The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00091

Full Text




INSECT PEST SURVEY BULLETIN


No. 14 Supplement No, .


THE SPECIES iND DISTRIBUTION OF GRASSHOPPERS RESPOi3SIELE
FOR THE 1934 OUTER


R. L. Shotwell, Assistant Entomologist,
Division of Qereal and Forage Insect Investigations,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture.]/


In connection wLith the grasshopper control campaign of 1934,. an adult
grasshopper survey was made in the more heavily infested States during the
latter part of. July and the month of August to determine the results of the
poisoning operations and to locate areas where grasshoppers were still abundant
and where eggs might be found during the fall egg survey. Considerable data
were also obtained regarding the species responsible for the outbreak and their
relative abundance in some of the more common grasshopper habitats.

DOPINATITT SPECIES IN IOI TN ', VORT I DiKOTA, SOUTH DAKOTA, AN!D 'YO.'li.

In Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming, specimens were col-
lected in typical environment by State leaders and their assistants. From
5 to 20 collections, representative of the grasshopper population of a certain
habitat, were made in each county. The specimens were killed-in radiator
alcohol and dried and preserved between sheets of paper toweling. A record was
kept of the location and kind of environment. These-specimens were waterr
identified and counted to determine the percentage of each species in the total
number collected in each habitat. The collections from these-four States in-
cluded 44,700 specimens. The data were then grouped according to the gecgrarh-
ical distribution and habitat.


-./The writer is indebted to the following State leaders who cooperated
in making the survey of abundance of adult grasshoppers or in furnishing infor-
mation regarding dominant species in their States:' E. D. Ball, Arizona;
Stewart Lockwood, California; S. C. :'cCampbell, Colorado; Claude rakeland,
Idaho; C. J. Drake, Iowa; G. A. Dean, Kansas; Ray Hutson, Michigan; A. G. Rug-
gles, Minnesota; A. L. Strand, Montana; 0. S. Bare, Nebraska; G. C. Schweis,
Nevada; J. R. Eyer, New Iexico; F. D. Butcher, North Dakota; D. C. Mote,
Oregon; A. L. Ford, South Dakota; \., W. Henderson, Utah; E. L. Chambers, Wis-
consin; C. Le Corkins, Wyoming.
-299-
IJBRARY
!TA' t PLANT HARD







-300-


Each of the four States was subdivided into districts. This sub-
division was based on a general knowledge of the difference in topography,
crops, climatic conditions, plant associations, ana differences in the normal
distribution of dominant species' of grasshoppers.

North Dakota

District 1. Eastern. Counties east of the 99th meridian. Preirie or tell-
grass region.

District 2, Northern and western. Counties north of 48 latitude end west
of 99 longitude. Plains or short-grass region.

District 3.9 Southern and western. Counties south of 480 latitude and west of
99 longitude.. Plains or short-gross region.

South Dakota

District loe Northeastern. Counties east of 990 longitude, and north of
44.20 latitude. Prairie.or tall-grass region.

District 2, Southeastern. Counties east of 99 longitude, and south of
44.2 latitude.. Prairie or tall-grass region.

District 3. Central. Counties between 99 longitude and 102 longitude.
Short-Crass re( ion.

District 4. Western. Counties west of 102 longitude. Short-grass and
yellow pine .region, also Black Hills area.

Wyoming
4
District 1. Eastern. Counties east of the Big Horn !Iounteins nd 107 longi-
tude in the northeast, and east of the Laramie Mountsins and 1060 longitude
in the southeast. Short-grass region.

District 2. Western. Counties west of district 1. Sagebrush region.

Montana

District 1. Western and mountain. Counties irrer: lately east of the Conti-
nental Divide to the ll8th meridian in the north, then south to the Missouri
River, east to 108.5 longitude, and south to the border. Short-grass and
lodgepole pine area.

District ?. Northern and eastern, Counties north of the Missouri River from
the 112th meridian east. Short-grass region.

District 3. ELbstern. Counties south of the Miscojuri River nnd'east of 108.5
longitude.







-301-


TYPICAL -ZYVhIOi Mi iTS IN 'jHIOH COLLECTIONS WtRE HADE

Collections were made only in the most common grasshopper habitats in
each .district. These were:

1. Small grain.--.h=at, oats, rye, barley.

2. Legumes.--.jilfalfa, sweetclover, peas.

3e Corn*.

*4 Flax.*,

5. Roadside.--INative grasses, Russian-thistle (Salsola pestifer), ragweed
(Amnbrosia sp.), wild lettuce (Lactuca sp.),- lambsquarters (Chenopodium
sp.), sunflower (Helianthus sp.), pigweed (Amaranthus sp.), gumweed
(Grindelia squarrosa), sagebrush (Artemesia sp.)

6. Weedy patches.--Native grasses and the same weeds as in roadside en-
vironmnients.

7. Russian-thistle mats.--Mostly, pure stands,.

8. Plains grassland (native grasses of the open range).--Grama grass
S(Bouteloua gracilis), buifalo -r-ss (Bulbilis dactyloides), western
wheatgrass (Agropyron s:4ithii), western neediegrass (Sta comata),
wiregrass (Aristida longiseta), nig-er-wool (Carex filifolis), June-
grass (Koeleria cristata)i.

9. Low-mountain grassland.--Mostly grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis) with
an abundant admixture of ni .._er-wool (Carex filifolia) and junegrass
Koeleria cristata).

10. Pasture grassland.--Fenced and smaller areas of native sod, surrounded
by cropped fields. Here are fIund the native grasses of the plains
grassland and also s me of the tall prairie grasses, bluestem bunch
grass (.hndropogon furcatus), bluestem sod grass (i. scoparius), needle-
grass (Stipa spartea), and slender wheatsrass (Agropyron tenerum).

The greatest differences are between the cultivated crop environments
and the grassland habitats. There were two reasons for considering the crops
separately: First, the species of grasshoppers show distinct preferences for
certain crops. By separating the crops important preferences are emphasized.
Secondly, crops vary in their importance and abundance from one district to
another.

The grassland areas were divided into plains, low-mountain grasslands,
and pasture grasslands. Plains and low-mountaiin grasslands include the open
ranges and are kept separate because of their topography. The plains grass-
lands occur in lower and more level regions, whereas the low-mountain grasslands
are in the higher aid hilly regions. Pasture grassland consists of native
sodlands, fenced into small units of less than 8o acres rnd surrounded by







-302-


cultivated crops. These small areas of native sod pasture are bound to be
influenced by adjoining crops. Therefore, they are treated as distinct from
open-range grasses. :

Many collections were nade alone. roadsides bordering two or more dis-
tinct types of vegetation. These roadsides contain a mixture of native grass-
es and weeds, with somewhat similar flpra throughout, 'Because of this'similari-
ty, they are considered as a distinct habitat. Many farms contain waste land
and weedy pastures covered with grasses and weeds. These are also considered
as a distinct environment and are called weedy patches.

Most of the crops in the drought-stricken areas were destroyed early
by the lack of moisture, Such heavy stands of pure Russian'thistle had sprung
up that the originri crops cquld not be recognized. There were thousands of
acres of Russian-thl'istle mats all over-the Dakotas, These were also treated
as representing a separate -environmental condition. .'

DISTRIBUTION BY STATES OF TME GRASSHOPPZRS IN TYPICAL ETVIRO1TNTS

The distribution for each State of the species in each of the ten en-
vironments and the frequency, with which eech species occurs are shown irn tables
1 to 10. The distribution is given in terms of percentage of the total number
of specimens coll.epctea in each habitat. The species are listed and their rela-
tive abundance given for each of the ten environment in all the districts.

Certain habitats are not listed for all States and districts. In some
habitats such as corn and flax environments,.the crop was of minor importance
in certain rex ions. Practically no lo:.'-mountain grassland occurs in Iorth
Dakota and some of the other districts. In other places, collections were not
made along roadsides and in pastures. Thereiore, there are gaps for the dis-
tricts where certain environments were not considered.











-303-


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DOIMTJArIT SPECIES BY STATES


Only a few of the most important species, selected because of their
greater abundance and economic importance, will be discussed.

North Dakota

The dominant and most important grasshoppers in this State were
Melanoplus mexicanus Sauss. and Camnula pellucida Scudd. The former was
abundant in the western part of the State, reaching its peak in the northwest-
ern district (district 2) where it composed 64.8 percent of the total number
of grasshoppers collected in small grain. It was also a major species in
flax (27 to 41 percent), abundant in corn (14 to 26 percent), and numerous in
grasslands (14 to 25 percent). Camnula pellucida was most abundant in eastern
and northeastern North Dakota (district 1), where it formed over half the
grasshopper population along roadsides (77.6 percent) and in small grain (54
percent)* Although abundant in the middle and western portions of the State,
it constituted less than 10 percent of the total number of grasshoppers col-
lected. Melanoplus femur-rubrum De G. was next in abundance in cropped
fields. In alfalfa it composed from 15 to 36 percent of the total number of
grasshoppers, in flax 20 to 25 percent, and was numerous in corn and small
grain. M. packardii Scudd. and Ageneotettix deorum Scudd. were also fairly
abundant throughout the entire State.

Two species of grasshoppers of major importance in past outbreaks have
now greatly decreased in numbers. These are Melanoplus bivittatus Say and M.
differentialis Thos. ::. bivittatus was most abundant in the eastern part of
the State. M. differentialis, formerly numerous in the southern and south-
western portions, has almost disappeared. This change is probably due to
recent extreme heat and drought. Eggs of M. differentialis have been known
to dry out under such circumstances, possibly because they are laid in the
crowns of grass clumps close to the soil surface. Both of these species have
a distinct preference for succulent food and cannot live through extreme
drought.

In the grasslands Ageneotettix deorum Scudd., Mestobregma kiowa Thos.,
Opeia obscura Thos., Phlibostroma luadrimaculatum Thos., Melanoplus infantilis
Scudd., and Encoptolohus costalis Scudd. were abundant. Together with M.
mexicanus and Camnula pellucida they were the species of economic importance
in the range and pasture lands.

South Dakota

Most of the crops in South Dakota were destroyed by drought and were
replaced by Russian-thistle, In the small grain that was left Melanoplus
mexicanus was the dominant species, racing from 24 percent of the total
population in the northeastern part (dist ict 1) to 60 percent in the central
part (district 3). No other species w:s nearly so abundant. In alfalfa in
the central part (district 3) and the western part (district 4), it constituted
79 percent of the total number. Melanoplus bivittatus and h. differentialis,
which were responsible in 1931 for the destruction of crops in a 30,000-
square mile area ran only from 2 to 8 percent in all but the southeastern part








-318-


(district 2). The great hordes of these grasshoppers have disappeared over
the greater part of the State. Melanoplus differentialis was abundant, how-
ever, in the southeastern district (district 2)in corn and weedy pastures
and alonL roadsides. It comprised *trom 29 to 49 percent of the total num-
ber of grasshoppers collected in these habitats. Over most of the State
Ageneotettix decorum was much more abundant than either M. differentialis or
M. bivittatus, ranking next to M. mexiconus. Melanoplus packardii was
fairly nu=rous an6 generally distributed. Camnula pellucida occurred in
the northeastern district (district 1) and at the first oof the season was
abundant and dominant in the wIestern districtt) or mountain areas. Vigor-
ous control measures reduced its numbers by 80 percent in most of the western
area. :.:elanoplus femur-rubrum did not occur abundantly and was found mostly
in alfalfa.

In the grasslands, Ageneotettix deorum, 'estobregma kiowda, Phlibostroma
quadrimaculatum, and Drepanopterna femoratum Scudd. were most abundant.
Melanoplus mexicanus was numerous in the central portion and Camnula
pellucida was dominant in the low-mountain'grassland. Mestobrbgma kiowa was
dominant in the native sod pastures, making up from :41 -to 5d percent of the
total population. In pastures suffering from severe drought, where-the grass
was burned up and overgrazed, this -species was fairly abundant (8 per square
yard) even though the foliage seemed insuffici-ent to support th-e most meager
population. M. kiowa has been called the pasture grasshopper and is rightly
named.

In the thousands of. acres of Russian-thistle ,'!. mexicanus was by far
the most abundant species, constituting from 43 to 67'percent of the total
grasshopper population. The next in abundance here was igeneot-ettix decorum
making up from 4 to 10 percent. *
i
Wyoming "

In small grains lMelanoplus mexicanus was dominant at 18 percent; fol-
lowed closely by i&eneotettix decorum, at 15 percent; M. bivittatus,13 percent$
Sfemur-rubrum.n, 11 percent; and Aulocara elliotti Thos.,ll percent. Earlier
in the season, Camnula pellucidawas abundant, especially in the north-
ecstern part. There was a terrific slaughter of this particular species,
together with M. m'exicanus and Me bivittatus, in the poisoned-bait campaigns.
Observers recorded, time and again, tha finding of countless numbers of dead
grasshoppers on the ground. This disturbed the normal balance for the dif-
ferent species here, as well as in all other districts where intensive control
rmoasurez had been in force.

Alfalfa is an Imrortant forage crop in Wyoming. l.elanoilus m'nexicaniius
was the species most numerous in this crop at 31 percent in the eastern dis-
trict (district 1), and M. feinur-rubrum' at 37 percent was dominant in the
western district (district 2). Ageneotettix deorum rn.:ed next, at 13 per-
cent in the eastern part, and M.packardii at 22 percent 'in the western part.
Ca-nul3 pellucida formed about 2 percent of tl-d population in the eastern part
and jumped to 13 percent in the western district.

Viyoming is an Important stock-raising Stnte, and large grazing areas








.. -319-


have been seriously damaged by grasshoppers. A great deal of interest has
been aroused regarding the control of grasshopppers and the kinds found in
grazing lands. From collections made here, it seems that Ageneotettix
decorum was most abundant, running from 28 to 44 percent of the total popula-
tion in the open range of the plains and 27 percent in the pastures.
Melanoplus mexicanus was the most abundant in the low-mountain grasslands at
43 percent. Other important species of the grasslands were Camnula pellucida,
M. packardii, M. infantilis, and Drepanopterna femoratum. Of course, there
were numerous other kinds of lesser importance, but all contributed their part
to the havoc wrought on the grazing land.

Montana

It was in this State, the old home of Melanoplus spretus Thos., that
M. mexicanus reached its greatest abundance and its highest rank over other
species. In the great wheat areas it constituted from 47 to 70 percent of
the total grasshopper population in small grains. The species next in rank
were M. femur-rubrum and M. packardii, both at 4 to 9 percent. M. infantilis
was next, ranging from 2 to 5 percent. M. mexicanus was also the most
abundant species in alfalfa and sweetclover, ranging from 30 percent in the
counties bordering the mountains to 72 percent in the eastern counties south
of the Missouri River. In these crops M. femur-rubrum ran from 12 percent of
the total population in the eastern district (district 3) to 39 percent in the
western district (district 1).

In the severe 1923 outbreak Melanoplus bivittatus was abundant in
alfalfa and sweetclover all along the Yellowstone Valley. This year it com-
posed only 0.5 percent of the populations in these crops. In the irrigated
valleys of the mountain district it increased to 3.8 percent*

Montana, like Viyonin&, has large Erazing tracts, which have been
severely (damaged by Erasshoppers. On these grazing lands, Melanoplus
mexicanus was most numerous, ranging from 7 percent in the mountain counties
to 45 percent of the total population in the eastern districts. Melanoplus
infantilis was next in importance, its abundance ranging from 4 percent in
the eastern part to 26 percent in the mountain district. Other abundant
grasshoppers were iAgeneotettix decorum, at 5 to 9 percent; Drepanopterna
femoratum, 2 to 12 percent; Mestobregma kiowa, 4 to 13 percent; and Phlibostroma
quadrimaculaturn, 1 to 17 percent. The last was most abunctant on the :razing
lands in the northern wheat district. Other species found were Opeia obscura,
Phoetaliotes nebrascensis Thos., Melanoplus packardii, and Encoptolophus
costalis Scudd. Camnula pellucida was very abundant in the mountain dis-
tricts, making up from 12 to 26 percent of the total number,

In Southeastern Montana Melanoplus confusus Scudd. was dominant on the
range land early in the season. It had reached its maturity early in May
and by the middle of July had practically disappeared. It must, however, be
considered as an important range species.










-520-


SUMMARY O O THE DISTRTBUTIJON FOF (RASWOFPER3 FCuJfTD IN"
'TT :TT''TYPICAL EINVIfE.NTS : : .
a
In table 11 is given' the dfitribhution of species by percent ag's of the
total numbers collected in each, of the 10 typical environmients6 This table
summarizes the distribution of the species' through all..o.f- the habitat. This
facilitates the making of 'direct comparisons between these environments for any
one spec es .' .. .. : .....

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-323-


In order to shorten the discussion of the grasshoppers found in each
of the environments selected in Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and
,'.yorniing, the most abundant species have been listed, together wi-th their per-
centages of the total number of specimens. collected in. each environment. The
percentages are expressed in round numbers.


Small grain


Legumes


1.
2.
3*
4.
' 5


Percent
Melanoplus mexicanus------ 43
Camnula pellucida---------- 17
Melanoplus femur-rubrum- --- 9
ITelnnoplus packardii----- 4
Melanoplus bivittatus----- 3
All others----------------- 24


Corn


1. Melanoplus mexicanus------
2. i'Telanoplus femur-rubrum---
3. Ageneotettix deorum-------
4. Melanoplus gladstoni-----
SMelanoplus differentialis--
SAll others----------------

Roadside

l. Melanoplus mexicanus------
2* Caminula pellucida---------
3. Ageneotettix deorum------
4. MIelanoplus differentialis--
1. Melanoplus packardii------
* All others----------------

Russian-thistle

1. Melanoplus mexicanus------
2. IJelanoplus femur-rubrum---
3* Ageneotettix deorum------
4* Melanoplus packardii------
. Melanoplus angustipennis---
. All others----------------


.Percent
Melanoplus.mexicanus -------- 37
Melangplus femur-rubrum----- 25
IMelanoplus packardii--------- 7
Camnula pel-lucida----------- 5
Ageneotettix deorum--------- 5
All others----------------- 21


F3Px


Melanoplus miexicanus-------
Melanoplus femur-rubrum----
Camnula pellucida----------
Melanoplus bivittatus------
Melanoplus packa'dii-------
Alt'.others-----------------


Weedy patches


1.
2.
3.
4.
5


Melanoplus mexicanus-------
Ageneotettix deorum--------
Phi.bostroma quadrimaculatum
Melanoplus femur-rubrum----
Phoet.aliotes nebrascensis---
A11 others-----------------


Plains grassland


Ageneotettix deorum--------
Melanoplus mexicanus-------
Mestobregma kiowa----------
Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum
Drepanopterna femoratum----
ODeia obscura-------------
All others-----------------


Low-mountain grassland


Pasture grassland


Melanoplus mexicanus-------
Camnula pellucida------- ---
Ageneotettix deorum-----
Mestobregma kiowa----------
Drepanopterna femoratum---.
Phlibostroma quadrimaculaturn
All others-----------------


Mestobregma kiowa----------
Ageneotettix dedruM--------
Melanoplus mexicanus-------
Phlibostroma quadrimaculatum
Melanoplus femur-rubrum----
11 others-----------------






-324-


** TI AdJOR SPECIES OF GRASSHCPPERS IN OTHER STATES

For all States other than Tiontana, ;orth Dakota, South: Dakota, and
Wyoming, the .information' ie based on reports. in which only dominant and major
species were recorded either at each point of observation' or for the State as
a whole* .

S .... Michigan

The report for this State was furnished by the State leader and was
divided. into two- parts, one for the Upper Peninsula and the other for the
Lower Peninsula counties. In-these, reports the one dominant species was re-
corded at. each place surveyed. These dominant species are.J!isted in order
with the. .number of times they eachli were recorded as being the most abundant.

Upper Peninsula counties .

1& Camnula pellucida---- ---------- 90
2. Melanoplus mexicanus -----------------...-- 42
.'

S Lower Pen.insula coun.ties- .... -
'e "' i' .. ll5.' *
.. Melanoplus mexi nus-----------... 115
2. Melanoplus femur-rubrum-.--.--------.--- 20.
53 Camnula pellucida----------------------- 14
4. Arphia tenebrosa ------------------------ 4
.* Ahia salphurea----------------------- 1
SSpharagenion sp.------------------------- 1

In the Upper Peninsula Camnula pellucida is dominant, whereas Me3lano-
plus mexicanus is most abundant in the Lower Peninsula, with C. pellucida rank-
ing third and M. femur-rubrum second. The Upper Peninsula is rugged mountain-
ous "old land" not completely worn down by erosion, and the Lower Peninsul. is
a portion of the old coastal plain with the soil varying from a light sandy
loam in the north-central part to a dark clay loam in the southwest and south-
east. This may explain the difference between the dominant species found in
the Upper anad the Lower Peninsulas.

Wisconsin .

In Wisconsin the State le:.ider recorded the three major species in the
order of their abundance at each point surveyed. These are listed below ac-
cording to the number of times they ranked first, second, and third.

First in abundance

1. Crimnula- pellucida----------------------- 295
2. Melanoplus- mexicariu --------------------- 74
3. Pissostelra carelina------------- b
4, Melanoplus bivittatus -------- -- 2











Second in abundance

1. Melanoplus mexicanus -------------------
2. Camnula pellucida------ ---------- ---------- 24
3* Dissosteira carolina---- --------------------- 9
4. Melanoplus femur-rubrum--------------------- 6
5. Melanoplus bivittatus- ----------------------- 5


Third in abundance

1. Melanoplus bivittatus ----------------------- 19
2. Dissosteira carolina------------------------ 9
3. Ilelanoplus mexicanus------------------------ 4
4. Camnula pellucida----------------------- 1

Camnula pellucida was by far the dominant grasshopper in this State.

California

The following information was obtained from a report made by C. C.
Wilson, of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, Sacramento, Calif.
In California Camnula pellucida was the dominant species on grazing lands, with
Oedaleonotus enigma ranking second# Melanoplus fiemnur-rubrum was most abundant
in alfalfa and irrigated crops, with M. mexicanus next. In some sections M.
differentialis and M. marginatus were numerous,

The important species for the States not previously mentioned are list-
ed in the order of their abundance. These data are based on F report by B. M1.
Gaddis, of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, of the results of a
questionnaire sent to each State:

Minnesota

1. Camnula pellucida
2. Melanoplus bivittatus
Melanoplus mexicenus
4 Mielanoplus packardii
5. Dissosteira carolina
Helanoplus femur-rubrum

Nebraska


1. Melianoplus -bivittatus
2. '.:elanoplus differentialis
3. >'elanoplus mexicanus
4.e iulocara elliotti








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Idaho

1. Melanoplus mexicanus -..
2. Melanoplus bivittatus '
3. Camnula pellucida

Colorado .....

1. MelanQplus differantialis
2. Melanoplus mexicanus
3. Melanoplus femur-rubrum

...Kansas "

1. Melanoplus different ialis
2. Melanoplus bivittatus
3. i Telanoplus mexicanus

Nevada

1. Melanoplus mexicanus
2. Carmnuln pellucida
3. Melanoplus bivittatus

Utah

l. Camnula pellucida
2. Melanoplus 7e1xicanus
3. Melanoplus f6mur-rubrum
4. Melanoplus packardii
lMelanoplus bivittatus
i[ Aulocara elliotti

Oregon

l. Camnula pelHucida
2. M1elanoplus fcmur-rubr'um
3. Melinoplus bivittatus
4. lIvelanoplus mexicanus

DI3CUSSI011

The survey indicates that Melanoplus mexicanus was the most widespread
and destructive to crops of all the Crasshopper species concerned in the out-
break. Carimla pellucida came next. Even on the Frazing lands, both these
species wers of great Importance. C, pellucida occurred in fgrestest abundance
at higher elevations or in more northern latitudes. Two other species,
Melanoplus bivittatus end M. differentials, very important in past outbreaks,
have all but disappeared in the areas of heavy drought. 7h:se tv.o species
bQan building up in 1928 in the :;totes of North and South Dakota, and reached
their peek of abundance and widespread destruction in the outbreaks of 1931
and 1932. Durint- these years weather conditions, altl.ough somewhat hot rnd










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dry, permitted an abundance of food in the form of succulent crops. As
drought increased in 1933 and 1934 and crops were ruined, these two species
decreased almost to the vanishing point. Native grasses in this drought-
stricken area were better able to withstand dry conditions than cultivated
crops. M. mexicanus and C. pellucida withstood the drought because they are
better adapted to feeding on dry native grass than are either M. bivittatus or
M. differentialis, which are ;nore adapted to cultivated crops and build up in
abundance in cultivated areas. These changes greatly affect the method and
extent of control measures. Melanoplus mexicanus lays its eggs over a much
wider area than does either Canmula pellucida, M. bivittatus, or M. differ-
entialis. This means that larger areas have to be poisoned, involving more
material and machine scattering to cover the ground. On the other hand,
Camnula pellucida, Melanoplus bivittatus, and 1. differentialis localize their
eggs along headlands, ditch banks, roadsides, and pastures ana for this reason
can be more easily controlled.

Surveys to determine. the species and distribution of grasshoppers are
of great importance. Knowing the economic species and their preferred
habitats, egE surveys can be concentrated where eets are most likely to be
found and, as a result, more accurate estimates can be made in regard to con-
trol measures that will be needed the following year.






UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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