The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00116

Full Text





THE INSECT PEST SURVEY


BULLETIN


Volume 16 Supplement to Number 9 December 20, 1936


BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AND

THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL

AGENCIES COOPERATING



LIBRARY
;T\TE PLANT' BOARD














INSECT PEST SURVEY BULLETIN


Vol. 16 Supplement to Ko. 9 December 20, 1936



1COL,,IZATI 3F PARASITs3 rF THE 7 r7-,-p-.CT
Ca'RIT BO.RER LIT THE TJ7TITED STATES in 1936

By 7. -. BradleylAssistant Entomologist
and E. 7. Beck, Junior Entomologist
Division of Cereal end Forage Insect Investigations
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
U. S. Department of Agricultuore


The activities in connection with the biological control of the corn
borer as discussed in this report were directed from the laboratory for
European corn borer research at Toledo, Ohio.

The objectives of the program of 1936 were (1) the dispersion of
Inareolata punctoria Roman, an ichneumonid attack]in- third-instar corn borer
larvae and indigenous both to Europe and the Orient, over as much as possible
of the infested territory not previously colonized by this species; and (2)
the testing in the more southern range of the borer of two species of para-
sites, viz, Cre'- -^- flavoorbitalis (Cameron), an ichneunonid of oriental
origin attacking fourth-instar larvae, and :.:icrogaster tibialis -T.ees, a
braconid attacking second-instar larvae and indigenous to Europe and the
Orient. Previous releases of these two species had resulted in initial estab-
lishment but not maintenance.

Parasite material.-- For the first time since the inauguration of the
biological control program in 1920, it was deemed feasible to depend upon
procuring a supply of the parasites most desired, for dispersion purposes,
from areas rlhere corn borer parasites were first released in the United States.
From these areas, some 14,000 adults of I. punctoria were obtained, thereby
permitting an appreciable extension of the total area colonized with this
species. Incidental to this work, adults of Lydella stabulars var. Frisescens
R. Deev. were obtained and were used for colonization in more or less isolated
infested areas. A supply of ''. tibialis was made available through the Divi-
sion of Foreign Parasite Introduction. The Entomological Branch of the Canar-
dian Department of Agriculture provided a supply of C. fl---' ` it -.L from


/D. 7. Jones, C. A. Clark, E. D. Burgess, T. J. NTerney, and J. S. iLayfield
assisted in the release of parasites in the regions of their respective
assignments.


- 499 -







- 5-
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tIhe rient, -7r". a supply of Cheionus annulipes ,c,--. br.-'- in the laboratory
a't ell.viile, (ntario. The last-mentioied species was shi I from C :"
direct to the point of liberation, but all other material Vas handled at
the i:oorestown, 1T. J., laboratory and shipments were made from that point
for distribution. The total releases of corn borer parasites -ri-
1935 in the United. States are summrarized by States in tale 1. :.e total.
releeta-es to Dece:'ber 3!, 1-'., are given in table 2. :he method of select-
in7 colony sites, technique in :-'.--:inj releases, colony sizes, etc., were
essentially the same in l9.''7 as in previ-u-. years. Information regarding
the species rel eased in 1235 follows.

I. p-unctoria (ichne-amonidae).-- As h'.n in map 1, a considerable
portion I ; ,- :.-- i -. :-t -. y t.e borer was colonized by this species in
1955. Since further extension of this area was the chief obje-'tive of the
15 prora, major emphasis was placed on the handling of the host ler-.-?
to insue its distributioLn to field localities under conditions optimum for
its estta.lishment, particularly as regards synchronization --th the appear-
ance in the field <-f the preferred stage of its host. The extent of addi-
tional distribution of Inareolata during the season is shown on map 1. A
total of 1,271 adults were released in 25 colonies. Three of these were
at test-colcny sites in Newv Jersey and Vir--inia, thereby rovidin- an oppor-
tunity for observation on the reaction of this species to new environments.
Ta'le 3 s2mmarizes the releases of this species in 1936. In most instances
satisfactory synchronization of releases of this s-nccies with its p--ferred
host state was achieved. The first adlts to emerge from material manipu-
lated to supply adults for the multiple-generation :'. a were released in lo-
alities .of most .-'.ned borer development and the adults that appeared
later were used for colonies located farther north. Under actual conditions
experienced during the current season it is probable that a sli .tly more ad-
v--ncan. emergence period would have been desirable. In the one-generation area
synchronization of releases with the presence of r-.-ferred host sta-es, as
determined by observation at various field stations, was accomplished satis-
factorily.

-. tibialis {Braconidae).-- It was desired to test this species in areas
characterized 1:- environmentally conditions that -A -ht be more favorable to its
sIccessfu establishment than those encountered at points of previous release.
Syn-hronization of releases with the presence of the -rasi te's preferred host
st." <' (soc-ond, -"nta larv, Thi
S oni-instar larvae) was accomplished at all localities. his *'";"e
effected ,ith Xicror ster by manipulating the cocoons, in which st- the
material hib r-.at',. '.- i-s imported. Observations of host devel ..t '-:.ring
the current season indicate when the optimum period will prevail for releases.
The cocoons are removed from storage and placed in a develpmental environment
at the pro- er time to induce adults to emerne to conform. to the host require-
ments at the various proposed localiti-s of rlase e sumr.izes the
rn le'as;s of this species.

v tb_ ln'Ln .i... a, ~ A suppl of- this tachinid,
rivrd li r c s and t1' orient, was r el ease t two dis"-r-
vim. points. ;'e.e colony nf 1,9675 individuals from the orient was liberated in
SToship, Centre County, .., on July 1. Th econ colony va,., rele dsr.
in Newa'rk Th wnshipt, '.'hrc-ster ountv, ..d. This olrnv, 'onsisti". of 5,..5
-lt5 frm te omesti our, ws rloased in two lo, o' of n June
S'f 3,7 r Juy 7- sall lots : f on June1
:>, f S ?S n Al t. -... mrl ot f do e ic, r:, s ( in c of '3








501 -

and one of 595) were released in Woodland Tr'-n<-hip, Burlincton County, T. J.,
on June 17 and July 18, respectively, supplementin- the 13. relecaes in
that locality.

C. annulipes (Braconidae) .-- Through cooperation with thie Entomological
Branch of the Canadian Department of Agriculture it was possible to release
three lets of this species at one colony site in Lee Township, Accomac County,
Va. These releases consisted of individuals bred in the laboratory at BPlle-
ville, ?ntario, and were made on J&ly 31, August 7, end A-gust 19. A tot'l of
2,105 adults were released in lots of 873, 1,OC3, and 224, respectively, on
the above dates. It is known that host eggs, thle stage utilized by this spe-
cies for oviposition, were present in the field during the period of release.

Conclusions.-- Except in Virginia and western and central Ohio, w`ere
the weather was abnormally hot and dry, the season in general appeared favor-
able to the successful colonization of corn borer parasites. The completion
of the current season's colonization activities has demonstrated that Inaren-
lata punctoria, one of the most promisin- of the imported parasites of the
corn borer, may be obtained in satisfactory numbers more economically from
well-established colony sites in the United States than from foreign sources.


Table l.-S-.mmry of releases of imiported parasites in 1933


State


Connecticut..
Indiana......
MLaryland .....
Massachusetts
Ii chigan.....
:ew Jersey...
ITew York.....
Ohio .........
Pcrinnry:lvania.
Virginia .....


C.
annulipes


1~
grises cen~


' -' ,- r I I , r--



-- 15,365


-- 810


,1 1,965
2,105


I.
punctoria


I Jf.< "

599

1,679
1,606
585
1,779
6,835

1,188


flavoorbitalis tibialis I Total

9 -- I c 4



365
...,.0 1(694
-- -- l~r
-. 1,606

599 1,809 3,803
..I -, 1, 79


2,371 3,i-9 2 ,865


Total..12,105 ~8,l40 ~- 4,271 2,970 3/~2


7,0 -41,428-


2,970


Total.. 2,105


18,140


14,271





















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- le 3.-- Summrary of IrTnreoQta. ....unmctoria releases in I"


II
Sta+e o4s, I1 Count Parasites I Period of release
y liberated I rates s inclusive)

IIm''ber


Indiana .


1.7asssachua-'eett s




To tal .......


ITe, Jers:y. . .


::eC7 York......


0ot al ........


Lafayette


Agawam
Charlton
I7adl v,"




Harris on
.oylton
Lexin' ton




Atlantic*


HKamlin
C ntario
Scriba



Avon
Bromn
Claiborne
Liberty
Liberty
i.e vio erryr
Ri chl l'nd
Sal emr.
Scott
SI'WLrnee
7< shincton
ashinN to n
i ,,


7ir-inia........ Lee
r, ukt ot'0n'



7. nn t....t.a --
Tf f'I m Ot.(i d. --


He mpden
7orcester
i ampshire




I acomb
ouscola
Sanilac



:onm.outh


I:onroe
ITayne
OswTego




Lorain
Darke
Uni on
DelawJare
Ear din
M:iami


I Ear'i on
Al]I en
A .-Uaize
Defiance


Ac c oac
Vo rthLp rton


522
rC7
56 0

1,679


598





59 8:
4C9
1,705





588
598
593S

1,779

5;;5
578
DC" (
581

598
588

5]4
5 7
5?7
579


1, .; 1

14,2 71


July 21


July
Jul y
July


July 6 14


July
July


Jly 25 A.. 6

July 2


July
July
July


July 21


July
Ju y

July
Jul y
July
July
Ju' ;,
July
July
July
July


July 1 -


July
July


July 1

..y 1 A 6


o Ir ronie, :.


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- 505 -


Table 4.--Summary of Miicro;-nr.,ter tibialis release; in 1936


Connecticut..

NTew Jersey...

Virginia ....


Total ....

Grand total,


Tov nshir.p


E. Hartford

Atlantic

Lee
Frankto-n


Coun ty Parasites
liberated
1.',


Hartford

I.Ionuouth

Accomac
INorthampton


_________


1,994

1,809

2, 093
1,106

3,199

7,0023


Period of releasse
(Dates inclusive)


June 22

June 23

June 4
June 6

June 4-6

June 4-23


C. flavoorbitalis (Ichneuxmonidae).-- In order to test this species
further in areas having winters less rigorous than those characteristic of
colony sites where parasites have failed to become established, colonies were
released in Virginia and NeY7 Jersey. Table 5 presents the data in regard to
releases of this species.


Table 5.--Summary


of Cr'Fr,-m--tus flavoorbitalis releases in 1936


State Township County PFarassites Period of release
liberated (Dates inclusive)
| I,. ber


New Jersey...

Virginia.....


Total...

;"s OGra~n5 totel.1


B erkeley

Lee
Franktomn


Ocean

Ac comac
Yorthamptor


599

1,191
1,180


2,970


July 8

July 8-11
July 8-13

July 8-13

July 8-13


Available information indicates that the release in ::ew Jersey
coincided nicely with the presence of the parasite's preferred host stage.
The exact extent of synchronization in Virginia is not known, although some
individuals of the preferred host stage were present
























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