anticipated. The dates of first
twig injury in other years are as follows: April 10, 1925; April 20,
1926; April 1, 1927; April 25, 1928; April 4, 1929; April 29, 1930;
April 22, 1931; May 17, 1932; April 20, 1933.
C. H. Alden (April 21): Adults-have been caught in bait traps for the
past two weeks at Cornelia.
LESSER PEACH BORER (Aegeria pictipes G. & R.)*
Georgia. 0. I. Snap (April 12): Spring-brood moths are beginning to emerge.
PLIM CTRCULI0 (Conotrachelus nenuphar Hbst.)
Delaware. L. A. Stearns (April 24): First emergence of the plum curculio from hibernation was observed at Camden on April 20.
Georgia. 0. I. Snapp (April 20): Adults appeared from hibernation in numbers at Fort Valley between April 1 and 3 and were disseminated throughout the orchards by April 10. Eggs were found in the little
peaches on April 18. (April 24): The first larvae of the season were found today in green peaches. They were about two days old. An adult
depositing eggs in a peach was observed in an orchard on April 19.
C. H. Alden (April 21): Curculios were caught on jarring frames starting April 9 at Cornelia and on April 2 at Thomaston.
T. L. Bissell (April 5): The first beetle of the year was jarred from peach April 5 at Experiment (6 jarrings made previously, from March 21
to April 2).
South Carolina. W. C. Nettles and F. Sherman (April 25): Adults were observed in the Sandhill and Piedmont sections, April 2 to 17.
GREEN PEACH APHID (Myzus persicae Sulz.) Montana. A. L. Strand (April 2): M. persicae is moderately abundant.
Idaho. R. W. Haegele (April 18): The peach aphid is very abundant in southwestern Idaho.
Utah. G. F. Knowlton (April 18): Green peach aphids working inside the blossoms have caused large numbers of peach blooms to dry up upon trees
at the Davis County Experiment Station farm.
Nevada. G. F. Schweis (April 2): Aphids are very abundant in western Nevada
and are curling the leaves of peach and plum.
PEAR PSYLLA (Pxlia pyricola Foerst.) Massachusetts. A. I. Bourne (April 24): Pear psylla eggs were observed at
Amherst on April 19, and at Waltham on the 18th. Eggs are hatching
*Correction: The note in the Insect Pest Survey Bulletin, April, 1934, page
47, by 0. I. Snapp, under Ae eria exitiosa/refers to A. pictipes.
without showing any appreciable winter killing. There seems to be an
abundance of the adult psyllas which survived the winter.
Connecticut. P. Garman (April 23): Pear psylla eg;s were observed in
commercial orchards in New Haven County.
New York. N. Y. State Coll. of Agr. News Letter (April): The pear psylla
was abundant and laying eggs in the Hudson River Valley during the middle
of the month, and by the third week eggs were very plentiful throughout
that region and also in western New York.(Abstract, J. A. H.)
Michigan. R. Hutson (April 20): The pear psylla is moderately abundant and
BLACK CHERRY APHID (Myzus cerasi.Fab.)
Montana. A. L. Strand (April 2): The cherry aphid is prevalent in large
numbers throughout cherry orchards in the vicinity of Flathead Lake.
RUSTY PLUM APHID (Hysteroneura setariae Thos.)
Georgia. 0. I. Snapp (April 19): This insect is now abundant on plum at Fort
Mississippi. C. Lyle (April 23): Plum twigs showing heavy infestations were
received from Hattiesburg, Forrest County, on April 2, and from Lombardy,
Sunflower County, on April 23.
A SCALE INSECT (Marzarodes rileyi Giard.)
Florida. J. R. Watson (April 23): Considerable interest has been aroused
among citrus growers by the discovery in citrus groves in Polk and Lake
Counties of a sp-oecies of Margarodes, provisionally identified by H.
Morrison as M. rileyi. We have found as many as 4,000 live cysts in two quarts of soil taken around citrus roots. Trees in this situation have
a very unthrifty appearance. The adults began to emerge about the middle
of the month and the first eggs were found on the 19th.
CITRUS WHITEFLY (Dialeurodes citri Riley & How.)
Florida. H. T. Fernald (April 20): The citrus whitefly was very abundant in
Orlando the first two weeks in April.
Mississippi. C. Lyle (April 23): Cape jasmine leaves showing a heavy infestation were received from a correspondent at Way, Madison County, on
D. W. Grimes (April 20): The citrus whitefly is moderately to very
abundant on privet and cape jasmine at Cruger and Durant in Holmes County.
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 27): The citrus whitefly is very abundant on
citrus, privets, and other plants.
California. D. B. Mackie (April 18): Two infested trees were found in
Marysville, Yuba County; no living fly has been found in Orange, Los
Angeles, Sacramento, Butte, Colusa, or Sutter Counties.
CITRUS RUST MITE (Phyllocoptes oleivorus Ashmn.)
Florida. J. R. Watson (April 23): Rust mites were very abundant until
checked by recent heavy rains, which were unusually heavy for April.
H. T. Fernald (April 20): The citrus rust mite is moderately abundant
Mississippi. J. E. Lee (April 14): The citrus rust mite is reported as very
abundant at Carriere.
GARDEN SLUG (Agriolimax Akrestis L.)
California. H. J. Ryan (April 14): An infestation of a slug, identified by
Dr. Howard Hill of the Los Angeles County Museum as A. agrestis, did some
damage to foliage and navel oranges on the trees of a grove at Duarte, Los Angeles County, during March. The damage was most evident on the
oranges on low hanging branches. As these were picked during March and
no further serious injury was noted, no control measures were used.
A SNAIL (Helix pisana Muller)
California. D. B. Mackie (April 18): A new infestation of this pest was
found early in April in a citrus grove near Anaheim, Orange County. The
forces of the State are organizing to take up its eradication.
PYRIFORM SCALE (Protopulvinaria pyriformis Ckll.)
Florida. J. R. Watson (April 23): Among the insects which have been particularly prominent in our correspondence during the last month has been a pyriform scale. The infestations are on avocados, concerning which we
have received more complaints than we have ever received before in the san
length of time.
TRUC K CR 0 P INSECTS
SPOTTED CUCUMBER BEETLE (Diabrotica duodecimpunctata Fab.)
Virginia. P. D. Sanders (April 2): Two 12-spotted cucumber beetles were
observed on the wing in the capitol grounds at Richmond today.
North Carolina. W. A. Thomas and L. B. Reed (April 7): This insect is more
aoundant than usual and is doinE considerable feeding on most of the
early spring cruciferous crops at Chadbourn. The injury is apparently
more serious to young cabbage plants that have just boon transplanted than
to other crops.
Georgia. T. L. Bissell (April 23): First beetles were observed at Experiment,
on March 5. On March 22 the beetles were scarce on rye and Austrian peas and abundant on blossoms of wild plum (34 jarred in 15 minutes). On April
10 and 20 the beetles were scarce on peas and fruit trees.
FALSE CHINCH BUG (Nysius ericae Schill.)
North Carolina. W. A. Thomas and L. B. Reed (April 9): The adults are becoming rather abundant on young mustard planted for spring market at Chadbourn.
The population has not reached the point where serious damage is being done.
There is no evidence that the severe winter was of any practical aid in
reducing the overwintering population.
Arizona. C. D. Lebert (April 18): Several calls regarding this insect overrunning yards, getting into houses, and on citrus and roses have been received.
SEED CORN MAGGOT (Hylemyia cilicrura Rond.)
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 27): The seed corn maggot is very abundant on
beans and early potatoes in southern Louisiana.
POTATO AND TOMATO
COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (Leotinotarsa decemlineata Say)
Virginia. H. G. Walker and L. D. Anderson (April 26): The Colorado potato
beetle is just beginning to emerge from hibernation at Norfolk.
South Carolina. W. C. Nettles and F. Sherman (April 25): The beetle was observed in eastern South Carolina on April 19.
Georgia. J. B. Gill (April 25): The Colorado potato beetle is very abundant
on potato and tomato plants at Tifton.
Mississippi. N. D. Peets (April 17): The beetle is very abundant in southwestern Mississippi; more abundant than in recent years.
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 27): The Colorado potato beetle is unusually
abundant in Louisiana generally.
TOBACCO FLEA BEETLE (Epitr.ix narvula Fab.)
Virginia. H. G. Walker and L. D. Anderson (April 25): The eggplant flea
beetle (M parvula J'ab.) is moderately abundant on young potato plants
CORN FLEA BEETLE (Chaetocnema Dulicaria Melsh.)
Georgia. T_ L. Bissell (April 23): Thi insect was observed at Experiment
damaging young corn about 3 inchers~with one or more beetles in each play
most of which were working inside unfolding leaves.
Mississippi. J. Milton (April 21): A serious outbreak of flea beetles was
observed on tomato at Utica April 11. They were attacking plants recent]
set in the fields. The plants were greatly weakened by the attack.
POTATO TUBER WORM (Gnorimoschema ooerculella Zell.)
Utah. G. F. Knowlton (April 18): Washington, Iron, and Beaver Counties are
now quarantined because of the presence of the potato tuber moth in a fev
localities of each county.
STALK BORER (Papaipema nebris nitela Guen.)
Tennessee. J. Milam (April 10): A 10 to 15 percent infestation of one cold
frame of tomato transplants was reported from Dyer; possibly 1,000 infested plants.
SUCKFLY (Dic.yphus minimus Uhl.)
Texas. F. L. Thomas (April 24): This insect is extremely abundant in the
vicinities of Mission and Edinburg, causing severe damage to the tomato
crop. It is also more abundant than usual at Weslaco, according to S. W
SQUASH BUG (Anasz tristis DeG.)
Mississippi. G. L. Bond (April 16>.. Squash bugs are doing considerable
damage to Irish -potatoes at Moss Point. As high as 8 or 10 bugs were found on 1 plant and such infested plants were scattered all over the
LEAF-FOOTED BUG (Leptoglossus ph.yllopus L.)
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 27): Leaf-footed plant bugs have been very
numerous on and injurious to Irish potatoes, together with potato beetle BEANS
MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE (Epilachna corrupta Muls.)
Delaware. L. A. Stearns (April 24): High mortality has occurred in hibernation cages at Newark.
Virginia. H. G. Walker and L. D. Anderson (April 26): The Mexican bean beel
is still in hibernation at Norfolk.
West Virginia. L. M. Peairs (April 24): A few were seen at Morgantown earl
I TORTED CABBAGE W01M (Ascia rape L.)
Maryland. E. N. Cory (April 24): The cabbage butterfly was first observed
on April 13.
Florida. H. T. Fornald (April 20): Adults were unusually abundant around
cruciferous crops during the first half of April in the field crops
sections near Orlando.
Utah. G. F. Knowlton (April II): Impoi-ted cabbage worm butterflies are now
flying in Davis and Weber County areas.
CABBAGE APHID (Brevi00rvne brassicae L.)
Tennessee. J. Milam (April 16): Small numbers of this pest have recently
appeared on cabbage at Clarksville.
Mississippi. C. Lyle (April 23): Heavily infested cabbage plants were received on April 10 from a grower at Edwards, Hinds County.
HAiLEQUIN BUG (Mlrgantia histrionica Hahn)
Virginia. H. G. Walker and L. D. Anderson (April 26): The harlequin bug has
been found to have passed the winter successfully in rather large numbers
in a protected place in a flower garden near Norfolk.
North Carolina. W. A. Thomas and L. B. Reed (April 5 to 15): Daring the past
few days large numbers have suddenly appeared in several fields of cabbage
and mustard around Chadbourn. It appears that they all came from a
northerly direction and settled within the fields in very limited areas.
Even their movements within the field were from north to south. It was not uncommon to find as many as 50 of these insects on a single cabbage
plant, 6 inches in diameter or less. There was no indication of egg
laying uitil the end of the second week in April. At the present time hundreds of egg clusters are found on the lower leaves of cabbage, especially those that are partly in contact with the soil. There is no
evidence to show where these insects hibernated, as there was no large
population in this im-nediate territory last fall. In this area all food
plants were destroyed the latter part of January.
South Carolina. W. C. Nettles and F. Sherman (April 25): The first complaint
of this insect was recciv,,d on April 6 from eastern South Carolina.
Mississippi. C. Lyle (April 23): Harlequin cabbage bugs were reported
abundant on mustard and cabbage in gardens at Hazleburst, Copiah County,
on April 10, and at Starkville, Oktibbeha County, on April 19.
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 27): The harlequin bug is very abundant in
many fields of crucifers in southern Louisiana.
CABBAGE MIAGGOT (Hylemyia brassicae Bouche)
Virginia. W. J. Schoene (April 30): Reports of severe injury to newly
planted cabbage at Wytheville has been received. This insect is always
present in this area, but causes injury only in favorable years.
ASPARACUJS BEETLE (Crioceris ascaragi L.)
South Carolina. W. C. Nettles and F. Sherman (April 25): The asparagus
beetle was observed in Saluda County on April 13.
Oregon. D. C. Mote (April 24): The most severe outbreak in many years has
been reported from Hood River, the Dalles, Willamette Valley.
STRIPED CTJCUMBER BEETLE (Diabrotica vittata Fab.)
Maryland. E. N. Cory (April 26): Today we found about 50 adult striped
cucumber beetles in dry leaves on a hillside covered with mixed oak, tulip, and pine forest. This is the first time that we have found this beetle in
numbers in hibernation.
Mississippi. D. W. Grimes (April 20): The striped cucumber beetle is very
abundant at Carthage, and is reported as doing severe damage to young
ONION TERIPS (Thrins tabaci Lind.) California. R. E. Campbell (April 1): Thrips damage to the commercial
plantings of onions in the Coachella Valley has been reported, and severe
damage has been observed in several small fields near Alhambra.
EGGPLANT FLEA BEETLE (Epitrix fuscula Crotch)
Louisiana. W. E. Hinds (April 27): This flea beetle has seriously injured
egg-plant in East Baton Rouge and St. Mary Parishes.
STRAWBERRY LEAF ROLLER (Ancylis comptana Froel.)
Kansas. H. R. Bryson (April 23): The strawberry leaf roller has reached
ooutbreak proportions in northeastern Kansas in the vicinities of Troy,
Wathena, and Blair.
Utah. G. F. Knowlton (April 18): Moths are extremely abundant in strawberry
patches at Hyrum and North Logan in Cache County. A small number of eggs
and a very few caterpillars are also present.
C. J. Sorenson (April 24): Damage has been reported in some areas of
Weber and Utah Counties.
STRAWBMRY WEEVIL (Anthonomus signatus Say)
North Carolina. W. A. Thomas and L. B. Reed (April 18): The strawberry
weevil began emerging from hibernation at Chadbourn on March 20 and by
March 27 it began entering strawberry fields. The weevils seem to be more widespread than in former years. Even fields away from hibernation areas
have become moderately infested, while those in close proximity to unburned areas have been injured to the extent of 25 percent or more. This
widespread distribution of the *eevil seems to be due to strong winds during the period of emergence which blew them a considerable distance from their winter quarters. Contrl operations have been more general
in this territory than in former years.
Mississippi. J. P. Kislanko (April 20): The strawberry weevil is moderately
abundant in Stone and adjoining ounties, injuring bloom buds of native
blackberry and youngberry.
STRAWBERRY ROOT WEEVIL (Brachyrhinus ovatus L.)
Oregon. W. D. Edwards (April 21): B. ovatus is beginning to pupate.
COMMON RED SPIDER (Tetranychus telarius L.)
Virginia. H. G. Walker and L. D. Anderson (April 26): The red spider is
very abundant and injurious in some of the strawberry fields in the
Norfolk area. It has also been found infesting foxglove and columbine.
North Carolina. W. A. Thomas and L. B. Reed (April 19): The strawberry red
spider, which has been so much in evidence at Chadbourn is much less
abundant at this time that it was in the late winter. The strawberry
plants are growing very rapidly with fruit nearing the period of maturity; so it is improbable that the injury will be as serious as it was last season. The population was greatly decreased by the unusually cold weather
of January and February. In the dusting operations for the control of the
strawberry weevil, the red spider 7ras further reduced.
Mississippi. M. L. Grimes (April 19): There is a general infestation of red
spider on strawberry.
BEET LEAFHOPPER (Eutettix tenellus Ba/k.)
Idaho. J. C. Chamberlin,Mo. Letter, Bur. Ent. (March): Prospects are for low
populations in Twin Falls, Jerome, Minidoka, and Cassia Counties.
Utah. G. F. Knowlton (April 23): The spring dispersal of the beet leafhopper
has reached northern Utah. A few pale migratory forms were collected in Tooele County on April 17, and pale forms were moderately abundant from
Hooper to Plain. City in Weber County on April 23; and specimens were
collected farther north in Box Elder County.
SPINACH CARRION BETLE (Silpha bituberosa Lec.)
tJta.. G. F. Knowlton (April 20): Larvae are abundant and seriously damaging
one field of young sugar beeets at Layton, Davis County. The larvae are
now three-fourths grown.
TOBACCO FLFA BEETLE (Epitrix rcarvala Fab.)
Florida. F. S. Chamberlin (April 12): Tobacco flea beetles arc very scarce
on plant beds and newly-set tobacco in Gadsden County.
South Carolina. W. C. Nettles and F. Sherman (April 25): The tobacco flea
beetle was observed at Florence on April 14.
Tennessee. J. U. Gilmore (April 20): Flea beetles have appeared the past
month at Clarksville and have caused some damage to poorly canvassed
tobacco plant beds. However, tho beetles are not nearly so numerous as
TOBACCO THRIPS (Frankliniella fusca Hinds)
Florida. F. S. Chamberlin (April 23): Very few thrips can be found on
tobacco in Gadsden County. The infestation is evidently much below normal
and may be attributed to the recent heavy rains.
FOREST AND SHADE-TREE INSECT S
GYPSY MOTH (Porthetria dispar L.)
Vermont. H. L. Bailey (April 25): Several rather large colonies have been
found in the upper Connecticut River Valley as far north as Wells River,
Orange County, denoting an increase during the past five years in that
locality. There is no indication of the moth in the interior and western sections of the State. Egg masses are reported as quite general in southeastern towns.
FOR ST TENT CATERPILLAR (Malacosoma disstria ibn.)
Mississinpi. J. P. Kislanko (March 30): The forest tent caterpillar is quite
generally distributed in Stone, Forrest, and Perry Coanties, where wild plums and Crataegus spp. are being defoliated. Larvae are nearly full;rown.
Colorado. G. M. List (April 21): Examinations for eggs on cottonwood, poplar,
and ash trees show that this insect will be quite injurious again in several towns in northern Colorado. The egg masses are much less numerous
in the localities where a thorough spraying was done last year.
SPRING CA2TKER WORM (Paleacrita vernata Peck)
North Dakota. J. A. Munro (April 21): Adults moved up during the forepart
Kansas.. H. R. Bryson (April 23): P. vernata has been especially abundant in
the State and reports from the Arkansas River Valley indicate a great
abundance in orchards where sanitary measures have not been applied.
JAPANESE SCALE (Leucas-ois j aoonica Ckll.)
New York. E. P. Felt (April 23): The Japanese scale has apparently suffered
a heavy mortality. This is particularly evident at Freeport, L. I.
A SAWFLY (Tenthredinidae)
California. R. E. Campbell (April 24): Since April 2 we have received 10
calls regarding sawfly larvae (species undetermined) on cypress, both
hedges and trees, from Alhambra. Although the larvae are fairly abundant
and apparently widespread, no great damage has been observed.
ELM LEAF BEETLE (Galerucella xanthomelaena Schr.)
Washington. E. J. Newcomer (April 20): The early season has brought this
insect out in Yakima and in many cases elm trees are almost defoliated.
ELM SCURFY SCALE (Chionaspis americana Johns.)
Connecticut and New York. E. P. Felt (April 23): Eggs have wintered in excellent condition at Stamford, Conn., and at Great Neck, L. I.
JUNIPER AND CEDAR
CEDAR BARK BEETLE (Phloeosinus dentatus Say)
Virginia. E. P. Felt (April 23): The cedar bark beetle has been injuring
twigs rather seriously in the vicinity of Richmond.
JUNIPER WEBWORM (Dichomeris marginellus Fab.)
Connecticut. M. P. Zappe (April); There is a heavy infestation on Juniperus
communis in Madison. Apparently there has been no winter mortality,
INSECTS AFFECTING GREENHOUSE
AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
0YSTER-SHELL SCALE (Lepidosaphes ulmi L.)
New York. R. E. Horsey (April 23): Last year's branchlets of European ash,
Fraxinus excelsa and Hoary Willow, Salix candida infested by scale were dead, caused by the cold winter or the scale or by both. Eggs under ful sized scales were shriveled and dead. Evidently the death of the infest branch has an effect on the eggs. The branches and eggs of the scale we both alive on Albert honeysuckle, Lonicera albertii and a lilac from the
Orient, Syringa sp. The lilac was badly incrusted with scale.
Illinois. W. P. Flint (April 20): Examinations of the oyster-shell scale i
the east-central part of the State show that most of the overwintering
eggs have been destroyed by mites or the scale killed by parasites
CHAFF SCALE (Parlatoria pergandei Comst.)
Mississippi. C. Lyle (April 23): Infested leaves of Camellia jiaonica
were received from a grower at Hazlehurst, Copiah County, on Alril 16;
jasmine in a garden at Starkville, Oktibbeha County, was observed being
injured on April 18.
A SCALE INSECT (Odonaspis penicillata Green)
Mississippi. C. Lyle (April 23): Bamboo twigs showing very heavy infestations were received from a correspondent at Gulfport, Harrison County, oi
March 23. He indicated that many of the bamboo plants in that vicinity
were dying out and he believes the scale to be partially responsible.
EU0NYMUS SCALE (Chionaspis euonymi Comst.)
Virginia. H. G. Walker and L. D. Anderson (Upril 26): As usual, the euonyam
scale is rather abundant on many plantings of Euonymus at Norfolk.
Mississippi. C. Lyle (April 23): Heavy infestations on Euonymus were report
from Jackson, Hinds County, on April 12, and from Hattiesburg, Forrest
County, on April 17.
A MOTH (Tholeria reversalis Guen.)
California. R. E. Campbell (April 24): So far this insect is not so abundai
at Alhambra as it has been during the past 3 years, when most of the
genista bushes were defoliated to a large extent.
GLADIOLUS THRIPS (Taeniothrips gladioli M. & S.)
Indiana. J. J. Davis (April 25): Gladiolus thrips will probably be abundant
again this season judging from the reports of infestations on corms.
INSECTS ATTAC K ING MANT AND DO MESTI C ANIMALS
HORN FLY (Haematobia irritans L.)
Texas. 0. G. Babcock (April 6): H. irritans was observed from April 2 to 6.
From 0 to 25 per animal on Aberdeen angus were counted at Terra Alta, 25
miles southeast of Christoval.
BLOW FLIES (Muscidae)
Texas. 0. G. Babcock (April 10): Blow flies are numerous at the Experiment
Station at Sonora; approximately 70.60 percent being Phormia regina Meig.,
and 28 percent the screw worm (Cochliomyia macellaria Fab.).
WOOD TICKS (Dermacentor spp.)
Nebraska. M. H. Evenk (April 15): From Scotts Bluff County, on March 24,
came the complaint of wood ticks (D. variabilis Say) infesting a frame
Missouri. L. Haseman (April 24): This year reports of ticks on dog at
Columbia were received from April 1 to 15. In 1933 the first dog tick
was taken at Columbia, April 23.
BLACK BLOWFLY (Phormia regina Meig.) California. E. W. Laake (April): The following information has been received
from a correspondent: We have never before had such serious infestations
by blowflies as we have had this spring in California. There have been
quite a few taggy sheep owing to the green grass conditions which together
with the mild weather apparently have been ideal for the production of
blowflies. Sheepmen report that lambs three days old are infested. An
estimate that 20 percent of the animals are infested has been made. Last
year very little trouble from blowflies was experienced.
SHEEP BOTFLY (0estrus ovis L.)
Kentucky. W. A. Price (April 24): The sheep botfly has caused the loss of
many sheep in McCracken County during the past few weeks. One farmer
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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3 1262 09244 5922
reports the loss of 11 ewes from gid or blind staggers.
BUFFALO GNATS (Simulium spp.)
Kentucky. W. A. Price (April 25): Buffalo gnats are appearing in swarms
near Brandenburg. The area infested is in the Ohio River bottoms and extends along the river a distance of three miles.
Arkansas. M. P. Jones (April 30): The Buffalo gnats have killed several
hundred head of livestock in east-central Arkansas. According to local people the pests appeared about one month later than usual. The County
Agricultural Agent of Cross Comty, reported that 100 mules had been
killed in that County. County Agents from Phillips, Monroe, Woodruff,
Arkansas, Saint Francis, and Lee Counties also reported losses. The
gnats were so abundant in the vicinity of Forrest City, Saint Francis
County, that the windshields of automobiles passing through were plastered.
A number of the farmers had built smudge fires in the evenings to protect
G. H. Bradley (May 2): The total deaths of mules have been conservatively estimated at 500. Counties affected are Cross, Lonoke, Lee, Phillips, and
Monroe. Rivers examined indicate emergence of gnats complete for this
season. No losses of stock have been reported since about April 26.
FOWL TICK (Argas miniatus Koch)
Utah. G. F. Knowlton (April 17): Ticks are reported as injuring chickens
and turkeys wherever the ticks occur in Tooele County. (Det. by H. S.
Peters, who states that this is their first record of this species from
A BITING LOUSE (Li-euus sp.)
Nebraska. M. H. Swenk (February 14): About a week ago I examined two specimens of bob-white quail shot near McCook, Redwillow County, and found upon
them a couple of specimens of biting lice, of a species apparently not
represented in our collection at this time.
HOUSEHOLD AND STORED-PRODUCTS INSECTS
EUROPEAN EARWIG (Forficula auricularia L.)
Idaho. C. Wakeland (March 30): The European earwig is becoming increasingly
abundant in the Moscow and Coeur d'Alene areas in northern Idaho. Doubtloss following the mild winter this insect will become of much greater
importance during the present year.