The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00117

Full Text







THE INSECT PEST SURVEY


BULLETIN


Volume 16 Summary for 1936 Number 10


BUREAU OF


ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT


QUARANTINE


UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AND

THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL


AGENCIES COOPERATING














INSECT PEST SURVEY BULLET IN


Vol. 16 Summary for 1936- o. 10


IliTRODUICTION

An excellent opportunity for the study of the effect of weather on
the abundance and distribution of insects was afforded by the year 1936,
as the entire year was characterized by extremes in climatic conditions.
The winter was abnormally cold over the entire United States, except in
the southern Rocky mountaini n and Great Basin States, and a narrow strip on
the coast in the Northwest. Snowfall was the heaviest in many years in
the region north of the Potomac, the Ohio, and the Missouri Rivers. The
summ.:r was unprecedently dry and hot from the Rocky Mountains to the Appa-
lachians and abnormally dry in the Eastern States.

The break in the severe winter weather came the latter part of
February and, following this, temperatures were almost continuously above
normal for the month of March, except in the Western and Northwestern
States, where abnormally cold weather prevailed the last week of the
month.

The month of April was cooler than normal over nearly all sections
of the country east of the Rocky Mountains and warmer than normal gener-
ally west of the Rockies.

The temperature for May was above normal in practically all parts
of the country. Precipitation varied greatly in different areas, rang-
ing from much above normal to markedly deficient, the latter predominat-
ing. The Southwest had heavy rain-, the northern Plains States were
dry, and from the Mississippi Valley eastward the month was one of the
driest Mays of record.


-507-









-50os-


Ti.e very dry weather started in Juno, when the entire country
east of the Rocky Mountains, except Florida, had deficient rainfall.
Durin.- the summer the country lying between the Roc.-y IMountains and
the Appalachians experienced unprecedently hot, dry weather, rainfall
over large areas being less than half of normal. There was some lack
of rain in the Eastern States. In the States west of the Rocky Mount-
ains rainfall was above normal.

August brought rain to the Northeastern States, the Lake region,
the Upper Missis'ippi and Ohio Valleys, small isolated areas in the
Gulf and South Atlantic States, parts of Colorado, and much of the
Groat lasin and plateau regions; but over more than half of the coun-
try, embracing the heart of the agricultural region, the rainfall was
markedly d-.ficinnt. In September rainfall was above normal over most
sections east of the Rocky Mountains, except the northern Plains States,
bringing to a close one of the most disastrous droughts in the history
of the United States.

A comparison of the weather with insect conditions represented
in reports r;ceiyedA&y the Insect Pest Survey, brings out some inter-
esting correlations. Obesrvrtions made from the reports on a few in-
sects are cited, to illustrate the possibilities of the use that might
be made of extensive and complete reports on tne distribution of insects.

A high winter mortality was reported for several species of in-
sects, and especially those species thnt have pushed their ra-nE;e north-
ward durirn- the last few years of mild winter weatherr Th- winter of
1934-35 was abnormally cold only in the northeastern part of the
country.

The San Jose scale was reported as having been almost completely
wipcd out above the snow line in areas in the East Centr-i St.tes,where
in recent :-.'-ars it has been reported as incrt -vingly destructive, as
well as advancing northward in its rm-.-e. In 1935 the scale was re-
ported in some abundance in areas in the Northeastern S:ntes. In the
Spring of 1934 high winter killing was reported, although reports of
injury followed durin- the num:..r. In 1935 very few reports -'ere re-
ceived from that region, and in 1"6 only two r-p-rts were rec-ivd
fr7m northeast of the Potomac ivr. r. the nther hand, the European
elm scale, a northern species, cvid.ntly experienced no abhor:al winter
mortality.









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The tobacco flea beetle, which has b(en reported as very destruc-
tive in the tobacco-growing section of Kentucky and Tennessee during the
last few years, was not reported from that section in 1936. It was re-
ported, however, from North Carolina. Other flea beetles were reported
in at least normal abundance from most parts of the Eastern States.

Soil samples taken from fields in New Jersey, where sweet corn
was heavily infested by the corn ear worm in 1935, were examined in Octo-
ber 1935 and found to contain living pupae. Similar soil samples were
xxnnined in April 1936, and no living pupae were found. A few reports
of high winter mortality of this insect were received from other States.
This fact, with almost no reports of injury by the larvae early in the
sui.mer, indicates low winter survival. Reports late in the summer and
fall indicate that the insect had built up destructive populations.

The h.ssian fly suffered high winter mortality, which, coupled
with unfavorable weather in the Spring of 1936, checked the impending
outbreak.

The harlequin bug, a southern species, advances northward in
years of mild weather. The last few years have been favorable and,
beginning about 1932, reports indicate its occurrence in destructive
abundance north to a line from Central Ohio westward to southern Iowa.
During the season of 1936, it was not reported north of 35e north
latitude, except at Norfolk, Va.; the southern tip of Ohio, in Law-
rence County; and in east-central Kansas, in Douglas County.

Extremes in the weather caused fluctuations in codling moth
populations. The cold winter killed many of the ovwrwintering
larvae in the east .rn part of the. country, but warm weather in May
stimulated activity, affording the species an early start, and it
staged a very rapid comeback in most central and eastern localities,
although reduced during the su-iner by the dry hot weather in a few
"z'est-central States.








-510-


As a result of the high winter mortality of the boll weevil,
combined with the effect of the drought, this insect was less abundant
than at any time since its establishment throughout the Cotton Belt,
except in Texas.

Unseasonably cold weather in Florida in February 1936 prevented
the blocrinir of wild plants, resulting in a scarcity of thrips. It
also prevented tender growth of citrus on which the citrus aphid fe- dds,
thereby causing a scarcity of this insect.

The drought had a deleterious effect on the chinch bug by dry-
ing up its food plants in the western part of its rn;-.re.

Other insects affected by the weather include the grubs of the
Japanese beetle, which were killed by the cold, as were also the e-:s
cf the gypsy moth, and the Mexican b.-in beetle and grasshoppers,which
were repressed by the heat.

The effects of the unusual weather of the year will probably
be reflected in insect conditions during the coning year, and reports
on all observations made over the country will help to build up evi-
dence from which to draw additional conclusions on the effect of
weather on insect pests.











-511-


I TSECT PLSTS

GRASSHOPPERS

During the summer of 1936 grasshoppers extended their previous zone
of severe infestation in the Northern Great Plains and Upper Mississippi
Valley and pushed southward to Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Extensive
crop damage took place in Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Teb-
raska, Oklahoma, and Wyoming. The value of crops destroyed in these
States has been estimated at approximately $S0,O00,000. Less extensive
crop damage occurred in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Minnesota, Mich-
igan, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, and Wisconsin. In
addition to losses in cultivated crops, the hoppers severely injured range
grass and pastures in Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah,
and Wyoming.

After the coldest winter on record (the mean monthly temperature
for North Dakota for February 1936 was -14F.), the weather over the
grasshopper-infested area suddenly broke hot and dry about May 1, and
continued on into the hottest and driest summer on record. Daily maxi-
mum temperatures of above 100 occurred in many parts of the territory
during about 17 days in June, 25 days in July, 25 days in August, and
even a day or so during the first week of September. Maximum air tem-
peratures broke all-time records from 118 to 121. Some areas went
without a drop of moisture for over 100 consecutive days.


Hatching was first recorded on April 20 at Huntley, Mont. In
other parts of the area -- the Dakotas, Iowa, Nebraska, Michigan, W7is-
consin, Kansas, and Colorado -- first hatching occurred from May 1 to
May 18. Because of the hot, dry weather, the nymphs developed rapidly
and depredations started early. Adults of Melanoplus bivittatus Say
and M. mexicanus Sauss. were taken early in Juno in Iowa and Montana,
most individuals becoming adult by June 15. On the other hand, in
Oklahoma most of the M. bivittatus and M. differentialis Thos. did
not reach the adult stage until after July 1. Active control measures
to protect crops were necessary in the Yellowstone Valley, Mont., by
the first week of May and in other States by the 15th. May rains in
Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma held the hoppers in check and
allowed most of the small grain to escape their ravages.

Nymphs first appeared in the alfalfa, grain, and pasture lands.
When these were cut or when they had dried up, the hoppers moved into
the corn and other late crops. This general novermnt took place tho
last week of June. As the intense heat continued in July, the next
move was to take to the trees, shrubs, fence posts, telephone and tel-
egraph poles, and where there were no tre,-s, to tall weeds. The only
available nmcisture was in the bark and leaves of the trees and shrubs,
which the roasting hoppers barked and defoliat-d. In parts of Kansas,
NIebraska, and Oklahona the Osage-orange is used for hedge fences, and
these were stripped bare. Many orchards suffered. Along water courses





-512-


in groves and shelterbelts, the willows, poplars, mulberries, and even
elms and other tre.-s were defoliated. Fields of 12-foot corn were made
to look like forests of fishing poli-s. In Oklahoma one-tenth of the
cotton crop was daT..cd by July 1.

Careful observations have shown that the optimum air tcmpera-
tures for activity on the gro'md are between 75 and 95 F-. with surface-
soil temperatures under 1130. Above these temperatu:.cs the hoppers
either take to the air or roost in the shade as high off the ground as
possible. With air temperatures this past summer rL'mnininrin above
900 for the greater part of the day and for day after day, it is no
Wonder that the pests took to the tre. s and did such spectacular image.

Over the whole area, oviposition was quite erratic. In north-
western Iowa, Melanoplus bivittatus had completed its life cycle and
laid its eggs by August 10. IM. mexicanus laid its eggs early enough
over a large part of the area to produce a partial second generation.
In eastern Nebraska and western Iowa this second generation hatched
about the last week of August. This same h-r.nomr.na was observed last
year in a number of places, but seemed more general this year. In
Oklahoma, M. differentialis was still congregated in the trees,shrubs,
and tall weJ-ds on Sept-tmber l1, when few ej s had been deposited.
Where rains had occurred 2 weeks before this date, egglaying was well
started. In a large part of this area the first moisture for all sum-.
mer came in a general downpour on September 16-1S. In those dry areas
no egg deposition took place and no well-developed erg-s were found in
the females before the fall rains b .gan. On the uplands of Kansas,c-gg
deposition by M. differentialis bte.an about October 19. At this time
along the Missouri River bottom in eastern Nebraska and western Io-.wa,
where green food was more abundant, oviposition by this species was
completed.

The heat and drought, no doubt, destroyed -..any of the adults.
Observers report that the hoppers were so inactive during the extreme
heat that it was possible to walk up and pick them off the fence posts
and shrubs without disturbing them. G. A. Biebardorf, in Oklahoma,
reported a heavy mortality among M. differentialis undo-r such conditions.
Work.ri in other States reported the same thing, these reports being
corroborated by farmers and county agents. In these areas it is very
probable that many female adults died without depositing e s-.

The map for the fall survey for 1936 shown the relative distri-
bution of the infestations expected in 1937. This is basod. on the
combined adult-and-egg survey conducted by the Bureau of Entomology
and Plant Quarantine, in cooperation with State agencies. Infestations
are most severe in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, Krinsns, North
Jakota, Montana, WyomirLn,; a Colorado, and loss severe in Michian,
Wiscrnrin, South DI.e nJl-.. n 1abom:-.


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-513-


Combinations of M. mexicanus, M. bivittatus, M. femur-rubrum
Deg., and several range species were dominant in the Northern States.
Combinations of those named species plus M. differentialis were the
most important hoppers in the S-outhern States. In Colorado Disso-
steira longipennis Thos. was numerous and dominant in a large part
of the range land in the southeastern quarter. (J. R. Parker and
Robert L. Shotwoll, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S.
D. A.)

EUROPEAN CORN BORER

This insect is treated fully by A. M. Vance of the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, in a Supplement to No. 9 of the
Insect Pest Bulletin (November 15, 1936).

CORN EAR /WOP.I

The first report of the year of the occurrence of this insect
was received in January from southeastern Texas. By the third week
in March e;g: laying vwas observed in the coastal sections of north-
eastern Tcxns, and by that time the insect was damaging corn in
Louisiana and other Gulf States, as well as in southern California.
By the middle of May larvae were observed in Georgia and very heavy
infestations in tomatoes were observed in parts of Mississippi and
southern California. During the first week in July egg laying was
observed in northern Iowa and the insects were severely damaging
corn as far north as Kansas, Tennessee, and Kentucky, in the Miss-
issippi Valley, and in 'Vashin;ton, on the.Pacific coast. During
the spring and summer the insect was generally scarce throughout
the country, except for a few areas in Texas where considerable
damnae was done to cotton; however, in September populations de-
veloped rapidly from New England to Iowa and southward to North
Carolina and Tnnessee. Serious crop damage was quite generally
reported throughout this region to tomatoes and late sweet corn.
The outbreak on the Pacific coast developed to such an extent that
in December 65 percent of the sweet corn was infested in some places
in California.

CHINCH BUG

Hibernating chinch bugs wore present in 1936 in moderatat-to-
extreme numbers in northern and central Illinois, southern Icwa,the
northern half of Missouri, and eastern Kansas. About six counties
in southwestern Iowa, and an area of similar size in southeastern
Iowa, extending a few miles over into Illinois, contained extremely
large numbers of bugs. Infestation was from light to moderate in a








-514-


belt of varying width surrounding the more heavily infested area just
outlined and extending from south-central Oklahoma, east-central Kansas,
and southeastern Nebraska to eastern Ohio, and from north-central Icva
tc southern Missouri. Early spring reports indicate only about 50 percent
winter survival in Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, and southern
Iow'a, but a much higher survival in Missouri and Kansas. In northern Ok.
lahoma winter survival was reported to be only about 21 percent. Spring
migration to and establishment in small grains was rather slow in the
nore northern areas but spring and early sur-ier conditions were, in gen-
eral, favorable to development cf the first brood. Injurious migrations
to corn occurred on occasional farms in scattered localities throughout
the ocrn Belt, from southwestern Michigan to extreme southeastern Neb-
raska and south into east-central Oklahoma and northern Arkansas. In-
jury to corn was also reported from the eastern Carolinas Pnd Virginia,
southeastern Minnesota, Mississippi, and southern Texas. Summer con-
ditions were also favorable to the developnent of the sec-nd brood in
corn in the nore eastern part of the affected area, but in Kansas and
Oklahoma the prolonged drought reduced infestations materially, along
with the drying up of host plants. As a result of the carly fall rains
and more abundant food, however, the bugs rade something of a late-season
comeback in the Southwest. Fall conditions were fairly favorable to their
activities and preliminary reports indicate that they arc generally from
moderately to extremely abundant in winter quarters from Wcst',rn Indiana
to southeastern IT&lraska and eastern Kansas, and from southern Iowa to
central Missouri and the Oklahoma-Kansas line. Sca:.t to moderate nm--
bers are reported from Ohio, eastern Indiana, northern and southern
Illinois, south-central Iowa, southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and
northeastern Oklahmcna. At the close of the year the situation a:'rarent-
ly approaches that prevailing at the end of 1933, with a prospect of
another outbreakl: in 1937. The ac,-'-ip1nying nap shows the abundance of
chinch buz-s in hibernation in the fall of 1953. In the central area
local injury is likely, and, if spring weather favors the bug, general
injury is anticipated. In the surrouidirj: area local injury is likely
if the weather favors th, b.kvs. This sum-ary is based principally on
information supplied by the State entomolo. ists of the States concerned
and on supploeientary data from the stations of the Bur.; of Entomology
and Plant Quaorantine in the States. (C. M. Packard, Bureau of 7ntomology
and Plant Quarantino, U. S. D. A.)

7 SS IA!T FLY

The severity of the wid r.1rrci. outbreak of the hessian fly in
progress of development in the fall of 1935 was considerably -od'rated
by subsequent weather conditions unfavorable to fly activity. Tle
unusually heavy late fall brood a year n r. suffered considerable winter
mortality. Unfavorable weather r conditions last spring at critical
tines during the d velopmeont of the spring; "[rood checked the progress








-515-


of the outbreak. Nevertheless, from modernte-to-severe spring infes-
tations developed throughout a rather large area extending from east-
central Missouri through central and southern Illinois, widening to
include most of western Indiana and narrowing again to continue across
southern Indiana into southwestern Ohio. Light-to-moderato infesta-
tions also occurred in some localities of southern Michigan, east-
central -Ohio, and north-central Pennsylvania. The most severely in-
fested area included southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and south-
western Ohio. In this area most cf the fields observed were injured.
to some extent and much fallen straw was in evidence. A conservative
estimate of damage to the.1936 crop places the loss in Illinois, In-
diana, and Ohio at 6,87S,(00 bushels, or about 6r. erc. nt of tVh7 crop,with
a value of $6,521,000 at current prices. At harvest time a severe
fall outbreak extending from eastern Missouri to southwestern Ohio
threatened, with practically no danger.of such an occurrence in the
west-central, southern, or eastern States, except for restricted
areas in southern Michigan, eastern Ohio, and central Pennsylvania.
However, the summer drought caused unusually high mortality of
aestivating puparia, and fall weather conditions were rather unfavor-
able to fly activity or early sowing of wheat. Moderate fall infes-
tations are present in volunteer and in occasional early sown fields
in some localities throughout the Cntral States but reports from most
of these States indicate that generally wheat was sown late and fly
infestations are in general very light, with little prospect of mater-
ial injury to the crop next spring, .except in occasional fields. This
summary is based on observations and surveys by the Bureau of Entomol-
ogy and Plant Quarantine and the entomologists of the States concerned.
(C. M. Packard, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

BLACK GRAIN STEM SAWFLY

Surveys made during the sumner showe% the black grain-stem
sawfly more or less abundant in wheat fielB'- over a wide area. Infes-
tations were found in Kent and Iew.v Castle Counties, Del.; Baltimore
Carroll, Cecil, Dorchester, Frederick, Montgomery,and Washington
Counties, Md.; and in Adams,Bvatier, Centre, Cumberland, Franklin,
Huntingdon, Indiana, Lycoming, Mercer, Mifflin, Northumberland, Perry,
Union, and York Counties, Pa.; Auusta, Campbell, Caroline, Fauquior,
King George, Loudoun, Prince William, Rockingham, Shenandoah, and
Westnoreland Counties, Va.; and in Belmont, Carroll, Columbiana,
Coshocton, Guernsey, Harrison, Holmes, Jefferson, Mahoning, Medina,
Monroe, Noble, Portage, Stark, Summit, Trumbull, Tuscarawas, and
Wayne Countios, Ohio,. The infestation was by far the heaviest in
eastern Ohio, where numbers were alarming in several counties.
The infestation was found to have advanced considerably farther
westward in that State this year. (E. J. Udine, Bureau of Ento-
mology an~dPlant Quarantine, and J. S. Houser, Ohio Experiment
Station.)


ULBRAR
,iTATE PLANT BOARO











EUROFEAN'K7 1:..:-,J-


A survey of the European w-heat midge (Th,.-crniplosis mosellana
Gehiin) in western WCaLhin.;ton was made in July. The survey extended
the known infested area to Puyalluip, in Pierce County, nearly 50 miles
south of any previously known infestation. A nun-cr. of heavily in-
fst ed fields were found in the older infested district near Burling-
ton, in Skagit County. In one field of sprira--sown wheat it was esti-
mated that over 50 percent of the wheat kernels had. been destroyed.
The infestation in Snohomish, King, -and Pierce Counties was very li:ht.
The insect has spread through Snohomish and King Counties into Pierce
County, notwithstanding the scarcity of ":heat. In sone places the
small '"h:at fields are 1i miles apnrt. South of Puyallup conditions
are more suitable for rapid spread of infestation. (I. 1I. iRoehor,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

M.,O:I: CMCL-'T
0'
The mormon cricket outbreak in 1936 was as severe as, or worse
than, in 1935. Some reductions in size and intensity of infestations
were noted in Montana, Idaho, and Wa-'hin: ton, but those were more than
offset by increases in the othcr States. In addition to the eig-ht
States infested in 1V35, small infestations were reported in California,
North nZokota, and South Dakota. Considerable damage to crops was
recorded in most of the States affected, althou.-h the losses were s::all-
er in States where control work was carried on. Montana, where little
or no control work was done, showed an estimated loss in -rnir. for the
Crew Indian Reservation alone of $200,000. Utah reported losses to cattle
ra:ne and crops of '36,,000 and Nevada, -here a thorough control
prrg'.-,! was carried out, reported only $1,000 loss to crops, with a
saving of $250,000, althour'h damage to the range in some sections was
quite severe. Th' crop losses reported in "Ynshin.ton and Idaho were
also very low, compared to what they might have been had no control
work been carried on. No estimates were made for Wyonin-, Ore- cn,
or Colorado. Only three States Idaho, Nevada, end Wazhington -
put on control camnjai.-ns in 1933. These were financed, for the most
part, by W. P. A., E. C. W., and St-ite funds. A total of 103,300
acres of cricket-infostod land was treated in the three States, as
follows: Idaho, 40,000; Nevada, 6l,C00O; and "Tashingtcn, 2,600.
In addition, 11 miles of barrier weru: used in Idaho and 24 miles in
Nevada. It was estimated that 300,000 bushels of crickets wore trarp-
ed and destroyed in the latter State. Fro-i estimates submitted by tho
ento-ologists of the various States affected the following acreages
were found to be infested in 1^ California, 40,000 (?); Colorado,
440,0o00; Idaho, 1,295,560; Ilontana, 1,029,000; Nevada, 1,142,7o8;
Or,-r., 1-,700; Utah, 504,500; *.hinton, 13,00; "7U'cli,u8.6,1P;
total 5,607,744. (-. T. Co-win, BDureau of Zntomolrc., and Plant Quar-
antine, U. S. D. A.)


































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LIMIT$ of a" KIM TO U III"STID BY ALAL7A BTIL

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C/ COM TIIS Y Ms IImU xWnD 1936










-517-


ALFALFA WEEVIL

Surveys of major alfalfa districts within the '"eevil-infested
territory showed the 1936 season opening with Box Elder, Salt Lake,
and Sevier Counties, in Utah, and Washoe County, :Tev., having one-
fifth or less of the alfalfa fields with potentially injurious pop-
ulations of adult weevils, while one-third of the fields in Jackson
County, Ore,,.,and three-fourths of those in Mesa County, Colo., had
destructive weecvil populations. Spring weather conditions allowed
the alfalfa crop to mature before the weevil attack developed, except
in western Colorado. In other regions, threatening weather late in
May and early in June delayed the first harvest, permitting darige-
that otherwise would not have occurred Serious damage occurred only
in Western Colorado, southwestern Oregon, and in a small tract, -Eagle
Valley, in Baker County, Oreg. Dama e in Utah wag li-ht and somewhat
below 'normal, occurring in Salt Lake, Box Elder, and Millard Counties.
Slight damage was reported from Douglas, Lander, and Elko Countios,iev.
One field in Sioux County, Nebr., suffered severe damage, No damage
occurred in infested regions of California and ".'omin. Surveys this
fall show the majority of fields to have subnormal adult weevil popu-
lations in all districts except Mesa County, Colo., where three out
of four fields are menaced. Other regions likely to experience damage
in from 10 to 25 percent of the alfalfa fields in 1937 include the dis-
trict comprising Delta and Montrose Counties, Colo., the Upper Snake
River Valley of eastern Idaho, Box Elder County, Salt Lake County, and
the district of Sevier and Sanpete Counties in Utah, Jackson County,
Oreg., and Douglas County, Nov. This outlook is, of course,subject
to modification by the weather next spring. Scouting during the sum-
nor resulted in new records of infestation in six counties distributed
among five States; namely, Eagle County, Colo., Dawes and Box Butte
Counties, Nebr., Harney County, Oreg., Dagget County, Utah, and Fall
River County, S. Dak. (the first infestation record in South Dakota).
The accompanying map shows the present known limits of alfalfa weevil
occurrence in the United States, and indicates the areas discovered
as having been infested within the past two years. (J. C. Hamlin,
R. W. Bunn, and W. C. McDuffie, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine, U. S. D. A.)














LIBRARY
,E PLANT OARA







-518-


VETCH BRUCBID

This summer Bruchus brachialis Fahr. was found heavily infesting
vetch seed in the following counties in o:rth Carolina: Alexrander,Anson,
Catawba, Cabarrus, Davidson, Davie, Forsyth, Gaston, Guilford, Ircdoll,
Lincoln, :..'ckFlenburg, Mnntgonery, Pandolph, .r 'an, Richnond, Stanl.,,
Union, and Yadkin. The records of infestation in Alexander, An.on,
Montz-om-i.ry, and Richmond are new areas of infestation recorded this year.
Percentage of infstation in all fields ran at least 50 percent, with "
maximums as high as 90 percent. During the year J. S. Pinkr--.- reared
t-o hymnonpt;.orv"parasites front tho vetch bruchid Lnripha-us distinrucn-
dus (Forst.)(det. A. B. Gahan), heretofore not known to attack this in-
sect, and Bruchebdus ayri (Masi)(d.t. A. B. Gahan), a sLrnpea. sp cies
not previously known to occur in I.orth Anerica.

CCrL Ti: 71 MOTH

-he codlinr- moth, which was very much reduced in numbors at the
bciinning of the 1936 season in the Middle West and East bcicause of
unfavorable conditions in 1935, as well as heavy winter mortality in
certain Midwestern States, stn.-.d a very rapid comeback in many or-
chards east of the Rocky..,' contains. Some localities ruoorted the worst
infestation in years, the lator'- broods being abnor-ally large. In 'e-braska,
Kansas, and Iowa, however, there was some repression during the drought
period, apparently because of the excessive heat and dryn. .ss. In the
Rnoc'-, 'o retain States and the Northwest the winter mortality w'as reported
as low. The inf; stations in nost of these western areas were in general
about normal. Exceptions to this condition were reported in ,ontnn.-
(B. A. Porter, Bureau of Entcmology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

O0iLITTAL FRUIT MOTH

n.e oriental fruit noth was on the whole less abundant and de-
structive than usual. Infestation .-.>rally li"htor than ncrnal was
roport!d front Georgia, IMaryland, Mississippi, S-uth Carolina, Tennessee,
and Virginia. Illinois reported general presence of this moth in the
southern part of the State, but in reduced nunmbrs, with early hot
wo'th-r represAin- the species. About tho sane c.'-dition was not% d in
Southern Indiana mand Kentucky. Li.,ht infestations, with some twig in-
jury but little fruit injury, were observed in Arkn:.ras, Massachusetts,
northltrn Indi-inp, M'ichir'an, and Pcni sylvania. Som. "-hat heavier infesta-
tion than usual was noted from Missouri southeasternn part early in
season) and Ohio (northern part), and parts of :."w Jersey, Variable













infestation was reported from Connecticut, some fruit injury near New
Haven being reported late in the season. Activity of the species was
noted briefly in New York and Alabama. The insect "'as widely r.prrted
as active early in the season. Delaware reported the first cmirs.once
on April 5, adults were active in Virginia in April, and :ew Jersey
note-d activity earlier than last year. Th} first bro",-d was reported
as nmoro noticeable than were lator brords in parts of Connecticut, in
Illinois, and in Kentucky; the second brood as the more noticeable
in Michi-,an, New Jersey, Ohio, and Virginia. Delaware reported para-
sitization as low at the start, but building up as the season advanced.
(F. M. Wadley, Bureau of Ent olc and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

PLUM.1 CURCULIO

The' plum curculi -,as not unusually abundant in 1953. In the
Southeastern States it was in general less abundant than normal, b.-in.
so reported from Mississippi, Tennessee, South Carolina, and ci-rfiia.
In the last-named State it was noted as ogettin.T a late start in its
spring activity. It was alsro less abundant in Ohio and Delaware. In
lower New En -land it was nore abundant than usual, according to reports
from Rhode Island and Connecticut. Ir. New Yorkl nmib-rs were reported
as varying with locality. In the Middle West, according to reports
from Indiana, Illincis, and Missruri, the species was nmuerrus and
active-at the start, but did not attract attention later in the season.
The unusual drou-:ht and heat probably repres.d it. Th, pr s-nce or
activity of the species was also noted, without cc. pari['.ns, from Ala-
bama, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nlew Jcrsey, Pennsylvania, Vrr-mnt,
and Virginia. (F. I. .-adley, Bureau of Lntonolo y and Plant Qarantine,
U. S. D. A.)

ZAS.2F; T1Z-T CATERPILLAR

Althoug-h es{ masses of the eastern t nt caterpillar wore prcva-
lent throu 'hout .ew En.-:land and the M.iddle Atlantic States, there was
evidence that the outbreak of the last 2 or 3 years is on the wane.
Hatchin,- of 7-s ,as first observed about the middle of !arch in Ar-
kansas and towards the end of the -rnth in Delaware. Early in April
er.-s were hatching in the extrmone southern part of New York and by the
third week in April hatchin.- was- under way in New 2n :land. The cater-
pillars attracted so much attention in the i1ow nc7l'and and Middle Atlan-
tic States that several comumties launched ca.-pai,'ns in which h prizes
wore awardr.d to school children, boy scouts, and other juvnilQ ,r-rnn-
izations for cclloctin' egm. masses. The Survey has not b.ecn inform-id
as to how rucc -s.ful these camnpa.ia-ns were in r-ducin: the numbo.r cf
caterpillars. As the season advanced the insects wore quite prevalent
throughout the outbreak area, but their numbers bore out the forecast
of decided reduction in population ov.r that cf 1935.


-51-










-520-


FRUIT FLIES

Through the use of traps set in the uncultivated lands of northern
Mexico, data were accumulated during 1935-35 which greatly strenEthened
the theory that Anastrepha ludens Loew is a rather migratory species.
Flies were trapped in locations many miles from any n&'.'wn will or culti-
vated host and in an arid country that probably would not sustain a grow-
inr fly population throughout the year. The recurring infestations in
the Rio Grande Valley probably result from flies that have reached this
area from Mexico. It is believe that most of the flies trapped in
northern ":exico arid Texas originated in the heavily infeste- area about
125 miles south of the border. :hpre is growing along the mountains of
northern Hexico a favorite host, Sarjentia 'rezli, which fruits in the
summer. Apparently adults leave this host when the fruit is gone late
in the summer and at least part of them migrate northward in search of
food arid fruit for oviposition. Some of them eventually reach the Rio
Grande Valley. The same conditions, apparently, that cause the flies
to immigrate into the valley during the fall also force them to emigrate
during the spring. When the fruit is removed from the trees during the
harvesting season, the flies seem to leave the harvested grove also,and
when the host-free period is in effect no flies are trapped in the
valley. The trend of migration seems to continue northward, as flies
are regularly trapped in the rush north of the valley late in the season.

BOLL VWEVIL

The damage caused by the boll we vil in 1936 was probably less
than it has ever bcLn in any year since it became widely distributed
. over the Cotton Belt. The only areas that suffered more than normal
damage were the east rn and southern parts of Texas. The light damage
in 193 was cause by a combination of factors. The weevils entering
hibernation in the fall of 1935 were more numerous: than usual in South
Carolina and eastern Texas but less so than usual in Mississippi,Loui-
siana, and Oklahoma. The abnormally low winter temperatures caused a
heavy mortality and the lowest survival in the hib-rnation cages ever
recorded at Florence, S. C., and no survival at Eufaula, Okla. The
survival at Tallulah, La., was also much less than normal but at Col-
lege Station, -.x., it was sev-ral times hi-h,-r than usual. The gen-
erally low survival over most of the Cott.n Belt was followed by a
v ry dry spring, with extremely high t-mp,-ratur-'s in May and June-,
which further re lced the number of we -vils, exc-pt in (-art rn Texas.
Tho drought was more prolonged in Ol1lahoma, who-ro only 2.11 inches of
rain foll in the 99 days from June 8 to September 14, and the weevil
inf., station was practically wiped out. At Tallulah, La., an-roximntely
90 p rccnt of the grubs in the infested square's were killed by climatic
crnlitions during the latter part of J-Ln,. As a result of the low sur-
vival and climatic control, the infestation did not bull up to the







-521-


damage point until very late in the season and in many sections no
control measures wore necessary. Very little dusting was necessary
for boll weevil control in the Delta district, where o ntral is nearly
always necessary. The exception to the above conditions was in eastern
and southern Texas, whore a high survival was followed by an excessive-
ly wet spring and summer, and the weevil damage was the most severe in
many years. This lo,-r weevil population over most of the Cotton Belt
was followed by an early and widespread infestation of leaf worms, which
defoliated the cotton early and further reduced the weevil population
that entered hibernation in the fall. (U. C. L.:ftin, Bureau of Ento-
mology and Plant Quarantine, U.S.D.A.)

PIlTK BOLLWORM

The most outstanding events in connection with gin-trash in-
spection of the 1936 cotton crop were the finding of a new infesta-
tion of the pink bollworm in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas
and the continued absence of infestation in the regulated part of
Florida. This is the second consecutive crop season in which no
infestation was found in Florida. The new infestation in Texas is
apparently very light and involves four counties -- Cameron, Hidalgo,
Starr, and Willacy. In the Plains counties of Texas, known as the
Western Extension, infestation was found again this season. The last
previous infestation in this area was in the 1934 crop, and in two
of the counties involved no infestation had been found since the
1927 crop. For the past several years only sufficient inspection
has been done in the older regulated areas to confirm infestation
each year, and this practice was again followed. The counties in-
volved are Graham and Greenlee, in Arizona; Dona Ana, Chaves, and
Eddy, in New Mexico; and El Paso, Hudspeth, Pecos, Reeves, Ward,
Presidio, and Brewster, in Texas. In those areas it is not prac-
ticable under existing conditions to attempt eradication and,there-
fore, only control measures have been enforced. In Brewster and
Presidio Counties and the southwestern portion of Hudspeth County,
Tex., a considerable number of worms are present and a small amount
of commercial damage is done, but in the remaining counties infes-
tation has always been so'light that no commercial damage has ever
resulted. (R. E. McDonald, Bureau of Entomology arn.d Plant Quarantine,
U. S. D. A.)

COTTON LEAF WORM

As in 1935, the cotton leaf worm appeared early and was widely
distributed in 1936. Tha first recorded appearance of the leaf worms
this year was in Calhoun county, Tex., on May 5. Spreading northward
and eastward., it was reported from College Station, Tex., on July 15;
Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee, on July 15 to 17; State College,
Miss., on July 27; Stoneville, Miss., on July 30; Florence, S. C.,on
August 2; Tucson, Ariz., on August 12; and from Tifton, Ga., on August
14. Moths at lights were reported from Michigan on August 22, 21 o
from C-nnecticut on September 23, and from Maine on September 9.









-522-


During September and October worms wore reported from all the cotton
Stats except California, and moths were report d as abundant in the
Northern States and Canada. Th" spread was more rapid and in general
the infestation was more severe than last year. Poisoning was necessary
as early as the first weeock in Juno in South-rn Texas.Control ma':res
were necssary in sonrv fields in all parts of the main Cotton Bolt and
as far north and west as -Missourl and Arizona. More prison was used
for leaf .'orms than for boll w>'vils in the Delta. Unprotected fields
were generally stripped during: the- latter part of July and Au.-ust; how-
evwr, tho extremely dry and hot weath-r had caused early maturity of the
cotton and concentration of worms on the younger fields so that a large
part of tho crop was matured before it was damaged. The general early
defoliation of the plants stopped the late production of squares and
4olls and greatly reduced the number of boll weevils entering hiberna-
tion. Although the loaf worn infestation was early and heavy and necess-
itated the .xp--nditure of largo sums of non.y for the protection of the
i.mnature crop, most of the fields thnt needed protection were poisoned
and the actual damage caused was comparatively small. (U. C. Loftin,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

COTTON FLEA HOPPER

The peak of the enm-rgnce of th- cotton flea hopper from ovr-
vwintered cgr s in southern Texas occurred at tho end of April in 1936,
or about 3 weeks later than normally. The total er rr:ence from croton
plants in hibrnation cages 'n"s about 20 percent great.,r this year than
in 1934 or 1935; hov:ver, the field population was much lower than in
these years, and for the first time in 4 y ars did not reach the point
whore control measures ore needed in May. The principal factor respons-
ible for the lo"w field population in this section, where dn,'crc is usu-al-
ly great, wns the excessively heavy rainfall, which killed grcat numbers
of the newly hatched nvrphs and cause d an abundant -rowth of horsonint
and other w-'ds on which h the hoppers f :d, delaying migration to the
cotton fields. The light migration and infestation was showvn by the
lowest catch on the trap scr:;ens in several years. Although the field
population increase d somewhat during June, it n'ver b'camc high. Rains
continued during the latter part of June anr.d throur-hout July, the most
important fruiting season of the cotton, and the excess moisture caused
abnormal sh -din., of bolls and squares. The cotton did not react and
produce a top crop, and the yields p.r acre nd gains from the flea
hopp-'r control exp.-rinents were v ry low. In other s actions of tho
Cotton Belt the damage caused by flea hopj lrs was normal, -xc,pt in
the Coastal Plains whe-re dam-nno was somewhat heavier than usual. In
the 1issiseippi-Louisiana Delta Lyuis pratensis (L.) and Adelphocoris
rapilus (Sa:,) caused mor- than average da,..2 and considerably more
than the, fla ,-p.-ypr. (U. C. Lcftin, Bur,.au of Ento.molo:7. and Plant
. ;'-rnntino, U. S. D. A.)









-523-


MEALYBUGS

While apparently not markedly injurious, a concentration of
moalybugs (Phenacoccus ccvalliae Ckll.)(Dot. H. 1lorriscn) on cotton
in the P oria, Ariz., district is of interest, on account of its
novelty. Several reports were received during the midsummer -Ionths
of small areas of cotton north of Phoenix having a heavy infestation
of mnalybugs. One of these areas was investigatefd on Au-ust 21.
The field visited is located about mile north of Peoria. S-veral
hundred cotton stalks wore found to be h-avily infested, sone of
the terminal twigs being encrusted several insects deep. The field
was again visited on Septenmbr 19, at which time it Tas found that
the number of mcalybugs had greatly decreased, with perhaps about
only 10 percent present, as conpare-d to the numbers observed on the
occasion of the first visit in Auijust. The fi-eld had been picked
in the meantime and the number of burrs and bolls on the infested
stalks showed little appreciable difference from those in the re-
mainde-r of the field, indicating that littl.- material danage had
been inflicted by the infestation. (T. P. Cassidy, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)
THRIPS
More reports of dnama.e to cotton by thrips were rec ived
during 1936 than for the past sevwral years. The extrome-ly dry
season, with the resultant poor stands and reduced vitality of
plants, were contributing factors to the damna.' caused, ds well
as to the unusually large thrips population. The most extensive
damage occurred in the South Atlantic States, although reports of
serious local injury were rcived from most of the Cotton Belt.
In northeast-rn Alabama most of the cotton in an entire county
was practically defoliated during the latter part of June. At
least 12 species of thrips were collected on cotton, the abundance
and importance of the diffrt spcis varying in different sc-pecies
tions. Yrai-Jliniella fusca (Hinds) vas reported from South Caro-
lina, Alabama, and Mississippi; F. tritici (Fitch) frrm South
Carolina and Mississippi; F. reunneri Morg. from Mississippi; F.
occidentalis Perg. from Arizona; F. ros'rp- i Mor,. from Texas;
Sericothrips variabilis Bach. from South Carolina, Alabama, and
Mississippi; Thrips tabaci Lind. from Snuth Carolina and Alabama;
Thrips panicus Moult, from South Carolina; Heliothrips fesciatus
Perg. from California; P.eudothrips sp. from Alabama; and Acolo-
thrips duvali Moult. from T -xas. (U. C. Loftin, Burer-au of Ento-
nologv and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)









-524


ME.XICAN BEAN BEETLE

The 1936 season was, on the whole, below average for the Mexican
bean beetle east of the Mississippi River. Extremnc-ly high temperatures
and drought checked development in many parts of the Eastern and South-
ern States. In tho Ohio Valley the infestations were lighter than aver-
a-e, owing to low winter survival and unfavorable spring and surnier
weather. Late in the sumrer and in the fall the weather was favorable
to development and a considerable number of the beetles entered hiber-
nation. Along the Atlantic seaboard and the Chesapeake Bay survival
over winter was somewhat below average, development was about average,
and much damage was done to untreated bean crols, especially in Mary-
land and Virginia. In Delaware dziaage was below average. The infested
area of New England suffered about avwragc danme-o. Reports from Tenn-
essee indicate a li:ht infestation. Reports front Alabana and Georgia
indicate that the increase late in the sunnor made control measures
necessary. The capture of a Mexican bean beetle adult in a Jajanpse
beetle trap in St. Louis indicates that tho beetle is present in
Missouri, which is the only hitherto uninfested State invaded in 1936.
Reports of extension of infested territory include Lauderdale and
Lanar Counties, Miss., and the Charleston, S. C., district. At Grand
Junction, Colo., the infestation was about average, necessitating con-
trol measures. According to reports, the beotle was abundant in nor-
thern Colorado. In the Estancia Valley, IT. iex., the infestation w.as
probably below average. (N. F. Ho"/ard, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

BEET LEAFHCPFZR

The beet leafhopper situation during 1936 was very favorable.
Little or no damage to beets occurred in the most important boeet-
growving sections of the country. Late in March the insects appear-d
in numbers in southern Texas and the early spinach crop was consider-
ably damnr'ed by curly top* Late in Apjril there was a heavy infesta-
tion in Frosno County, Calif. One of the interesting observations of
the year "as the discovery that the hoppers rur"-ve the winter in the
Billin.-, r.Mnnt., booeet district, and also in ooele County, Utah. About
the middle of October the first fall adults were taken in southern
Texas.
C';T"'*CR!4S

During March and April reports wore received front Kansas, Okla.
hona, and Color-ido, of more or less serious damage to wheat and alfalfa
by the nrny cutworm, and early in March considerable daa^.-e was done
to lettuce, cloen!, and other vegetables by the block cutworm in Arizona.
About the middle of April considerable dana.e was done by cutworms to
,r L'. cotton in pTrts of Texas and tc -rr-.cs in California. In May cut-
worn dan-'* o was reported froi a wide area front Vir-inia to Georjia on
the Atlantic coast, westward to Iowa and I'Ubraska, many syccies of
cutworms beinz involved. In :!-nttana the pale western cut-orm was








-525-




reported as more destructive than any year since 1932. In western Kansas
many counties reported severe damage, 20,000 acres of wh-at being destroy-
ed in Bawlins County. Utah reported 7,500 acres of wheat destroyed in one
county. Considerable damage to cereal crops was also reported from west-
ern North Dakota. The variegated cutworm was very destructive in the
Mississippi Delta.

A WEEVIL

Late in June adults of Calonycterus setarius RoeQlofs began to
appear in the known infested territory in the towns of Stratford and
Sharon in Connecticut, and at Towson, Md. In Connecticut in July
the adults, more numerous than in 1935, were feeding on lespedeza,
desnodium, and other legumes, and in Maryland on alfalfa. A new in-
festation was discovered this year at Fairfield, Conn., where the
adults were feeding on clover.

PERIODICAL CICADA

Breed X of the periodical cicada occurred this year in enormous
numbers over the infested territory. A complete account of this insect,
together with maps of Broods X and XXII, which were to occur in 1936,
was published as series E-364, December 1935. In the following report
of recorded occurrences in 1936, the names of counties are underscored.


Occurrence


of Brood X:


Alabama:

Delaware:
Gecrgia:

Illinois:
Indiana:

Maryland:









Michigan:


Geneva, Geneva.

New Castle, Chestnut Hill, Iron Hill, Wilnington.
Fannin, Blue Rid-e; Habersham, Cornelia; Meriwether;
Murray, Chatswcrth; Rabun, Clayton; Talbot.
Vermilion, Danville.
Knox, Bickmnll; Orane, Orleans; Tippecanoe, LaFayette;
Warrick, Elberfold; Wayne, Hagerstown, Richno-nd.
District of ColuLmbia; Allcgany, Cumberland; Baltimore,
Baltimore, Texas, Timonium, 72'-.. on; Cecil, Conowin;'o Dam,
Klkton, North East, Perryville, R.ed Point; Frederick,
Lowiston; Howard, Florence; Montgoenory, Ashton, Avanel,
Avery, Bethesda, Chevy Chase, Gaithorsburg, Gl.n-ont,
Norb -ck, Rockville, Sandy Spring, Silver Spring, Snmer-
set, Takona Park, Whcaton; Prince Georr-s, Beltsville,
Hyattsville, Laurel, Mount Rainier; Washinton, Fairvioe'';
Hancock.
Calhoun, Albion; Cass, Cassopolis; Genesee, Grand Blanc;
Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo; Lena-iee, Adrian, Tecumseh; Saint
Joseph, Lakeport To--nchip; Van Buren, South Haven;
Washtanaw, Ann Arbor.








- k2. e


Misscuri:
N Owt Je rse y:

NTwv York:


North Carolina:
Ohio:












Pennsylvania:


Dunklin, Canpb'll, Malden.
ELssox, Hillside, '.wa.rk; Moercor, Glen Mooro Hopoecll,
Princeton; :,rris, Lincoln Park.
Erie, Buffalo; NIassau, Farminciale, M"assap.'qua;.
Richmond; Suffolk, Babylon, Bri.;htwat,-,rs, Doer Park,
Lindc,-nhurst, Mastic, North Babylon.
I.,cDowoll, Old Fort; Wilkcs.
Allen; Auglaize; Brown; Butlcr; Cha.rpai r., Urbana;
Clark, Sprin-field; Clermont; Clinton; Crawford,
North Robinson; Darke; Delaware, DElaware; Fairfiold,
Bloom '2-.w:r1.hip; Fayette, "'.'rihinton (Court Houso);
Frmrklin, Cclunbus, Grandview Heights, Upper Arling-
ton; Gallia, Groe-ne, Clifton; Guernsey; Hamilton,
California, Cincinnati, Mount Airy, Mount Washington;
Hancock; Hardin; LoA:an, Bollofontaine.; Madison;Marion;
Mprc-r; Miami; 14ont oncry; Dayton; Picka-:ar, Derby,
South Bloonfield, Williamsport; Preble; Shelby, .:?.tt-
lersvill.; Union, MIilford Cent.-r; Van Wort; 'Virrrn;
*Vvnd, ot.
Aldans, Asprs, Bi.j;lerpvillo; Armstron,, Mahoning
Tc.-'.ship; Bedford, Bedford Tr.wr.hip, D fiance,
Lincoln TonTship; Schellsbur.'; Berks, Buchtolsville,
Birdsbcro, Broclnock To'ishiy, District Tov.wnship,
Hill Church, Landis Store, 11->rtzt"m, ,Morr-antown,
Mount Penn, R adin;7, Wcrnrrsville; Blair; Bucks,
Danbonro, Dublin, Hilltown T-m"'nship, Hcchanicsvillo,
Ottsville, Pipersvill,; Butlir; Camnron, Emporiumn;
Carbon, Franklin ?o-'n.hip, Laurence T:."''n.ip, Le-
hi,-hton, Lehi:-h Towvnship; Centre, P'- .-lton; Ch-stcr,
Avnndale, Barnston, ?randy",ine I.Ianor, Castle Rock,
Chest 'r Springs, Chest-;rville, Chrono, Clonw',,ll,
Coate-svillo, Ccchranvillb, Co-ipass, Doe Run,D-,,n.in7-
to-m, liverscn, Exton, Glen n-oore, Gun Tree, K-'.-ls-
villo, Konnett Square, Kinbcrton, King- of Prussia,
Landenburf, Louisville, Lincoln University, Lionvillo,
London Grr-v, McCerkles Rrcks, Marshalltrn, Norris-
to-a, Nottin 'ham, Paoli, Parkersburg, Peac-dalo,
Phoenixville, Rosodalc, S-nd.,buryville, Tan;uyV, Thorn-
dale, Tou .-hkcna.on, Vnll-,y For, o, Walnut Hill, ',Vr-
v'ick, West Chst:.r, 'V-st Grovw, W.Tsttown, White Horse,
Whitford, Willistc-n, Wycbrookco; Clbarfield; Clinton;
Col'mnbia; C'umbrland, Carlisle, Shippensburo ; au-ahir.,
Halifax Ums'r.ip, Middle Paxton Tr-'iship, Swatara
Station; Delaware, Bcthl -...ip, Castle Rck,^holsoa,
Chester, Chist r Ht.i ,I.ts, Concordville, Elan, Media,
Newton Square, Radnor, Srrir. ton, Twin Brides, L'pland;
Fa onallvtt, Charlsto; nlin, Antrim 7,-T.?!-ip, ;i-.n-
bt rsbur;, Lison and Dixon (on Conocochcaquo Crcok),
xyb.ry, oSaint Tlomas, Spring Run; Fulton, Bothcl
To.,'nship, Union 7o',nship; __&n,, Joffeirson -o'.':.rhip;











-527-


Tennessee:



Virginia:


Huntingdon, Hopewell Township, Huntingdon, Logan
Townmship, Shade Gap, Shade Township, Todd Tc-'n'--hip;
Jefferson, Ringgold Township; Juniata, -iast Wat-r-
ford, Nook; Lancaster, Aberdeen Station, Bart,
Christiana, Elizabethtown, Gap, Holtwocd Dam, Poquoa,
Quarryville, Safe Harbor Dan; Lawrence, North Beaver
Township; Lebanon, Mount Gretna, South Armville Town-
ship; Lehigh; Luzerne; Lycornming, Anthony Township,
Jersey Shore; Mifflin, Lcwistonm, Oliver Township;
Montgomery, Bryn Mwir, Lim,rick Thr'nship, Pennsburg,
Pottsto'vn, Schwonkvillo, Spring Mount; Montour,
Northampton; Northunberland, Lo',or Mahony Township;
Perry, Juniata Township, Loysvillc; Potter; Schuykill;
Snyder; Snmerset; Union; Westroreland, Madison; York,
:ast Hopewell Township, :tter., Hella:i, Loganville,
Pigeon Hills, Strinestown, York, Zions View.

Carter; Hamilton, Signal Mount, Soddy; Johnson; Knox,
Knoxville, Mascot; Loudon; Rhea; Rnane; Washington,
Johnson City.

Alexandria (Independent City); Charlottesville (In-
dependent City); Arlin :ton, Cherrydale, Clarendon;
Clark; Fairfax, Falls Church; Frederick, Winchester;
Loudoun, Leesburg; Prince William, EuLr.fries.


West Virginia: Berkeley, Martinsburg; Jefferson.

Occ-uErence Of Brood XII in 1936


Ark n iss


Louisiana:

Mississippi:


Crittenden, Bridge Junction; Faulkner, Palarn; Little
Riv.r, Ogden; Miller (near Fulton, Hempstead County).

East Baton Rouge-, Baton Rouge.

Ada-i-; Oktibbeha, State College; warren, Vicksburg.






-528-


CA1KCMRWO '3S

Cankerworm eggs began hatching in the East in May and in the
Southern States early in March. Serious damage to both orchards and
forest trees was reported from Nei England, the ,:iddle Atlantic States,
and the 7ast Central States. In June considerable defoliation took
place locally in Wstern Maine, Massachusetts, eastern Tew York,nor-
thern New Jersey, and northeastern Pennsylvania. Other infestations
appeared in eastern Ohio, northern Indiana, and Illinois, ext.:.iing
into Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska.

.'CREST TENT CATERPILLAR

Late in April a very heavy infestation of this insect -ccurred
in southern Mississippi, wh"re, in many areas, swoetgum and oak were
completely defoliated. As the season advanced reports of serious
damage were received from Utah and Washinr.ton, and in June almost un-
precedented outbreaks occurred throughout New England and New York,
One defoliated ara in the State of Maine included 60,000 acres of
mTrix.:.d timber. Throughout the East damage was particularly severe on
sugar maple and elm. The outbreak extended westward over northern
Michigan into Minnesota.

JAPANIESE P-ETLE

Insofar as the status of the Jaran,.se beetle in the area of
general or continuous infestation is concerned, the year 1936 is
notable in several ways. For the first time since the beetle has
been known to occur in the United States, there was a very consider-
able mortality of the grubs, resultinT from the extreme cold weather
in January and February, coupled with the lack of a sufficient blanket
of snow covering the ground. Heavy larval mortality occurred in parts
of southwestern New Jersey, the s-utheastern corner of Pennsylvania,
northern Delaware, and in the northeastern corner of Maryland, the de-
struction of grubs in this area ranging from a few to as high as 80
percent. During previous winters, grub mortalities have seldom run
higher than 10 percent throughout this area. Throughout other por-
tions of the area of continuous infestation, however, larval mortality,
in general, did not run appreciably hi-her than the av-ra-e of previous
years. As a consequence of the reduction in grub population late in
the "'inter, there was observ,'d during the sumrrier beetle season a eCn-
ernl decrease in both bee-tle abundance and plant injury in the same
portions of Ne'n Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, with
some localized points of heavy beetle abur6.nnce and plant injury where
winter conditions 'rerc iiore favorable. On the other hand, thr-af-hnut
those parts of the area of general infestation lying outside this re-
stricted area, there vm.s observed the customary general increase in
beetle abundance and plant i.,-ur;r which w.,s anticipated. This in-
cre,,ased abundance and injury -",,as particularly notable in sections
north and northwest of Trenton and in parts of Salem and Cumbrland
CGo(unties, in New Jersoy; in .'" Castle County, sruth of Wil-ini-ton,













































REGIONAL CONCENTRATION
OF THE
JAPANESE BEETLE
IN THE AREA OF
CONTINUOUS INFESTATION
1936











Del.; in small areos east of Elkton, Nd.; and in sections in Chester,
Berks, Montgom,'ry, and Bucks Counties in Pennsylvania. Considerable
increase in plant injury was also reported within the metropolitan
area nf New York City, both in New Jersoy and in New7 York. Th. usual
extension of the area of general infestation was observed, this area
being ext,:ended outward in practically all directions for distances
up to 5 miles or thereabouts. Observations at a number of the isolat-
ed colonies in New England indicated a decided increase in beetle pop-
ulation at practically all of these places. It is of interest to note
that definite increases in beetle abundance were observ-d in 1936, as
compared with 1935, at a number of points in Central 'Thw Er:-l1and that
suffered severe property damage from the unprecedented floods of the
winter of 1935 and spring of 1936. The flooding of valleys and por-
tions of towns appeared to have no deleterious effect upon the over-
wintering grub populations at these points. In a considerable por-
tion of the art;a of continuous infestation the surLier rainfall of
1936 was below normal, this deficiency being quite acute in extensive
tracts during the greater part of July and the early part of Ausust,
corresponding with the period of normal heavy oviposition. Based
upon observations of past years, during which a marked deficiency of
sunmmier rainfall resulted in a reduction of the beetle population of
the following season, it appears likely that a general reduction in
the beetle population may occur in a large proportion of the area of
general infestation in 1937, with the possible exception of the out-
lying areas where the population build-up is normally very rapid.
(C. H. Hadley, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

Established infestations in Brewer, Maine, Burlington, Vt.,and
Grafton, and Hollidays Cove, W. Va., were the most important first
records determined during the sLtm-itr of 1936. The major developments
disclosed by trap scouting were the increases in beetle population in
Chicago, Ill.; Cleveland, Youn-stown, East Liverpool, Canton suburban
area, Steubenville, and ariettata, Ohio; Buffalo, N.Y.; and Chester,
Parkersburg, Clarksburg, and Fairmont, W. Va. Control programs of
combined trapping and soil treatment resulted in more than 90-percent
reduction in beetles caught in Saint Louis and substantial r-ductions
in the infestations in Indianapolis, Ind., and Erie, Pa. Late treat-
ing in Detroit did not affect this year's emergence and the catches
there were higher than last year. Trapping in Virginia and the Caro-
linas disclosed about the same conditions as in 1935. A slight in-
crease in the infestation in Pulaski, Va., and reappearance of the
insect in Charleston, S. C., were the only major finds over those re-
corded during 1935 in these States. Incipient infestations of a few
beetles each were found in Louisville and Lexington, Ky.; Bristol,
Tenn.; and Au .,usta and Savannah, Ga. 7Nitnor first record infestations
were disclosed in Fort Wayne and South Bend, Ind-.; Dearborn, Mich.;
Lockport, N.Y.; and Sharon and warren, Pa. A number of small catches
of previous years were repeated in other cities and towns in North
Carolina, West Virginia, Virginia, Ohio, and :Tcw York. T-:ontyfour
infestations, including five sizable ones, were found in the 11'ary-
land nonregulated area. (L. H. '1orthley, Bureau of Entomolo-y and
Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


-529-




-530-


ASIATIC GARDEN BEETLE

No general surrve,.ys havc. been conducted during the year to
determine the spr,.d or abundance of the Asiatic garden beetle;
however, observations in northern Ikw Jersey during the spring of
1936 indicated a definite reduction in larval population at a num-
b7r of points where adults were abundant in 1935. This condition
was likewise observed at the colony 6,nter of this species in the
Philadelphia district. Trap collections reported from northern
N"c, Jersey, observations in the Philadelphia district, and general
correspondence indicated a decided reduction in the adult popula-
tion and plant injury during the siunmer of 1936. (C. H. Hadley,
Bureau of Entonolory and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)
0ORI.[.II AL = -:.T TIE

Although no general survey was made during the year to check
on the status of the oriental beetle, limited observations and cor-
respondence indicated a reduction in this species in northern New
Jersey. On the other hand, the beetle is reported to have caused
considerable injury to turf in untreated lavms in the general vicin-
ity of .ow Haven, Conn. The occurrence of this species was observed
for the first time in Springfield, Mass., where large sections of
turf on private grounds were severely injured by rs. (C. H. HaIley,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)


S"LLZR EUPOP-AT ;. BARK BEETLE

Scouts searching for the Dutch elm disease in elms along the
railroad rights-of-way thrcuc-h Northern West Virginia discovered an

infestation of Scolvtus nultistriatus Marshan at Parkcrs'-..r-, W. 7a.
By followini- river valleys, scouts fund the beetle in an area rough-
ly bounded by .ieoling, Glenville, and Charleston, "., Va.; and Iron-
ton, 7'ellston, Athens, nnd UcConnelsville, Ohio, comprising apprx-.
inntly 7,:/''r) s'quare miles. Intensive- sampling. of beetle-infested
trees in the vicinity of Pnrkers.-xrg ar.d various other points thrcu.-h-
out this area has failed to disclose an,- Dutch elm disease infections.

Corperitive trap-log exp riments afforded a sampling of the
population of this species thrcua-linut the territory knr'"-i to be in-
fected with the Dutch elm disr-ase and the' 10-nile protective band
surrcindi rn.- it. The area within an P. r--rxi:iate radius of 50 miles
of rlpv: York City, inclu:iAn--: all the major inf.ct,,d 7ono, *-ns., divided
into blrck7s 4 miles square. Four oin lors were plac- d as nearly as
p-ssible in the cent.,r -f each block. Aftur approximately 4 weeks'
e:p'surc, the loes were collected from 456 bloc-s. S. multistriatus
wias found in lo .2 from 89 blocks, rather '!id ly scattered thrc vh-'ut
the entire section trapped. The heaviest co:.cv--trations of this
socios, as disclos'.d r': the trap lo.--s, are in the vicinity of Somnr-
vilic and Bor.nd Brok, and Bernardsvillo, in Sc-.crcc.t County, Clinton








-531-


and Glen Gardner, Hunterdon County, and Norword, Berson County, N.J.;
Ossining, Wostchester County, and Salisbury Hills, Oran-e County,N.Y.
and Rteddin-, Fairfield County, Conn. Beetles were taken in only 2
out of 50 blocks trapped in Pennsylvania. Th. positive finds in the
latter State were in blocks a few miles west of Trenton. Recoveries
were made from only 2 squares of 42 blocks comprising the rather lir-
itcd trapped area on Lonn- Island. Beetles were taken from scattered.
blocks along or near the periphery of the entire trapped zone.
(L. H. Worthy, Bureau of Entomolo-;y and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

GYPSY MOTH

The hatch of ,;ypsy moth e-- clusters in the spring was quite
variable, as the low te.pe.ratures during the winter of 1935 and 1936
caused the killing of quite a number of them. The killing tcmpera-
tures, however, were not uniform in many sections of the infested
areas, as a number of the exposed e;: clusters in some localities
hatched during the season. EB\ clusters below the snow line showed
a high percentage of hatch. Durin- the s-mnner a total of 42S,622
acres of woodland was partially or totally defoliated.

In MIaine there was a sli -ht decrease in defoliation over 1935,
and a considerable decrease in Now Haipshire and Rhode Island. In
Massachusetts the amount of d foliation increased considerably over
that recorded for the season of 1935. This was due to the rroat in-
crease in two cf the counties in the southeastern section of the State,
namely, Bristol and Norfolk Ccunties. In the former, over 45,000
acres were recorded as showin:- at least noticeable d-- foliation, whereas
in 1935 only about 00 acres were recorded. In Norfolk County the
total defoliation for 1936 was 13,000 acres, as compared to 45 acres
in 1935.

With the exception of M1assachusetts, defoliation in -eneral
over the entire area was consid -rably less than it was in 1935,thou.h
scattered towns showed increase.

In both Virmont and Connecticut no noticeable defoliation was
recorded, whereas in 1935 several acres of noticeable d-foliation were
found in some localities in both of the Stat.;s. (A. . Bur eoss,Bureau
of EntonoloFy and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)








-532-


:C'h'.ICT-TAIL HOTH

During the fall and winter of 1935-36, brown-tail moth .'.-*bs
wore cut over the infested area in M.nine, New Hampshire, .:ss.c>'.iusetts
and Rhode Island. In Maine, 1,256,085 brown-tail moth webs we're cut
and destroyed; in Nw Hampshire, 2,786,461; in ::as!2achuetts,o, ,767;
and in Rhode Island a total of 306 were found in two towns in the *astt-rn
part of the State, this being the first infestation found in Rhode Island
for a number of years. During the sunnoTir of 1936 tho-r,. were no r, ports
of extensive defoliation, althou-'h slight defoliation was noted in a
few towns in northeastern '.lassachusetts. In Maine and New n-,psire no
noticeable defoliation was noted durin.-; the season of 1936. In late
sunnmer a number of winter webs were noted in southern Maine, scuthorn
Th',,' Hampshire, and northeastern :.rasrachusetts. (A. F. Bur-)ss,Bureau
of 7ntonolo:'y and Plant quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

SATIN .IOTH

In some sections of the infested arca in New Enland, records
made during; the sumner of 1936 indicated that th; satin "moth is in-
creasin,:, quite rapidly. Althout:-h no extensive areas of defoliaticn
were noted, heavy feo';din.; was noted in southern Maine, southeast rn
and central New Hampshire, eastern Massachusetts, and near Brid port
in southwestern Connecticut. In Rhode Island some of the tow.nl "ere
generally infested, but no areas of noticeable d-foliation were noted
and no increase over the derore.. of infestation in 1935 was not. d.
(A. F. 3ur -.-ss, Bureau of 3ntonolo,.y and Plant QinrantineU. S. '. )

SC? ^T0ORM

By November 13 a total of 43,206 cases of screwvorms and ma cts
was reported in the Southeastorn States and were distributed as follovs:
Alabana, 507; Florida, 39,912; Geor-ia, 2,116; Louisiana, 255; :Iississ-
ippi, 297; and South Carolina, 119. In Georgia most of the coses were
reported from the south! rn counties during the autumn months. Of
59,912 cases reported from Florida from January 1 to :Tovenbor 13,
21,992 cases occurred during the months of June, July, Au,:ust, Suytemi-
be-r, and October, the period when screwwor-!s would normally be nc-t
prevalent. Cases were widely distributed in the State throughout t-he
year but were not permitted to cause an outbreak in any locality.
From June 19 to the 13th of November, 126,3g0 cases of scru'.vwor-is
and ma:, ots were reported from the Southwestern States, of -'hich
102,429 occurred in Tcxas; 21,269 in New Mexico; 92 in O':lanhona;
590 in California; and 1,150 in Arizona. The weather during: this
period was such that scr,.wworms would ordinarily be expected to occur
in lar-e numbers. The rainfall -:as regularly enow;jh to keep wounds
moist and attractive for flies, but was not siu':'ficient to drown larvae
and pupae in the soil.







-533-


Bven thoug-h a higTh degree of control was obtained for scro'worms
in the Southwestr:rn States, th. spread of the pest r sulted in cases in
six counties of Oklahoma, several localities in Kansas, and in L.issouri,
Illinois, and T-nnessee during the early part of the season. In the
stockyards ien employed by owners to handle cattle looked for cases of
screwworms, treat ,-id the animals, and aided in gettin- specimens for
identification. At Kanrc-.s City, Vio., there wore 10 such infestations;
at East St. Louis, Ill., 39; at Kaplan and Church Point, La., 3 in
horses and mu-les; at New Orleans 10 lots were identified from 59 dif-
ferent infestations; and at Iashville, Tenn., 1 case was found. Screw-
worms became established in the vicinity of M...yhis, Tenn., and caused
losses in several of the southwestern counties of the State. (W. Z.. Dve,
Bureau of Entonolo,'y and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

^OSQTITO^S

Information receive d from the State ontomoloi-ist of Ne.w York
and the Nassau Couanty Ext.:-rnination Comlission indicates that an
unusually dry surnier on most of Long Island and throug-hout much of
the State result 3d in fewer mosquitoes than normal -arly in the sum-
mer and in midsummer but later rains and storms brour-ht out heavy
local broods late in the s-umn-er and early in the fall. The sterns
and floods provided extensive bre ding places lor the fresh-water
species, Aede.s vexans M1&iL, Culex pipiens L., and the salt-'ater
br>. .zders, A. sollicitans ('hi'".) and A. cantator (Cnq.). A large
brood of Mansonia perturbans a mlk. emerged in Suffolk County N.Y.
in Juno. Along the mid-Atlantic seaboard September storms caused a
sliJ-ht increase in aundence of salt-marsh mosquitoes, but durinP ic
the rest of the year the numbers were approximately normal. In New
Jersey a heavy emergence of A. vexans occurred in the upper Passaic
Valley as a result of extensive flood waters. Emer.- -nce began about
June 26. Immediately aft r that date some mosquitoes were observed
along the lower Passaic, but none were present when a status was
taken alone the west side of the two mountain ran.g s toward the upper
end of the bre-ding area. This was about 4 niles from the principal
breeding area. By July 4, mosquitos that probably bred on the uprer
Passaic, had come across the mountains and filtered into all the towns
and cities to the east and south to a distance of some 15 miles from
the large br edin- area on the upper Passaic Riv.r.

In Delaware, conditions for mosquito bre din.- were more favor-
able in 1936 than in 1935, with an apparent general slight increase
in the number of pestiferous species. However, over a 5-year period
there has been a steady reduction in a' .-ida-ince, particularly of the
salt-nash species, as indicated by trappin,- records.

An unusually dry sprin,- and summer was perhaps rescrcnsible
for a greatly decreased abundance of salt-marsh mosquitoes along the
Georgia coast. Annoyance from these pests in that area wes r--ported
at its lowest ebb for several years. The dry weather also probably
accounted for fewer complaints this year from fr, sh-wvater and domIstic
sp-cies.








-.531-


Data obtained from collections of li-ht traps operated at various
places in Florida indicate that g'enerally the relative abundance of the
more important species in the State was consid rably less in 1936 than
in 1955.

Alon: tho Gulf coast, there has been no indication that salt-
iarsh species of mosquitoes have been r.iore abundant in 1936 than usual.
Crrtoin cities and towns in Texas suffered considerable annoyance from
A. ae-ypti (L.) and a few cases of deniuo fever wore reported; howev,.r,
no epidemic of the disease occurred.

On the west coast in Ore.-on and ".' sr.in :ton, after the flordin:.
of the C-lumb.ia and Willanette Rivers, the primary brood of A. ve.::.s
and A. aldrichi Dyaraiid Krnab emer,'od sorn after April 21. Two success-
ive broods -:-?r-ed on May 18 and Juno 11 and these species continued
to be generallyy abundant and troublesome until July 17, when hi- h
t 'mprfrntures and low humidity caused a rapid d<-cr,,ase in numbers.
C. pipiens caused considerable annoyance in a few localities during,
the sunnor in Oreoon. Sixty-six cases of malaria were reported in
Oro,-:on in 193', the lar.;est number of cases occurrin< in the State
in any y-ar since 1918, when malaria was first required to be r-pcrtcd
to the State Board of Health. Lirhty-throe percent of these c'ses
occurred in Au,-ust, .Sptcmbor, and October. Anopheles maculij]-mnnis
Mei:., the principal vector of malaria in the State, was found to be
very abundant in the vicinity of Prin:;ville, Ore.-., although no cases
of malaria were reported from that locality. In the Cascade mountains,
the snow-water species were report(;d abundant about i'ay 2. h'. num-
bers of these species, however, did not appear to be above the average
durin- 1936. (F. C. Bishopp, Bureau of Entonolo:;y and Plant Quarantine,
U. S. D. A.)

ROCKY OlIrAIN SPO:'TSD FVER TICKS

Reports front the Rocky mountainn region indicate that the Rrcky
Mountain spotted fever tick (Der..ac)ntr andorsoni Stiles) was about
normal in abunda.nce in 1930. Asida from its in-ortar.c as the vector
of Rocky iLountain slotted fever of -ma, it pla,'s a continuous role in
the transition ,of ..tulari',mia and it is also of distinct importance
as a narasite and annoyer of nan and aninials. This tick has been de-
terninod for the first time as ccurrin& in Arizona. ihis record con-
sists of a male sp-,cimen serj fr";-" the Luicri.u]:ai M.-cintains, Ariz.,on
Jun 27, 1936. The nunb.,r of cases of R'cl:y HMountain spottv.d fever
in the 7est was about normal. The death rate, as usual, vari ,d widely,
in different sections, ran :in from about 5 to about 8S-. The total
nu'-ber of cases reported to the United States Fiblic HIalth S rvice
up to Novenb- r 1 was 166, and wore distributed as follows: ?iontana
' "'-in' 45, Orcon 32, Idaho 23, Colorado 7, Utah 1, California 1,
and Arizona 1.






-535-


The American dog tick (D. variabilis (Say) ), which transmits
Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the East, appears to have leen rather
less abundant than normal in the mid-Atlantic States. It was more
abundant than usual, however, on Cape Cod and on adjacent islands in
Massachusetts. In this area the tick is extremely abundant and annoy-
ing to people, dogs, and horses, though fortunately Rocky Mountain
spotted fever and tularemia do not appear to exist there.

The number of cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the East
this year, as reported to the United States Public Health Service up
to November 1, was 142, distributed as follows: Virginia 51,
North Carolina 30, Maryland 28, District of Columbia 7, Tennessee 6,
Illinois 6, Pennsylvania 5, Delaware 3, Kentucky 3, West Virginia 1,
Georgia 1, and Alabama 1. The mortality, as usual, ran about 25
percent. (F. C. Bishopp, ?urcau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
U. S. D. A.)
NT7 RLZCORDS OF II-SECTS
,_ 11I1 do r, '.. 0

Specimens of the following insects have been identified from
collections made in the United States. Specimens determined by
L. L. Buchanan as G.ymnaetron (Rhinusa) netum Germar, a European
curculionid not before reported from North America, have been de-
tected in the National Museum collection, mixed with lots of the
common G. (R.) teter Fab., the localities represented including
points in New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Virginia,
and Iowa. The earliest date is July 3, 1014, on specimens collected
at Farmingdale, N. Y. A series from Barcroft, Va., was reared by
J. C. Bridwell from seed pods of Linaria vulgaris. Two specimens
of a weevil identified by L. L. Buchanan as Naupactus leucoloma 5oh.
were received from A. N. Tissot, Agricultural Zxperiment Station,
Gainesville, Fla. The weevils were reported to be injuring peanuts
at Crestview, Fla. This species, which has not heretofore been known
from North America, was described from Tucuman, Argentina, and has
been reported also from Chile, Uruguay, and New South Wales. At the
last-named locality the larvae were found attacking roots of lucerne.
Specimens of delphacid, collected on sugarcane at Fellsmere, Fla.,
on September 26, by J. W. Ingram and E. K. Bynuin, of the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, have been identified by P. 'I. Oman
as Saccharosydne saccharivora (W.estwood). This appears to be the
second record of S. saccharivora, a common Wt1st Indian spiecies,occurr-
ing in the United States, it having been previously recorded by Van
Duzee in 1909 from a single specimen collected at Tampa, Fla. Mr.Ingram
stated that the species was causing rather severe injury to sugarcane
at Fellsmere and that r.ynmjhs were also found ir small numbers on Dii-
taria sanguinalis, Paspalu'a urvillei, and Dactyloctenium ae-vytiwL.
References concerning saccharivora in the West Indies indicate that,
although the species is common, it is usually not a severe pest of cane.
Some of the nymphs included in this sending were parasitized by larvae
of a dryinid, according to R. A. Cushman. Two specimens of a parasite
reared from Trachelus tabidus (F.) taken at Aia-sville, Pa., have been





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

-536- 3 1262 09244 6623


identified by C. F. W. Muessbeck as Microbracon ter2bella (Wcsm.). The
material was reared by E. J. Udine, of the Bureau of Entomology and
.Plant Quarantine. These arJ the fi-rst specimen's of this parasite to be
recorded from the United States. Sp-cimcns roarer'from Psoudococcus
comstocki Kuw. by R. N. Jefferson, atiBlacksburg, Va., have been detcrmin-
ed by A. B. n-ahnn as the encyrtid Clausenia purpuroa Ishii. This species
was originally described from Japan and was not previously known to occur
in the Unite.& States, although an appear ntly unsuccessful attempt to intro-
duce it into California was made in 1916. Mynaridae reared from eggs
of the cotton flea hopper (Psallus seriatus Reut.) at Port Lavaca, Tex.,
by H. J. Crnviwford, have beon identified by A. B-. Gahan as a new sp.-cies
of Ir:ythvmcl-us hear graciljg-s' (How.) and Anaphes anomocerus Girault.
So far as known, no parasites have previously bucn recorded from this
important cotton insect. The new spc-cies of Erythmolus appears to be
the more abundant parasite of the two, 54 sp.cimcns of that sp-cics having
been sent in for identification while only 3 specinoens of A. x-vomoc.rus
wore submitted. A. anomocorus was originally describ-.d by Girault from
specimens rearer at Sale Lake City from e.s of Halticus citri Ashm. cn
alfalfa, nnd was treated as a variety of A. iole Girault. Mr. Gahan
doubts whether the sli-ht differcncos which distinguish it from A. icleo
are even of varietal importanncc:. .The typical A. irle is said to be
parasitic in eggs of Hypera nigrircstris F., and is r3cordod from
Illinois and Virginia. Nothing is known of the distribution of the
surppcsed new species of Erythn-:lus. Two cpecimens of a species of Tach-
inidaeo r-,nred from Graphrlitha molesta Busck by R. 3. ITAiswander, of
the Ohio Agricultural xpe.rincnt Station, have been identified by D.G.
Hall as Adnontia do eerinldn. Cnq. This appears to be the first record
of this host-parasite association.

There was received for identification-a series of specimens
reared from eggs of the black widow spider at Wichita, Kans., by H.H.
'Talkden. Several additional specimens of the sane species, also reared
from the egv3 of that spider, were submitted by *y. J. Bacrg, cf the
University of Ark-nsne. C. F. W. duesebeck has identified the para-
site as a new species of Baeus, a efnus of Scelionidae. On several
occasions recently a dipt.-rous parasite of the black widow spider has
been received for identification front southern California and has been
determined by David G. Hall as Pseudoegaurax eiGnata Loew, a species of
Chloropidae. These parasites have been kncwn to develop in the ogg sacs
of spiders, but seen not to have bhan previously recorded from the
black widow spider. (C. 1. -'. lMuesebcck, Bureau of Ente-nology and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A,)

Corrections--The powder-post beetle dangling lnr furniture, is
not L^ctus sp., as published in the Insect Pest Survey Bullotin,Volume 16,
Number 9, rigo 426, Novembori, 1936, Accnrding to Doris H. Blake, in a
paper on thQ flea beetles.(Proceeodings nf the Entonmclgical Society of
'.nshin-'ton, Vol. 3g, No. 2, FYb. 1936, pp. 13-14), the notes on the alder
flea brotle (Altica binar-innta (Say) ) in the Insect Pcst Surv y'Sulletin,
September 1, 196, (p, 348) should be rcfcrred to A. nnbions alni (Harr.).