The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00123

Full Text






THE INSECT PEST SURVEY


BULLETIN


Volume 17 Supplement to Number 3 May 15, 1937


BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

UN I TED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AND

THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL

AGENCIES COOPERATING



LIBRARY
.TATF, PLANT BOARP














I N SE C T PE S T SU R V E Y BU'L-.L E T I N'


Vol. 17 Supplement to No. 3 May 15, 1937



'THE SPECIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF GRASSHOPPERS IN THE 1936 OUTBREAK

... Robert L. Shotwell 1/


SIn the years 1934, 1935, and. 1936 collections of -grasshoppers in typical
environments were made during the annual grasshopper survey in the several States
-included. The specimens collected were identified and counted to determine the
percentage of each species in the total number taken in each habitat. Data from
the 1934 and 1935 collections were published in the Insect Pest Survey Bulletin
as supplement '9, volume 14, and as su-pplement 5, volume 16, respectively. The
present report 'includes the data for the 1936 survey. This grasshopper survey
-coVered 22 States but collections were recorded for only 9 of these. No collec-
tions'we're sent in from Iowa and Nebraska, States included in the 1935 report.
Fou additional 'States, viz., Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma, were
included 'in the annual survey but in these States not enough collections were'
made for tabulation purposes. Data on important species in the States where no
collections are recorded have been derived from reports by the surveyors. The
material for 'the other States is tabulated and summarized according to-principal
crops or habitats.

So far as possible, collecting was limited to a certain crop or environ-
ment except where the collectors failed to observe these limitations. Because
of the limited time available and the pressure of other matters, the collecting
is incomplete and not all species present were obtained for any State; however,
the results show the general shifts in relative abundance and importance of the
more common species.

Collections are here recorded for Colorado, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana,
North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

Weather Conditions during the Summer 1936

Throughout the entire area in which collections were made the summer of
1936 was the hottest and driest on record. In many localities daily maximum
temperatures of over 1000 F. were recorded during a total of 67 days in June,

liThe writer is indebted to F. D. Butcher, of the Bureau of Entomology and
Plant Quarantine, for his part in the identification of the specimens and orTani-
zation of the material; also to Louis A. Spain, student assistant, who for the
past 3 years has had a major part in the systematic work connected with this
project.


- 117 -







- 118 -


July, and August. No moisture fell in some areas for 100 consecutive days. In
Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas most of the adult grasshoppers spent the greater part
of their time in July and August roosting in the trees and shrubs, where they re-
mained in a more or less inactive state. Collections made on the ground, there-
fore, could not be representative. Great mortality occurred among the adults
from the heat and drought and. this phenomenon will probably be reflected in the
surveys made in 1937.

Natural Vegetation Areas in which Collections Were Made

The natural vegetation areas included in the grasshopper surveys have
been described in detail in the report for 1935, issued as supplement 5, volume
16, of the Insect Pest Survey Bulletin. There are nine general areas, as fol-
lows: The northeastern pine forest; the northeastern and southern hardwood areas
of Wisconsin and Michigan; the tall-grass prairies, embracing parts of Minnesota,
Iowa, the Dakotas, Nebraska, and Kansas; the short-grass, or plains grasslands,
of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana; the foothills
of South Dakota and of the mountain States; the montane and alpine meadows of
the mountain States;, and the northern desert-shrub or sagebrush areas of Wyoming,
Utah, and Idaho.

In all of these natural vegetation areas man has disturbed the balance
of nature in the original flora by his farming and grazing practices and by in-
troducing new plants. This has had its effect on the grasshopper fauna. Changes
in the relative abundance of species are rapid. In one year a certain species
may be very numerous and even dominant, and in the next year or two it may prac-
tically disappear. The build-up of some of these species is due in part to the
introducedafood plants, largely crops, which, in turn, are more susceptible to
weather changes than are the native plants that have become adapted to the en-
vironment. Therefore, the many and varied farming and grazing practices have
increased instability among the species of grasshoppers and this, in part, ac-
counts for recent outbreaks.

Infestations

The surveys showed the worst infestations to be located in western and
southern Iowa, eastern Nebraska, southeastern Colorado, and northern Wyoming,
with severe infestations in many other localities. Owing to the extreme heat
and drought of the summer of 1936, it is difficult to predict abundance in 1937
in-many of these, places.. For example, in South.Dakota there were 26 counties
that averaged from 5- to 100-percent infestation in the adult survey, whereas
in the egg survey no eggs were found in these counties.

COLORADO

There are five natural vegetation areas in Colorado, viz., the plains,
the foothills, low-moucLtain, high-rlountain, and-,alpine. In 1935 the collections
were made in each of these vege.a-,,Lon areas but in 1936 all were made in the
farming areas of the plains grasslands. Altogether, 1,735 specimens, represent-
ing 39 species, were taken in the following environments: 31 species in corn,
30 species in small grains, 32 species in pastures, 11 species in row crops, and
39 species from roadsides.








- 119 -


Most of the infestation was limited to the eastern half of the State, as
most of the western part is mountainous. From severe to very severe infestations
were found along the foothill area and in the northeastern, east-central, and
extreme southeastern parts. The general population was higher than in 1935.

No collections are recorded for the range areas but heavy, infestations of
Dissosteira longipennis Thos. occurred in the southeastern quarter of the State.
From the standpoint of damage to crops, Melanoplus bivittatus Say, M. mexicanus
Sauss., M. femur-rubrum Deg., and M. differentials Thos. were the most destructive
of all the species. Aeoloplus turnbullii Thos. and M. packardii Sccdd. were also
important species.

Detailed comparisons between collections of 1935 and 1936 cannot be made
because that of 1935 was much more extensive than that of 1936. The distribution
by species of 1,735 specimens collected in Colorado, expressed in percentages of
total number taken in each habitat, is shown in the following table.





- 120 -


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- 121 -


The percentages of individuals
State of Colorado, arranged according

Corn
Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 18
2. Melanoplus packardii----------14
3. Aeoloplus turnbullii---------12
4. Melanoplus angustipennis------ 8
5. Melanooplus lakinus----------- 7
6. Twenty-six other species------41


Legumes
1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum -------46
2. Melanoplus mexicanus----------17
3. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 9
4. Aeoloplus turnbullii--------- 4
5. Melanoplus differentialis----- 3
6. Nine other species----------21


Row
1. Melanoplus femur-ru3brum-------37
2. Melanoplus bivittatus-------- 24
3. Ageneotettix deorum ---------- 5
4. Melanoplus lakinus------------ 4
5. Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 3
6. Five other species----------- 27


the various species present in the
crops infested, were as follows:

Small grain
Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------15
2. Melanoplus bivittatus---------12
3. Aeoloplus turnbullii---------- 9
4. Melanoplus angustipennis ------ 8
5. Melanoplus packardii--------- 7
6. Twenty-three other species ----49


Pasture
1. Melanoplus bivittatus --------16
2. Melanoplus mexicanus---------13
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum.------- 5
4. Melanoplus lakinus------------ 5
5. Aeoloplus turnbullii--------- 4
6. Twenty-six other species------57


Roadside
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------16
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------16
3. Melanoplus bivittatus-.--------10
4. Aeoloplus turnbullii----------. 8
5. Melanoplus packardii---------- 5
6. Thirty-one other species------45


Grand total

Percent
1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-----17
2. Melanoplus mexicanus-------16
3. Melanoplus bivittatus------ 10
4. Aeoloplus turnbullii------- 8
5. Melanoplus packardii------- 5
6. Thirty-one other species---44

MI CH I GAN

There are but three natural vegetation areas in :.ichigan--the northeastern
pine forest, northeastern hardwoods, and southern hardwoods. Large portions of
these areas have been denuded of their forests and in their stead there is now
an abundance of stump pasture land and small farms.

No collections are recorded for the Lower Peninsula. In the Upper
Peninsula 985 specimens were taken, representing 8 species in 3 environments,
viz., 8 in pastures, 1 in small grain, and 3 in legumes. The infestations were
light over the entire Upper Peninsula, but severe infestations were present in
the northern half of the Lower Peninsula. Melanoplus mexicanus and Ccr'rLla
pellucida were the most important species. The general population in 1936 wvas
about half that recorded for 1935.









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The percentages of individuals of the various species present in Ltichigan,
arranged according to crops infested, are summarized as follows:

Pasture Small grain
Percent Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus-------- 57 1. Camnula pellucida-------------100
2. Camnula pellucida------------29
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum ------10
4. Melanoplus dawsoni----------- 1 Legumes
5. Melanoplus bivittatus-------- 1 1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------- 68
6. Three other species----------- 2 2. Melanoplus mexicanus---------- 29
3. Chortippus curtipennis-------- 3


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Percent
1. Melanoplus mexdcanus--------- 53
2. Camnula pel]lucida--------------32
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------12
4. Melanoplus dawsoni------------- 1
5. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 1
6. Three other species------------ 1


MINNESOTA

The tall-grass prairie section, which comprises the extreme western and
southern portions of this State, has been the most concerned with grasshopper
outbreaks. All of the collections recorded were made in the extreme northwestern
counties, or Red River Valley area. Three thousand three hundred and fourteen
specimens, representing 26 species, were taken from 8 crop environments, as
follows: 6 in corn, 17 in small grains, 14 in legumes, 13 in flax, 21 in meadows,
12 in pastures, 21 in mixed habitats, and 15 along roadsides.

The most severe infestations were observed in northwestern Minnesota. A
normal-plus infestation was used to designate a somewhat general infestation in
the central, west-central, and southern counties.

Camnula pellucida and Melanoplus bivittatus were the most important
species. M. femur-rubrum was the most destructive species in the southern half
of the State and appears to be increasing in numbers and importance. M. dawsoni
and Encoptolophus costalis Scudd. were also relatively abundant. The distribu-
tion by species of 3,314 specimens collected in the Red River Valley of Minnesota,
expressed in percentage of total number collected in each habitat, is shown in
the following table.









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- 125 -


The percentages of individuals of the various species present in Minnesota,
arranged according to habitat, were as follows:


Corn
Percent
1. Camnula pellucida ------------ 45
2. Melanoplus bivittatus---------26
3. Melanoplus dawsoni-----------21
4. Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 4
5. Melanoplus fernmur-rubrum------- 3
6. Encoptolophus costalis-------- 1


Legume s
1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum----- 34
2. Melanoplus mexicanus---------22
3. Camnula pellucida ------------12
4. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 8
5. Encoptolophus costalis --------6
6. Ten other species--- --------18


Meadow
1. Camnula pellucida-------------25
2. Melanoplus dawsoni -----------16
3. Encoptolophus costalis-------12
4. Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 11
5. Melanoplus femur-rubrum -------9
6. Seventeen other species------ 27


Mixed
1. Camnula pellucida------------17
2. Melanoplus bivittatus-------17
3. Melanoplus mexicanus---------16
4-. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------ll
5. Melanoplus dawsoni------------ 9
6. Sixteen other species--------30


Small grain
Percent
Melanoplus bivittatus---------41
Camnula pellucida ------------16
Melanoplus femur-rubrum ------14
Melanoplus mexicanus---------- 9
Melanoplus dawsoni------------ 7
Twelve other species----------13


Flax
Melanoplus bivittatus---------52
Melanoplus femur-rubrum ------19
Camnula pellucida -------------10
Melanoplus dawsoni----------- 8
Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 6
Six other species------------ 5


Pasture
Encoptolophus costalis--------34
Camnula pellucida ------------32
Melanoplus femur-rubrum ------13
Mestobregma kiowa------------- 8
Ageneotettix deorum ----------- 4
Seven other species---------- 9


Roadside
Camnula pellucida------------ 41
Melanoplus bivittatus------- 17
Dissosteira carolina---------16
Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 8
Encoptolophus costalis------- 5
Ten other species------------13


Grand total

Percent
1. Camnula pellucida------------- 23
2. Melanoplus bivittatus---------18
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------12
4. Melanoplus mexicanus----------11
5. Melanoplus dawsoni------------10
6. Twenty-one other species----- 26






- 126 -


MONTANA

The three natural vegetation areas of this State are the short-grass,
foothill, and mountain areas. Most of the localities troubled by grasshoppers
are in the eastern two-thirds of the State, which is largely the short-grass
area. The chief crop is wheat, with large grazing- tracts. In the farming sec-
tions there is always an abundance of idle or abandoned land which is considered
as a habitat when making grasshopper collections or studies of grasshopper popu-
lations.

There were 9,616 specimens, representing 46 species, collected in 11
habitats, viz., 30 in small grain, 23 in alfalfa and sweetclover, 37 on plains
grasslands, 18 in low-mountain grasslands, 16 in sagebrush flats, 19 in native
pastures, 25 in coulee bottoms, 9 in timothy hay, 29 along the roadsides, and
30 in the reversion and idle lands.

Melanoplus mexicanus was dominant in the State, with Aulocara elliotti
second in importance. The most notable change was the great increase in abundance
of A. elliotti which,' in the range lands, came from fourth place at 10 percent
in 1935, to first place at 28 percent of the total number. of specimens collected
in 1936. On the other hand, Cordillacris crenulata Brun., which held first place
on the range in 1935 at 15 percent, dropped to eighth place at 3 percent. Amphi-
tornus coloradus is another species that decreased greatly.

The most severe infestations were scattered all through the eastern two-
thirds of the State, except for the north-central part, where local infestations
occurred. Along the Yellowstone Valley and east of Billings heavy adult popula-
tions in July and August seemed to disappear suddenly in August, leaving no. eggs.
On the Huntley study area near Billings, the number of egg pods averaged eight
per square foot in alfalfa and three in small grain in 1935. In 1936 there were
more adults than in 1935; however, the egg counts in the egg survey of 1936,
showed an average of only 0.13 per square foot in alfalfa and 0.07 in the small
grain.

During the severe outbreaks grasshoppers tend to increase in numbers far
beyond the carrying capacity of the plant food in a unit area. This causes a.
high mortality, Nhich reduces the population to below the carrying capacity.
Other factors, such as heat and drought, directly or indirectly help in this
reduction by incapacitating the hoppers or fixing the carrying capacity at much
lower levels than normal. The distribution by species of 9,616 individuals
collected in Montana, expressed in total number taken in each habitat, is shown
in the following table.











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- 129 -


The percentages of individuals of the various species present in Montana,
arranged according to habitat, were as follows:


Small grain
Percent
Melanoplus mexicanus---------55
Aulocara elliotti------------ 10
Melanoplus femur-rubrum ------- 8
Qamnula pellucida------------ 7
Melanoplus packardii---------- 6
Twenty-five other species-----14


Plains grassland
Aulocara elliotti------------ 28
Ageneotettix deorum ----------16
Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 10
Melanoplus infantilis------- 10
Mestobregma kiowa------------ 7
Thirty-six other species -----29


Sagebrush
Aulocara elliotti------------ 23
Aeoloplus turnbullii--------18
Melanoplus mexi5canus---------15
Camnula pellucida------------12
Ageneotettix deorum ---------- 8
Eleven other species---------24

Coulee bottom
Aulocara elliotti-------------26
Ageneotettix deorum ----------20
Melanoplus mexicanus----------19
Drepanopterna femoratum ------- 4
Melanoplus packardii---------- 8
Twenty other species-------- 23

Roadside
Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 34
Aulocara elliotti------------17
Camnula pellucida------------ 10
Melanoplus femur-rubrum ------- 9
Melanoplus packardii---------- 7
Twenty-four other species----23


Legumes
Percent
1'. Melanoplus mexicanus--------49
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------ 24
3. Camnula pellucida------------- 11
4. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 5
5. Melanoplus packardii --------- 4
6. Nineteen other species-------- 7


Low-mountain grassland
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------42
2. Aulocara elliotti------------12
3. Camnula pellucida------------- 9
4. Melanoplus femur-rubrum -------9
5. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 7
6. Thirteen other species------- 21


Pasture
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------36
2. Camnula pellucida-------------20
3. Aulocara elliotti------------ 12
4. Melanoplus bivittatus-------- 8
5. Chortippus curtipennis-------- 6
6. Fourteen other species-------18

Timothy
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------52
2. Camnula pellucida------------20
3. Aulocara elliotti------------ 9
4. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 5
5. Melanoplus infantilis--------- 4
6. Four other species---------- 10

Reversion
1. Melanoplus mexicanus---------60
2. Melanoplus packardii -------12
3. Aulocara elliotti------------- 7
4. Ageneotettix deorum ----------- 4
5. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------- 3
6. Twenty-five other species-----14


Grand total

Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus---------- 41
2. Aulocara elliotti--------------13
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum -------- 8
4. Camnula pellucida--------------- 7
5. Ageneotettix deorum------------- 6
6. Forty-one other species--------25







- 130 -


NORTH DAKOTA

There are twonatural vegetation areas in this State, the tall grass
and short grass. Most of the collections came from the western half or short-
grass area.

There were 9,972 specimens taken from 8 habitats and these represented
36 species, viz., 14 in corn, 25 in small grain, 16 in alfalfa and sweetclover,
17 in flax, 24 in range lands, 20 in coulees, 19 in idle and reverted lands,
and 33 from along roadsides.

The most severe infestations occurred in the western half of the State.
Other severe outbreaks occurred in the north-central part and the southeastern
quarter.

Melanoplus mexicanus in North Dakota reached its greatest importance in
relation to other species from the standpoint of numbers. It was the most im-
portant grasshopper in all crops forming over half (54 percent) of the 9,972
specimens collected. From 60 to 70 percent of the hoppers in small grain, al-
falfa, and flax were of this species. Only on the range land was it second in
importance, for here Ageneotettix deorum was dominant and three times as numer-
ous as M. mexicanus. In reverted or idle lands M. mexicanus formed 59 percent
of the population. This has been observed before, both here and in Montana,
and bears out the fact that these are good habitats for this particular species.
This species has increased its dominancy in crops over other species, and A.
deorum has done the same on range lands. This would indicate that these two
species are better able to withstand drought. Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum Thos.,
a common species, and others had fallen off in numbers.

The distribution by species of 9,972 individuals collected in North Dakota,
expressed in percentage of total number taken in each habitat, is shown in the
following table.









- 131 -


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- 133 -


The percentages of individuals of the various species present in North
Dakota, arranged according to habitat, were as follows:


Corn
Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicnmus-------- 44
2. Melanoplus bivittatus-------- 24
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum ------- 9
4. :Ielanoplus packardii---------- 7
5. Dissosteira carolina---------- 3
6. Nine other species----------- 13


Legumes
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------68
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------- 6
3. Camnula pellucida------------ 6
4. Melanopolus packardii--------- 6
5. Ageneotettix deorum ----------- 4
6. Eleven other species---------- 10


Raon-e
1. Ageneotettix deorum ----------- 47
2. Melanoplus mexicanus----------16
3. Melanoplus infantilis--------- 9
4. Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum-- 8
5. Mestobregma kiowa------------- 6
6. iTineteen other species-------- 14


Reversion
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------59
2. Ageneotettix deorum -----------16
3. Melanoplus packardii---------- 8
4. Melanoplus angustipennis ----- 7
5. Melanoplus infantilis--------- 2
6. Fourteen other species-------- 8


Small grain
Percent
Melanoplus me::i canus----------66
A:eneotettix deorumn----------- 9
Melanoplus packardii---------- 7
Dissosteira carolina----------- 3
Aulocara elliotti------------- 2
Twenty other species----------.13


Flax
Melanoplus mexicanus----------71
Melanoplus fenrar-rubrumn------- 8
Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 6
Camnula pellucida------------- 3
IMfelanoplus packardii---------- 2
Twelve other species----------10


Coulee
Ageneotettix deorum- ------50
Melanoplus mexicanus---------19
Aulocara elliotti-------------15
Melanoplus infantilis--------- 4
Melanoplus packardii---------- 3
Fifteen other species--------- 9


Roadside
Melanoplus mexicanus----------52
Ageneotettix deorum ----------- 9
Melanoplus angu-stipennis------ 7
Melanoplus femur-rubrum ------- 7
Melanoplus packardii---------- 7
Twenty-eight other species----18


Grand total

Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus-------------54
2. Ageneotettix deorum --------------15
3. Melanoplus packardii------------- 6
4. MIelanoplus angustipennis--------- 4
5. Melanoplus fermur-rubrum---------- 4
6. Thirty-one other species---------17







UBRARY
5TA'TE pLAN"W BOAR[)


~17ATh pLA~ BOARU)








- 134 -


SOUTH DAKOTA

Most of the collections in this State were made in the short-grass area.
There were 5,122 specimens taken in 7 environments, with 39 species represented,
viz., 21 in corn, 27 in small grain, 35 on range land, 22 in legumes, 23 in pas-
tures and hay meadows, 5 in flax, and 10 from roadsides.

Very little can be said regarding the locations of the infestations as
the whole State was subjected to extreme heat and drought, which reduced egg
deposition enormously, close to 100 percent in many places. During the adult
survey in July and August infestations were general and severe. In 36 counties
no eggs were found in the egg survey and all counties averaged under 10 percent.

Melanoplus mexicanus was the most numerous in all crops, also on _the
range and in the pastures. It constituted 48 percent of the total number of
specimens collected in the State. M. femur-rubrum was second, M. differentials
third, and Ageneotettix deorum fourth. In 1935, A. deorum and Mestobregma kiowa
were the two most important species on the range and in the pastures. They have
been superseded by M. mexicanus in these habitats, which has increased its lead
over the others. Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum and Amphitornus coloradus, with
others, have decreased where, in 1935, they were among the first five species
in numbers in some of the habitats. The distribution by species of 5,122 in-
dividuals collected in South Dakota, expressed in percentage of the total number
taken in each habitat, is shown in the following table.








135-

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- 1356-


The percentages of individuals
Dakota arranged according to habitat,

Corn
Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------36
2. Melanoplus differentialis-----27
3. Ageneotettix deorum----------10
4. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------- 5
5. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 4
6. Seventeen other species------ 18


Range
1. Melanoplus mexicanus-------- 46
2. Ageneotettix deorum ----------15
3. Aulocara elliotti------------- 5
4. Melanoplus differentialis----- 4
5. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------ 4
6. Thirty-one other species----- 26


Pasture
1. Melanoplus mexicanus------- -17
2. Ageneotettix deorum---------- 16
3. Phoetaliotes nebrascensis-----14
4. Mestobregma kiowa-------------10
5. Melanoplus differentialis----- 8
6. Nineteen other species------ 35


Roadside
1. Melanoplus mexicanus- 62
2. Melanoplus packardii----------10
3. Spharageman collare--------- 8
4. Melanoplus spp. (nymphs)------ 7
5. Hadrotettix trifasciatus------ 4
6. Five other species------------ 9


of the various species present in South
were as follows:

Small grain
Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus---------- 58
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------16
3. Melanoplus packardii---------- 5
4. Ageneotettix deorum ------------ 4
5. Aulocara elliotti-------------- 1
6. Twenty-three other species----16


Legumes
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------49
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------26
3. Ageneotettix deorum----------- 8
4. Mfelanoplus angustipennis------ 4
5. Melanoplus differentialis ----- 3
6. Eighteen other species--------10


Flax
1. Melanoplus -mexicanus------ --56
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------36
3. Dissosteira carolina----------- 4
4. Arphia pseudonietana------ 2
5. Aeoloplusturnbullii-------- 2



Grand total
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------48
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------12
3. Ageneotettix deorum ----------- 9
4. Melanoplus differentialis----- 5
5. Melanoplus packardii --------- 3
6. Thirty-five other species-----23










- 137 -


UTAH

This State lies in the northern desert-shrub area, with mostly irrigated
farms. Alfalfa is one of the principal crops. In Utah 3,572 specimens were
collected in 5 habitats, representing between 35 and 40 species. Several species
of Trimerotropis were lumped together because their identity was not certain.
Of the species collected, 27 were taken in alfalfa, 30 in mixed habitats, 15 on
the range, 10 in small grains, and 16 in meadows.

The most severe infestations were found in the north-central part of the
State. In most areas the populations had increased considerably over those of
1935. The most numerous species .'"s Melanoplus femur-rubrum, with M. mexicanus
second, M. packardii thir6, and Aulocara elliotti fourth. In 1935, M. mexicanus
was first, with M. femur-i'ublum second, but in 1936 their positions were changed.
Trimerotropis vinculdta Scuid. was third in numbers in 1935, at 17 percent of
the total number of specimens collected for the State. In 1936, it declined
to only 0.72 percent of the total. A. elliotti increased from 0.64 percent in
1935 to 7.94 percent in 1936. The distribution by species of 3,572 individuals
collected in Utah, expressed in percentag- of total number taken in each habitat,
is shown in the following table.





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- 139 -


The percentages of individuals of the various species present in Utah,
arranged according to habitat, were as follows:


Legumes
Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus-------- 27
2. ielanoplus femur-rubrum ------ 26
3. Melanoplus packardii---------20
4. Aulocara elliotti------------- 3
5. Dissosteira carolina --------- 2
6. Twenty-two other species------22


Range
1. Trimerotropis laticincta ----25
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------17
3. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 11
4, Dissosteira spurcata---------- 11
5. Aulocara elliotti----------- 8
6. Ten other species----------- 28


Meadow
1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------ 34
2. Conocephalus sp.------------ 28
3. Camnula pellucida------------17
4. Chortippus curtipennis-------- 5
5. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 4
6. Eleven other species---------12


Mixed
Percent
1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------29
2. Melanoplus mexicanus---------16
3. Aulocara elliotti------------15
4. Melanoplus packardii----------14
5. Melanoplus bivittatus--------- 7
6. Twenty-five other species-----19


Small grain
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------23
2. Melanoplus packardii----------23
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------19
4. Mestobre:.:a plattei--------- 10
5. Camnula pellucida ------------- 8
6. Five other species-----------17


Grand total
1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------28
2. :,elanoplus mexicanus----------17
3. Melanoplus packardii----------13
4. Aulocara elliotti------------- 8
5. Melanoplus bivittatus ---------7
6. Thirty-one other species----- 27


Wi scornsin

The northeastern pine and northeastern and southern hardwood areas
comprise most of this State. There are many cut-over stump pastures and hay
meadows. With the exception of two spots, one in Ashland and one in Waupaga
County, the most severe infestations were confined to the southern three tiers
of counties. Heavy infestations of Melanoplus femur-rubrumn and M. mexicanus
developed in these counties. Considerable difficulty was encountered in find-
ing eg-s during the egg survey and it is believed that the heavy rains in the
latter part of the summer checked the infestations.

M. femur-rubrum, at 65 percent, constituted two-thirds of the specimens
collected in the State. M. mexicanus was second, at 31 percent. Twelve other
species together made up the remainder at 4 percent. The numbers of nymphs
of M. femur-rubrum ran as high as from 70 to 80 per square yard in July and
serious damage was done to second cuttings and new seedings of alfalfa. Frc:,,
1935 to 1936, M. mexicanus has reduced the lead that i. femur-rubrum had over
it from 71 percent, in 1935, to 34 percent in 1936. The following table shows
the distribution by species of 3,628 individuals taken in.Wisconsin, expressed
in percentage of the total number taken in each habitat.






- 14o,-


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- 141-


The percentages of individuals of the various species present in Wisconsin,
arranged according to habitat, were as follows:

Pasture Legumes
Percent Percent
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------48 1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------- 74
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum -------43 2. Melanoplus mexicanus----------24
3. Camnula pellucida----------- 5 3. Orphulella speciosa ------------1
4. Melanoplus dawsoni------------ 2 4. Mestobregma kiowa------------- 1
5. Chortippus curtipennis-------- 1
6. Two other species------------- 1
Soybeans
1. Melanoplus mexicanus----------80
Roadside 2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum------ 17
1. Melanoplus mexicanus---------100 3. Ageneotettix deorum ---------- 3


Grand total

Percent
1. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-------65
2. Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 31
3. Camnula pellucida------------- 1
4. Orphulella speciosa----------- 1
5. Mestobregma kiowa------------- 1
6. Nine other species------------ 1


WYOMING

In this State most of the collecting was confined to the northern desert-
shrub or sagebrush area and the short-grass areas of the State. From two to
seven times as many specimens were taken as in some other States, viz., 21,189
specimens from 9 habitats. These specimens represented 42 species, in habitats
as follows: 30 in small grain, 37 in legumes, 22 in coulees, 26 alon- hillsides,
31 on range land, 25 in idle and reverted land, 25 along roadsides, and 24 in
meadows. The heaviest infestations were in the irrigated sections of the northern
and eastern two tiers of counties. Range losses were exceptionally heavy in the
six northeastern counties. Populations had increased in the irrigated sections
and decreased only on the range in the primary drought areas.

Melanoplus mexicanus was the most numerous species, with M. femur-rubrum
second and M. bivittatus a close third. Aulocara elliotti and Ageneotettix deorum
were about equal in numbers on the range lands. M. packardii was numerous in
many places.

According to the collections, the most marked change from 1935 to 1936,
has been the reduction in abundance of Camnula pellucida. In 1935 this species
was dominant on the range land, at 23 percent, and was amonr the first five most








- 142 -


numerous species in five out of the six recorded habitats. It was also second
in numbers, at 21 percent, to M. mexicanus, which was first, at 23 percent, in
the total number of specimens collected for the State. In 1936 on the range C.
pellucida formed only 0.17 percent of the hoppers and was seventh in numbers, at
4 percent of the total collected for the State. On the other hand, A. elliotti
rose from fourth place on the range, at 6 percent in 1935, to first place, at 19
percent in 1936, and from seventh place, at 2 percent of the total number
collected, to fourth place at 9 percent. M. mexicanus had increased its lead
over the nearest competitors of 1935. On C. pellucidatShis increase was from 2
percent in 1935 to 22 percent in 1936; on M. bivittatus from 5 to 15 percent,
and M. femur-rubrum from 7 to 12 percent. All these figures were computed on
the basis of the total numbers of specimens collected in these years. The dis-
tribution by species of 21,189 specimens collected in Wyoming, expressed in
percentage of total number taken in each habitat, is shown in the following
table.







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- 145 -


The percentages of individuals of the various species present in ,yioni.-r,
arranged ac-orin: to habitat, were as follows:


S..'..1 grain
Percent
Melanooplus mexicanus- -------- 41
Melanoplus bivittatus-------- 12
Camnula pellucida------------- 9
Melanoplus packardii---------- 7
Melanoplus ,12ustipennis------ 5
Twenty-five other spe.cies-----26


Coul e e
Opeia obscura------------------29
A-eneotettix deorumn -----------20
Melanoplus mexicanus----------13
Aulocara elliotti------------ 9
Melanoplus infsntilis--------- 5
Seventeen other species------- 24


Range
Aulocara elliotti-------------19
Ageneotettix deorm ----------18
Melanoplus mex:icznus---------14
Drepanopterna f-iorat.------ 7
Melanoplus _.ckardii--------- 7
Twenty-six other species----35


Roadside
Melanoplus mexi c anu s------- 23
Melanoplus bivittatus------ 15
Melanoplus .ckardii--------- 11
Melanoplus an-ustip inis---- 10
Melanoplus ferrmur-rul r.- ------ 9
Twenty-eight other species---32


River bottom
Melanoplus mnex:ic :ius --------32
Aulocara elliotti------------13
iMelanoplus femur-rubrun -----12
.Ielanoplus bivittatus------- 8
Ageneotettix deorum ---------- 7
Twenty-eight other s-pecies---28


L e Fz- e s
Percent
:lelanoplus femur-rubrum -------27
Mielanoplus mexicanus----------23
Melanoplus bivittatus---------18
Melanoplus packardii----------10
Aeoloplks turnbulli i ---------- 5
Thirty-two other species------17


Hillside
Ageneotettix deorum -----------28
Melanoplus mexicanus-------- 24
Aulocara elliotti------------- 8
Hesperotettix viridis--------- 8
Melanoplus bowditchi---------- 7
Twenty-one other species------ 25


Reversion
Melanoplus mexicanus---------- 39
Aulocara elliotti------------ 31
Ageneotettix deorum ---------- 7
Melanoplus packardii---------- 6
Caranula pellucida------------- 3
Twenty other species----------14


LMeadow
Melanoplus mexicanus--------- 31
e-reneotettix deorum ----------- 30
Arphia pseudonietana--------- 11
Csmnula oellucida------------- 10
MDelanoplus infantilis-------- 6
T7ineteen other species--------12


Grand total
Melanoplus mexicanus----------23
L:elanoplus femur-rubrum-------14
:elanoplus bivittatus ---------11
Aulocara elliotti------------ 9
Ageneotettix deorum----------- 8
Thirty-sven other succies----32







- 146 -


ARIZONA

In general, the grasshopper populations were shown by the survey to be
very low; however, in limited areas they were present in sufficient numbers for
potential increase and spread to outbreak proportions. The most severe infesta-
tions were in Apache, Navajo, Coconino, Yavapai, and Gila Counties. The most
important economic species were Melanoplus: bivittatus, Camnula pellucida, and
M. femur-rubrum.

AREKANSAS

The worst infestations were mostly in the northern two tiers of counties,
which averaged from 5 to 10 percent infestation, 23 counties being involved in
the State. The most important species in relation to crop damage was Melanoplus
differentialis. Other prominent species were MVI. mexicanus, M. femur-rubrum,
and M. impiger Scudd.

CALIFORNIA

The most severe infestations were in the north-central counties, as far
north as Yuba County and south to Madera County. There were heavy infestations
of Melanoplus mexicanus in the Imperial Valley, where two generations of this
species occur annually. There were other spots of heavy infestation.

Based on damage to grazing land and cultivated crops, Camnula pellucida,
M. mexicanus, and MV. devastator Scudd. were about equally important, with 1M.
marginatus Scudd. and M. femur-rubrum second in importance, and M. differentialis,
Oedaleonotus enigma Scadd., 0. borckii pacificus Scudd., and Hippiscus californicus
Scudd. of somewhat less importance. M. devastator inhabits the foothills of the
coast and the inland ranges of the Sierra Nevadas.

IDAHO

There were numerous small areas in which populations were slightly above
normal in practically all of the counties of the State, with a definite increase
in the grasshopper populations.

The most important species was Melanoplus femur-rubrum, with M. mexicanus
second and M. bivittatus third.

ILLINOIS

The records were not complete for the individual survey stops. Most of
the infestations were in a large area throughout the central part of the State,
including most of the western boundary counties.

M. femur-rubrum, M. mexicanus, and M. differentialis were most numerous.
M. differentialis probably did the most damage because it was concentrated on the
corn, which is the most valuable crop attacked in this region.






- 147 -


IOWA

The most severe infestations occurred in the western and southern
parts of the State, although the entire State was more or less involved.

In various districts of the State different species were of greatest
importance. In tha northwestern counties Melanoplus mexicanus was first
and M. bivittatus second. In the west-central part there was more of a
mixture of M. mexicanus, M. bivittatus, M. differentialis, and U. femur-
rubruam. I'. differentialis was more important in the southwestern district.
In the south-central, central, and eastern sections M. femur-rubrum was
dominant, with M. differentialis second in numbers. 1:. mexicanus had a
partial second generation in 1936, which hatched out the last week of
Aus-gast.

The following is a list submitted by C. J. Drake. The grasshoppers
were collected in Iowa in 1936 and determined by M. Hebard.

Pseudopomala brachytera Scudd., Woodbury County.
Mermiria maculipennis macclungi Rehn, Plymouth and Sioux Counties.
Syrbula admirabilis Uhl., Warren and Clark Counties.
Opeia obscura Thos., Sioux County.
Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum Thos., Sioux and Harrison Counties.
Orphulella speciosa Scudd., common to abundant in Clark, Union, Davis,
Lyon, Plymouth, Adams, and Sioux Counties.
Orphulella pelidna Burm., Woodbury County.
Dichromorpha viridis Scudd., Davis, Story, Webster, and Woodbury Counties.
Chortippus longicornis Latr., Clay, Palo Alto, and Davis Counties (in
swale).
Ageneotettix deorum deorum Scudd., abundant in pastures in Sioux, Adams,
Lyon, Warren, Harrison, Woodbury, Clark, Crawford, Webster, and
Plymouth Counties.
Arphia xanthoptera Germ., Warren, Clark, and Decatur Counties.
Arphia simplex Scudd., Sioux County.
Arphia pseudonietana Thos., Plymouth and Woodbury Counties.
Chortophaga viridifasciata Deg., Decatur, Clark, and Lee Counties.
Encoptolophus sordidus sordidus Burm., Clark, Warren, Decatur, Ad::s, and
Lyon Counties.
Hippiscus rugosus Scudd., Van Buren, Clark, Sioux, Warren, Harrison,
Lyon, and Plymouth Counties.
Hippiscus haldemanii Scudd., Harrison, Sioux, Plymouth, Union, and Audubon
Counties.
Dissosteira carolina L., common in Pottawattamie, Warren, Davis, Webster,
Monona, Audubon, Clark, Clay, Sioux, Woodbury, Plymouth, and
Harrison Counties.






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Spharagemon bolli Scudd., Lee County.
Spharagemon equale Say, Lyon County.
Spharagemon collare Scudd., Muscatine, Sioux, Clark, Clay, and Harrison
Counties.
Mestobregmalkiowa kiowa Thos., common on prairies in Plymouth, Sioux,
Lyon, Harrison, Monona, and Woodbury Counties.
Mestobregma kiowa fuscifrons Stal, Warren and Clark Counties.
Psinidia fenestralis fenestralis Serv., Muscatine County on sand hills.
Trimerotropis citrina atypicc) Scudd., Muscatine County on sand hills.
Trimerotropis laticincta Sauss., Story County, new State record, Hebard.
Hadrotettix trifasciatus Say, Lyon, Sioux, and Plymouth Counties.
Schistocerca americana americana Drury, Clark County.
Schistocerca alutacea lineata Scudd., more abundant than usual in Clark,
Woodbury, Plymouth, Union, and Warren Counties.
Schistocerca alutacea alutacea ? Harr., Warren County.
Campylacantha olivacea olivacea Scudd., Clark County.
Melanoplus bivittatus Say, abundant, general in northwestern Iowa, Sioux
and Crawford Counties.
Melanoplus differentialis Thos., generally abundant.
Melanoplus confuses Scudd., Plymouth and Sioux Counties.
Melanoplus femur-rubrum femur-rubrum Deg., generally abundant.
Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus Sauss., generally abundant.
Melanoplus keeleri luridus Dodge, Warren, Plymouth, and Lyon Counties.
Melanoplus foedus fluviatilis Brun., Harrison, Lyon, Woodbury, and Sioux
Counties.
Melanoplus anguastipennis Dodge, Muscatine Count.,
Melanoplus gracilis Brun., Warren and Clark Counties.
Melanoplus scudderi scudderi Uhl., Union County.
Melanoplus walshii Scudd., Warren County.
Melanoplus borealis junius Dodge, Clay County.
Melanoplus packardii Scudd., Warren, Sioux, Clark, and Plymouth Counties.
Phoetaliotes nebrascensis Thos., Sioux and Lyon Counties.


MISSOURI

The most severe infestations were in the northwestern portion of the
State. Melanoplus mexicanus was first in numbers with M. differentials
second, I. femur-rubrum third, and M. bivittatus fourth.

NEBRASKA

Except for the large sand hill area in the middle of the State,
there were severe infestations all through the eastern, southern, and
western parts. The important species were Melanoplus mexicanus, which
was first in numbers, M. differentialis second, M. bivittatus third,
M. femur-rabrum fourth, and M. packardii fifth.





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iNEVADA

The most severe infestations were in Lyon County and. in the northern
and northwestern parts of the State. Camnula pellucida was the only species
recorded as important.

NEW EXI CO

The area where the most trouble is expected is in northern Santa Fe
County and in Rio Arriba County. Over the entire State populations were down.
Melanoplus bivittatus and M. femar-rubruam were the most important species.

0CLAHOIA

The worst infestations were in the northeastern and southwestern quarters
of the State and over all but the southeastern quarter conditions were from light
to threatening. Severe drought and heat delayed egg laying until the middle of
September and also destroyed large numbers of adults.

The dominant species was Melanoplus differentialis, with both M. mexicanus
and M. bivittatus second in importance.

OREGON

Grasshopper populations were lower than normal in most areas surveyed.
All threatening infestations were found on range lands. The south-central and
extreme northeastern parts of the State had the worst infestations.

Camnula pellucida was by far the most important species, but there were
extremely localized infestations of Melanoplus mexicanus and M. femur-rubrum.

KANSAS

Infestations were general over the entire State. The most important
species were Melinoplus mexicanus, M. differentialis, and M. bivittatus, in
the order of their importance.

SuIARY

The most important change that took place in the relative abundance of
the species was the increase of Melanoplus femur-rubrum in several of the States
where collections were made, viz., Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Utah. In eastern
Iowa it was the most numerous species and in southern Minnesota it was the most
destructive of the graschorpers. Another change was the increase of Aulocara
elliotti in the Mountain States, both on the range and in small grain. In
Montana Cordillacris crenulata dropped from first to eighth place in abundance




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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3 1262 09244 6805
150 -


in the grazing areas. M. mexicanus increased its lead over its closest com-
petitors as much as 36 percent in small grain in western North Dakota, where
it reached its greatest importance in relation to the other species. In both
North Dakota and Montana it constituted 60 percent of the grasshopper popula-
tion in idle or reverted lands. This bears out the fact that such places are
good habitats for this particular species. Amphitornus coloradus, Phlibostroma
quadrimaculatum, and a few others had fallen off in numbers.

In areas where drought was severe in 1936, drastic reductions in adult
populations occurred last summer. Melanoplus bivittatus and M. differentials,
especially, suffered great mortality from the extreme heat and. drought. These
species were prominent only in the irrigated sections of some of the Mountain
States and along the water courses in some other States.

Man has disturbed the balance of nature in the original flora of all
these areas by farming and grazing practices and by introducing new plants.
These new food plants, largely crops, are in turn more susceptible to weather
changes than are the fully adapted native plants. This change in flora has
had its effect on the original grasshopper fauna by causing rapid fluctuations
in the relative numbers of any species. This, in part, accounts for recent
outbreaks. Of all the species involved therein, M. mexicanus seems to have
been able to retain its supremacy under the last 4 years of severe drought
conditions, which indicates that this species was best adapted to such condi-
tions.