The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00092

Full Text






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I 1T S E C T P E S T S U R VE Y UJL L E T I T




Vol. 14 Summ.ary for 1934 ITo. 10




IIITRDUCTIOJ


The weather during much of the year showed, wide departu-ec frcm nor-
mal over the entire United States. December 1933 and January 1934 w7ere
ab-ormally warm over much of the country. However, during tihe last week
in January a cold wave spread eastward and sotfth'.wvri from the ITorth'est
to the Atlantic. During February the cold continued over the eastern
half of the United States, while abnormally warm weather prevailed over
the western half, particularly in the iNorthwost. Much of the northeastern
part was covered with snow during most of the month.

During March the rainfall was deficienit in the States that were to
suffer from drought later in the season, but was normal from the Missis-
sippi River eastward to the Atlantic.

April and May wore warm and dry, over the whelc country, and by the
end of May the most extensive drought in climatological history of the
United States had developed in the interior iTorthwcstern, Midrwestorn, uand.
Southwestern States. During Juno, the condition was somewhat relieved in
the Dakotas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, but remained about the same over
southern and western parts of the dry area. July normal temperatures, the
highest on record in all the States except California and Washington, croat-
ly intensified the drought.

The unusually mild weather in the northwest was favorable to insect
pests', while the severe cold weather in the East proved detrimental to
many species in hibcrnatioa. The dry spring was favorable to chinch bug
development, but the drought that followed was detrim-cntal to several
other pests.




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rA iI,. P' 'A .)ARD









IINZCT PESTS


GR.AS S1C'PPZC.S

Surveys conducted in the fall of 1933 cooperatively by the Bureau of
Entomoloay and Plant Quaran.tine and the States of WTorth Dakota, cMontana,
South Dakota, Idaho, Wyrming, and Minnesote indicated that extremely severe
gra*zshopper infestation could. bc expected in 1934 in the northern Great
Plains and Rocky Mountain regions. This infestation developed about as in-
dicated by the vurvcys, hatching being heaviest in Montana, ilorth Dakota,
South Dakota, and 1iiunesota. Grasshoppers were also generally abundant in
Idaho, Wyoming, iTebraska, Wisconsin, and Michigan. An extensive coopera-
tive control campaign was organized under Federal funds for the control of
the anticipated outbreak in those States. As the sc-spccn prcgresscd it be-
came evident that widespread control operations would be required in 1i
States, including Arizona, California, Coloraao, Iowa, Kansas, :Tcvada, :Tc',
Mexico, Oregon, and Utah, in addition to those referred to above. The most
serious infestation, however, was in the Northern Great Plains and ITorthern
Rocky Mountain regions, There grasshoppers hatched in sufficient numbers to
hcve caused widespread cievcstation had no control been practiced. The con-
trol campaign nob only pr-ventod any general damage, but undoubtedly very
materially reduced egg deposition during the fall, with the result that,
although there will probably be some serious infestation next year in Idaho,
Wyoming, M'ntana, Noith Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and
Michigan, the egg surveys conducted last fall indicate that, except in the
two last-named States, the infestation is definitely lower than at a corres-
ponding time in 1933. Extreme drought and high temperatures possibly aided
in reducing populations in portions of the infested area, although such con-
ditions necessitated the use of increased quantities of poisoned bait.

Results of the egg survey last fall (see map) are given in terms of the
apprcximato number of acres of susceptible crops that will require baiting.
They ere as follows: Arizona, 51,21gl; California, 101,COC; Colr.raJo, go, 94;
Idaho, 182,468; Iowa, 15C,COO; KanX=s, 102,000; Michigan, 610,393; T.innesota,
72g,413; M:ontana, 614,889; Nebraska, 186,519; ITevada, 107,500; 11cw Mexico,
16,400; l.rthDaklcta, 3,369,158; Oregon, 23,gC0; South Da-ota, 275,6CCO; Utah,
4c,OOC; Wisconsin, 1,6S2,66s; and WycrmiAJ, 546,000. (J. R. rarkor, Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

CIIL'CU BUG

One of the most 7-.vcro: and widespread chinch b-.g infestations on record
developed in the Corn Bolt during the year. The extremely iild. weather and
the dry spring over a considerable portion of the reo'ion permitted a high
percentage of the lar.c fall population of buC" to overwinter successfully.
.Mi T.tions beogn cxceptiona-!&L crly a.id continued arprcximatcly a mcnth in
many heavily infested areas. St:.tos cSuffcri,' most severely were M.Issouri,
Kansas, Illinois, Iowa, an4 I:ia:.:. Loss -cv.-rc infestations rcc.rred. in
northern Ckl':irma, southeastern iebra.kz, the northr'rn half of Chio, and the
southern parts of Michigan anvl& Minnesota.. Exto.uivc control operations in
the Corn ,lt iwore rcquircd to protect the corn frcrr. mi-rations of bugs from
small grains. A Fod-ra. ap;r-.priation mal. possible mor- extensive control













































































































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operations than are ordinarily practiced, resulting in the protection of imuch
of the corn from damage by first-brood'bugs. More than 8,000,O,_,' gallons of
creosote was uce'd in construction of barriers. Fall surveys of tihe infesterl
area, in most instances conIducted cooperatively by the Bureau of Entomolo j
and Plant Quarantine.and the -States involved, and reports from State eitomol-
ogists indicate that chinch bug populations are heavier in general now than
they were last fall and that the area whore the bugs are over-winter ,ing in
numbers is considerably extended over that of last year, reaching to the
northern boundary of Iowa, into the southern--tier of counties in Minnesota
and Wisconsin, and well up into the State of Michi-an on the north; to the
eastern bou-_dary of Ohio on the cast; to the middle of Kansas on the west;
on'_ south to the southern boundaries of -OL! ahrma. andc Missouri..

The acccmpnyingr map indicates the relbstive severity of infestation bae d
on present available data on abundance. In view of thle lack of a standardized
method of making surveys the doegree-o's of sovority indicated are only approxi-
mate. The States of Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, 1.1in-i.esta, Michigan,
and WTebraska conducted detailed surveys cooperatively with the B-uroxu of Entc-
mology and Plant Quar tine. Thec data for Wisconsin, Indiana, and Ohic arc
based on severity of infestation in 1934, combined with data obtained from the
State workers and incidental obsevations .ma.e by workers at Federal labbra-
tories regarding fall abundance of hibernating bugs. Possibly some infesta-
tion will occur in the south-central portion of kisso-uri, which was not sur-
.veyci. The nothwestdrn corner of Iowa is indic-ted by C. J. Drake as being
very .ightly infested. Unless spring weather is unfavorable for chinch bug
development, severe damage may be expected and extensive control operations.
will bq required this spring. -*"

Minor damage, primarily to lavwns, -was also reported from Vermont, New York,
7eow Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Dama,:e in eastern Ohio and the -.Ttorn State.
was probably due in the main to Blissus hirtus Montd. (P. N. Ann-an:d, Bureau
oS Ehtomology and Plant Qua.--. .tino, U. S. D. A.)

1ESSIAI FLY

At harvest time the hessian fly was, in gc.eral, at very low'.'ebb in numbers
througho-ut.the winter-wheat regions. Theo severe drought west of-the Appalachian
:Mountains evidently acted as an effective restraint on the multipliTatiorn cf
the pest. Inji-tr.- was recorded in scattered districts in southeastern Kansas,
southern Missouri, oast-co:trol Indiana, mid.-ile Tenneossee, northern Ohio, sov.th-
ceitral Pennsylvania, and central North Carolina. As the soc.son progressed,
however, some cha..g, in co..ditions was observed. For instance, east of thc
Appalachians the rate of infestation showed a distinct increase. In New York
the averegc infestation was 10 percent, or more thal three times as high as in
1933. In Maryland the infestation was liiht, avcragiug 5 percent, but heavier
than that of 1933. In Pennsylvania, however, serious infestation was gbncral
and considerable da, ge was done b- the fall generation. Tie average rate of
infestation for the State had advanced from 3 percent in 193 ,* to 23 pcrc'nt
in 1934. Early sown fields were badly damaged. In Virginia and North Cartlina
late sowing prevented any widespread increases in infestation-, but occasional
early sown fields were found heavily infested. It is believed that togcthber
with some infestation in volunteer wheat, these fields may be sources r/f.'-,f'ious








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local infestation in the spring of 1935.

In the East Central States the fall surveys showed but little change
from the conditions noted previously at harvest time. Only a fewv fields
inspected showed any sign of immediate or prospective serious damage, and
growing conditions 'for malll grains were in general favorable.

In the West Central States drought had induced premature cmergcace from
the summer puparia, the flies issuing immediately after the first effective
rains, early in September. lo volunteer wheat was yet above ground when thc
emergence began, therefore the flies deposited but few oggs. As this emer-
gence occurred about 3 viceks in adva-ice of the overage planting date, the in-
festation nver a con!-id-rable portion of the territory was very light. Some
fields in southeastern Kansas and southwestern Missouri showed relatively
hig4h infestation last fall. (P. !T. Annand, Bureau of ET.tomology and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

EUROPEAN CORN BORER

The usual fall survey of the European corni borer was conducted by the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. The marginal territory around
the area known to be infested was also scouted during the past season. These
activities were under the immediate supervision of A. M. Vance, of the Toledo,
Ohio, laboratory. The results are as follows: Over the 1-generation area as a
whole, there was a ge..eral decrease in infestation in 1934 from that of either
1932 or 1933. In the 2-generation area, definite increases in populations in
1934 over those of 1933 were evident only in southern Connecticut. The heavi-
est infestation in the 1-generation area in 1934 occurred in the New York
counties bordering Lake Ontario and in a limited area in Michi.aai and Ohio,
extending a short distance southwestward from the western end of Lake Erie.
In Indiana the chief concentration of population continued to be in Stoubon,
Doe alb, and1 Allen Counties, in the extreme northeastern corner of the State.
In the 2-generation area the heaviest infestation remainelod in eastern Massa-
chusetts, Rhode Islaid, southern Connecticut, a'n. on the eastern half of Long
Island, N, Y. The general level of infestation in 1934 tended to be consider-
ably higher in the 2-generation tha-i in the 1-generztion area. In the former,
16.1 percent .of the fields surveyed in 1934 were uninfested and 26.7 percent
had populations ef from I .to 25 borers per 100 plats; in the 1-generation area,
2g.g percent of the fields surveyed this year were uaiinfostcd and 55.9 percent
had populations of from 1 to 25 borers per 100 plants. In the former area,
21.2 percent of the fields were infested with more than 200 borers per 100
plants, while in the latter loss than half of 1 percent of the fields were in-
fosted to the same degree. Thec general decrease of infestation in 1934 in
the Great Lakes region is attributed to subnormal moisture last year, which
reached extreme drought in May, Juno, and July, when the temperatures were ab-
normally high. Such excessive heat and drought over an extended period of time
covering pupatien of the borer in the spring, oviposition of the moths, and
sumncr establischio.t of y-uni- lacrvae in corn, proved oxtremcly adverse to the
propagation of the species in the 1-gencration arta. Drought, which also pre-
vailed in certain parts of the 2-Csncration area, limited the increase of the
b rer.








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The scouting work revealed no extension of the range of the corn borer
except in the following counties which are in every case adjacent to areas
previously Imown to be infested: Ha-ilton County, Ohio; So-nerset County, Md.;
Sussex County, Del.; Cumberland County, N. J.; and Northa-roton County, Va.
In addition to the marginal survey, a less detailed reconnaissance survey
was conducted in Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, Wrest Virfinia, and Virginia,
outside the --resent known limits of infestation, iTo new infestations were
found. (P. I. Annand, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

CO:u EAR WORM

During the third week in April the corn eer worm appeared in central
and southern Florida, southern Louisiana, and Hidalgo Coiunty, Tex. By the
middle o.f June heavy da'.ia:e was being reported from the Carolinas to southern
Iowa and Kansas. Early in July larvae appeared in southern ITew York and Con-
necticut. Serious da&ma;e was already being done to sweet corn and field corn
in the East Central States. There was probably more damage by this insect
in the upper Mississippi Valley than there has been for many years. The in-
sect was not so destructive in the northeastern part of its range as it wms
last year.

Au.OMYOPL

Early in June heavy flights of the armyworm were observed in Indisna
and Illinois. As the month advanced, light outbreaks were re-'orted from
Illinois and severe outbreaks from Wfisconsin, Minnesota, Pnd. Iowa. In August
the worst outbreak of many years occurred in southeastern Minnesota and north-
central Iowa.

GOREIT BUG

Late in February the green bug appeared' in Kingfisher and Alfalfa Coun-
ties, Okla. In April the aphid becane numerous in wheat, barley, and timothy
in southern Missouri and was reported as destroying wheat in southwestern
ITezras'-a and throughout the wheat-growing sections of Kansas and eastern 01kla-
homa and the eastern half of Colorado. By thie middle of May over 22,000 acres
of wheat were a total loss, 50,000 more were danaged in 0kla-oi', and 21,000
acres of oats were com-oletely destroyed.

WEBWOPRMS

Two species of webworms, Loxostege sticticalis L. and L. comnixtalis
,alk., appeared in unusual numbers froTi Minnesota and North Dakota southward
to Nebraska, Kansas, and Colorado. Very heavy flights of m-oths were observed
during May. Larvae bece re very ab.mdant in Minnesota and North Dakota during
August. Larvae of L. sticticalis were so numerous in Frontier County, :Tebr.,
that where migrating individuals crossed railroad tracks, they imoeded the
movement of freight trains. Crops were considerably damaged in Kansas and
Nebr-ska. The garden webworm (;4. similalis Guen.) was re-orted as da.iaging
alfalfa and soybeans from Ohio to Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska.







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ALFALFA aL..VIL

Surveys made in the fall of 1933 indicated menacing abundance of admits
of thie alfalfa ;e evil throughout hay-,rowing districts 6f:Utah.,.in rr-tern
^-*v.d, a. in the infested area of southern Oregon. This outlook v-fs con-
firmne. by the spring check-up following the very mild winter, and the eerly
spring .,ve the weevil a good.start in all sections. Moreover, in Utah, at
least, gthe general scarcity of precipitation in the spring mini-aized'loqal
weather differences, Olacing all districts on about the same developmental
sche dule. Th-e tr'm.'th and drought in tne spring when the heat a- oited to
twice the normal nuEbcr of day-degrees and tho -nreciritation mea-ured one-
fourth of normal at Salt Lake City, prevented the usual slowing-u-p effect of
spring weather on the ea: pon'ulation.and.per-aitted hatching to keep uc.ce rith
oviposition, thus spreading thie larval attack over a much longer period.
Under the circumstances, the threatened outbreak failed to nrterialize. In
western Nevada the situation was com-"-licated by a severe outbreak o .the oea
a-'hid very erly in the spring.. The anhids stunted and partially ':illed the
alfalfa c;rovth, e -gerating the unseasonable heat and drought as re,:a:ds
weevil activities. The anchid da le, to .ether with the Jrazing vhiVh was
, generally adopted for aplid control, greatly reduced the a.-mcanice of alfalfa
weevil larvae, which were then exceptio.ially well -oarasitized by Bnth'.%,lectea
c.c"lic:'ni3 rTheo s. As a result, the nev-L'Cneration population of adult ..
weevils is extrEnely snall. The weevil survey last fall indicates a compara-
tively lowv level of adult abundance, the principall eycertions beiig in western
Nevada and western Idaho, where the weevil is es-ecially scarce, .and in Salt
Lake and Pox Elder Counties, Utah, w-':ere the -opulations are mostly merI.ecingw
The. Grand Junction and Delta districts of Colorado and the FexLoar- district in
Idanh showed sizable -o-nulations in nearly h'lf the fields. In the reo-nainder
of thie "iecvil territory snall and varying proportions of the fields have in-
jurious "op.J-ations. No new extensions of the weevil-infested territory were
discovered during the year. (J. C. Hanlin, Bureau of Eitomolo-y and Piant
q,uzrantine, U. S. D, .)

V2TCIH B-JCHIlD

Duarn;,- June 1931 the vetch bruchid (Bruchus brachiplis Kh:-'eus) was first
collected in the United States at Haddon A1eihts, Ca-den Ccu -ty, N. J. Later
in th.t year it was found in 3q.lngtoTi and Atlantic Counties, J.e, Kent
County, Del., 7ic, ;mico County, Md., and Rowan County, I. C. In 1932 it -as
found in ad-witinnal localities in Maryland, and in Vir'ginia near the District
of Colu'bia. hDurin- July 1934 the weevil wrs reported from Fra.f-lIn County,
Pa., and oi-an a-d, Iredell Comunties, N. C. Th'e resent known distribution is
indicated on the accopnparjing map.

S',iU ACA-i; 30'.BR.
SUW- CA.*
As in past ye-rr, the sufarcane borer v'n-s found attaci.in,' sug-arcane, corn,
rice, ad sor .->u- within a radius of fro-i 50 to 150 miles of the Gulf of
Mexico in Texas, Louisir.-ia, and T1Iississnpi, -nd in the southern half of
Florida. The L.1r:,tost injur:, occurred on su,-:.rcrnr.o in Lonisiana and Florida,
and on corn .. rico in Loui-.-nna and `2exas. In Louisiana a normal inf.esta-
tion occurred this season in the eastern part of the s1.7''cnae section. In the













































































TITCH BRUCHID

Known distribution to Dec. 31, 1934







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western )art, the infestation developed so-.ewhat later than usual, but owing
to rapid increase in borers, there was an average infestation by harvest ti-ie.
As in past years, the infestation w.s light in the extre-ie western and
northern Darts of the su.-arcane section. Although many fields were 100 -er-
cent infested, the average for the State is estimated at between 45 and 55
percent of the stalks bored, a little less than the average for the past 3
years. In general, losses have slightly decreased during the past 2 -e.rs
owing to the replacement of the very susceptible variety P.0.J. 213 by
varieties less susceptible to-injury, as C.P. 807 and Co. 290. In Florida
the infestation in sugarcane was much lover in August and September than
normally re-ported for that time of the year. In the Fellsmere district the
infestation was 7 percent, whereas at the same time during the -.revious year,
the infestation was 93 percent. This drop- vas possibly caused by the destruc-
tion of many larvae by the flooding of the stubble after the harvesting of the
previous years cron. In eastern Ic:.,es corn planted prior to April 1 devel-
oped an unusually heavy infestation, apparently owing to ,,rEater winter sur-
vival of larvae. Corn in Louisiana and corn planted at a later date in Texas
developed average infestations. In rice there was an average borer infesta-
tion. About 7 percent of the stalks were bored. From 90 to 95 percent of
this injury was caused by the sugPrcane borer, the remainder being due to
the rice stalk borer (Chilo nlejadellus Zinck.). (J. T7. Ingram, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.).

CODLING 1O0TH

About 30 percent of the larvae of the codlingr moth above the snow line
in Missouri were killed as a result of a very cold spell in March, vhen the
temperature reached -14 F. Heavy mortality was also reported from the New
England and Middle Atlantic States, but mortality was negligible from Kansas
to the Pacific coast. In Kansas some pupae were found during the first part
of February, and in the Pacific northwest ou-oetion was well under way during
the second and third weeks in ".-rch. exportss from T-,shington and California
indicate that the insect wv-s from 10 to 30 days earlier than usual. About
the middle of April piu)ation was observed in Maryland and Delaware, and at
that time moths were appearing in Georgia. Pupation started in southern
Illinois the first week in Anril. In the Pacific northwest moths started to
emerge during the second week in April, and in the Hudson River Valley in
Yew Yor-, early in May. The pea2< of emergence lied been reached by the end of
May in practically all parts of the country. As the season advanced, it be--
came evident that thie codling moth was more ab'undant than usual in the ELst
Central States, about nor-nl in the reniainder of the Eastern States, anI below
normal in the Pacific Northwest. In the Middle -West, west of the Miississi--i
River, the first brood indicated that the infestation would be high, but the
second 1,rood was Areatly reduced by the drought. Late in the season a hoev"
third brood practically offset the early iigc't infestation.

PLUM CURTJCULIO

The plum curculio vp.s generally distributed in the orchards in Georgia by
April 10. In South Carolina the first adults Vere observed on April 2. In
'Delaware the first mrnergence was observed during the third week of the month.
The first beetles were observed in New York and Massaclhuetts during the third
week in May, when full-grown larvae were beginning to leave peach drons in






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central Georgia. Cool, rainy v.eather in the latter State dela'-ed --xation,
but the infestation vas heavier than usual. In Al-ba-ia the infestation on
Car .n and Hiley benches was the heaviest since 1918. Elbertas in Georgia
were heavily infested by the second brood. On December 1, 0. I. S -: n mtde
the following statement: "An adult e-.iererge from the soil of Fort Valley to-
day, which is the latest emergence date on record. The larva fro-i v' ich this
adult vas rr'r ed entered the soil on or before August 1; therefore, this in-
dividual rei-nr1ed in the soil as larva, Du-ia, and adult at least 122 days,
the longest -:eriod'ever recorded;"

OUIEITAL FRUIT MOTH1

Winter mortality of the oriental fruit -noth in western 17ew Yorl:k State
amounted to 75 vercenut, and in Dela,-.rre r-'nred from 40 to 50 percent. By the
last wee:: in April nupition was fairly well under way in the middle Atlantic
'States and emerLence of adults had started by the last of the month. First-
brood larvae vere appearing in "teach twigs in the South Atlantic States by the
last wee': in the month. Infestation in twigs was more abundant than usual in
Nev York:, Illinois, western Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama: The
brood that normally infests the fruit rem-nined in the tv.igs for hibernation
in the Torthern States, and was so late corning out in the So -thern States that
little damage was done.

GRAPE L]A-dIOFPER

Early in March the grape. leafhonper awpe-Tred in lThrGe nT-ubers in the San
Joaquin and I'-nperial Valleys of California and the Salt River Valley of
Arizona. As the season advanced, the worst outbreaks in many years developed
in the San Joaquin Valley. Late in June heavy infostrtions were reported from
Michigan and western Nev York throuWh Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Incdicna, and
westward to :Tebraskia, Kansas, and Minncsota. Considerable injury occurred in
many localities. In the ITiga.ara district of New York danf,,-e ws more severe
than it has been in many years.

xI1`0'2 FLIES

The extensive use of glass flytra-.s resulted in taking scci-nens of the
Mexican fruit fly (AMastrorha ludens Loee) from approximately three times as
many .roves in the lower Rio Gr-.ndc Valle, o0 -e:xas as hid been founi infested
in any previous year. Despite intensive inspections of the fruit in the 176
;roves in wflich adult flies were taken, no lrvv-.e r'ere found until the latter
part of April, after the ei.d of the harvesti-ng a.d ship-'Lng period, when fruit
gleaned from four groves in the tree-to-tree insrections in the Mission
district wr.s found infested. Adults had -reviously been taken in three of
these groves. Of interest in the larval finclin-s rts the fact that several
green "October-bloom" fruit were found infested with full-grown larvae, in-
dicating that the eg 's iad be'n laid w:ile the fruit was decidedly i-mature.
The inability to locate lnr'val infr stations, even in a 35-day eyt-nsion of the
1,rvesting period, indicates that the number of flies :resent in the valley
_,-rvs"in previous indicate eve-tte un to the ralley
was considerably less than during so;r.e previous yo-rs even though the number
-of groves involved short's the infestation to be e.icerally scattered, Tlhree







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adult specimens of A. ludens were taken in three groves in Jillacy County in
January 1934, the first ever taken in this county'. During the year s-eci-nens
of A. ludens, A. ser-entina Wied., Anastrenbha fraterculus auct., A. oallens
Coq,, A. striata Schin., Anastrepha spp. undeterminedd), the pap- -. fruit fly
(Toxotr,,Tana curvicauda Gerst.), and an unnamed species belonging in the sub-
genus Pseudodacus, were taken in traps operated in the lower Rio Grande Valley
of Texas. With the exception of A. striata, of which a single adult was
trapped near iLission, these species have been taecn throughout the citrus
area of the lower Rio Grande Valley, and with the -nossible exception of A.
fraterculus auct., none of these species are known to exist elsewhere in the
continental United States. (P. A. Hoidale, Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

CITRUS 3LACKFLY

In a memorandum dated October 15, 1934, Dr. Jilmon iTewell, *of the State
Plant Board of florida, makes the following statement: "On August 10 of this
year inspectors operating at Key West discovered an infestation-of the s-iny
citrus whitefly or blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglu4i Ashby). A survey indicated
that from a central point of heavy infestation the insect could be found in
diminishing quantities for a distance in all directions of from one-fourth to
one-third mile. On Augk-ust 11, at a conference of United States Department of
Agriculture and State Board representatives, an intensive spraying cam-naign
was determined upon. Such a campaign, using an oil spray built after a
formula recommended by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Q.uarantine and
applied with power equipment supplied by that Bureau,was immediately insti-
tuted. The campaign was supported by city and county governmental organiza-
tions and contemplated as an initial effort three thorough applications of
the oil spray at 30-day intervals. At the same time, removal of host material
from Key West was prohibited. Intensive inspection by a large force of
trained operatives has-failed to disclose any infestation other than that at
Key West. The oil spray appears to be effective in .killing the fly in its
various stages."

BOLL "JE3VIL

Low temperatures during the latter part of January and February along
the Atlantic coast caused heavy mortality of the boll weevil and very few
weevils survived in Virginia and the Carolinas. At the Florence, S. C.,
laboratory the survival in the hibernation ceges was the lowest ever recorded.
Although the survival was somewhat lower than normal in Georgia and Alabama,
it was higher in those States than in the Carolinas. In Mississippi the
sur,'vival was fairly high but spotted, and in Loluisiana it was high. At the
Tallulah, La., laboratory, the survival in the hibCernation cages !as been
exceeded in only 1 previous year, 132, following the warmest winter since
the laboratory was established. Survival wv.s also high in Oklaho-n and Texas.
During the growing season dry weather in June and July held down infestations
in the eastern part of the Cotton Belt, and the drought in OklaLoma and Texas
not only held down the po-oulation, but was so severe as to seriously affect
cotton production. After rains began in A;.u st the weevil population devel-
oped rapidly in thoqe States and caused considerable damage to the late crop







- 338 -


in southe- stern O0:lahonTi and eastern Texas. Early in. the season weevils v ere
abundant in Louisiana, Mississippi, and southern Arke-s.s end cx.used more
dana,;e throughout the season in that regiQn than elsewhere, but 'here aso
dr;.,- weather late in June and in July helped :;reatly, in pnreventi -, weevil
danmaie. Throughout this region cotton was tore ,encrally dusted than ever
before, and more airplane dusters were in use than during any previous year,
The entire northern third of the cotton-growing area was connaratively frep
of weevils throughout the season. In 1933. seven boll weevils developed in
and emerged from Hibiscus sariacas in the field. This constitutes the first
record of attack of any plant other than cotton and Thurberia. (R. ?7. Harned,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

PINK BOLL WORM

For the past several years the distribution and abundance of the pink
bollworm has been largely determined by gin-trash inspection. By this means
infestations hive been located in Florida, Georgia, Texas, Ier Mexico, and
Arizona. Infestationhas existed for a number.of years in Texas, in Zl Faso,
Hudspeth, Presidio, Brewster, Pecos, R.eves, and 'Jard Counties, and is still
present. Infestation was found in the 1933 crop in Bailey, Lamb, Cochran,
Hockley, Yoaicum, Terry, Gaines, and Dawson Counties, but of these counties
only Terry vs found infested in 1934. Spccirens were found in :"i51and County
also in 1934, With the exception of 3rewster, Presidio, and part of Huds-eth
County, the infestation has been so li;ht as to cause no commercial damage.
Only enough inspection is made each year to determine the continued presence
of the insect, therefore it is im-oossible to give an accurate idea of the
abiuv~ance. In most of the ar-as only a few s-:ecim-ens are found, and iere
has been very little chanio in populations for the past several years. In
Brewster and Presidio, Counties the infestation had built upo until in 1931 the
damage amounted to about 14 percentt of the cotton cro- for these two counties.
In one section of Presidio County the damaeCe ran well over 20 percent, with
some few fields being -ractically a complete loss. For the past three
seasons special control measures have been carried on, so that at the end of
the 1934 season, even though a large number of worms -ere present, they
developed late in the season and caused very little, if any, loss. For
several years infestation :ias existed in I'ev Mexico i" n Cc:ves, Dona Ana, Eddy,
Luna, and Otero Counties. In 1933 additional infestation w.:v found in Lea
and Roosevelt Counties, but none v-.s found in these two counties in 1934.
In Ar:izona infestations previously occurred in Maricona, Pima, and Fin:al
Counties. The last specimnens found in Marico-a and Pinal Counties were from
the 1931 crop, and in Pina County none has been found since 1927. S-ecimens
were ta':en in Graham County in the 1934 crone. A snaill anount of cotton is
;rovw in Greenlee County, Ginned in Gralipm County. It is therefore possible
thliat so-.,e of the speccim-nens found this season orioinA'ted in Greenlee County.
The first specimens to be talcen in Florida vere found in Alachua and Columbia
Counties in the 1932 crop, but none have since been found in those counties.
During ti.e 1933 season one specimen was found in Madison County and one during
the 1934 season, Specimens were found in t'e 1934 crop in Im-nilton, Jack':son,
Levy, and Surannee Counties. Infestation was discovered on wild cotton grow-
ing alonL: the coast and on :eys or islands in southern Florida in 1932. The







- 339 -


most northerly infestation on the east coast vas at Lake 1orth in Falm Beach
County, and on the west coast on Terra Ceia Island in Manatee County. The
era-ication of the wild cotton was im--ediately begun, and has been. in -;rogress
now for 3 years. During the course of the eradication, inspections are made
from time to tim-ne, and so far this season no infestations have been found.
Most of the -olants now being removed'are seedlings and sprouts, and the- con-
tain very little or no fruit. As no systematic inspections have been made of
this wild cotton, it is im-cossible to -ive any accurate idea of thle condition
of infestation at this time. In Georgia slecimnens were found in the '1933 crop
in Berrien and Tift Counties, but none were found in the 1934 cron. (R. E.
McDonald, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

VEGETABLE WEEVIL

The vegetable weevil was reported as damaging truck crops in Alabama and
Mississip-oi during January. As the season advanced, it becam-e evident that
the insect was not so injuriously abundant as usual. The most significant
development occurred in California, the insect being discovered for the first
time in the Sacram-nento Valley. in Sacrp-'ento County, and in southern California
in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. It was reported on avocado and citrus in
Orange County. During the fall o-f 1934 the weevil did not start feeding
heavily along'the Gulf coast until the latter half of October. Ovi-osition
started during the last 10 days of October. ..

In 1933 the weevil was found for the; first- time in Tennessee, in Hardin
County.

MEXICAN BEAN BEETLE

Reports on the Me-xican bean beetle from Ohio indicate that in that State
the low temperatures late in January produced a high mortality of the hiber-
nating beetles. Similar high mortality was reported eastward to northern
Delaware. However, as the season advanced, it became evident that enough of
the beetles had successfully passed the winter to occasion considerable damage
throughout most of the known infested range. Damage was considerably less
than early in the season last year. By fall heavy infestations had reestab-
lished themselves over most of the infested territory. The beetle has spread
northeastward in Maine to Saadeahoc, Lincoln, Knox, and Waldo Counities, the
southeastern part of Penobscot, and the southern part of Somerset. It was
reported for the first time from Orange and Jindsor Counties, Vt. It ex-
tended its range in Mississippi southward to Stone County and westward to
Webster County. ,.

PEA A1PHID

In February and the early part of March the pa aphidobuilt un a consider-
able population in early seeded vetch and pea fields in Oregon and California.
In April it was re-orted as daaging alfalfP in Indiana and from southern Iowa
and Nebraska southward through Missouri to Mississin'i and westward through
the Great Basin to the Pacific I7orthwest. By the end of March vetch and
Austrian field peas were being destroyed in the Willamette Valley, Oreg.,and







- 340 -


the -Puaralup Valley, Wash. Rather heavx infestations were o.servel errly in
the se-rson in the c jnnery-peo sections of ic'ii.:an and Wi sco"sia n High te-ver-
atures during the latter half of May reduced the infestation to ne -li-ible
.:Lbe-_'s in these States. In -New York State a very heavy .iifeqtattion occurred'
on 3ate peas and many fields yere -looyved under. An unusual outbreak: : also
occur:ed in northern Idaho and eastern Washinjton, particularly on late "':
varieti's of peas. ':

PEA OTH .-. -

The pea noth ( tr::.r.ria ni:'ic.r Steph ,) ws.. reported eas c.-usin" con-
siderable loss to pea -rovers in Whatco-n and Ska-it Counties, '.7 sh., durinC
the summer. The insect was also reported fro.i British Col-foia about -lthe same
time. These constitute the first records of occurrence in the western Tart of
north Anerica. The first record of appearnce in the United States v.:s -made
in 1908 in Charlevoix County, Mich. Since tlhi.t tine it has been re-orted from
r1sconsin, Ialina, an. d :Te-v Yorl:. It hns been '-no%,n in Canada, since 1293 end*
occurs from Manitoba eastv',pd to T'ova Scotia,

BE2T LLAJhOria, .. *.* R;*.

During 1934. the invest nations on the beet leaf".onper were continued in
Ida",-, Utah, California, and Colorndo. The curly-top dic"Rse trapsnutted by
this -"est caused severe injury to the si-.ir beet crop in all of the inter-
mountain re-ions. Erly in the season the nros-ects vere for lovw leariopper
populations in the Idato beet-.:;rvTing area. Ho'.ever, unexpected nu..bers
mi-rated into the cultivated area, resultinC in the abando:,'?.nt of a consider-
able portion of the acrev-e that had been planted. This influx of the leaf-
ho-oner was not due to a development of the pest in areas which 'hLind heretofore
been considered as important in contrib'ating to the leafho-)er populations in
the beet-Lrov ing -ire-s, but was attribteable to a miration fro :i an ul-:norn
distant breodi:- area (see nmap-). The abandonment of acreae, -olus -shortaCe of
irrigation water, caused an esti nated redaction of nearly 95 percent In the
tonna-Le of s,-ar beets produced in Icdaho during 1934, as com-nared to 1933
(30,000 versus 353,000). Si ilnr losses were sustained b the bean industry,
it bel..; estimated that cro- reduction fr-'.'vthe beet leafiop)er out'repI: in
two representative districts, Tw'in Falls and Filer, amounted to fro- 30 to 50
percent on contract beans, with significant losses to coni rcial white beans
(Great Northiern).

In Utah the leaf.onper was very. ab'ni't, corroborating the early season
pr,''ictions based on 1opul-tion studies on the wild host plants-in the desert
arcas. In ereneral, the be:t cro-i of Utah was very seriously darm -ed by culy-
top, as evidenced by the estimated 1934 production of 255,00) tons, as comp.-'ed
to approximately 913,000 tons in 1933, the reCaction bein-. caused )principally
by the disease. T1ese los-.cs vtert; sustained in 'racticnlly all of the beet-
growinrj districts of the StLte, rith the P: ccption of the Cclie Valley.

In California the procran for the 5p i'rfin- and elininrtion of the wild
host plants which was cond,.ted in the San Jolqain Valley apparently reduced
lAaflinpper danaeC, as the preccdin- -Aild, dry winter would have permitted


























a


CULTIVATED AREAS AFFECTED BY CURLY TOP F- -s'
BREEDING AREAS OF THE SUGAR BEET LEAFHOPPER, ITS

ARES WVEE SUGAF-B T LEAYTOFP Cl5S p I' H; S L
^iBTO S ZGAR BEET, TCPATO Cr, fB *U:L SFR YiF.D tiS ;FS.
:ILDI LANT BfEDIM;G A-i AS OF rnl STi AF nT LEAtllPE rit ki $"- F y ATS
rLTI VATFD /A EAS.
C^ IVAIZED AEA S 0,C AIIA. OS S ;I s ET$ 3 U S .
I DISEASE TC SUIS^U7BLE CVS ; IN T A: K' AA7 -


N DEI~AR MT\ F A F F -~
V. A. ~


0

-4t


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C





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- 341 -


the large overwintering -o-ulptions to build up. in destructive numbers. Ex-
ce-tionaliy good yields were obtained in 1934 in the -Trincipal bect-rrowing
districts, averaging ap-roximately 15.5 tons per ncre in the San Joaquin,
Sacra-nento, and Salinas Valleys, representing increased yields, a1 compared to
those of 1933. Curly-top caused some damna.e in the southern end of the
Salinas Valley, where the acreage was reduced from the plowing up of some of
the beets svcroly infected by this disease early in the season. Curly-top
(western yellow blight) was also prevent in tomatoes grown in the San
Joaquin Valley in 1934. In a survey of 1,887 acres of this crop, in eight
different localities of the valley where the leafho-moer was most numerous,
it was estimated that an appro,:ir,.te loss of 16.6 --ercent was sustain;-td from
this cause, the estimate being based on the percentage of diseased plants.

In western Colorado and adjacent portions of eastern Utah, the predicted
abundance of the leafhopper was corroborated. Curly-top reduced the yield of
sugar beets ar.oxi-n.ately 1 ton per acre in 1934 over that of 1933 (8.78
versus 9.94), aP compared to a normal yield, which ranges from 12 to 15 tons
per acre. Part of the reduction in beet tonnage *may be attributed to shorta,';e
of irrigation water, but this wa.s of minor importance as co'.iared to curly-
top injury. (11 J. Caffrey, Bureau o:" Zntonology and Plant Quarantine, U. S.
D. A.)

TOMATO PIN WORM

The tomato -nin worm (Gnorimosche'ia lycopersicella Busck) has become es-
tablished in several widely separated localities in Lastern United States
during the last 5 years (see ma-). The first record was of a localized in-
festation in a ,-reenLouse at Coatesville, Chester County, Pa., in the fall of
1929. In 1930 tomatoes in nearby fields were severely infested. This infes-
tation was thought to be eradicated, but again in 1931 the insect was reported
as attacking tomatoes in the fields near Coatesville. It was not seen again
in this district until the fall of 1933, when it was found in a number of
greenhouses from Avondale, Chester County, to Brandywine Su'iit, Delau are
Coiuty, Numerous outdoor plantings were also severely infested.- In October
1933 it was discovered in western Pennsylvania in a greenhouse at 7e-apum,
Lnvrncace County. The grower there said that the insect had also been
numerous in the field during the summer and that he had first noticed it in
1932. It w1s found about this time in a greenhouse at New Castle, Lawrence
County, The grower there said he had never seen the insect in the field, but
that it had been in the greenhouse for about 3 years. Another greenhouse in
New Castle was found to be slightly infested. During the spring of 1932 the
pin worm caused serious injury to tomatoes at Brpdenton, Manatee County, Fla,
In the spring of 1933 the insect was recorded from a greenhouse in N1orfolk,
Va. It was recorded from a greenhouse ne.'r Wilmnton, Del., in January 1934,
where by June half the -lants were ruined. In May 1934 the insect was first
discovered in Mississippi at Gulfport. Later in the sumner it was found in
the field. The grower said that he lost ti:o-thirds of his crop in 1933. It
was also found at Long Beach. In October 1934 it was discovered in a green-
house at Saint Joseph, Mo.' In addition to the new records for 1934, the
insect was reported from all the older infested localities. It was very
abundant in southern California, where sole fields had practically 100 percent







- 342 -


infestation. In the ori-inal description (Tawaii. Ent. Soc. Proc. 7 (1),
1928) Busck gives the distribution as Hawaii, California, and Me::ico. The
only other .record in the United States Was made in 1931 in Doie. An- County,


P IO.DICAL CICADA

Brood VIII of the periodical cicada (:'o icicada se-tendeci-n L.).r^oeared
in considerable numbers in a corpaect area in western Pennsylvania anid eastern
Ohio. The old brood on Martha's Vineyard Island, Mass., rea"-eared and single
individuals were recorded in `iUryland near iWash'in-'ton, D. 0., and in northern
Virginia. A few specimens of the small form, cassinii Fishler, v'ere re-orted
from northeastern Kansas. Brood XX of the 13-year race, M. tred~ci-i Walsh
and Riley, wad represented by colonies in central Haroldson and southern Pike
Counties, Ga. County records for the yea' are as follows:

Brood VIII: Kansas, Douglas, Leavenworth;
Maryland, Mont,,omrry, Prince Georges;
.. ssac, ,u.etts, Du-es; Oio, Carroll,
Coiuluianv, Delarare, ":-oning; Starr:;
Pennsylvania, Alllegheny, Ar-strong, weaver,
Clvrion, Learette, Indiana, Jefferson, Lawrence,
Luzerne, ;Morcer, Venn-igo, 7as'-in-ton, 7est-iore-
land; Te.- essee,cnitrPl and eastern "-arts;
Virriia .Frederick.

Brood XX: Georpia, H.-roldson, Pike.

JAPAITSI BEETLE

The area continuously infested by the Japanese beetle at the end of the
1934 season is estimated as 9,700 square iiles, an increase of 900 square
miles over that of 1933 (see ma-1). Of this area 6,160 square niles is in
New Jersey, 3,600 in Pennsylvania, 660 in Delaware, 120 in Mnryland, and 160
in New York. Within this area of continuous infestation the oo-ulation
varies greatly. There has been no apporeciable increase in nLi.uers in the
older infested sections of New Jersey, near the northern limits of distribu-
tion or in the coastal sections of the State. The niunbers have increased
over 1933, hoi evor, in Mo.,-outh County, I7. J., and in all of the continuously
infested area in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Areas of exceptionally
heavy tree injury were more numerous in 1934 than in 1933. The most exten-
sive of these was in extreme southwestern New Jersey, but others were well
developed in Pennsylvania west and southwest of Philadelphia, and in north-
eastern Delaware. The worh of the season indicates that, with the exception
of three localities, the beetle has not become established in any place out-
side the 'rc-ent r.- elated areas. The capture of a few beetles at certain
points outside the recjlated area does not m-nean that an infestation is es-
tablisied. The -ost outstaidin- first-record find of the Ja imnese beetle at
a point remote from the infested areas was at St. Louis, Mo., here beetles
were collectf-d in such numbers as to indicate an established infestation.
Another first-r ,cord find consisted of 17 beetles caught at Indicnr-rolis, Ind.,
in a residential section of the city at some distance from a railroad line.



















































































































PERIODICAL CICADA


T7 AND iNCLt^ -34

* BROOD 1i 93 4 ACR9S
0 BROODSS]. PRIVO 5 RECORDS
S69000DZ-X. 1934 RE COROS
@ BROOD =. PREVIOUS RECORDS


UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AR'lCUL TUlE






























































.1' LEGEND

L KNOWN DISTRIBUTION 1916-1927
... 1927-1930
DOTS INDICATE KNOWN
INFESTATIONS TO 1934








- 343 -


This infestation lorobably resulted fro-n ille,-P.l trans-ortation of infested
plant material. The infestation at Charlottesville, Va., can probablyy be
accounted for in the sane way. Beetles v:ere, first found at Charlottesville
in 1932. This -e!-r 30 beetles were tr- -d in that city. Other first-record
trar- ins include 6 beetles ta-en at Chica['o end 1 at 2ast Saint Louis, ILl.
The locations at which the beetles were tr:-. oed in Chica-o and. ES.st Saint
Loais, -ooint to the --robability of thesc hWvinj been transported from the
heavily infested sections of New Jcrseyr or Pennasylvania vi? rail in refriger-
ator csrs containing agricultural rocaucts not ordinarily subject to infes-
tation. As a result of this seasons trsa-'inr: activities, additional catches
were recorded in 5 cities in ir.ine; in 58 Marylad cor-.unities, both inside
and outside the regulated zone; in Detroit, Mich., vher.e a few beetles have
been tran:-ed each year since 1932; in 9 Nev: York cities; in 6 localities in
Ohio; at Erie, Pa., where an infestation wr.s first determined in 1931; in 6
cities in Virginia; and at 7 points in West Virginia. Trrips set in Greenville,
S. C., in an effort to -ick un additional beetles at the site.rhere 2 beetles
were collected by hand, failed to catch any further specimens. Practically
all of thc few first-record infestations found in these States consisted of
a few beetles each. None of them clearly pointed to an established infesta-
tion. The remaining infestations were largely survivors of lmo'n incipient
infestations which successive years' trapminjs have shown not to have built
up. (C0 H. Hadley and L. H. Worthley, bureau of Entomology and Plant Quaran-
tine, U. S. D. A.)

ASIATIC B^ITLS

The known distribution of Anomala orientalis 9-terh. has not c'himed
from that iven in the sumnary for 1933. The area infested by the Asiatic
garden beetle (Autoserica castanea Arrov.), however, has increased somewhat
in 1934, On Long Island the infestation has -.cved eastward in Suffolk
County, and in Westchester County, IT. Y., and in Fairfield County, Conn.,
the area generally infested has become enl pred. In northeastern 1u' Jersey
there has likewise been an enlargement of the generally infested area and
the degree of infestation in this area has been somc-what greater than in
1933. In all of the infested teritor' A. c'.st-nea has been fully as
destructive to plants as in previous years, and in addition has been decidedly
a nuisance, because of the large numbers of beetles that collect on warm
nights in '-laces illuminated by high-porered lights. The following records
of new infestations vere -made during the year: Coscob and Danbury, Fairfield
County, Conn.; Moorestown, Burlington County, Miiltown, Middlesex County,
Alleuhurst, 4Mo 'outh County, M orristow, Morris County, Bound Brook, Somerset
County, end Roselle Park, Union County, N. J.; Dobbs 2erry and Valhalla,
Westchester County, I1. Y.; and ChelteKnh orntgornery Coanty, Pa. (C. H.
Hadley, Bureau of Entom:nology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

GYPSY MOTH

The percentage of hatch of eg; clusters of the gypsy moth in the spring
of 1934 was very variable. The severe cold of the winter of 1933-34 killed
many egg clusters, but killingg cold vas not uniform over extended sections of
the infested area, as considerable hatching of exposed clusters was noted in a







.- 344-


-ixmnber of places. Clusters in stone walls or other protected -laces close
to thie roundn, here they were covered with snow and not exposed to the ex-
t1e-ie cold, showed nearly perfect hatch in many localities. The larvae
atc ring from such protected egg clusters were abundant e'.iou;h to cause
sev re defoliation in many places.' During the sutrmer there wv s from x"rtial
to complete defoliation in 492,361 acres of woodland, an increase of nearly
100,000 acres over 1933. In Mirine, Ifew Haipshire, and Rhode Island the areas
of defoliation were considerably more extensive than in 1933. In I.assachusett
there were less extensive areas of defoliation in the eastern and southeastern
sections but this decrease was offset, to some extent, by more extensive
defoliation than had ever been recorded for the territory between the middle
of Worcester County and the Connecticut River. In Vermont and Connecticut
s. ?ll areas of defoliation were noted. As the result of the scouting work
in northern Vermont in the fall and winter of 1933-34, 15 towns, i.rmediately
east of the barrier zone which wore found uninfested, were talhen out of the
regulated area and added to the zone. These towns extend fro. the Canadian
border to, and including, the town of Hancock in Addison County-an area of
604 square miles. (A. F. Burgess, Bureau of Ento-nology and Plant Quarantine,
U. S. 3. A.

BROWT-TAIL .OTH

In general, there is only a light infestation of the brovn-tail moth
over the greater Dart of the infested territory. ITo cases of severe defolia-
tion were reported this Dast summer. This -a,- be due, in part, to the
enormous number of winter ;"ebs that were cut and burned last winter under
Civil 7'o:rrs authorization and, in oart, to winter mortality of hibernating
larvae caused by the extreme cold. Two ne'.o infestations outside the re..-Alated
zone were found in Maine, one at Orono and the other at Old Town. (A.. F.
Burgess, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)
SA.-'_'; MtOTH

With few exceptions, the inft'estation of the satin moth appears to be
low throuJhout the infested area. In -ractically all of the area the infes-
tation was not severe enough to cause any arpecipble defoliation, with the
exception of one town i-mnediately northeast of Boston and another on the
Ma.sachu-etts-hode Island line. This insect has been !*mown to occur in the
State of ".Ts, incton since 1922, and was found this year in the vicinity of
Gervais, OreL. (A. F. Burgess, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
U. S. D. A.)
,ELL. IS BE3LLE

The elm leaf beetle was reported to be 0,efoliating el-.s in Ye.'-ia, Wash.,
during the third week in A-iil. Adults 'c ;an leovint. hibernation quarters
in the lrTw _rTnn- States the first wee'; in D.Lv. .ari.r- the latter part of
Mi,, it w;s re'-ortol1 as dnmagi.:.1 elms in so-ut.1-c tern Ohio and in J-ly it
was reported Ifro the Bluegrsss Rr1on oe K'-ntuc'.1 In Ma:- rep-orts o'f damage
were received from southw-estern Idaho a.id later in the season the beetle was
reported as being present thro-.-j'.out the Bois E'.nd Payette Valle:,ys, where


























































REGIONAL CONCENTRATION
OF THE
JAPANESE BEETLE
IN THE AREA OF
CONTINUOUS INFESTATION
1934
































































COLTSS MJlT]-MRIATUS MARSR.

Kn.wr. Distribution to December 31, lq34







- 345-


nanyr uns-rayed trees had been defoliated. In August it extended its rrnge
southward along the western side of the Sacram:ento Valley to Colus, County,
and an isolated infestation was found at Port Costa, Contra Costa Counit;,
Calif. The infestation in the New England and 71iddle Atlantic States was
considerably lighter than it has been for the last few; years.

A BA-K 3ESTLE

The discovery of great numbers of elm trees affected by the Butch elm
disease in the evew York:, NTew Jersey, and Connecticut area and the proof
during the past yTear that Scoi2ytus ul'.i ':.tus. rsh, is able to transmit
the organism causing this disease, make t..e. distribution of this insect a
matter of es-pecial importance at this time. During tlie fell of 1933, J.- N.
Knull was employed by the Division of Forest Insects of the ,urEc.u of Entom-nology
and Plant Quarantine to maL.m a survey of the distribution of the sDecies.
The records of this survey are --resented in the acsom-oranying map and the
following list of localities.

Connecticut.--Meriden, North Sta-ford, i7oroton, Glenville, Brookfield,
17,7 1;ilford, 11augrtuc1:, and Fairfield.
Iissac'.usetts.--Dover, Loston, Cambridge, Danvers, ..efield, Halifax,
South --.. -, 'Jayland, Haverhill, and Tc.bury:,ort.
IHc J- rse,.--East Orange, Princeton, Colum"us, Flemaington, Delavare,
Bridgeville, Oxford, and Mount Pisgah.
evew York--Dobbs Ferry, Armonk, Jamaica, Roslyn, Bay- Shore, Bronx Parlz,
Tarrytown, Beecihhurst, Peek-skill, Rye, Fisi:ill, Croton-on-Hudson,
PoughE:eepsie, Staatsburg, Clermont, Red Hook, Katonah, Port Chester,
Bedford, Bre-ster, Cold Spring, LIilton, Wallkill, Pine Bush, and
Bloo-qingburg.
Pennsylvania.--Stoverd.le, Bainbridge, Chalfont, Center Square, 'Test
Chester, Re2din.g, Hershey, Sunbur::, and Bangor.

The Division of Forest Insects is very much interested in obtaining all
possible records of the occurrence of this beetle and, as other insects may
also be able to trans-it the Dutch elm disease fungus, this office will
welcome notes on all insects attacking elm, especially if accompanied by
spiecimens of the insects for identification. (.7illiam Middleton, Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U. S. D. A.)

SCREW W0I.S

Late in the summer of 1933 scr-v.- worms (Cocl.ism--i. a-e-ricana Cushing
and Patton and C,. macellaria Fab.) occurred as serious pests of livestock
in a number of counties in southern Georgia and northern Florida. In May
1934 infestations began to be reported in this general area, and as the
season advanced the injury by the pests spread widely over the Southern
States and appeared in isolated areas in the :'orth Central States. At the
close of the season the screr worms had ap[-Ered as important nests of live-
stock in 57 counties in Florida and 120 counties in Georgia. In the southern
third of South Carolina and throughout the southern half of Alabama,
Mississippi, and Louisiana the infestation vas also severe. Heavy losses










were e:-:-erie.iced in the coastal region ol ?e:-as, thus connecting the newly
infested Crea in the Southeast with the norially infested area in Texas. The
number of screw worm cases in the western part of Texes and west !rd through
:e"' iMexico, Arizona, and California during 1934 w.s anpzrently fo .ie-hat below
normal for that region. This was due doubtless in a Ir e crt to the
drough.t. The appearance of the screw worm as a nest of livestock: in north-
vestern Iova and southern and central Indiana is noteworthy. The infestation
in Iowa centered in Plymouth County and extended into WoodWury ::2 arts of
Monona and Cherolkee Counties. Vetrln:'.ia:s reported that they treated about
330 cases in Iowa. The screw worm ',-- resent in limited numbers in the
vicinity of Sioux Falls, S. Dal:. Specimens collected from a '- from a
number of coses were definitely identified by E.0 F. nipling as C. a-E:'icana.
In Indiana definite records of screw worm' occ rrence were obtained from
Lawre.ice, Hendrick's, and Mont ornery Counties. Specimens reared fr:n wounds
proved that C. no.oricanra w-r.s involved.

A brief survey of south-central and western Tennessee by 0. G. Babcocl-
late in the season indicated that a limited number of cases occurred in that
area, and a survey made by E. 7. Lea':e in southern Louisiana showed that the
infest-tion of cattle in seven pa:rishes ranged from.1 to 15 percent. The in-
festation a-nong hoisrs and mules in the sase area was found to have the same
percentage range. The infestation amono' sheep ranted from 1 to 40 -ercent
and aionJ horn's from 3 to 25 percent.

Accurate figures on the number of cases occurring in different types of
animals were obtained by D. C. Parman and his associates in 21 counties in
southern Mississippi. This survey indicated" that 12 percent of all animals
in the counties were infested, the percentpJe by different s-ecies of animals
being as follows: Cattle 11, sheep 15, ,or.ts. 6, horses and -mules 9, hours
11, and do-s 14. Somewhat similar percentages of infestation were reported
from Gbe' ria by W17. E. Dove and from Florida by 7. V. King.

It 'as been found practically impossible to arrive at a reasonably
accurate estimate of the death loss of livestock in invaded territories.
Reports obtained from a considerable number of county a.:ents in Georgia in-
dicated the death loss in 86 counties of that State to be over 50,000 head.
(F. C. 3ishopp, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Qu-rantine, U. S. D. A.)

B3LFALO GNATS

Aheavy infestation of Buffalo -:nats (Si-ullm-n sPp.) occurred in the
Ohio River bottoms of Kentuclcy and in east-centrJl Arkc nsas during the last
wck in April. In Ar3:ansas 100 head of -ales were killedd in one county alone
and the total number of deaths in the State w-s esti-.ated at 50) head.







- 347 -


NEW AiM LITTLE-KiTOWI PE3TS

The coreid Phthia picta Drury w-as re-orted as very destructive to
tomato near Eagle Pass, Maverick County, Tex., during the fall. A sin-lar
occurrence in the fall of 1892, at Bexar, Bexar County, Tex., vas recorded
by Riley and Howvrard (Insect Life, April 1893: 282). Van DIizee, in his
Catalogue of the Hemiptera of America North of Mexico, lists the insect from
California. Z. A. Schwarz (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., I: 224) records finding
the insect attaching tomato near Biscayne Bay and Lake Worth, Fla. It is
very comrnon in the West Indies, here it injures solanaceous plants and
sometimes attacks cotton,

The leafhop-ner Cicadula maidis De Long and Wolcott was described in
1923 from a specimen collected on corn in Puaerto Rico. It also occurs in
Cuba. Its first appearance in the United States was in San Bernardino
County, Calif., in 1.935, and it was found on corn in Los Angeles Ccunty in
1934. A survey v:as conducted that year in California and the leafl-onper
was found to be porebent in Santa Barbara, Kern, San Bernardino, Ventura, Los
Angeles, Orange, Riverside, and San Diego Counties.

A cryptorhynchid weevil was discovered attacking rejpers (Ca-osicum sp.)
in Dade Counqty, f.la-., in November 1931, and was re-oorted again in 1'bvember
1933, when it was deter-uined ss Colla.bis;Mdes cubae Boh, This constitutes
the first record of this weevil in the United States. It is recorded as
occasionally attacking peppers in Cuba.

A bost:'Ichid, Stenl-.0pch2_ s "acificus Csy., was discovered eating holes
in apples in Chelen County, Was,, in Septenber. This is the first time this
insect has been observed damaEaging fruit.

Periclista hicoriae Rohw. was described from specimens collected from
Hicoria _grXra at Charteroak, Huntingdon County, Pa., in May 1914. In April
1931 the sa fly was discovered attaclinC pecan along the coast of !.ississippi.
In 1934 it was re--orted as occurring there in great abundance over a con-
siderable territory.

A nyralid, Pachyzancia periusalis 1il-., ;.s reported as attacl-ing
tomato in greenhouses, and tomato and cggplnt in fields near Experinent,
Ga. This insect has been recorded in literature as occurring on various
species of solanaceous plants in the Gulf States from Florida to Louisiana.

The A-iatic scale insect Odon:'ric penicillata Gr.een, 1nown as a pest of
bamboo in China, Ceylon, and Irnjis, has been reported on a few occasions in
Louisiana. During 1934 this pest was recorded as attacking bamboo in
Mi s sis sippio

Parla';oria oleae Colv. was discovered in november 1934 attacding olives
near Friesno Calif'o This scale v's discovered at Baltimore, i'.., in 1027,
attacking (,alifornia rivet, and was reported again this year at Colle&e Park,
Md. During 1932 it was found at Tucson, Ariz., tnere it is now well establish-
ed, and attacks a wide variety of plants, including olive, almond, palms, and
citrus.





-'rii' ERSiTY OF FLORIDA

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