The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00133

Full Text





THE INSECT PEST SURVEY

BULLETIN


Volume 17 Supplement to Number 9 December 15, 1937


BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AND

THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL

AGENCIES COOPERATING


LIBRARY
A.FTF. plANT BO/
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/insect1937supp9







INSECT PEST SURVEY BULLET I1


Vol. 17 Supplement to No. 9 December 15, 1937



LIBJRATIONS OF JAPAi':ESE EETLE PARASITES I:- THE

EASTERN T STATES I7- 1937

By J. L. King, l/ senior entomologist
Division of Fruit Insect Investigations
United States Department of Agriculture


This report includes in tabular form the present and former liberations
of three of the major species and one racial form of the parasites of the
Japanese beetle as distributed in nine States. The arrangement of the tables
shows the distribution of parasite colonies in the States and counties, also
the annual progress in these areas. C-rtbid totals are given for combined States.
Where parasite colonies are 3 years old (liberated in 1934) or older their
recovery status is also indicated.

Although five species and one racial form are known to be established,
two species, namely, Dexia ventralis Ald. and Prosena siberita F., are not in-
cluded in this report because neither has been actively colonized since 1934
or earlier. Both these species are feebly established in New Jersey but,, be-
cause of limitations in their ability to become established, further active
distribution of the species has been held in abeyance until more favorable
conditions for their.colonization may be found.

Tiphia vernalis Roh.--Fr:ri 1926 to 1937, 811 colonies of this parasite
were liberated in the field, 161 of these being liberated in 1937. For the
most part, these colonies have consisted of units of 100 mated females at each
releasement, the exceptions being the early colonies of imported material,
which were much larger, ranging from 300 to 500 females per colony. The catch
of 16,100 females of T. vernalis in 1937 is the largest collection since the
work began, as is shown in table 1, and in the diagram illustrating the annual
colonization of this species.

Scouting for recovery or establishment has followed releaz.-m:-rt 3
years after the date of initial liberation. In the case of T. vernalis,
out of a total of 351 liberations made during the years 1926 to 1934,



1i The writer acknowledges the assistance of his associates, T. R. Gardner,
L. B. Parker, M. H. Brunson, and I. M. Hawley, wh!. were actively engaged
in the work of colony distribution and recovery scouting.


- 473 -






- 4?4 -


inclusive, 223 colonies have b6en recovered. Therefore we- are certain that
at least 63.5 percent of the colonies became established. It is believed
tL.t.. if more time could b., spent in scouting, a higher percent of recovery
wouli oe indicated.

Studies conducted in 1937 at the Overbrook Country Club in Pennsyl-
vania of the parasitization caused by T. vernalis show that in diggings of
565 square feet over the entire golf course the host-grub population aver-
aoed 0.87 grub per square foot and. that the average parasitization for this
area was 36.4 percent. In one limited area of 40 square feet where the
host averaged 1.33 grubs per square foot, parasitization ran as high as 66
percent.

Tiphia popilliavora Roh.--The total number of colonies for this
species is 583 (see table 2). Most of those date from 1927, having been
collected from early established colonies (s.-e diagram of annual colony dis-
tribution). Unfortunately, the collection of adults for distribution in
1936 dropped to 4,400 females 2nd in 1937 to 2,600, thus permitting the dis-
tribution of only 44 colonies in 1936 and 26 in 1937. This drop in abundance
is attributed to a marked decline in host population in the older area infes-
ted by the Japanese beetle. It is expected, however, that collection may be
augmented in the future by drawing from colonies in the outer areas where
the host is more abundant.

Scouting to determine the percentage of colony establishment for this
species of all colonies 3 years old o- older sh-'wsthat of 378 colonies under
consid.eration, 191, or 50.5 percent, were recovered.- As in the case of T.
vernalis, more time spent in scouting woJuld doubtless increase the percentage
of establishment.

Surveys to determine the effectiveness of this species have n-t been
satisfactory because they have been too limited in area. It has been im-
possible to locate suitable areas for survey where the resulting turf in-
jury is not objectionable to the owner. In 1935; in digging 91 square feet
at the Llanerch Country Club in Pennsylvania, host larvae were found to be
abundant, yet only 3.9 percent were parasitized; however, this percentage
did not seem commensurable with the abundance of parasites in the field.
It is generally conceded that parasitization is "spotty" and if surveys are
not extensive enough to include some of the areas of heavy parasitization,
no adequate idea of the effectiveness of the species can be gained.

Tiphia 6opilliavora Roh. (Korean strain).--This racial form of the
Japanese type is from Chosen (Korea). It has been more recently introduced
and has been colonized in 30 different locations in 4 States (see table 3).
This strain or race is seasonally later, occurring from 2 to 3 weeks after
the type; therefore it has been reasoned that it should be more properly syn-
chronized with the appearance of third-stage host larvae, and, therefore,
should be more useful than the ty-Je strain in certain areas south of the
jor area infested by the Japanese beetle. Most of the colonies of this
parasite are so recent in origin that extensive scouting has not yet been
conducted.







- 475 -


Centeter cinerea Ald.--This is the onlh. dipterous poarsite of the
Japanese beetle which has become established over a wide area. It is a
r.si to of the adult beetle. A total of 33 colonies of this p,-rasite we-e
I i crated from 192 to 1 37, inclusive (see tacle ) A number of toe;:e
colony centers in New J arsy and Pennsylvania have coalesced 1o tiat the
fly is now found over a continuous area of 500 square miles. ETot all of
the initial lioerations of this species have become established, as checks
from time to time indicate that only 59 percent of the colonies have taoen
hold, while others have died out.

The species has been liberated in fo7r State.s. The colonies in
Connecticut and L,,w Hampshire are some,,Lat exp-rimental in nature to determine
vhether the parasite will be of more value there than it is in Jew Jersey
and Pennsylvania. In the last-named Sttes Centetr is not synchonizd with
-,n,,dSttesCene'r is no' synchronized with
its host, as it constantly ap rs before bcetl s b-coime abundant. Thus in
June parasitization of the host m:y r ach 27.5 percent on the f,5h, r-da,.lly
declining to 5 percent on the 3 th and dropi:i-- to 2.2 percent on July 6.
After that it soon dieaopears.







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TIPHIA VERNALIS


RECOVERY OF COLONIES
TOTAL SCOUTED- 351- 1926-19341
RECOVERY-22- 63.5 % }


COLONIES FROM FOREIGN STOCK- 109
COLONIES FROM DOMESTIC STOCK- 702


1926 1927 1928


--1929 1930 1931 1932
1929 1930 1931 1932


1933 1934 1935 1936 1937


Diagram of the annual colonization of Tiphia Ternalis Roh.
colony consists of 100 or more female Tiphia.


160

140-

120-

100-

80 -

60-

40-

20-


Baoh


y/0-











TIPHIA POPILLIAVORA


RECOVERY OF COLONIES
TOTAL SCOUTED-378-(1921-1934) ----
RECOVERY 191 5O. 5 h


z
12 COLONIES FROM FOREIGN STOCK- 4
-I1 120 __ : : ::::::::
0 0 COLONIES FROM DOMESTIC STOCK- 579
Ii.
0 100

m
~8O
Z

60


40


20t . ......


1921 1922 1925 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1934 1935 1936







Diagram of the annual colonizatlon of Tiphia popilliavora Roh.
Each colony consists of 100 or more female Tiphia.





















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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09244 6821 IBBIillJi I
3 1262 09244 8821