THE INSECT PEST SURVEY
B UL LETIN
A periodical review of entom~ological conditions throughout the United States
issued on the first of each month from March to December, inclusive.
Volume 11 Summa~ry for 193! Number 10
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF AGRI CULTURE A ND
THE STATE E N TOMOLOG ICA L
INSECT PEST SURVEY BULLETIN
Vol. 11 Summary for .1931 No. 10
The outstanding features of the weather during 1931 were abnormally
high temperatures nearly all year; a disastrously hot and dry growing season in the northern plains; end variable rainfall, somewhat scarce but sufficient for crop -oroduction, over most of the country.
The winter months early in 1931 were warmer than normal over practiecally the entire country. In the northern plains the excess in average
temperature amounted to about 20 degrees, growing less southward and eastward, Rainfall was well below normal in most places.
The spring months were nearer normal, being warmer than usual west of the Rockies and in the extreme Torthern States, and cooler over the rest of the country. Precinitation was quite variable and somewhat below
normal in most places. The shortage was serious in the northern plains, but rainfall was sufficient for crops in most other sections.
The summer months averaged above normal all over the country. The excess in temperature was very unusual over a wide area in the northern plains and North Central States, especially in early surnmer. Many crops were injured by sudden and severe heat late in June in the Mississippi Valley. Summer rainfall was much like that of the spring, being variable, rather scanty in most p-laces, sufficiently well-timed to allow normal crop production in much of the country, but injuriously short in the northern plains and near-by areas.
The features'of the fall and early winter have been high temperatures throughout, and considerable p-orecipitation late in the period. Uncomfortable heat persisted unusually late into the fall in the Central and Eastern States and moisture was scanty in many places. Snows in the Rocky Mountain region, and abundant or in places excessive rains over much of the country, with very little severe cold, featured late fall.
In late January and early February, reports of the appearance of grassho-ppers were received from Missouri and South Dakota. These, however, were but the overwintering nyn-hs of economically unimportant species brought out by the very unseasonably w-arm weather. During the first week in May, grasshopper eggs began hatching in Montana and by the third week hatching was reported from the Great Plains. During the latter part of May, outbreaks were under way in the Klamath Lake and Antelope Valley districts of California and Oregon and the Salt River Valley of Arizona. During June, outbreaks in the C-reat Plains States, southward to northern Kansas, had developed to such an extent as to require drastic control measures. In the three northwestern counties of Kansas (Cheyenne, Thomas, and Sherman) grasshoppers were so numerous as to require the application of over a million pounds of poisoned bait for their control, and at this time the outbreak in Klamath and Lake Counties of Oregon was of such proportions that 25,000 pounds of bran mash was being distributed daily to hold the insects in check. In July the outbreak: in the Great Plains reached such proportions that it was recognized as a regional calamity and was said to have been the most serious of any grasshopper outbreak since the early settlers were demoralized by the invasion of the Rocky Mountain locust in the decade between 1868 and 1878. During this month more or less serious trouble was reported from New York westward to Idaho, Nevada, and Arizona, and southward to Arkansas, Okclahoma, and Texas. The region of practically complete crop destruction extended from Sully and Stanley Counties in central South Dakota, southeastward to the Nebraska State line, extending into the northern part of Nebraska in Keyapaha and Boyd Counties. Very severe damage, although not so complete, surrounded 'this area, extending northward into North Dakota and the northwestern corner of Minnesota, westward to Montana andnortheastern Wyoming, across Nebras1a into the northeastern corner of Colorado, southward into northern Kansas and west-central Missouri, and eastward into central Iowa. Another very badly infested area was that in northern California and southern Oregon, centering around Klamath Lalke. Species most seriously involved in the Plains region were Melanoplus bivittatus Say, M. differentialis Thos., M. mexicanuas Sauss., M. femur-rubrum DeG., and Camnula
-oellucida Scudd. The trouble continued throughout most of August and Seotember. Toward the end of the latter month egg laying started and the deprodations were practically completed.
The very warm weather of late January and early February resulted in the early appearance of cutworms (Noctuidae) in the lower Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Northwest. As the spring advanced reports of damage were received from p-ractically all parts of the United States, the damage being particularly noticeable in the South Atlantic and Great Plains States. During June the variegated cutworm (Lycophotia margaritosa saucia Mbn.) became very destructive in the West Central States over an area extending from southern NebraskTa, across Kansas, into Oklahoma and Arkansas. These outbreaks were followed in July by similar outbreaks in the North Central
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States. Other species involved in the cutworm troubles of this year were Agrotis yrosilon Rott., A. c-nigrum L., A. unicolor Walk., Barathra configurata Walk., Chorizagrotis auxiliaris Grote, Euxoa sp., Nethelodes emmedonia Cra Polia renigera Steph., Prodenia ornithogalli Guen., and Feltia gladiaria Morr. The outbreaks in the West Central States were -oarticularly serious, as they immediately preceded the very serious grasshopper invasion in this general region.
The first adult June beetles (Phyllonhaga spp.) reported by our collaborators were observed on April 14 in west-central Illinois. During the latter, half .of April reports of damage were received from South Dakota southward to Kansas and Missouri. On April 23 very heavy flights of the beetles 'were observed in-Louisiana.- Damage to pecan foliage by the feeding of the beetles was reported by the middle of the month from Mississippi. During the latter half of May many complaints of damage, particularly to sod and tobacco, were received from Connecticut and Massachusetts. During the last week of the month heavy flights of beetles were obirved th Pennsylvania. Throughout the entire month the beetles were observed in the South Atla:;tic States in noticeable numbers. In the East Central States many.Q0' p .laints .wsere .received, and by the end of May these insects were attracting major attention by feeding on the leaves of fruit trees.and ornamentals. -In the West Central States the main brood of adults is due to appear in 1932.. Despite this fact, very heavy flights were observed in 1931 from the middle of April on. It was estimated that as high as 40,000 adults per acre were -oresent in pastures in the generally infested'.territory of southwestern W7isconsin. Heavy flights of beetles were reported from the.,East,:Central, West Central,.and North Central-States during June. The rootso.f azalea bushes at Mobile;,.Ala., -were eaten away by the grubs during the summer, Damage to seedlings of: pine '-as reported from nurseries at Sumt6r, S. C*.. and at the State nurseries in NerW!Carolina.
The warm spell in February resulted in bringing wireworms into activity in Kansas. By mid-April the sand wireworm (Horistonotus uhleri Horn) was observed to be active in southwestern South Carolina, and by late May this insect was damaging cotton and corn in that region. In the New England and Middle Atlantic States, from Maine and Vermont southward through New York to Maryland, the v.heat wireworm (Agriotes mancus Say) and another species, Pheletes am-onus Say, were reported during late May and early June damaging p-ootatoes, seedling melons, corn, and several other crops. During May reports of damage to recently set tobacco plants and seedling melons by the. wireworm Monocrenidius ves-oertinus Say were received from North Carolina. Throughout late April, May, and early June reports of wireworm injury occasioned by several species of wireworms, among which might be mentioned Melanotus spp., Monocro-pidius auritus Hbst., Aeolus dorsalis Say, and Agriotes mancus Say, were quite general over the East Central and North Central States, vwith scattered reports of vireworm damage from the Rocky Mountain, Great Basin, and Southern States.
"During the year 1931, the newly introduced wireworm Heteroderes laurentii Guer. has proven quite an economic pest in the trucking section of southern Alabama. The early Irish potato crop, particularly, suffered severe injury. A great percentage of this crown was loaded for market with shipping point certification by the Bureau of Markets. Their reports showed injury as high as 25 per cent to many cars of Irish potatoes. From
3 to 5 per cent was quite common during the main portion of the shipping season. Other crops were also damaged. Both larvae and adults were found very numerous in Mobile and Baldwin Counties, Ala. Many fields show a population of as many as 10 larvae to the square foot. During the year scouting has shown the distribution of the insect at this time as follows: Harrison, Jackson, George, and Green Counties, Miss.; Mobile, Baldwin, Washington, and Escambia Counties, Ala.; Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties, Fla. Larvae, tentatively identified as this species, have also been collec&,W3 in Tnl' rTll TT -1 I,, r, Iln +. Iv
EUPROPEA CORN BO2
The European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn.) made but slight advance along its western border. Toward the southeast the advance was more pronounced. Practicallyall of southeastern New Jersey is now known to be infested, and infestations have been found on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. This insect was also found in a single township in Sheboygan County, Wis.
During the early spring months, reports of rather heavy infestations by th.e Hessian fly (Phytophaga destructor Say) were received from western and southeastern Iowa, while the insect was reported at' this time as being comparatively scarce in the Atlantic States. As the spring advanced serious infestations were reported from western Illinois and parts of the Platte Valley in Nebraska. In Henderson County, Ill., considerable wheat areas were plowed out, since infestations in this region ran from 32 to 40 per
cent of the tillers. The spring wheat in the Willamette Valley of Oregon was also reported as quite heavily infested this year. At harvest time it was observed that the insect was low in numbers in the East Central States, with serious infestations in western and southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and scattered localities in Nebraska and Kansas. The summer wheatstubble surveys showed that in west-central and southern Illinois the infestations were decidedly heavy, running from 5 to 37 per cent. The State average, however, was lower than last year, being 9 per cent as dompared with 13 per cent. Similar surveys in Kansas show infestations in the eastern two-thirds of the State of from 10 to 15 per cent of the plants.
SK. L. Cockerham, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.
2 Revised and amplified by C. M. Packards
0 0 m 11 Cc
During September considerable emcr-ence of the fly occurred in the East Central States. In most places, however, tis emnergence was too early to infest the sown heat, but volunr.teer wheat in this region was heavily infested and became an im-ortant source of flies infesting sown v'heat in early October. Owing to unusually favorable fall weather, oviposition continued later than usual in Illinois -end Indiana. Heavy fall infestations developed in many of the earlier aocings in these States. In Ohio the fly appeared to be somewhat more generally present in significant numbers than a year ago, thouh~ the infestation averaged low. It was also li:,ht in southern Michi;an. Drought during September and October in Kentucky and Tennessee curtailed fa-ll fly activity and early wheat sowing. As a result of late fell rains and oersistently mild weather, however, light infestations develo-ed sccessfully during November in some Kentucky and Tennessee fields. Fall infestations were reported heavy in the earlier soin-s in central and sout! eastern ,issouri and southeastern Nebraska, and moderately heavy in north-central and northeastern Kansas, and in western Iowa, particularly in onona County. In the remainder of the West Central States the fly ,as less abundant.
Early ring observations in the East Central States indicated that the winter mortality of the cinch bug (Blissus leucopterus Say) had been very low and wres'ged possible trou'ole from eastern Kansas to northwestern Ohio. Daring the middle of Aoril the bug started migrating into small grain in Illinois, Missouri, and Kansas, with indications of possible serious damage in southeastern Kansas. By the middle of May the insect
twass By-e~i the nide f1a-tei"sc
as a. earing in threatening numbers in south-central Illinois, western .issouri, southeastern Kansas, a--d northeastern Oklahoma, with rather large numbers appearing in scattered localities in Mississippi. By the end of June young bugs were appearing in western Ohio, central and southern Illinois, and central and western Missouri. During July damage to corn was reported from several western and northernaccunties in Ohio, from south-central and central Illinois, and from one locality in northeastern Indiana. During the early -art of July these insects were observed to be maintaining large populations in Iov-a, southern South Dakota, and southwestern Nebraska. The dam:ae on the whole, however, was not so serious as was ontici-ated. TDuring the latter -nart of the summer the chinch bu( po-pulations survived in such numbers as to indicate the possibility of damaging infestations next year over the normal chinch-bug belt, which extends diagonally from the eastern one-third of Kansas across central Missouri, south-central Illinois, and central Indiana, and into northeastern Ohio. Sporadic outbreaks occurred this year in Massachuisetts, where this insect Wa.s very numerous over a small area in Berkshire County; considerable injury was causeJ in Lincoln and Marshall Counties, Tenn., and in many localities scattered throughout Mississippi; in Charleston, S. C., where there was quite a little damage to St. Augustine grass; and Columbia County in east-central Pennsylvania, where the damage was to Sudan grass, corn, and oats. Specimens were received from Glen Cove, Long Island, N. Y.,where they were damaging lawns.
Only a single rep-oort on the green bug (Toxoptera graminum Rond.) was received during the year, this coming from Holt County, Nebr., about the middle of May. Several reports of damage by the English grain aphid (M'acrosiphum granarium Kby.), however, were received from the East Central States, particularly from Indiana and Michigan.
CORN EAR 0RM
The first report on the corn ear worm (Heliothis obsoleta Fab.) for
this year was received on February 10 when eggs were observed in Galveston County, Tex. On March 2 two larvae were fund at the same place. Last year the first eggs were observed March 27 at College Station, Tex., indicating a difference of five weeks in the advance of this season over last. By the last week in May larvae were observed injuring buds and tassels of corn in South Carolina. Toward the end of the month damage was becoming consp-icuous on tomatoes and corn throughout the Gulf region. During the first week in June this insect became seriously abundant in the sweet corn growing section around Foley, Ala., injury running as high as 5 per cent of the ears infested. Similar reports of damage about this time were received from Mississimpi and Louisiana. Adult moths, eggs, and newly hatched larvae were starting to appear as far north as Maryland and Nebraska by the middle of June. Early in July damage to early tomatoes and sweet corn plants were received from Ohio, Illinois, westward to South Dakota and Nebrasa, and southward to the Gulf. Owing to the early appearance of this insect in the upper part of its range, ears had not yet formed on corn plants and the damage was very conspicuous in the cornstalkcs. This oecasioned considerable alarm in the region west of that known to be infested by the European corn borer, the corn ear worms being mista en for the introduced pest. An unusual type of injury was observed in Kansas, where the larvae originally infesting a cover crop of hairy vetch attacked the fruit in an apple orchard as high as 6 or 8 feet above the ground, much of the fruit being entirely eaten out, -leaving the empty skins hanging to the tree. The damage was particularly severe in low-headed trees where branches touched the vetch. As the srmer advanced it became apparent that in the Middle Atlantic, 7ast Central, North Central, and West Central States. damage was decidedly severe, although probably not unprecedented. During the fall months reports of injury throughout New England indicated that this insect was more prevalent in that section than it had been in the preceding ten years.
FALL AP ITEM
During July the fall armyworm (Larhygma fru iperda S. & A.) developed a typical outbreak in the Everglades district of Florida, extending as far northward as Pinellas and Polk Counties. Light infestations about Baton Rouge Parish in Louisiana were reported in July; these, however, undoubtedly had been under way during late June, as the larvae were mature and many had entered the ground at the time of observation, July 17. During July
very severe damage to sw~eet corn in the Tia Juana Valley of California was re-oortea, and similar re-oorts vwere received from -war,-ts of Los Angeles C-untv. Here late sweet corn was almost entirely ruined and the tonnage of fiel,. corn was severely reduced. By early fall this insect was troublesome as far north as Monterey Countyj, Calif., attacking lettuce and tomat r)e s. As a whole, how-ever, the yfear vas not one of -Chenomninal damage by t'hils insect.
Thring Anril moths of the arry.or-. (Cirphis uni-ouncta Hlaw.) were col1e~edi lage umers in ba-t -cans in N~ev.,Mexico. About the midd le of May an outbr-eakl developed in 11 counties in north-central Texas and similar outbreaks develo-eca in severa.-l Delt1a cou-nties in MississiDnvi. Much snn-ller and localized outbrep'-1 vitre also re-corted-drn the month from Arkansas, Virginia, and West Vir-inia. During June areas of serious damage were reorted fro-n th-e Fast Central St ates r-estward to Nebraskca and
sotwrt Krtcyad ~nseAr-ansas, and Mississipp i. This i nsect also appeared in destru-ctive numbers in northern Utah. Several local outbreaks occurred in eastern ::-orth Carolina. 71hrou&ghout the South Atlantic and. Fast Central States thie first generation was very hi6ghly parasitized and little tro-Thi -e ;;as exncrienced with the second brood. Euring; July the insect ar-rT>?ared thrugou te greater part of Michig;an, ait-houph it occesione no s.orious dama-_ge.
During June we began to receive renorts of very unusual. damage by sod webworms (Crambus s--0 to sod lands, corn, and tobacco in the Fast Central States extending from Ohio to Iov~a andI southv'ar.d to Kentucly. Betwen J:~e2 and June 10 a heavy7 ^li4- t of the moths of Crambus trisectus
Wa' lk. Was observed in' western Illinois. A somewhat heavy flight of Cra-mbus s-o. Was observed at T'exing-ton, 0~.-, ring late June. Heavy flights vwere also o-bserved." in Ohio between Jaihe 10 anid 29, and again between Augiust 15 a-nd 22; the,= s-ecies in th,.iis crasc were C. trisectus 'Jalk-. and C. teterrfellus Zinc'::. The ino-: wees erous -that they covered thie ra ,diators, headli. -ht s, and vri-n >.'Iielj-s -)f automobil-es, mak: ing driving difficult. Al iost evcr r : o-)f co--u'se in the City of Col-uirbus showed large brown -patches due to th e feedin, of Ih -ewrs Th amg cnine
well through July. Similar da-eage to "olf courses, -particularly -,?Itting greens, was reported from Indifrna. In :centuclwy it was estimated that about one-half cf the l,-nns in thc bluej,-ras, section were ruined by the feeding of these tnsccts -,in> wnc, the Ca-ragKe being] particularly noticeable in
the ~ ~ ~ U emcit viiCt UJee~i ~t to which t he moths were attracted
andnea v~ichthe Lii egs.Considerable damage to lawns rWas also repo-oted fi.r low:,a and Missoari. ln onre 60-acre cornfield in Tennessee 30 acres were -racticv-lly destroyed, there being from 3 to 5 larvae rer hill.. At Wirdscr, Conn., a tobacco plantation was very severely infested, this being-. t1he firs t record of damage to thae tobacco crop thlat has been observed in that State.C3
SUGARCAE BOR1R 1
The infestation in 1931 by the sugarcane moth borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fab.) was rather unusual. After the mild winter of 1930-31, this
pest showed every sign of a rapid development and a heavy infestation. A cool spring, however, delayed the development, and for a while it seemed that the infestation would be very slight. The cool s-ring was followed by a hot summer, and the infestation increased rapidly. The final status was determined as usual during the "grindin season," in the fall, and it was then found that the infestation was very spotted, ranging from practically nothing in some fields (1 per cent of the stalks bored) to every
stalk bored in other fields. Ninety-one fields, fairly well distributed over the "sugar -parishes" of Louisiana, were inspected, and the average stalk infestation was found to be 55.6 per cent. The joint infestation varied, accordingly, from practically no damage to serious damage. A noteworthy finding was the scarcity of the egg parasite Trichogramma minuturn Riley. Even during the "grinding season," when practically all the eggs are usually parasitized, many heavily infestedfieldcs seemed to have none of these parasites.
An unusual and very severe attack of one of the tiger.mo-th.s (Aantesis phyllira Drury) was reported during April and May from soth-'central Tennessee. In Lincoln County alone it was estimated that 500 acres of corn were destroyed and many pastures com-pletely stripped of vegetation. .The last adults of this brood were seen in the field on June 5. On June 23, what appeared to be second-brood larvae were observed in this region. By July 15 most of the larvae had -opupated and moths appeared from July 7 to 27. Second-brood larvae did very considerable damage in Christian and Todd Counties, Ky., and Montgomery and Robertson Counties, Tenn. During August third-brood larvae appeared and the first pupae of this brood were taken in the field August 28 in Marshall County, Tenn. On September 24, what appeared to be fourth-brood larvae were observed in the vicinity of Clarksville in northern Tennessee. S. A. Forbes gave the distribution of A. ph.yllira as extending from Canada and Michigan on the north, westward to Colorado and Texas, and a-pparently southwVard to the Gulf, and stated that it is but two-brooded, the broods a-spearing in May and July. In the Survey files we have records of this insect in past years attacking tobacco in Florida and cotton in Mississippi, and collection records of the insect from Connecticut and New Jersey. A. rectilinca French was also involved in the outbreak, this species also being reported abundant in eastern Tennessee. We have no records on the further distribution of A. rectilinea.
The velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gematilis Hbn.) appeared in the Everglades of Florida on June 10, about two weeks earlier than it did
1 T. E. Holloway and W. E. Haley, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.
in 1930. Associ, teO this cutbre,--,', : s rt ,,or,, --ncre,-.3c of 70.rce:lta,-c of co-m-7,-),red ith 1ast ycLar. D,_-xi--.7 So--)te-r_cor thore ;.-as
some stri-oDin-- of roy': c, _ns in sout'-.crr cli '-ht fcodin- o-n this
cro-o in iDr rts of t h c, s on s o n c o t iv cly slijat damai-.;e by
A !FJC 111I D
Durim- Jiric 1,1r. L. J. 3otl*i-ner, of t".e e-nto-'nolo ;ical section of tI'le,
Food and Dru, Admi--Astration,* collected a iar, e number of specimens of Bruchus brachialis Frdh raeus from a -patc1l. o." vetc"_ at 131i do: Hed,._,' t s, This s-pecies has als-) been found, ir. infested -retcl-- -Qods at 7.10.)restl, n, Vincentov--n, Four 7 ile, a-nd T.-, Kent Count,,rl Del.; :7 n3 "icomico, Count ,-, "d. This bruc-,iid. is one of the. i-.Mortant bean V,.,COvils lmown to attac'r vetch in E-_xo-oc. It is a-oparcntlL, the -fi-2st of these to become established i -n th e Unitod States.
Durin.- the ver-,- eai:l,-,,T re- ,orts v.,er.: rcceivc.,, 1 of low mcrtality 01 the codlin,- -not,- (C, .rnocersa -nomon 11;a L.) from the, X,- v- :a ,land, !L-ddle Atlantic., South Atlantic, tind sout- -,_,rn -oart of the East Central States*.' T'hroujhout the "i, dlc Atlantic and. 'South Atla_-tic State-. tl-As insect a-lancared to loc normally abundant. Tno first ob scr-.-atio-i of TrI-Oatio-n ras report ed ,Iarcl_-l 30 from, Soutli C(aroli-la, A-pril 3 fro-n "lissolari, Anril 15 f1ro-n Georgia, April 12 from so :A'a,,,,rzi Il"Linois, Anr il 1,1 -Crom cc-_atr.,j Tllinois, li .Dril 13 from 1Tcbr-,.s',:a, --.nd APril 21 fro-r.Ponns7l.r -.aia and
I-n -C--ic Roc' y T-roizitai, j st,, tes t-le insect v.-as reported as q-aito LO, Abundant a-n(.. e--c -s su7,ta;-el bit sli, t v.1-ter mortally t Durl- t --i c la t
ter hnl-f of i:- 'he "i-1 le Atl,- -t c States;
U .1 da _L
the sout'.1-ic&-n nart of this section 7,-r,,,s consideralil-, later
th,-)_T1 last yc,- r. Ir. the. Fast Ccntral States occarred at raloo -it
the same time as Jt di-,' 'Last, :,rcnx. I- thf, P -Lcific emorLc-nce occurrod duri-n- the first vecl?- jr Cn,iifor-.-ji,- the 01
emer,: encc in tl-c Vzl-tcv was rcac' _cd on April 13. Tno first sidevorm injury was rcT-ortod from Ila s sa_- ,iasct ,-Is on iu- -,e I.S. this tire eggs v'crc rc-corted h-.tChin1__; in t'.-I(, Huds,)-. IRivor 7,-11cy in Y,)rl--, -,-acl
by tho thir I
d v cc : of Ju .c thcy were. in in, roster. Kc-,,:
Yorl- Side-wor-r injury h!- d started in 7,outhcrn Jcrcoy b-, J-x-c 9; a- a a T 11 11
id by the end of June -Qr1usu. ,.ljy 1-1ca-;-y jnfcst tion, TCrc
from the Hudson River valley of Tcw yorl: soutluward to CrcorCia., wit'r, S171lar heavy infestations over the '-reater part of the aast Central States westward to Nebrasim and Kansao. Band counts made in western Illinois during July indicated t'-,,- t' ) -oorulrticn r,,a,, ten t-*;_-ne,-. as 7reat ris it was at the SaTe ti-ne last ye, ,r, andir. ea-tern Illincis abo-at 235 ti-nes as great. in the P:?cific Northwost t'--e situation vvlas moro. th.,,n it
has been for several year s.
01z:TALE TTIT MOTH
Early in March adults of the oriental fruit moth (Lasoeyresia molesta Busck) were emerging in outdoor cages in South Carolina, and by the end of
that month approximately 7 per cent of the overwintering larvae hadd pupated at Thomaston, Ga. From Virginia northward no pupation had taken place during ,March. In the lower part of the MiUddle Atlantic States it appeared that this insect passed the winter in slightly more than normal numbers. In New Jersey, however, mortality seems to have been heavy, particularly in the Moorestown area. Early in April moths commenced to appear in the bait traps about Cornelia, Ga., by the middle of the month emergence was taking place in southern Virginia, and by the .18th adults were emerging in Delaware. Early in May eggs were found on trees as far north as New Eaven, Conn. Injury became noticeable in the South Atlantic States and the lower part of the. East Central States during May; and early in June twig injury was observed in Massachusetts, Indiana, and Illinois. On the whole, however, the infestation during the spring.of 1931 Was decidedly less than during 1930, and as the season advanced this condition seemed to be quite general throughout the range of this insect. In the Georgia peach belt the infestation of fruit ran from 1 to 3 per cent; in southern Illinois
there seemed to be a slight increase in infestation, in a few cases from
6 to 10 per cent of the fruit on unsprayed trees being wormy. During, late August a heavy infe'station was reported from Bent County, Ark., and' but for a single record in Dallas County, Tex., this is the westernmost record we have for the distribution of this insect.. Very late varieties of peaches were severely damaged in northern Ohio, the Lemon Free being. about 50 per cent infested, and such varieties were also damaged in Delaware. As a whole, however, this insect was decidedly less troublesome than it had been in previous years.
PE-ACH B0 2R
In the South Atlantic States the Peach borer (Aegeria exitiosa Say) was not abnormally abundant, although considerable damage was done where treatment had been neglected. Reports from Ohio indicate that in that region this insect attracted considerable attention and seemed to be more prevalent than it had been for a number of years. The insect not only damaged peach, but also cherry and plum. In the East Central States the first adult emergence was observed June 11 in Tennessee, 10 days earlier than emergence at the same place in 1930. In Georgia the first pupation this year v:as observed at Fort Valley. on July 14, and the first adults emerged on August 6, which is later than usual, as the first adult in 1930 emerged July 22. r Despite the advance in the date of first emergence, the pea: of emergence this year in Tennessee was not reached.: until August 28, while in 1930 this meak was reached on August 13. In the Fbrt Valley section of Georgia the peak of emergence was reached on September 11. An unusual observation on the life history was made by Mr. 0.' I. Snapp, at Fort Valley, Ga., where eggs under field conditions were laid as late as November 8 and hatched as late as December 1. The larvae which hatched that day were as healthy as any reared. during the season and they readily entered the each trees.
PLTZ-11 C jRCT(7L 10
r T Tb ere
Adii.'ts of the cmrc-u.lio n-nan st. em ed
",ar ,as- 1 as
from hibern:-i.tion in ti.l- Sruth Atlantic St muc -,a
co-mared with ',-T e sta-e o riAt Coo7 weat'--er iDrc,,vai1,-d from
the-time of bloomin,-, ro-i '1arc'-_, 1 u-o to t-he tl-;r ,r:ee1,: ir tha- mon+", hollinE the insect in hibernpt4on. 7he first ov,,3rvi-iter-in 7 ad-alt to be
.4 e on- ',?,a r c h 2: Thi
bservcd in the ficld was coll cte at I'l-,o-nast,)n, -3.
i s a bout a weel!: Tater 1 han the firot caculio was collecteift at t,-4s n-lace in 193-0. 3y Yarch 25, 19,70, a-lopro.-I-ml-tely 1,000 ada.'Lts ha,-:*, b-2(-r, collected
by jarrimj,- -from the mn-- e orchard from ,_-iic' i the sin'-Ic indiv 'aial waq tahen thi s year. 3y t'1-., e i r s t w ee! : o f An r i 1 a d,,:_ 1 t z v: cl r c; ob F c 1- -V e d i -,a 7,., o r 1n C a r o lina. by t;he second wce'- the- were observed in Vir-inia, anri b,, tno 'U"Ard wee! in central IlTev., Jorsoy. If, t-t- Yort Valle," section o:'L Goor,74a ovi-nositio'n started. than it di.' in 11_ 330 i s y c a r th _j -P4rzt
found on Arril l1t whilc- last :,Tear th y wer-, fo-an,' A-,)ril 20; the latter date is dEc;-r3-cdlzr !at,-:,,i- ti),an norm-r).I. Darin 7-!f,,y tl-c i-.s-.ct was boi_-ig
re-oorted from Now :IqrZiand and tllnc IYi dle Ltlant,, States as ab-or-nally abimdant. On t1lic, o-uh_r ',iand, in l'Teor,-1a t1ie i-ifc-tation ras lil'--.tost 17 Tn th- H-al.sor. Rivcr Valley -nd conthat ',ad bee-n observed in 1' years. C!
tral '.]7ev- Jersc-r da-al-c became' q ,..ite severe j uly. 'T o o i i t t !- e Fast C"Cntral States the infestations s 4:.. T, ;! re lo i.-, :,tLt 1A ttle damage bein-, done. As the season adv, .ced some. latE ras -e-)o-ted
from the States im- ,edirtely we:-t o-.'L' tne A1les:'7ien;_es, 't-at on t--,-c, wCole the only region siZfering serious da-n_-,,; -,-e fro n 1.1iis i, 3ect ex'Ven,1Li-_.-11:,; from central Fev: JC-Se7r j)_T) -ina -Iand.
t1,0 River V.-I.11 e,, i ,tr
As was to be ex-oected, fol i- tile -ier7 severe dro,,)_-tt v iich occurred
over a very lax ;e part ol" the. coimtry durin.-, the suzrnmer of 193C, am i_ misually large number of reports of b -!- the s'-ot- -.1ol- borer (Scolyt-,,,s
losup Ratz.) were received this ye,-x i ro-n rec-Lons ext-en, n:, from Yor.l. and MichiEan dovn the Ohio River 7alley an-d alon--,- t'-Ie v ester-n A-p- achi* an s
.1 ;71n C t 4 tl
throui,_h Kentacky -to Ala.b,,, a ver, dr,,
season this insect has been. -nore distract .Te t-an uzua! in Cal i -:o rnia, damage bein,,, particularly severe on -mincs.
Observations -nade t1le late winter of 1230-31 indicr te L t(-.,It
eggs 0-r, the rosy ap-_r)le a-Qhirl tAr J0 I
d =,j s roses Balcer) were -. non,- -lly
scarce throa,,c-h the New Englard, Middle Atla-itic, South Atla--It--c, ani D-ist Central States. However, in Pennsylvania therc seemed to be eno--a,-I, eg,-z
to occasion some apprehension. 7ae applo apiii,! (Ap,-is po-ni DeC. ) v-as quite -enoraily reported as sc,)rc;- rvs v.*z-;.s lilso ,ppi -r dn ar.7-i, Mio-palosivwm, Ymmifoliae. Fitch). T! E, V,_ llcy reports
bf 0-ecid-ulous fruit aphids indicated t'nat t iese in:7ecto w(, re ,zr .s-lially abundant. By the middle of ArI-il boll", srec7.es bccn.,-F very ibim(,,ant in central Nev, Yor1K. During Xr t'le sit,.,ation c'-,anged b,lt both increased toward the end of the month. D rly in Ji)-ne the rosT aTmle apiiid suddenly develo-ped to serious proportions in sout"i-orn :]n, lnnd and the
Southern States extending westward to Arkansas, and very heavy infestations were also reported that month from the Pacific Northwest. By the middle ofi the month, however, the outbreak suIosided. The applo 'phid increased to destructive proportions during July in the Hudson River Valley of New York and northern New Jersey westward to central Pennsylvania. During July the wooly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigera Hausm.) rapidly increased to destrucive abundance in the Wenatchee Valley of Washington, and by August I had developed to the most serious outbreak that they had, experienced in that region in the last decade. This insect persisted in the orchards of western Washington throughout the summer.
Early in the season leafho-rers (Cicadellidae) became very abundant in the New England and East Central States ad as far west as Missouri. By the middle of May much mottling of foliage was observed through New England and the Hudson River Valley of YeV: York, southward to North Carolina. This condition persisted throughout the su-mmer with a raid increase in numbers and destructiveness during September, reports of damage extending from the New England State s southard tQ Georgia and westward to Oklahoma. These insects were so prevalent at harvest time over much of this territ s y!hat, in addition to the da-nage done to the fruit, they were decidedly a nuisance to the -ickers.
SAN JOSE SCALE
Early spring observations indicated that the San Jose scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst.) was on the increase along the Atlantic seabol from Pennsylvania to Georgia and westward over the Gulf region. A very high winter survival was reported from central Illinois, the number of scales surviving running from 60 to 71 per cent of the total population, while the normal survival in this district is from 25 to 30 per cent. Similar reports of low winter mortality came from the Great Basin region. Thile
this insect has been confined to less than. a dozen counties in Wisconsin it has not until recently been found in. far-n orchards; it has been spreading rapidly and a dozen new localities have been added to the known infested area during the past year. A Very late observation by 0. I. Snapp at Fort Valley, Ga., indicates that the percentage of live scale on peach trees is unusually high for this time (December 18) running from 85 to 95 per cent.
The European red mite (Paratetranychus Dilosus Can. & Fanz.) was generally reported as unusually abundant throughout the New England States and very scarce throughout the Middle Atlantic States. Eggs were reported as hatching in Vermont and New York during the third week in April, and during the first week in May in the Middle Atlantic States. A heavy outbreak eof the six-spotted mite (Tetranychus sexmaculatus Riley) occurred over the entire citrus belt of Florida during April. This outbreak suddenly subsided in May. The pnest was believed to have been controlled by
a fungus disease. The Paciific redl s-pider (TetranNyci-1L naciilicus )MicG.) did damage to certain varieties of Fra-pes in the S-in Joacu-tin Valley of California, being one of the outstanding -pests in thtsection this year. A Euro-oean nnecies of mite (PLiyllocontes fock-eui Y~.&Tr.) was discovered thi s s-orinmz- at tackineC the leaves o f -orune trees in southern IdEah'-o. Thne se mites -croduccd a decided. russetin,,: of" th1e foliage. The insect was qu,-it.e abundant and is ap~arentiy the cause of a type of inj1urv which has been very severe in recent years. As far as we can ascertai-n, this s-necies has not been rreviouasly recorded from the United States, but was collected on Plums in the vireyrd d-istrict of Ontario in 1928 (Can. Ins. Pest R7'eviev*, Vol. 61 No. 5, October 5, 1928). Although a -r1 ite, this1 s'Oecies does
not an.mpea.r to -oroduce galls or blisters.
CITROFHILUS 11A 'ITC
Control of thne citro-chilus mealybugJ (Pseudococcus gahani Green) by the coccinellid Cr-yrtolaemas -ontroizicri YJ s. and the h-yenooterous -parasite
Cocoh, u quy Co;m. aqn Los An zeles ^ount-~ Cali., has been extremely
grat ifying-. Over 99 per cent of the 2)00O acres of citrus in this counity recorded as havin,' been infested with this -mealyb-,i, are so infeste-d thiis year that no) da-m;age could& possibl;r be done to the crop. In 1931, 97 rer cent was in this conjitio-n, whailc the average- for the preceding six years was but 83 ner cent controlled. -hr~-tr per cent, of the -rreviously infested acre age was found to be non-infested this year. Last year this reduction in infested acrea,,e w as but 20 -,er cent. It is believed that the nev,.. hymenopterouas -parasite has 7rlayed an i-mortant part in reducing the infestation.
MZX I CAYT FPRTJIT WO Do 1
The ou.adp development in th2 M exican fr-.it worm (Aastre ha
ludens Loer) situation was thc fin~in,- of" an infestation, aftor an interval of a)1roxi-ma-tcly 17 months, on theic United States side of the Rio Grande. This infest-.tion wsd5iqcovered! on Anril 202 in fruit held in storaEge in Mission, TcX. Previous to this oraimgcs produced in a ntio in Ma1tamoros were found. infested on A-pril 9. 0Onboth April- 15'clne.-105an adiit caught in tras located at a distance ot' 11 anO 5 bloc'-,"- fro-m this roatio. During July 30 flies vrc tairon on 1-) different nrc :ise- in thle cit-7 of Mata-no ro s; 23 adults 'cre c e uigAgs i-n t r.c'-no in Muhtcmoros and 2spcci-ncn-s,(ncteh -oille ns Coq.), were collected., one in a g -rove nee,,r Mission and the other i-n a Lrove near Brovnsvilio,, Tex. Thiis SpeCcies_ Was first described from sp~ecimeons tK~nat Broznsville in 1904. N')t'-,i is kniov n of the food plants of this1* sTPCes.
1 Plant Quarantine and Control Administr ition, Ti. S. D. A.
COLO2ADO POTATO B=L
The first adults of the Colorado p-notato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata San') were observed at Lucedale, Miss., on Februar'- 19. During the last week in March. the insect Was observed in Teyas. During April the beetles became unusually abundant in the Chadbourre district of North Carolina and in the lorfolk district of Virginia. Another heaw infestation occurred during this month ih northern rlorida. During, May the beetle became very troublesome along the Atlantic seaboard as far north as southern Yew.Jersey, and it was also reported as very numerous in the Lewiston district of Idaho. Durin, the late spri ng and early summer it was quite generally reported as abnormally abundant from the New England States and the Middle Atlantic States westward to the reat Plains, with a very severe outbreak. in northwestern Iowa. Late in June it appeared in the city of Ogden, Utah, but by the end of July the isolated colony had apparently been eradicated. In Idaho this insect is now moderately abundant in Grant and Baker Counties.
POTATO TB-R WOBM
During the early spring, reports of heavy infestations of potatoes by the potato tuber worm (Gnorimoschema opercul.ella Zell.) were received from Los Angeles County, Calif. Between April 15 and M.ay 1 more than 1,200 lugs of new potatoes were rejected in the Los Angeles wholesale markets on account of this insect. During the third week of June larvae were fo-und attacking tobacco at several places in Kentucky. A slight infestation of tobacco in Georgia and Tennessee was also reported during Jine. Late in July reports Were received from Osceola and Palm Beach Counties, Fla., that this insect was doing considerable damage to potatoes in storage. It was also found early in the -year in potatoes in storage in Delaware. For the first time in many years this insect was observed during Auagust dama-ing tobacco in Wisconsin.
TOM,,ATO PtIN WORM,
In the late s-,xner and early fall reports ere received from southeastern Penns -1vania that the larvae of the tomato pin worm (Gnorimoschema lycoPersicella Busck).were naming large blotch mines and destroying the buds of tomatoes, both under glass and in the field. Late in November adults emerged and were identified by Mr. A. Busck as this species, which heretofore has been recorded only from the Pacific Coast, where it has been known for a nurwber of years as a pest of tomatoes, particularly in the State of Sinaloa.in Mexico and in southern California. Here it is a pest of considerable importance. In 1930 it occasioned a 40 per cent loss to the tomato crop in San Diego County, Calif.
V EDETABLE WIL
The vegetable weevil (Listroderes obliquus Gyll.) was first observed
during the last week in January 1931 at. Vicksburg, Miss. During late winter and early spring it did severe injury in many localities, in sOe cases entirely destroying turnip fields and cabbages in h-.ot beds. It continued
0 0 0 00 0009 0 0 0 0 00E4 -4 0~1 0 r
0 00 0 0 c a4 '
0 00 pq
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
its worlk th rou,-_1-iout t'ie -_re )'er of Ar.ril and dar -_ earl7r T a.y t-.-,X-_1ed ts
practl call r
attention to t.-.e earl. v e,. -etables 's tomatoes. It sappeared during June and was not see-i a__ai-_ in drstn,_-_ct!_ve numbers until late October. Durinl- 2eca'.iber complaints of severe -.-,e--e received from the sout' -_-ern part ot" t-.-,e ir-f este territor-7. In Cali-fornia tllis insect was decidedly less abuni: ant t--,,-is --ejr. T_Iis is -, E level to -,)e !-:.e to successful cont rol measures. 17he spre -t'_ o-- t.,-As insect in t1ie region includes -1-our COU-tieS 4r w e ;'ern F"or4ra, two co-a- ties in east = Alabama, seven colanties i n n o t,,. e r -n Ii.ississi-p-oi, an.d four counties in eastern Texas.
SWEET-POTATO =7 IL 1
"Damage by t1ie swe'r;,-potato 1.veevil (Cylas _- 'or-:.icarius Fab.) .q.s I been almost normal in Mississip% and Alabana durin'-_ 1931. The2e has been a slip' V V V
gat increase in the number of infested properties, but the total
acreage e of infestation _as not -materially increa! e nol- '--as t.-ie inf',e7ted' territory been extended. T'-e in-fest,-,tions found d7,)rin; t-ie 7,ear ;,-ave beer in verv thickly settled comr.-ani t ic s, w:-.cre little -f[ armin- ,:, other t'--La-q small garden patches, is .one, The heaviestst concentration olf ilnfestc prcpcrties is located in and around Loc-town, 1!iss. ', os' o-O 1--ese i--Feste,., r-operties are small garden patches. In th maJorit- of ca-ef-, t'lo dez-rpe of in-festation was listed as light; however, in some instances t:.,7 degree of int7estation was fairly severe."
MEXICUT BEAN BUTELE 2
Generally speaking z, severe _ama-_-e b7 the Mexican bean beetle
Pilachn corrupt !,!,uls. )1. in t'll-io Easter-n States in 1971 w -s more prevalent in areas not affected by t1ie of 1930. Thesc aroas were c:iiefly
New Jersey, Delaware, Lon L- Islan, ,, and Con-nect-Lcut. Ho' .vever, !:L r -,rnarl :able recovery 7las -made in soutl-iorn 011io a-nd Ke+:-t-ac1:y, and was s:n vere. in t1aosc states. In addition, considerable 0,rna, ze Tas Ione in parts of Tennessee, North and Sout'a Carolina, Vir!71inia, rolltheL tern Penns rlvania, western. Maryland, and northern Ap-carence in -C; -P-eld and ceaconal
life history were similar r to 1030. T'-ie s11r--,-;v I o in Ohio -,va the highest of record. A-I-1 7ani it waF; lower t'.an av,- ra-e, but
at Norfolk, Ira., it was about averao-e. Infestations outside of the known area of 1930 T-ere formd i n D oi-, Prty County, Ga.; 7i-c, Parke, Pnft Cass Counties, Ind. ; Xinffi-Lam County, Vt., 3ristol County, Mass.; .a.shington County R. I., and the 12 Testernmost countico in Kent-.,cky.
Late in July two species of coreid, b-u.-rs (Al-,-dus -r)i!os-,.ilus 71. S. an"A.
-A eurinus Sa-, were found to be in,' urinc li-ia in cactcentral Georgia. TI.e in,.j-ur,,,, te !=ortio-_-, of t ie t-irouz-h
1 K. L. Coclz:er'o .q, Bureau of Ento -_,olo,-r, T:. S. D. A.
2 N. P. Howard, Bureau of DitonoloTU. S. D. A.
the podand the withdrawal of the sap from the developing seeds. Both species seem to be well distributed in the United States, occurring from New England southward to Florida and westward to California. .Heretofore neither species has been recorded as of any economic-importance.
VARIEGATED T "RTILLARY
Larvae of the variegated fritillary (Euptoieta claudia Cram.) destroyed a large portion of a 13-acre patch of soybeans and lesser areas of snap beans, corn, sweetpotatoes, and cowpeas during early July in eastern Tennessee. These fields had a considerable growth of passion-flower vines, which seems to be the preferred food plant. Late in September larvae were collected on privet (Ligstrum sp.) at Belzoni, Miss.
Late in February and March the pea aphid (lllinoia pisi Kalt.) became very troublesome in the Salt River Valley in Arizona, where it attacked peas, alfalfa, and vetch, and in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, where it attached vetch. During March it appeared in outbreak numbers in southern California and during April in parts of Kansas and northeastern Arizona with isolated infestations reported from MHississippi. During Hay it was quite generally reported from widely scattered localities throughout the country, although the outbreaks were limited in extent. During June late peas in Wisconsin were car-_r-ing- the heaviest infestation recorded in the last 8 years, and -during July this insect destroyed -o-atically the entir canning pea crop in the eastern part of Michigan and was causing considerable damage to peas in northern and western New.York. During late October the aphid started to increase again in Wisconsin to b .,far the largest infestation experienced in the fall since 1922.
Eggs of the cabbage maggot (aTylemy-ia brassica Bouche) werb 'found on cabbage in Pennsylvania d-ring the first weel: in May, and egg laying was well under way in central New York by the middle of the inonth. The first egg laying in Massachusetts was observed on .ay 6 and in Connecticut on May 15. 3By the end of May this insect was damaging from 5 to 25 per cent. of the cabbages in parts of Connecicut, one grower alone losing between 2,000 and 3,000 pl-ants. The maggot became so serious in central and western New York that unscreened cabbage beds were quite generally damaged from 16 to 60 per cent and in a few cases all of the plants were destroyed. Similar serious depredations were reported from New Jersey, where the insect was
said to be worse than it had been for several years. Other States reporting damage by this insect were Indiana, Kentucky, Wisconsin, and Montana.
IMPORTED C17AGE WORM
IDuring the latter part of February the first adults of the imported cabbage worm((Pieris)Ascia rape L.) were observed in the fields as far north as North Caolina and 1_issouai. Early in April the first adults were observed in Nebrea. a and by this time they were becoming very plentiful in the Southern States. In nearly May the adults had been observed in North
Dakota and the larvae =cre becoming troublesome as far north as Indiana. During June this insect was reported as abundant as farnorth as Iowa and Wisconsin, and during Jul- it was quite generally reported as unusually troublesome in the Central States as far westward as Minnesota and Kuansas. Serious depredations continued in the 1.!iddle Atlantic and Central States during the greater part of the sunprer and well into the fall, the area of serious numbers extending as far west as the Dakotas and Iowa.
The lrequin bug (L~ rgantia histrionica Hahn) was observed active
in eastern Texas during the middle of February, and the first adults to be seen in the field along the Atlantic seaboard were observed on April 9 in Virginia and two weeks later in North Carolina. By the middle of April the insect was very abundant in the Gulf Coast reg-ion, where it was doing considerable damage to turnips, kale, and collards. As the season advanced heavy infestations were reported in the :Torfolk district of Virginia and northward to southern New Jersey, and late in the season, mid-August, it was found in numbers. in southeastern Nobraska, Indiana, Kentucky, and the District of Columbia.
A PLANT BUG
During midsuimuer calls were received from several growers of tomatoes in 0raige County,, Calif., asking for assistance in cont 'rolling the plant bug Egnaytatus geniculatus Reut. This insect was found to be quite numerOus in the field ahid feeding spots- were evident on the stems. This appears to be the first record of this insect as a tomato pest in thie United States. The species was described in 1876 from Texas. It has been reported from Louisiana as a predator on the eggs of Heliothis spp. and is apparently widely distributed in this country, being recorded from Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and California. Van Duzee says the species occurs from Florida to southern California. It has also been recorded from Mexico, Brazil.. and Hawaii. Iii Brazil it is said to be injurious to tobacco and in Hawaii it is recorded as th-e most serious pest of tomatoes where it damages the fruit by sucking the juice from the developing ovaries, causing a premature falling of the blossoms. The insect was first collected in the Hawaiian Island by
0. H. Swezey in 1924. It was also reported from there in 1925, 1926 and 1929.
During June we began receiving reports of the squash bug (Anasa tristis DeG.) from the South Atlantic and Lower Mississippi Valley States, where the insect was doing considerable da&~age to sumnner squash. As the season advanced, reports bccose rauch more numerous and included the Middle Atlantic and Central States vxtending westward to Kansas and Nebraska. Serious damage was reported from the Mast Central, the West Central, the Middle Atlantic, and the South Atlantic States westward to Mississippi, and also from Idaho, Utah, and New Lexico. The crops daraged included squash, pumpkin, melon, and cucumber. In Utah this insect has been a pest for a number of years and has practically eliminated squash as a crop in .many
localities. Throughout practically the entire territory the insect was said to have been more troublesome than in many years, and in Ohio it was more destructive than ever before recorded.
BADED CUCUMBER BEETLE
The banded cucumber beetley(Diabrotica balteata Lec.) was quite
generally reported in the Gulf egqn rom Florida to Arizona. As far as
t-I re r .s of "'.. Cnm sec L
the records of the..Survey go, this/was first recorded in Florida in 1926 and it now seems to boe quite prevalent in that State, particularly over the Peninsula. Although it is doing occasional damage to snap beans, dahlias, and a number of other crops, it was not of any considerable economic importance this year.
PI CKLE WORM.
The first adult of the pickle worm (Diaphania nitidalis Stoll) to be recorded was observed in Mississippi on May 16. The first larvae of the season were observed boring in summer squash on July 17 in North Carolina. As the spring advanced this insect became increasingly numerous. Reports of damage were received from practically the entire lower Mississippi Valley and South itlantic region northward to New England.and Ohio. Usually this insect is of very minor importance in the Northern States, but this year it did considerable damage i Maryland, Ohio, and Connecticut. This is the first record of it as a pest in Connecticut.
SEED CORN MAGGOT
The first report of damage by the seed corn maggot (Hylemyia cilicrura Rond.) was received from southern Mississippi on January 21; and on February 18 it-was observed destroying corn in Eastland County, Tex. In March the insect was reported as destroying.cucumber plants in central Florida. It was not so serious as usual on potato 'seed pieces, beans, and peas in the trucking section of Virginia and the Carolinas, although it was reported as causing considerable da;age to snap beans in North Carolina,. and during the cool wether of May it did considerable damage to bean seed in Virgzinia and to corn, peas, and beahs in western Texas, Illinoit, Missouri, parts of Kansas, and Utah. During June the insect was rather destructive to bean plantings in western NTew York and was reported as damaging corn and
beans in Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, and Nebraska.
ASPA RAGUS TI:NER
Although the asparagus miner (Agromyza simplex Loew) has been known in northern and central California for a good many year, it was recorded this year for the first, time in the southern part of the state in Los Angeles County.
BOLL. WTIL 1
i. In the Rio Grande Valley of Tekas the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis k ) was active throughout the winter of 1930-31, and' more numerous in the month of May. in southern counties than for a number of years, continuing to in-. crease a nd becoming more destructive as the season progressed. By July it was. active in practically every county in the main cotton belt of the State as far west as Tom Green County. Damage became serious in August in scattered localities in northeastern, central, and southeastern counties. In Oklahoma weevils were numerous in 29 counties in the eastern half of the State in June, increasing in numbers and damage during July and August. In Arkansas infestation and damage were light and widely scattered. In Louisiana weevil population and damage were slight until after July 15, whei showery weather caused rapid reproduction with serious damage, which continued into September, when damage to. bo lsb.ecame quite general. In Mississippi infestation was comparatively light and scattered until after July 15. Continued rains promoted an increase in infestation in all parts of the State during August and September, with considerable damage resulting to.,young boils. In Georgia dry weather held the infestation to practically a minimum with very little damage to the crop. In Alabama infestation in the latter part of June was considerable in southern counties and light but general in the central section of the State. In North Carolina the weevil was fairly.numerous and damage along the South Carolina border and in a few scattered
counties in central and northern -rdcms. Rains in August caused a heavy increase In number of weevils and damage in most districts, practically all squares becoming infested. The extreme southern counties- appeared to suffer the greatest damage. In South Carolina a high degree of infestation developed during June and continued in most fields during July and August ... Dry weather during September and October reduced weevils to moderate numbers. In general, infestations and resulting damage were heavy throughout southern and eastern Texas, eastern Oklahoma, Louisiac;a, Mississippi, and southern Alab'ama, and comparatively light in Arkansas, Tennessee, northern Alabama, Geo.rgia, and the:greater part of North Carolina. Another area of rather heavy infestation occurred in South Carolina and the southern tiers of counties in-North Carolina."
THUI RIA W~VIL 2
The Thurberia weevil (Anthonomus grandis thurberiae Pierce) has this fall '.been found outside the areas previously under regulation on account of this pest, near Eloy, Pinal County, Ariz.
PIN -BOLL WORM 3
Scouting for the pink boll worm (.p~e~nophora gossypiella Saund.) in the crop year 1931 had not yet been completed on December 1, the date of
1 G. A. i.aloney, Bureau of Ehtomology, U. S. D. A.
2 Plant quarantine and Control Administration, U. S. D. A. 3 Plant Quarantine and Control Administration, U. S.. D. A.
the last available report. The scouting thus far indicated relatively heavy infestations in Presidio County and the southeastern corner of Hudspeth County, Tex.; light infestations in Brewster, El Faso, Reeves, and Ward Counties, .and.a trace in Midland and Pecos Counties, Tex. On November 12, 13, and 14 a study of 14 fiblds.in. the Big Bend area in Presidio County, the most heavily. infested section in the United States, indicated 21 per cent of unpickable bolisITh.TwMexico, slight infestations were found in Chaves, Dona Ana, Eddy, .and Ot.ero Counties, and in Arizona in Graham, Greenlee, and Maricopa Counties. Scouting and the 'examination of ,in trash in the Salt River Valley (Maricopa County) indicate progress in the direction of the elimination of infestation.
-COTTON IMF WORM
The cotton leaf worm (Alabama argillacea Hbn.) was first reported this year from 199eces County, Tex., on Jut. 27. This is somewhat later than the observations,of 1930, as this insect was very prevalent in practically all fields in the lower Rio Grande Valley in the last week in June of -that year. No reports, from the lower Mississippi Valley region were received imtil late August this year, and the insect reached the cotton too late to do any material damage, Late in October a single specimen was taken in Michigan, and large numbers were present in Brown County, Wis., on October 1. The moths did serious damage to peaches in Cass County, -Ne ,., during the first week in October. No large flights were observed in any of the Northern States this year. It will be recalled -that last year a very heavy flight, occurred into the Northern States, extepding over the East Central, Middle Atlantic, and New England States, finally reaching Canada.
Brood V of the periodical cicada (Tibicina septendecim L.), a very
compact brood centering in West Virginia and eastern Ohio, appeared in large numbers over practically its bntire range. A very well defined, colony on the eastern end of Long Island, New York, was definitely confirmed by this years observations. Brood V appeared during 1931 in the following counties:
Ashland, Athens, Belmont, Carroll, Coshocton, Columbiana, Cuyahoga,
Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Gallia, Geauga, Guernsey, Harrison, Rocking, Holmes, Huron, Jacklson, Knox, Lake Lawrence, Licking, Lorain, Mahoning, M;edina, Meigs, Monroe, Morgan, Muskingu,'N, 1Toble, Perry, Pike, Portage, Richland, Ross, Scioto, Stark, Sumit, Tuscarawas, Vinton, Washington, Wayne.
Barb6ur, Braxton, Brooke, CalToun, Clay, Doddridge, Fayette, Gilmer, Grant, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Hancock, Hardy, Harrison, Jackson, Kdnawha, Lewis, Lincoln, Marshall, Mason, Mineral, Monongalia,'Morgan, Nicholas, Ohio, Pendleton, Pleagants, Pocahontas, Putnam, Randolph, Ritchie, Roane, Taylor, Tucker. Tyler, Upshur,. .Webster,. Wood.
Record~~ed ditibto of kod
0p to an 0nldn it aperc in 191
Black0 do0idct 91rcrs
Adams, Allegheny, Berks, Carbon, Fayette, Chester, Franklin, Greene, Lancaster, Northumberland, Schuylkill, Washington.
Alleghany, Augusta, Highland, Shenandoah.
GIPSY MOTH and BROWN-TAIL HOTH 1
(Porthetria dispar L.)
There was less defoliation caused by the gip-sy moth/this summer than for several years, and the trees in most of the area were practically free from gipsy moth feeding. Defoliation was severe in the counties of Bristol, Plymouth, and Barnstable, Mass. There was recorded-a total of 204,720 acres in New England which showed some feeding by the gipsy moth caterpillars, but over one-half of this was classified as less than 10 per cent defoliated, leaving 101,583 acres classified as from 10 to 100 per cent defoliated, and over one-half of this amount (54,710 acres) was in the southeastern section of Massachusetts.T No infets Rocof the gipsy moth was found in 1930 to 1931 on Long Island by the conservation department, except in the towns of North Eempstead and Oyster Bay. In the former, 110 eze clusters were discovered Ji 17 infested localities, and in the latter, 67 were found in 24 infested localities. Practically all of these infestations were found in woodland. During the past year to July 1, 19l, no gipsy moth infestation was found in the barrier-zone area in Vervont so the scouted territory. Early in July, 1931, a scattered infestation was found in Colebrook, Conn., near the Massachusetts State line. A 7roup of towns including Sandisfield and Tew iarlboro, Mass., and 'orth Canaan, Canaan, and Norfolk, Conn., have carried numerous infestations, .an of them in woodland, durin the last two years. The result of work in the ITew ro-rk barrier zone shows somewhat fewer inf e stations than d- rin the previous fiscal year and indicates that marked progress has been made in cl.i. up inl.cted locations. The last gipsy-moth infestation in N'ewv Jern was foun in. ay, 1929. The southern half of Bridgewater Township and the northern half of Eillsboro To1:nship have been ea.ined with special care, as this area as the most heavily infested when the insect was first found in New Jersey. The work done thus far has failed to reveal any trace of the Fipsy moth during 1930-31.
The brown-tail moth (~y ia phaeorrhoea Don.) -as not been found outside the regulated area this rear.
1 Plant quarantine and Control Administration, 1. S. D. A.
SATIN MOTH 1
During 1931 the satin moth (Stilpnotia salicis L.).was found in new localities in the followin- counties and quarantine regulations were modified to cover the additional areas: Piscataquis, Somerset, and Franklin Co-unties, Me.; Orange County, Vt.; Berkshire and Franklin Counties, Mass.; and Hartford, LitcIhfield, New Haven, and Fairfield Counties, Conn.
The forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.) was generally reported from the New England and the northern Middle Atlantic States as very scarce. Late in April the insect was active and abundant in the Gulf region in Alabama and Louisiana. In Louisiana,after defoliating the sweet g-amrn and willow, it attacked oak and wild blackberries and also inflicted considerable injury to strawberries by eating the flowers. During May, in Virginia, several hundred acres of forest land in Fluvanna County were completely defoliated; a similar outbreak occurred in Buckingham County. These were said to be the worst outbreakJs ever experienced in that Statd. From June 10 to 20 the moths of t':ese caterpillars were so numerous in the streets of Lynchburg and Roanoke, Va., that merchants were forced to turn out their window lights. Adults were observed early in May in large numbers at Orlando, Fla. During June there was some defoliation reported from Hancock County, Me. The eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americana Fab.) on the whole was not abnormally numerous this year throughout the New England, Middle Atlantic, and South Atlantic States. On the other hand, reports of unusual numbers of this insect were received from Arkansas and Texas. During the late spring there were reports of some defoliation, especially of wild black cherry, in southern Maine, and it was also recorded as abundant in restricted localities in the other New England States. The California tent caterpillar ( californicus Pack.) was extremely prevalent in late March around Phoenix, Ariz., where it was defoliating cottonwoods and severely injuring apricot foliage.
"The western tent caterpillar (Malacosoma pluvialis rDyar.) was again abundant on alder, poplars and willow along the coast of Oregon and the Columbia River. However, defoliation of these trees was not so severe as last year and only a few places showed trees completely stripped." 2
Adults of the saddled prominent (Heterocampa guttivitta Walk.) issued in the New Thgland area during May and early June. Eggs hatched in the Berkshire Hills of Massachusetts on June 10 and in the White Mountains of NTew Hampshire on June 16. This insect, which was at the peak of its abundance in 1930, is still quite numerous throughout western Massachusetts, southern Vernof't, and New Hapshire. The greater part of the defoliation was confined to maple and beech.
1 Plant Quarantine and Control AdmiThistration, U. S. D. A.
2 Forest Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.
third liveolt in May there was a sizable fi:-st brood of the fall webworm (F," antria cunea Drury) ir t1l.e Gcor7ia pcca:-. orchards, --nd early in June t'll-As insect was also fou:-id or. pecan in Sout'h Carolina and horn 1"'issiscippi. Over northern i1ississippi this insect was compar..3
timely scarce this year, and in Zencral was not so serious as.usual throuenout t'.,c South. L,-,te in'Auzust it was report, ,d as very abundant t1iro-L2,- 'aoutu the 'Yew _7,_Zland a:,.O 1,iddle AtlanLic States anall as 'far South as Delw7aro. In NoW En;-17tnd it ,7!as mbre troublesome than it 'li-ts been any time during the past 20 7ears.
The I bagporm (Thyridopter ep Lormis Haw.) was reported as ver;r
abundant on a*borvitae in Georlzo County, T.U.ss. in Febi-uar,7. In June t1io i nsect 7as rc-nort ed f ron Columabus, Ohi-o. Jaly report s wer o received of serious &xmage to evergreens in, Verrio-nA, Pe-n-: sylva:nia, Delawar e, Maryland, Vir-inia, No-th Carolina, ":'r.nd.O'Ao. Tlie bn. ,orm w- s quite -encreql ly ro-oorted during Aumst from Yew Yor1h. to Indiana and Kan.sas, and soutulaward.
to 11ississippi and Florida. Re-ports continued to come in during Septe-,nbcr from this satme go.neral area.
BARK BEMLES 1
T"1e.,nountain pine beetle (Don0roctonus mo-ilticolae Hopk.), ,Lich has be c----, sweepingg t-L'Irough all of the, lo dg(,,,pol e -und whi t o pine s t:a-nds of t1,le P.;dific Nort.T .,est, is nor decreasilIg in many sections, o7.inz lo.rl-ely to a lacTc of suitable host : atrial. Th e nost serious epi,-1.e:nic in C,- lifornia La2ce district of Sl,,= .sta Yational Forest -,nd t', Cre is evidence 0' a: decided increase in some stands of sugar pi;_o in t'_-ib- Sierra 17evadas. In Cre,-on and-Wasilin2ton epidemics havc boo..". noted the
o-:,. tiie Fre,-_ ont, Crater Ll ie, and Desc'-Tates Y,!7 tioncal Forests,' t'-e Klaziat--i Indi in Reserv!F tion, and t-nroi.-Lghout the Casc--16-es of The outbre Ic in "ojant Rai-nior 11ational Park w, completely undor co--trol. increased losses occurred t'_irou,7-hout tlie lodge-pole pire for'csts o." !ontana and idalio, ard within tle Beavorhead 11T-Ltionil Forest alone +' _ei-e .,ero over
_), r! d 4 -
twblve i-Allion tre-Cs destro--(: d in 1971. T'-,erc 17!71.- also a -i, _C- _tSe in losses in. '.1rel ". m-i stone Y-ttional Par'.. In ce-ntr l 1( P_Io +,-'-,.e in-fesuation
has spread- throu,:-hout Sal;-,-.on, P:- yctto, an I -ho E: tio-.-,
Pofests, and it is now movi-,- nort'r:7-ir,1. Sinil,7 r outbre-i-s. cortinuo',3 to ravage tlic Forest on Vie Xani'_-su and Pend Oreille Fore_ts.
In ge-neral t1le vrester pine beetle is rot z.v_: .terially advancirr,- in i--tensity of infestation. However, losses ronnin- as hi, 1_ Th as 8 por cer. of t'ie stand were observe(l along L,,'ae western slopes o. t1le Sierra Yevadas in the Sierra, Stanislaus, az-,dS c.qqoiaN,-_tiona1 Forests, California. Vl-lrou-llout. sout1-1,eastern and eastern Oregonand Washington losses wore particularly heavy on the Fremo.1it,: Deschutes, Ochoco, and Mallieur 1,1ational Forests, t,-Le Klaiath Indian Rese.r.vation, and the private timber lands aJjacent to t',.ese areas. In southern Oregon t'he infestation is increasin,7 and re-ac.--,0. 3 to
per cent of the timber stand t1lis year, L on the Oc'.,-oco and Mal"ae .-Lr
1 Forest Insect Investigations, Bureau of Entomology, LT. $.. D. A.
areas losses ran from 5 to 7 per cent of the timber. It is estimated that approximately six hundred million board feet of western yellow pine was killed by this beetle during the year throughout Oregon and Washington. In Glacier National Park, "iThe southern pine beetle (D. frontalis Zimm.) was exceedingly scarce throughout the forest in the Southeastern States. This situation was believed due to the nearly complete natural control of the beetle during the late fall and winter of 1930-31, brought about largely through two factors, namely, (1) abnormally high temperatures and
(2) to a lesser extent to the activities of birds, particularly woodpeckers. The high temperatures during October and Nbvember of 1930 brought about premature maturity and emergence of broods which normally overwinter in the larval, pupal, and adult stages. A large percentage of those broods were destroyed by woodpeckers as they reached the mature larval, pupal, And callow adult stages. Others.which emerged attacked trees but were unable successfully to establish their broods in them so late in the season. The only activity noted during 1931 was 1n.the vicinity of Asheville, N. C., where the deficiency in rainfall continued to be somewhat greater than in surrounding noninfested areas. Near Asheville several spot outbreaks occurred, becoming more noticeable in the late summer and fall months."
PINE SHOOT MOTHS
Pine shoot moths (Rhyacionia spp.) are causing considerable concern
in the Northeastern States as serious pests to cultivated conifers, particularly nursery stock, upon which they are destructive to the terminals. Reports of serious damage to Scotch pine (Pinus montana), red pine (Pinus rubra), emgho pine (Pinus montana mughus), Austrian pine (P. nig.ra), and other species of pine nursery stock in Pennsylvania by.t cionia buoliana Schiff., and in the vicinity of New Haven, Conn., and the Metropolitan district of Boston, Mass., were reported. Rhyacionia frustrana Scudd. appeared in large numbers in a plantation of pitch pine (P. rigida) during
August at Cheney, Pa., and also occasioned considerable injury to young spruce pine" (Tsuga canadensis) at Laurel, Miss. A new species Of pine shoot moth (Eucosma gloriola) described by Heinrich (Proceedings Ent. Soc. Washington, Vol. 23, No. 8, page 196, Nov. 23, 1931) was found to be quite generally abundant last year in the lateral shoots of white pine (P. strobus) at North Stamford, Conn. During this year it was sufficiently numerous at some places to cause an appreciable amount of injury. The moths from the type material emerged during the early part of May of this year from larvae collected during early July, 1930, by Dr. E. P. Felt.
The first adults of the spruce budworm (Harmologa fumiferana Clem.) of VU19 .yearl!b-zefobb eiidi t Fargo, N. Dak., on June 17. This insect defoliated large areas of balsam fir and several species of pine in Wisconsin and North Dakota. During early July, in isconsin, areas in some cases covering an entire township had practically every tree completely defoliated. An outbreak of this insect was first recorded in the Cody Cayon, hoshone National Forest,of Wyoming in 1926, 'and since that time has spread over a tremendous acreage and destroyed large areas of Douglas fir; this outbreak decreased somewhat in severity during 1931.' Another outbreak in the Ochoco
National Forest in Oregon has produced large areas of dead and dying white fir and Douglas fir and larch during the year.
The hemlock looper (Ellopia fiscellaria Guen., var. lugubrosa Hulst) during the past three years has built up a tremendous epidemic in Pacific and Grays Harbor Counties of Washington. During 1931, ninety million board feet of hemlock, with some western r.d cedar and Sitka Spruce, is ..stmated to have been killed in Pacific County and another 10 million board feet killed in Grays Harbor County. A total of 162 million board feet has beeh killed in Pacific County during the three years of tle
LARCH CASE BEARER
The larch case bearer (Coleoohora laricella Hbn.) was reported as
severely damaging large stands of larch in Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. In three counties in Maine the insect defoliated from 50 to 100 per cent of every stand of larch. This damage continued into June, when reports of damage 'ere also coming from Massachusetts, New York, and New Hampshire. A late brood of this insect defoliated larch in September in New York.
Birches Were very severely skeletonized by the birch skeletonizer
(Bucculatrix canadensisella Chamb.) during the late summer and early fall ii Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. InII many places in the Adirondacks of New York State the birches were completely defoliated. In Maine hundreds of thousands of acres of birch in the northern part of the State -ere browned by this insect. The birch leaf-mining safly (Phyllotoma nemorata Fall.) -as associated with B. canadensisella throughout the New England -erea and New York.
A LEAF ROLLER
Although the leaf roller Cacoecia conflIctana Walk. has been known for a good many years as a poplar post in Western Canada, it seems to be a comparatively new pest in the United States. nThis year we received a report of approximately 43,000 acres of poplar being defoliated in the Moosehead Lake district in Maine. The adults were in flight the last reek in June and by the middle of July another brood of larvae were feeding on the poplars.
ELM LEAF BEETLE
Overwintering adults of the elm leaf beetle (Galerucella xanthomelaena Schrank) were abundant in late April at Narrangansett, R. I., and during the latter part of 'Juxie eggs ard small grubs were very numerous in southern New England. Indications of the work of this insect were also observed during June in'est Virginia, and it na reported as very abundant at
Jacklson and Lexington, Oreg. During July it 1ras quite generally reported from New Hampshire southward along the Atlantic seaboard to Maryland, with occasional outbreaks in Ohio and Kentuclky. Early this spring this beetle was recorded for the first time in Yosemite National Park, Calif., and late in the season a report was received that it was spreading rapidly. in many parts of California.
Early in the spring the boxeldfer bug (Leptocoris trivittatus Say)
became very much of a nuisance as a household pest in many parts of Iowa, Missouri, Colorado, and Utah. Early in April it was reported from Nerth Dakota. By mid-July it was starting to become troublesome in dellings in Indiana, and as the sumTer advanced it became unusually abundant throughout the East Central: States and in the Middle Atlantic States from Delaw-are southward.
BEECH SCALE 1
"In April of this year the beech scale (Cryptococcus gi Bar.) was found in the vicinity of Boston, Mass. As a result of preliminary survey this insect was found in three distinct areas: One is between Augusta and Belfast in Maine, another includes Gloucester, Essex, Manchester, and Beverley in northeastern Massachusetts, and the third includes the Boston district. As far as it is known, this insect is limited to beech, both
the American and the European species being attacked, It is believed, both in Europe and Canada, that the slime flux often associated -ith this insect is more dangerous to the trees than the scale itself. This insect is recorded as quite prevalent in the Maritime Provinces of Canada."
During the summer the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Ne-m.) was
collected at several places outside of the previously known infested areas, including Charleston, S. C.; points in Somerset, Worcester, Anne Arundel, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties, Md.; Richmond, Franktown, and Nassu-adox, Va.; Altoona and>Erie, Pa.; Little Falls, Watkins Glen, Ft. Ed-ards, and Albany, N. Y.; Taunton, Mass.; Partucket, R. I.; and Cleveland and Columbus, Ohio.
ASIATIC BEETLE 2
The Asiatic beetle (Anomala orientalis Waterh.) did considerably more damage to leans in Westchester County, N o Yorr than in previous years. On Long Island damage is being successfully controlled. This insect is now knon to be distributed in Suffolk, Nassau, Queens, Westchester, and
Schenectady Counties, N. Y.; Essex, Bergen, and Union Counties, N. J.; and Fairfield and New Haven Counties, Conn.
1 J. V. Schaffner, Jr., Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.
8 H. C. Hallock, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A.
Known distribution to Dec. 11, 1931.
Black dote indicate new records in 1931.
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 00 0 00 0 00
0 00 000
0 0 00
0 0 0
ASIATIC GARDEN BEETLE 1
The area of heaviest infestation by the Asiatic garden beetle
(Autoserica castanea Arrow) was found on Long Island in Nassau and Queens Counties. .An. area of continuous infestation occurred around New York City in New York and New Jersey covering the western end of Long Island as far east as.the eastern border of Nassau County, the southern portion of Westchester County, and in New Jersey the counties of Bergen, tart of Passaic, Hudson, Essex, Union, and a small oart of the north end of' Middlesex and Monmouth. There were also outlying infestations at New London, New Haven, Cromwell, Manchester, Mansfield, New Canaan, and South-port, Conn.; Kingston, Fishkill, Babylon, Patbgge, Brookhaven,
Amawalk and Mt. Kisco, N. Y.; Riverton, Palr ra, Hammonton, Allens, and Cedar Grove, N. J.; Philadelphia and Harrisburg, Pa.; Milford and Winterthur, Del.; Frederick and New Church, Md.; East Falls Church, Va.; and Washington, D. C.
During the fall of this year reports from widely scattered localities in the Eastern States were received complaining of the damage done to golf greens, fairways, and private lawns by the larvae of the scarabaeid beetle Qchrosidea villosa Burm. In some cases the roots were so completely cut from the sod that it could be rolled up by hand. Among the reports received this year was one from Washington, D. C.; one from Bayside, Long Island; another at Lawrence, N. Y.; and a third at Woodmere, N. Y. Some 3 acres of lawn were also ruined on an estate near South Norwalk, Conn. This insect has been observed as a pest of larns and golf greens in previous years. In 1908 it was reported from Middletown, Pa., and in 1930 it was reported as damaging golf greens in Sacramento, Calif. The insect is known to occur over practically the entire United States, having been reported from New York to California and southward to Alabama.
During July, August, September, and October considerable alarmr -as caused in the cut-flower producing sections of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio by the appearance of the gladiolus thrips (Taeniothrins gladioli Moulton) appearing in such numbers that buds and blossoms -ere ruined and leaves badly browned by its feeding, the damage occurring both in field-grown and greenhouse material. This insect was so prevalent in northern Ohio that several large gro-ers were unable to exhibit at the National Gladiolus sho at Cleveland. Another thrios (T. atratus montanus Hal.) was collected at Longmeadow, Mass., on gladiolus bulbs. This is a common European species that has not heretofore been recorded from North America. In Europe it feeds on a wide variety of plants, including asters, primroses, mullein, s eet clover, and scabiosa.
1 H. C. Hallock, Burcau of Entomoloj, U. S. D. A.
A LEAF ROLLER OF ROSES 1
Severe infestation of foliage-eating lepidopterous larva on roses
at Blue Point, Long Island, N. Y., was reported during August. Larvae were collected and adults reared, which were determined by Mr. A. Busck as Tortrix ivana Fern. This insect had previously been reported only from Florida, where it was reared from Iva imbricate (Fernald, C. H. ,Jour. New York Ent. Soc. 9 (2): 49-52, 1901). It is undoubtedly a true southern species. The larvae usually eat the young tender foliage around and on the developing buds and in this -ay ouite often ruin the flo-ers. They also curl and roll the leaves, especially when ready to pupate. The Supreme, Killarney, and Briarcliff varieties Af rose were being grown here but no one particular variety appeared to offer any preferential attraction to the insect.
During late June and July the larvae of the painted lady (Vanessa cardui L.) became very numerous in the New England States and in the
entire upper Mississippi and. Ohio River Valleys, covering the East Central, North Central, and West Central States. The larvae of the butterfly did no considerable damage, although they fed to some extent on hollyhocks in New England. In New England this species had not been reported in numbers since 1926. This insect is normally a thistle feeder and occasions much more alarm than damage when it appears in numbers.
During the month of-July eye gnats (Hipelates flavi-es Loew and
H. pusio Maill.) became quite troublesome along the Atlantic seaboard: from Maryland' southward to the Gulf region. In Georgia i appeared that human. conjunctivitis cases were closely associated with the -abundance of these insects; and in South Carolina cases of conjunctivitis of man and horses
were said to be associated with the presence of these flies As the season advanced these insects -ere found to be much more prevalent than they had been for many years in the South Atlantic States, and conjunctivitis
was almost epidemic in southwestern South Caroina.
During mid-September an unprecedented outbreak of the stable fiy (Storxys calcitrans'L.) occurred along the Atlantic Seaboard from Maryland to Florida. On the Eastern Shore of Maryland horses and cattle were so annoyed that many rushed into the surf to avoid the flies and were drowned, whle others that were unable to reach the surf died on the beach. Dairies in the Carolinas. reported considerable reduction in milk production. Reports were received from Missouri and the Gulf States
1 Henry H. Richardson, Bureau- of Entomology, 'U.' S. D. A.
of less serious outbreaks. TLhis condition. pcrsi.std -into early October.
The abruxot decline in these flies along th-,e coast see.Tred. to be associated rith- very high tides.
TER14I TES 1
?rng the current year E54 cases of damapc by termites (Isoptera)i rwere brought to the attention of th e 3ureau of Entorrolo ,,r. These cases w-ere scattered over 36 St,-,teo the Distri ct of ColiY, t- e -0lpun
Island, and EHa-aii, as indicated in the fol1o-~ing listAl abarr a 35 NoTb r aska'
Arizona 4 New Jersey 7
Ark an GQs 1.5 New YLork 14
California 34 North Carolina 41
Colorado 1 Ohio 12
Connecticut 6 Ohlahrr-i 18
District of Columbia 29 Oregon 2
Florida 82 Penns, lv,-.nia- 15
CT-o r g ia 27 Sout'h 'C.-).rolina 21
Illinois 8 Tn --s se e 3(
Indiana 7Te xce 57
I owa 8 'ta-h 2
Kansas 5 Virginia 66
Kentiick-j 15 "West Vircinia 5
Louisiana 22 Washington 2
Mlaryland 0 risconsixi 3
Massachusetts 7 Wyo0 ri ng2
Mississippi 4 Philippine Isl,-nds '
Missouri 24 Harai i
1 T. E. Snyder, Burcn~u of Entomolo?'z;, U. S. D. A.
ST .2ARY OF INSECT CONDITIONS IN KHXTAII FOR 1931
0. 'H. Swezey
The sugarcane leafhopper (Perkinsiella saccharicida Kirk.) has been well controlled by natural enemies. On one plantation on the Island of Hawaii there was an outbreak covering about 200 a.res in early summer, but natural enemies, chiefly egg parasites, the egg-sucking bug Cyrtorhinus mundulus Bredd., and spiders, soon gained control.
No unusual infestation of the sugarcane weevil borer (Rhabdocnemis obscura Boisd.) has been noted. There is very satisfactory control by the New Guinea tachinid Ceromasia sphenonhori Vill. The better control of rats in the sugarcane fields has lessened injury, for where cane is gnawed into by rats, the female borer more readily lays eggs in the cane, resulting in increased infestation.
The nutgrass armyworm (S podoptera mauritia Bdv.) developed unusually bad outbre ks in several localities where sugarcane fields had been infested withnutgTrass, ..especially-on the island of Maui. Usually this pest i~-controlled by parasites, but--poisonin-had to be resorted to on a large scale.
In several localities in one plantation the grubs of the Asiatic
beetle (Anomnala orientalis Waterh.) caused enough injury t, the roots of sugarcane to affect the yield. In most of the infested area, however, grubs have not been numerous enough to be detrimental. This pest is usually controlled by Scolia manila Ashm., but in some cases, in fields of heavy infestation, the wasps were-unable to gain access to the grubs, and in these areas some damage was done. Afterward, Scolia gained access and the grub infestations were controlled.
The Chinese grasshopper (0xLj chinensis Thunb.) has spread more widely on the Islands of Maui and Eawaii and gives indtlication of becoming a sugarcan pest of importance, as sho;rn by the ragged leaves of fields bordering infested grass fields or grassy roadways. An egg parasite (Sclio sp.)introduced from the Malay States is being reared for distribution.
The pink sugarcane mealybug (Tr!ionN u.s sacchari Oki.), is very generally presentin all suglarcane fields, but vithout causing particular injury. A parasite (Anagyrus sp.) has recently becn introduced from the Philippines and has become established in a few localities. A ladybeetle (Pullus sp.) which specially preys on this mealybug, also introduced from the Philippines, is being reared and distributed and -ill no doubt help to ameliorate the mealybug conditions.
The Eray su,, ,,arcane mealybuF, (Trinnymus boninsiE7 Kuvan i) has been noticed rather more than usual in c,,-ne fields, "out it iss -rrstly well
contl,, lled by the -oaraoite Pseudococcobius L( rri L -1.
The rose beetle (Adoret-ias sinicus.B,_,,1-Ti,% continues a troublesome "pest in Gardens and on -rany nraq,-ental -olL nts.'
'The corn ear wor-n (Hloliot.,iis obsolete Fab.) is not usually a -cest of corn here, but t1iis year it lirs be, ;n ver.-r inlurioas. ilf or -,ore of the ears of corn are foun infested.
The coconut lenf roller (OPio _es blacl, 'barni 3-atl. ) a-p-parentl.7 has been held' iii cont r0l ''y arasi IV e ; in Hlono 1-al -i t'.,ie coconut 1 a' ve s -avebeen in perfect condition. Fo*;'evcr, on the Islan:1,11 of 7aui tlle cocoTrat trees are very ra-'God fro-n t'_,1e ravages cf t'--iis ncst.
The 'Icditerranean frait fl-,- (Ccxr titi s ct--itat,_, 7, .4-ed.) has been less ab un dan, t th i s y car tv- h an i n s -,,r e o t' r e r A co of infestation
-or the years 1930 and 19:31 shows lovcr in.cst,?tion t1iis car
in several' host fruits. The ave-ra. -c for 7.0 o'C' the -orinci-oal
hosts was 59.4 -oer cc-it in 19-0 rne, _7).4 -,Dcr cent iln 1931.
The -nelon fly (Rg, roccra curcurbit-ae Coq.) h ;- bocn, about as -arevalent as usual this ,,,oar, not -r-vonti.aC_- --,-oo-T crops of -relons and cucumbers.
Infestations br the r-ice borer M.-Alo ,4--n-lcx B-atl.) zere not serioue-, about' nor-nal crons ,)f ric-e b6in,- obtained.
-I fh -0-O'er (2T-ooiasca S-in. -r)rescnt in I-,-e islandss for about
A o )"has been
13 years-. 'It h2 s fed chiefly on a-n.-:tr,?nt1-t v ecd s --Lia other wo ed s, but '.-ni s suT,,nr,-,' vcs very dcstructi-vC to -nolon vin.cs in onc, reL;Lon.
The -little fly AL tLpTyza vi:rens Loe,[,, whose -rai,,j_,ots live in the. stems of Zinnia and a number of ot'..Pr orna-rental -olants, is '_,eccnino -.qore destructive in <-rdens. It first obpcrved in Honolala three years ac;o, and is, no-,.- widely s-nread on 0;-d,.u.
The green scale' (Coccus viridis (Ireen" is oeco-,i._,,* more destructive in Honolulu gardens, V,.1-iere it aVtnc',-_s sev,__ :"l icinds of orna-nent, l shrubs and other -olants.
Hibiscus hedLes are -nore ana more infested !;ith Hc 7i c I.- i o na, s7oi s minor Mas'k., rhich seems to affect t-As nlnnt thou -,h it also attacks many other shrubs.
NOTES FROM ANNUJ RETORT ON INSECT CONDITIONS IN PORTO RICO July 1, 1930', to June 30, 1931
M. D. Leonard.
Insular Experiment Station, Rio Piedras, Porto Rico
A leafhopper, Agallia albidul. UhnTer, was common on watermelon vines at Arecibo on November 4, 1931 (Mills end Ptderson; P. J. Oman det.). This species has apparently not been definitely recorded before from Porto Rico.
The woolly white fly (Aleurothrixus floccosus Mask.) moderately infested about 20 young Meyer lemon trees on the Station grounds in April at Rio Piedras.
The bamboo scale (Asterolecanium bambusae Bdv.) (H. Morrison det.),
was reported as heavily infesting bamboo at Cidra and at Mayaguez in August and September (A. S. Mills) and as infesting bamboo at Maricao in January (A. G. Harley). It was, however, undoubtedly generally distributed and common throughout the Island.
The eggplant stem-borer (Baris torauata 01liv.) found on beans.
An adult of the eggplant borer Baris torauata Oliv. was found on a bean leaf at Rio Piedras on Feb. 14, 1931. (A. S. Mills; L. L. Buchanan det.).
Specimens of Blissus leuco terus var. insularis Barber, were found on a garden pea plant from Vieques Island, September 10, 1930 (A. S. Mills; H. G. Barker det.).
Larvae of a moth, Brachyacma ralpigera 71sm., were common during the summer and fall in dry oods, and moths were reared from material from several localities. A prototrypid parasite of the larvae, Paralitomastix n. sp. (A. B. Gahan det.), was found in as high as 50 per cent of the larvae in some collections made.
The weevil Callosobruchus chinensis L. Was found working in dry pigeon pea pods at Rio Piedras, August 8, 1930 (A. S. ".; H. S. Barber det.).
The palm aphid (Ceratamhis lataniae Bdv.) was found badly infesting a plant of Cyrtoodium woodfordia in Santurce on March 4, 1931 (Faxon and Mills; H. orrison det.).
A leaf beetle, Cerotoma denticornis Fab., was fairly common on string
beans at the Station during March and April but apparently not doing much damage. No other definite observations were made during the year, but the insect was probably fairly common and general, as is usual wherever string
beans were grown.
Several adults of a leafhonoper, Cicaciella coffeella. Coz., v'ere taken on a coffee tree at Mai~,December 11, 11-0 (A. "a. 11.: rley; F. r. amn det.); apTrarently not recorded before fr--n Porto Rico.
A leafhooer, Cicadella, sren-. Stal, li,,s li'Jty iInfestinF' a 1/2-acre patch of okra at Trujillo Alto on *Irn,-ch 10, 1931 (Andcrson and Mills; P. 7. Oman det.). This is the first record for okra in Porto Rico.
A scale, Concha-s-pis an~reci Clcll. (M!orrison det.), heavily infesting
the branches of an undeter-rined tr(Le at Z-io Piedras, July 7, 197-0 (A. S. M..). Listed previously only on v-anilln. at May~uz(1917) and ornamental croton a t Mamneyes (1912).
Adults of a coreid bug, Corizus hIyalina~s 17ab. were collected from eplant leaves at Caquas, Febr-, ry 13, 1931 (.Faxon and A. S. Mills; H. G. Barber det.); previously recorded here only from Rio Piedras in June, 19160, as "very abundant on weeds in a garden, so-e feeding on to-,mato"l (.7olcottls "L~ist").
At JAguada Cyclone san. -uinea L. ras co~ron in infested fields in
March but the oucae -Oere hi--1ly1 inafested b-y an 1_ndetermnid chalcid. though the ex-tensive -oro)erties of thIe Aj :Urre Su~rCo. on the South Coast suffix -ed a considerable dry spell d(urinF, the winter, "Ir. Herbert Osborn, jr., and others re-,orted the anhid not so bad as dut-he previous year.
The cactus scale, Diaspi s echinocEctj o--ujntiae 0'11 (Mlo rri son det.)
observed on a cactus (0ountia?), at Coo-mo, September 30, 19370 (A. G. Harley), and one plant of Opntia brasil -iense Wias moderately i- rested in Santurce, March 24, 1931 (R7~. and A., S. M)
A few caterrillars of Dicne var.illae L. were observed eating the leav es of one vine at Rio Piedras on Juily 13 (A. S. Millss.
A leaf beetle, Dison,,fta 'laevi~ata Jacob,-, was ab'anrdant and doinr considerable damage to ri fair-sized garden watch of both b eets and Siss cha-)rd at Palo Seco on Augast 29, 1930. The Frover st.--ted that these beetles had troubled himn for several years and had necessitated constant measures of control (M. D. L. &: A. S. .)
Flea beetles, Mpi 'trix cucurn( ris 'Harr. and 3. n uaFab., te-ro_ more or less abundant on e.FgE7nlant in several localiti-*es exo-rined, especially during the fall and winter; more a~O was done to seedlin,;s than to plants in the -field.
A Me intatomid bug, xsistu7s crerv.)tnr Fab., %wa-s observed in all stages feeding on the fruits in a 2-acre i~ot ; r at Arr:c ib o o n Fe b ruary 24, 1 930; about 15 per cent of the 'lants rwcrc affocto-d (Z. G. XAn.derson and A. S. Mills; 7T. G. Barber dot.).
The "Vaquita verde," Exophthalmodes roseives Chev., also did some damage to foliage in the main citrus section during the summer and, according to one of the best growers, caused some injury to the fruits in June, 1931, in his locality.
A thrips, Frankliniella (Ethrips) insularis Franklin, was found infesting pigeon -oCea blossoms at M1ayaguez January 2, 1931 (H. Morrison det.).
Larvae of Heliothi.s virescens Fab. were repeatedly found eating large holes into the green pods of -igeon peas.
The cottony-cushion scale (Icerva curchasi Mask.) (>,orrison det.) was found lightly infesting 50 rose bushes at Santurce February 24 (J. Luciano).
A leaf-footed olant bug, LeTtoglossus gonagra Fab., did considerable injury from the latter -art of November into December in a 65-acre grapefruit grove at Pueblo Viejo. At the same time about 10 acres of grapefruit were attacked a little west of Bayamon and caused about 10 per cent of the fruits to dro-. The bugs were present in enormous numbers and were breeding on the wild balsam apole, Momordica charantia L., which was very common in the grove. The adults flew to the ripening fruits and made small feeding punctures under which the pulp became broken down and often had a slightly rotten odor and a bitter taste. By the first of January all trouble was over and it Was reported that very few of the bugs could be found in either grove.
The sc.arabaeid beetle Ligyrus tumulosus Burn.. was common at lights early in June at Aguirre, but scarce the end of the month.
A thrips, Mesothrivs ficorum Marchal (also GQnaikothrits uzeli Zimm.), was observed abundant as usual in several Darts of the Island, often considerably curling the leaves of West Indian laurel, Ficus nitida.
The coffee shade tree ant or "hor-iguilla," yrnelachista ambigua
Forel var. ravulorurm Wheeler, was generally present throughout the coffeegrowing sections, but during the last year and since the hurricane of 1928 it has been less abundant and injurious than formerly, Owing to the destruction of so many of the large coffee shade trees; the ants are less abundant or at least less in evidence during wet weather.
A stratiomyiid fly, Neorondania chalybea Weid. (C. T. Greene det.), was taken on a potato leaf at Cidra, February 18, 1931 (Faxon and Mills). Previously listed only from Rio Piedras.
An adult of Kezara viridula L. was taken feeding on a pepper fruit at Arecibo, February 24, 1931 (E. G. Anderson and A. S. Mills; Barber det.).
Nezara viridula L. was observed injuring about 20 percent of tomato fruits in a garden natch at Rio Piedras in December (A. S. Mills).
The leaf-tier Pachyzancla periedalis Walk. was present in the field
but was more injurious to a number of experimental plants grown in the greenhouse throughout the year.
Larvae of the greenhouse leaf-tier (Phlyctaenia rubigalis Guen.) were
observed doing considerable damage to the foliage of string beans in January and February.
The tobacco leaf miner (OGgsma onerculella Zell.) did considerable damage, more than usual, due to unusually dry- weather around Comerio and Caguas, and also in one field near Rio Piedras during February, March, and April.
nThe citrus rust mite (Phyllocontes oleivorus Ash-.) was apparently not
so injurious on the whole as during the previous ;ear on citrus.
The pineapple mealybug (Pseudococcus brevives C11.) (Det. Morrison), has been generally present but ap-marently neither common nor injurious. This (according to s-ecimens determined by 'r. Morrisqn, from Dr. :olcott) is not P. citri Risso, but is what as listed in olcott's "Insectae Portoricensis," p. 281, as P. bromeliad Bouche.
The hemi spherical scale (SaE.xt ahemish ae5 fTarg.) (H. orrison det.), was reported as infesting; all the fruits on on/Vree _t Juana Diaz, .!arch 13, 1931 (Faxon and Mills). The hamnisphe.rical scale, Saissetia hemismhaerica Targ., was reported abundant and causing considerable sooty mould on coffee trees at Guayanilla during April. The hemispherical scale was found to be lightly infesting a 1-acre planting of okra at Trujillo Alto on March 27 (R. Faxon and A. S. Mills; H. Mrrison det.).
The onion thrips (Thris tabaci Lind.) was present as usual wherever onions are grown and often very injurious, more so of co-rse where control measures were not well carried out and in the drier sections and periods.
An adult of the bug Thyanta erditor Fab. was found feeding on tomnato fruit at Corozal February 5, 1931 (A. S. Mills; H. G. Barber det.).
INStOT cb-t rDITIOIM'IN SALVADOR, MYTTRAL AM 72 I CA
by Dr. -Salvador Calderon
Direcdi6h General 6.e;Agricultura, Salvador
Hammoderus ] inipenni s Tho-ns. Bores in t h e t rmh. of c o f f e e bu she especially of young plant -.'cro-basi*s diversicornis 11aa-, Oncideres Cal lipo gon'barbatum Fab., Me tD
poecila Bates (?), P.siloptera (Lom-petis) gi-n-glex Watern., a qd Pachyli s hector Stal. 1 -maged.. A a tree used. coffee shade in
_11 ,z a malacocarpe;,:
the- eastern" part of the.Ztate.
ConotraQhe us s-p. In coffee fruits.;, -Drobably not injuri'01.I*.
A-Pi on sp.,'. In fruits of Andira inermis and. of coffee'*'.
Idiarthron 'subguadratu-n S. Z. & P. Damages coffee'by cutt ng-yotmg twi-s, leaves, and fruits. This and similar insects axe known lo 1
-chacuates.,, or chac-datet6p.L.
Ai oci-nobasi s cof f eell a-'Busc'c* The larva" o'f t1 1 i -qc th da ases considerable damage to coffee seeds, bothin the field a--.-lcl w-1-leh stored.. In the field the larvae are generally f6und- in fruits on the.lower branches, ar on those that have d.rorped.4
Le-uco-) era coffeella. Staint- Mines in co ff ee,
Saissetieg. hemisnhaerica Ta'r -.-' Lound on coffee, a t- times abundantly; and S.- nir-,ra Neit. found on Coffea liberica and Eugenia malaccensis.
Toko-otera auramtiae Bo axid Toumpyella sp. attack 5 li-n6s..
,otinis mutabilis G. 1, P. f 0 -on O in citrus Jruits.
Anastrei5ha se-roent-Ina -..ried. Bred by Dr. Ra-[ael Gonz'alez Sol fro-n
avocados, and. also reported b,,- him, from -,n,:m6oes. (T'l-lese are both umisual records for this s-cecies.-Bates.)
Rhyncho-phor,,-i.s rialmnxiim L. is the commonest eevil in the buds of d rin- coconut -o,::Ims; possible secon-Lar*-.
Phina barbirostris Fab. bores in the terminal buds of coconut pal-ins, K Lqgm L v i --q e7,, It i os ible that it is and the coyol paln" (Ple 8 S
secondbxy to a bacterial or fun -,avs attac7r.
Galerita ruficollis Dej. found in dead coconut palms; probably only
A-zoc'-is pri-nusalis llalll:. T-,e !,-rv-i ores 'm t""F erninnl branc -ies and buds of t"qe ff'i, T (Ficus
Cosmo-oolites sord-lus Ger-% fo,,;rd --1 7, a r ai z o 7 es
L u --r v '--en iolind- in aal%--.dor:
T -ie follovin!- cot', n 7tr 4-ers
ruf icolli s 0 i q 1_1 0 T. S. D. m i'm -a CS -,-Lv; D. f I -,v o I i r) t U L
and D. albi riiventris St,--l.
Alabo.,-m Ton. 7ie nouiceO- of the -;--isect,,:; att!-c',-inc-,cotton leaves.
fr-agi-rncrda S. & A. Ca-usus consi lcr.-' ;7 s
es-cecial*ly in cotto-.-i n-n, '. cor--i.
T'he lr,-. .rvao of I-nv b, c f oand i -n i -:i-i e I
bol-inr in the of tl-ie bra-ICI-1, s ol Cotto-ri.
Tomas-o,,..,s _inc Glaer. fiund on cotton.
Th follovinv leafno--,)pcr. lv ve lteer folm,". or cotton: Cicadella T),al"uem. arid, Oncome o
cholla CT -, "0 i'a )n d!l t -a
P-).ito-.qoris femoratus S*Ihf?., -, and C'na-mion 'raz ro-nortled from the eastern nart of -the Stn.te whcrc it -Fris CCIi.
Mocis re-oandr. F-.1). 4 co=on cut-orn o -If c o r n
Boans are so sevcrol,,, -Ittn-cl -i-d b,7 P, ,-i,,)ta 'l-cn-is C',.L- .-n7ion in the
region ol Tacachico, Do-7-rt,-cnu of L-, Libe adt tliLt rroJaction is
A s7-)ecies of -' -oion near S'nit"i r--s ver-r
in unri-ne seedr, of T1-ia enlao in t"le of t'le
Station of L,- Ceibl-.
Tae-n oj_)od- A-i i7mor'nn' re-+ be:-) ns i---, the e,-,v;tlem
T)art of the' Sta-,I-e.
ScIalstocerc-, vere es--)f.ci,--11,-r
d amag i r,,-, t o b e,:r.-;
Larvae of Pieris elodUl. 3"v. -tnd P. monu ,-te L. werp, fo,,,-,id on calcb,), e.
2Citon coeca -nd 7ct!,tc Ro.-:er v-are re-),)rled as
ing peanuts ir. 4%111 e de-wIrt-nent of
Felti..- annex, Treit. V.-as ver-, tl tntficco.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
6 8 3 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
3 1262 09244 5641
The bud-s of Cycas revol-uta are destroyed by Au.71acoscelis' hoegei Jacoby.
Cleogonus. rubetra -Fab. Found. in the fruits of Andira inermis. (Cabbage an,- :-elinU-bonia crassicornis Serv. was found on 1_. M -oreussi-.
Po6l_,illontera s-o. Fo-and on Cassia grpadis Pithecolobium. saman, Inga pattern &.,(j T. -_ounctata.
Dione vani llae T. Observed on Pasziflorn. q-)Adran',ularis..
As a larva, T,'Todonota cretifera Lefevre injures the roots of roses and
otl--e- pi.-ints, whose leaves and flowers are attac'--ed by the adult.
Minthea r1agicollis 7all?% Found in S-oani sh cedar .?,,obd-.
Pl-,elomeru.s aberrant 5narp, observed in seeds of Cass' granais; -Bruchus obtectus Sa r and Zabrotes (Srermonh Pus) nectoralis Sha- fo-und im stored beans; and Br-achus sn. in seeds of Caes.- lpini,?-.. erl.ort iE.hys; and Pselado-oachymei-as brasilensis 111,r)-Tib. d 4_ se--.-'Ls of "13-c-ana sn.
Pachymeri.is curvi-ges Latr. In the fruit of the pc,'_-P 3r8hea salvadorensis.
Cathora a herbarium, Gor_:m. Found in Phaseolus vialgaris seeds of Ramirezella orn,_ .ta, -:rurd dried tobacco.
Sito-oh'ilus oryzae L. In stored corn..
The larvae of Plo-ia interpunctelia LIm. live in the -pul-0 of rine co', f ee berries, but- withoiit damaggins the seed.
The following plants have been found subject t',,) the attack of Atta insularis a.-nith: Andira iner-nis, Theobrom-). cacao : Cpmanzgi-m
odorra ,,._-n, C.1f-.[.c!.-. -0n,-0ay- anusicaco various s-oecies of Citrus,
gr-vnatum (-_o-neCrqnate), Pachyrhizas nalmav--lobis. 'Hangifera,6indicrt (A'an'.-o Yi c 0 t i ana _c