|Table of Contents|
THE INSECT PEST SURVEY
A periodical review of entomological conditions throughout the United States
issued on the first of each month from March to December, inclusive.
I- i -
Summary for 1929
BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY
THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL
ATE PLANT BOAf
Digitized by the Internet Archive
INSECT ?P ST SURVEY BULLET IN
Vol. 9 Surzmnary for 19279 IZo.10
TR OD7C T.ION
The year 1929 was characterized over most of the country by unusual
cold in late winter; warm weather in aErly spring, and cool later; a
snmmer nearly normal in temperature, and dry in the later part; and a
fall in -hich drought was relieved in .3ost, but not dll, of the country,
and in which severe cold 7avas came unusually early.
January and Jebruary rere belo"- normal in temperature except in the
Atlantic States, and approached lo'7 records in the North Central and
iMountain States. January sno'-fell ras :eavy in the North, whereas
February rainfall '"as excessive in the South-east and deficient in the
March and early April were above normal `n tempercture except in some
western aress. In :.:arch the veat-_er wcs -ener,-lly more than normally warm,
and in the Gulf region there -ere disastrous e.icesses in temperature. ..
was beloi- normal in temrrerature except in the jar ',:est, 'ith uneven
rainfall, rhich ras especially deficient in California and hJevada, and
excessive in the Cotton Belt and the Centrjl States.
June was some-.'at cooler than usual in the Soutlhwest and. in a few
small areas. Jaly was nearly normal in temperature, and Aui-ust "7rS
slightly below normal in the Lsst and above normal in the est. In June
the rainfall was excessive in the low-er Lissouri Valley F-n. deficient in
the spring-_'.eat re zion of Texas. In late July cnd in ,uust rainfall
was deficient over much of the country.
In September the northern 7reot plains wer_. especially cool and
temperatures -ere lo7er than usual except in the 11ortheast and Southwest,
-.ere heat sas excessive in m-ny -Alaces ecrly in the month. The drouTht
"as relieved in Sepotember and Cctober in most of the eastern tnd ccntr:.l
ereas, and rains were excessive in the Southxsst. A hurricane passed
over the Gulf Coast late in September. The most marked feature of late
fall was the -eroistence of dry reatler in the pacific Northwest. In the
cold waves the tea:ereture was Pround zero in the l-orth Centrcl States and
reached freezing elon- the Julf coast and in northern Florida.
_ ; -; T FI"
The :ntomolorical feature of most -ner~l concern for the past
season was the discovery of the Ye.iterrane-;,n fruit fly (Cer-titis
cP-it-ta 'Tied.) 'elll et-blish:d in a district of considerable size in
central FloridF. On April 6 thz first specimens were discovered at
Orlando and by May 1 it has been found in the six counties continuous
to Orange County. By June 1 the insect had bean found from iutnam
County on the north to Brevard, Osceola, and Polk Counties on the south
and from the .tlntic co^t -est'-rd to Suter County. During. 1.=y and
June infe:te. loridp. fruits -._ich :_,d been s:i:ped from tnit State before
the Federal ,uarentine ras issued on -^ril 26 rer: found, in sever?1
eastrn ciis from '-coria norti-_-rd to Yori': nd .-cross t-c 3-ulf
Co-st to Tx:Es. In Jun: a nuvbcr of &-dditi.n:1 li o-tly infested -oints in
Flori&- -era discovered extecnding the kno"n infested district northerard to
St. Johns County znd 'estwrard to th, ;ulf nemr ."ampa. Du.-n July but
little additional territory was found to be infested, end no infested
Florida fruit .as reported during this month from outside of the State.
During August only eight properties ;were found infe-sted, and bt.twecn
August 27 and the end of the year but one infested fruit was found
throughout the entire knovn previously infested district. The very
r:markabl eradication campaign has been very amply tr.-atod in other
During, June rather intense infestations, of grasshop3ers (Acrididae)
occurred in c-ntral Nelbraska and in the Gulf States, cnd the eastern
lubber Ervsshopopr (Romalea mico ot-r.- 3 .au.) ras doing considerable
&dcm,_-e in scatt.rcd localities, As the :eason d.ve.nced, limited out-
brek.s develon.'d in southern North Dakota and artss of South Dakota, and
small outbreaks over a wide district in central Texasc *cre rZported.
During the late summer these insects became quits jenr.rally destructive
over the :reatcr part of the East Central, ,.*est CentrEl, and iorth
Central States and nflictod rather noavy damaa;e in scatter-ed localities
throu-hout the r- ion of the Rocky 2'.ountains an.' the 'Jr.-at 3ain. By
the end of the season outor es ha,4 d~vlopd in the -reat flins area
of North Dakota and :.ontana, .roducinc a rath-e.r serious prose:.ct for
The situation regarding white grub~t (Phyllophaga app.') was as a
rhole, very favorable, little damage bein- reported from any suctioa
of the country. Defoliation by the be&tl-s in -:rtic.lly all of the
upper Mississi-ni /:1ll:y, .ort: Centrl, rn;- -.-st Central Statzs
indicates the possibility of a more serious situation next year,
Wirceorms (Zlatoridae) attracted considerable attention throughout
practically the-entire United States, several species being involved in
different parts of the country. Heteroderes laurentii Guer. was more
numerous in southern Alabama than at any time during the last few years.
Serious depredations by several species of Pholctes were reported from
Idaho, Washington, and California. In one place in Idaho these insects
occasioned a loss of $125 per acre on potatoes oring to the lowering of
the grade of the crop. As the season advanced serious depredations by
species of Agriotes and Melanotus wore reported from the New England,
:iddle Atlantic, East Central, and .:est Central States. In the South
Atlantic States, especially in South Carolina, Horistonotus uhlori,
Horn was very destructive.
PLAIIIS FL.3S -aI R O.CRM
The plains false viro-orm (Eleodcs opaca Say) did very little d ,age
throughout its entire range this season.
During January and February cutworms (Noctuidae) occasioned con-
siderable trouble in the trucking districts of Texas and Alabama. As
the spring advanced trouble was reported quite generally over the country,
but no abnormal developments were reported until June, 7hen a larz. area
extcndin.-: ovsr southeastern South D/akota,. south-iestern Minn-sota, and
northeastern Iora 'as reported as expzrioecina very serious deprJdations.
During the past season the alfalfa evill (Phytonomus oosticus C-yll.)
has been discovered in Alpine County, Calif., this being an extension
of the area previously kno'm to be infested in the Carson Valley in
Ivada. The infestation reported last year in Lasson County, Calif.,
is knot-n to have extended its area about 1 mile. This insect -es found
for the first time in western Oregon at hidford, Jackson County. This
is presumably a commercial j'ux-, as the n-arest known infestation is
some 200 miles distant. A survey indicated that this infestation in
Oregon extended to Central' Point on the north and to Phoenix on the
south and about 2 mil.s to the west of Medford and 2-1/2 miles east of
that city. Grtnd County, Utah, was also found to be infested this year.
The report last year of an infestation in Scott's Bluff County, Nebr.,*
should have been Sioux County, the field bcing over the county line.
There has been practically no economic dcama.e in any part of the infested
ra this y--er. The reports of -reatest abu.idance wero from ::illard
County, Utah, and Moffat County, Colorado. (C.-rwal and ?ora;e Insect
Invzti :?.tions U.S.D.A.)
*This refers to the finding of a single larva.
PALL .-:.T,;C !
During May the fall armyw-orm (Laph-:;a fruzincrda S. & A.) .as quite
generally reported over the.. Gulf ..region from Florida and G.-or*ia west'-ard
to Louisiana. tater in the. season i't develop-:i that much -of tr.. damage
attributed to this insect was really occasioned by the velvet-ban
caterpillar. Thousands of acr-s of-crops, ho'-'v*r, esp-cially on over-
flowed lands, were damagd by the fall army orm.
VELVLT-BEAT CATEP I LLAH
About the middle of August the velvet-bean caterpillar (Anticersia
7--.m..atilis Hbn.) 7as appearing in destructive numbers in northern
Florida. 3y the middle of Sptember it had ap-oar,-d in greater nuzb-rs
than ever before in the southern half of Mississippi, Louisicn and
eastern Texas. Strip-in. of soy beans was quite general; co-nas '"r.
only slightly attacked; but.:elvet beans, even -when gro.-n near severe
infestations, wor c apoarently-uninjured. Stands of as -uc': as 100 acres
of soy b._ns "er.j complt tly defoliated.
During the late fall and winter months of 1928 there were indica-
tions of moderate damajc by the Hessian fly (_Phvtoph,,.- d. -truector Sny)
in Illinois, southern Indiana, middle Kentucky, middle Tennessee, central
fennsylvania, and also in northeastern O:laehor.a and south7Lcst-rn and
zPst-ccntral iMlissouri. In the Kansas wheat belt infestations .-or.- lower
han they had ben for several years. As the season advanced it became
evident that this insect w'as very abundant in southern Indi-na, central
,.'l southern Illinois, and central, south central, and southeastern
Kansas. Aft-r the crop was harvested, damage was found to be generally
light throughout the entire wheat belt, with the exception of southern
Illinois, southern Indiana, and tVJo comparatively small districts in
central Kansas. There was a distinct hazard to the early-sown grain in
these districts, although parasitism of the fly in the stubble w'as '-..-avy
in the east-central States. Threatening conditions prevailed also in
northern Kentucky and southern Tennessee. ..h.>n the stubble surveys were
made after harvest, it '"as found that in Ohio the infstationz had
dropped from 13.5 per cent in 1928 to 3.4 per cent in 1929. The fly is
comparatively scarce in the fall-sown wheat of southern ::ichian, north-rn
and central Ohio, and northern, central, and scuth:ast-rn In'iana, and
there is little danger of severe infestation of the crop now on the
ground. In south'7estern Ohio, south-"estern Indiana, sout1,.rn and c-ntral
Illinois, central Kentucky, and central. Tennesse, heavy infestation
developed in uarly-so'n fields. Considerable infestation in volunteer
and early-sow'n -"-cat is also reported from southeastern Nebraskla, central
and southest-rn Kansas, and southw",st.rn and east-c.ntrrl l:issouri.
Throughout the .c.st Central Stat-s emernc. was decidedly in advan.c- of
the recommended safe-sowin,, dat,.s, and sdine -as :en-rally d.layed by
drought. These factors materially relieved the threat of infestation
which nas m-nacing some areas late in the suaimmr, and there is loss
likelihood no7 of serious injury than there vas at this time last year.
The only parts-here conditions appear at all serious are southern and
western Illinois, southwestern Indiana, all of Missouri, central
Kentucky, central T:nncssee, and possibly also central and eastern
Kansas and southeastern Nebraska.
,;HEAT STRAW .,OF.,
The wheat straw: worm (Harmolita -randis Riley) occurred in rather
devastating numbers in central and r'estern Kansas this year. Adults of
the second brood began to emerge late in eMay; and by the end of June a
general outbreak 7as under rway, in many cases 50 per cent of the sternms
being infested. It -as estimated that the Kansas -heat crop of 1929
suffered a loss of from 10,000,000 to 15,000,000 bushels due to the
combined depredations of this insect and the Hessian fly.
Infestations'of the chinch bug (Blissus leuco-ptrus Say) continu-d
at a very low ebb throughout the year. No r-ports "ero. received of any
considerable infestations throu-hout thE 2mo-'n chinch-bu; belt. This
insect vas reported from Lna:t County on th,. southern bor.xr of Mic'.
this year. It is only at intervals of many ycers that this insect
occurs in Michigan in injurious numbers. It put in a rather unusual
appearance in Hartford, Conn., -here it was damaiing lawn grass.
From the midIle of September throughout th. remainder of the fall
there -ere rather heavy infestations of the green bur (Toxopt ra
araminir. Rond.) in Georgia and 1orth Carolina. Deadened areas "-ere
appearing in the grain fields by the middle of November. Late in
Novemb-r this insect was reported as seriously damaging early-sown winter
barley in Butler County and early-sown -heat in i-igs County, Ohio. For
the country as a whole, there .-as no general infestation.
STALK BOR ER
The stalk borer (Papaipema nebris nitela Guen.) -'as abnormally
abundant throughout the New England, idlee Atlantic, past Central, and
West Central States and, though apparently more troublesome than last
year, it did not do so much dera.; as in41927.
CORN EAR ',O0R.!
During the last week in April the corn ear worm (Heliothis obsoleta
Fab.) was reported as unusually abundant in _ast-central Texas, and by
the first ,weOk in LEay it wa3 b. in, quite -r.nerally reported throughout
the Gulf section. Damage by the first-brodi worms from Kansas to Dela-
ware -,sS reported by the last week in June, and rather serious damage
was being reported from the Gulf section to Arizona. By the middle of
July d.-ma-e was beinE reported from the New England, Middle Atlantic, and
East Central States. In the East Central States the dawan-e was about as
severe as in 1927. In 1928 but little trouble as experienced as compared
with normal conditions. By the last week in August the fourth generation
of larvae was appearing in the fields in Texas, and before che end of the
season dc'm&je was quite generally reported in the Mississippi Valley and
the Great Plains as far north as sweet corn is grown.
.,ROT- COI:T BOR=R
In the region of the Great Lakes, where the infestation is of major
interest to the corn belt, 255 townships outside of the previously
quarantined areas have been found this year infested by the European
corn borer (Pyraustp nubilalis Hbn.). Of these, three were in Pennsylvania,
10 in !nest Virginia, 137 in Ohio, and 105 in Indiana. In i.ichigan 59
townships outside of the previously known infested area "-er2 found to
have been invaded. The borer has been found farthest west in ?oone
Township, Porter County, Indiana, and farthest south in Ohio Towns-ip,
on the Ohio River, Gallia County, Ohio. The spread has in generall 'lad a
southward trend for the season and in extent can be considered normal.
This spread is the result of a natural flight of the moths and., of course,
can not be prevented. The entire area kno-'n to be infested includes the
southern portion of Quebec and Ontario, as well as certain localities in
New bruns'7ick and Nova Scotia, in Canada; the southern tVo-thirds of New
England; three localities in northern 1-Te- Jersey; all of r'-' York; three-
fourths of Pennsylvania and Ohio; the Panhandle of 'Vest Virinia; nearly
all of the agricultural portion of Michigan; and the northeastern fourth
of Indiana. For the Great Lakes area, taken as a whole, the past season
can be considered, in general, unfavorable to the corn borer. As a
result, there was only a slight increase in average abundance for the
entire area. In Michigan there was an actual decrease. Somew.hat roughly
speaking, the situation is considered like that of 1926 the year
immediately preceding the bi- clean-up campaign of the spring of 1927.
Given a favorable season, there are enough corn borers present in the
worst infested sections to cause possible trouble in 1930, unless
adequate control measures are practiced. This is particularly true of
that portion of northweste-rn Ohio lying in the M:aumee Valley; this
section will be watched with interest during the season of 1930. Damage
resulting from direct injury by the borer was not observed during the past
season in New York, Pennsylvania, Festt Virginia, or Indiana. The infes-
tations in .,est Virginia and Indiana are so recent that no damage was to
be expected. In Ohio and Michi-gan losses in yield, estimated at from 10
to 30 per cent, were observed in a few fields, -and fields showing traces
of injury -'ere observed in gr--ter numbers than ever before, especially
in northw-estern Ohio. Be ts :ro-n in eastern Lassachusetts arrived on the
Boston market rather badly infested 'nd borers were also found in cut
gladiolus flowers. Slight infestation was re-orted in New ingland-grown
beans. The infestation in the New England market-garden areas was most
pronounced in the vicinity of Woburn, Arlington, Winchester, Dighton,
and Somerset, Mass., and Newport and Bristol Counties, Rhode Island.
(Division of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, Bureau of
Chilo simplex Butl.
Chilo simplex Butl, has been less destructive than formerly in
Hawaii owing to the introduction and spread of natural enemies. The
first crop of rice showed nearly normal yields, but the second was not
The section generally infested by the Japanese beetle (Ponillia
janonica Nem.) was extended in 1929 principally on the north and south.
The section longest occupied, including Riverton end Moorestown, N. J.,
was much less heavily infested than in 1927 and 1928. The heaviest
infestation in New Jersey occurred in the cities of Trenton and
Bordentown and in the townships of Florence, Springfield, and Mansfield
on the north; Monroe, Glassboro, Clayton, Harrison, Mantua, Washington,
Gloucester, 7Jinslow, last Green-ich, and west Deptford on the south. In
Pennsylvania the area of heaviest infestation is more uniform and extends
as a band from 2 to 5 miles 7ide surrounding the city of Philadelphia
starting at a point on the Delaware River bet-&en Bristol, Pa., and
Trenton, N. J.,and swinging westward around the city almost to the
Delaware River again in Darby Township. The area of well established
infestation is now bounded by a line drawn from Point Pleasant on the
New Jersey coast north-estward through the city of New Brunswick, and
westerly to the Delaware River at a point slightly north of Lambertville;
in Pennsylvania the line extends southwesterly through the townships of
Plumstead, Hatfield, Skippack, Upper Providence, Charlestown, Edlemont,
Concord, and Bethel; in Delaware the line extends through the to-nship of
Brandy-ine and the city of Jilminiton and crosses the Delaware River at
New Castle. The line then crosses the southern portion of New Jersey in
almost a direct line to Oceen City on the coast. The damage in 1929 in
the most heavilyy infested areas was about the same in dseree as the
damage in similar areas in 1928. The most striking feature of the year
has been the continued reduction of the beetle population in the central
portion of the infested area. Extensive control cjcpaifns, either as
spraying operations against the adult beetles or in the application of
soil treatment to destroy the grubs, have been conducted successfully in
many communities. :any additional colonies of imported parasites have
been released by the Bureau of Entomology and the outlook for the natural
control of the insect is even more hopeful than it has been in the past.
(Prepared by Japanese Beetle Laboratory, Aureiu.ofiArtomolo:-y, U.S.D.A.)
ASIATIC Gx...:T lT
The Asiatic garden baetl (..saric& c, stanza Arrow) b-sA ben
discovered at the .following points outsiCde of the area previously
regulated under the Federal quarantine: Crom-7ell, :.:anzhester,
MLansficld, NrB Canaan, -T" London, and Southport, Conn,; .A-7 al..,
rishkill, and Kingston, IT. Y.; !ilford, and Winterthur, !-I. In
most cases but fe'- specimens were found.
Th. Asiatic beetle( (no,,li orientalis 'iaterh.) -as found at only
the following tro points outside of the area regulated under Fxd-ral
quarantine: Seven larvae were found at Bridgaport, Conr.., and to at
Schenectady, N. Y. According to 0. H. S:ez;y, this insect has spr-id a
little farther from the limited district it formerly occupied on the
islnd...of Oahu, Haw'aii. It is not numerous enough to be causing anyr
, amaga, as it is fully controlled by the Philippine rasp Scolia rrinilae.
Orchard aphids hatched unusually early in the NcrSngland Status
and appeared at that :time to be abnormally ebur.dant in the 1- Unilond,
Middle Atlantic, and ZEast Central States. As the season advanced, the
situation in :,:n Znglini improved markedly. On the other hand, in ITew
York State and southward to South Carolina and 7estvard to Ohio the
aphids did very consi
ap-.id (.rn rpaphis roseus Baker). By the middle of June the rosy apple
aphid had increased in th'e .Middle Atlantic States to more serious
numbers than in many years.
The earliest mcrgznce of the codlin: moth (Ccrpoc.-psa nomonlla L.)
'-as reported from Georgia on April 4. The earliest em.r-u-nce in South
Carolina "as April 8. By April 18 moths '7ere observed e.ergin! in
Virginia, by April 19 in southern Illinois, by :'ny 12 in east-c.ntral
Illinois,' by May 24 in Ohio, by liay 10 in ".,as;inton StatL, east of the
Cascade Mountains, and by Miay 15 in Or .on 7est of the Cascad:s. During
June the insect appeare-1 to occur in about normal numlbrs over th.
greater part of the eastern apple-growving rc-;ion although there Vas an
area in central and -7esturn Illinois uhere it was unusually abundant.
As the season advanced, the Last Central States r-orted very considerable
injury by the sLcond-brood lrv2.. A '-.rtial third brood in conjunction
.:*ith thL. very short crop mnsd side-rorm injury very conspicuous at
harvest over the ::'idlle Atlantic and eost Centrzl States. Unusually
rarm 'ecathcr during the first three. weeks in Sept..mber result-i in
considerable activity of the vorms on the comparatively light crop in
7ashin-ton and Or,'on, vw'here infestations *"er. heavier than in 1928.
ORIENTAL FRUIT iCORi
In the Fort Valley district of Gor-ia the first tig' injury by the
oriental fruit worm (Laspcyresip molesta busck) was observed on April 4,
three weeks earlier than the first injury in 1928. In 1928 the first
twig injury --as observed on April 25, in 1927 on April 1, in 1926 on
April 20, and in 1925 on April 10. Only once in the last five years
has this insect cm..rged as early as in 1929. Adult moths were observed
in southern Indiana on April 3 and in southern Illinois April 5. By
the middle of Juno serious injury had been report-d along the Atlantic
seaboard from Connecticut to North Carolina and slight daL:L-g in
Georgia. In the East Central States lthe infestation, although heavy,
was not much above normal. By the middle of July damage was being '
reported from the New England, the :..iddle Atlantic, the northern South
Atlantic, the East Central, and the Lower Mississippi Valley States.
Late in the summer severe injury -as observed in southeastern
Connecticut, the lower Hudson River Valley, and the extreme western part
of New York State. The insect was doing very unusual dam:-j:e throughout
the Middle Atlantic States and southward to South Carolina, especially
in the upper Picimont district, as well as in northern Georgia. In New
Jersey and Pennsylvania fruit counts indicated that the infestation ran
about 50 per c:nt while in southern Illinois it was from 20 to 25 per
cent. This insect was recorded for the first time in i4assachusetts at
Amherst and other points in Haayfcn County.
SAtN JOSE SC-.L ..
The San Jose scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst.) is apparently on
one of its upward trends in the East Central States. Over the oI.
England and Middle Atlantic States it is still comparatively scarce,
whereas in the South Atlantic States it seems to be increasing. In the
lower Mississippi Valley it was reported as very abundant as w-as also the
case in the upper Great Basin. The severe winter of 1928-29 in Wisconsin
appears to have chie-cked this insect, as it "*s found in only seven of the
southern counties this year. In the "rfansas-Xansas fruit district th.
insect appears to be but moderately abundant.
ZASTZMIT TENT C-.TLRPILLAR
The _-stcrn tent caterpillar (Malacosoma -.._:.nricnc Fab.) w'as de-
cidedly below normal in numbers in the New -7 n_:l-d and :.:iddle Atlantic
States -"h-reas from Virginia southward it -.as more abundant than in the
past five or six years. In parts of this region practically every '-ild
cherry, crab, and neglected apple tree w'as defoliated by the end of a:,y.
West of this region this insect attracted but little attention this year.
In the South Atlantic Stat's thb season /wa rather early and the
"-inter had been unusually mild. Tl.W first adults of the plum curculio
(Co:notraschlus nenufhir H'ost.) r- observed on trees in r-or--.a d'urin g
te last '-ek in I&arch and .in southern Illinois during the first -eek
in April. It -ill be recalld that a very larg. number of ,evils entered
hibernation last fall in this section. As the sePson advanced reports
of unusual abundance came from the Atlantic seaboard as far up as l1-7
England, and from %-st-ard well into the Last Central States. By the
middle of April it was ostic:-ted that the infestation in Georgia 7as the
heaviest since 1921. By that tim_ p-ach drops were shoeing a 50 per cent
infestation. In the Jest Ce.ntral States the insect --as r.-orted as but
moderately abundant, but in the lo'"cr Mississippi Valley the serious
conditions of the South .tlantic States r"erc duplicated. By the end of
June an unprecedented outbreak.had develope- in the lower Hudson River
Valley in Ne'7 York State, and the heaviest infestation since 1921 7as
occurring in Delawara and North Carolina. Throughout June rcoorts of
unorecdented numb-rs wore received from practically the entire Atlantic
seaboard from NMaine to Georeia. 'Jest of the Alleh~nyB in th- -ast C:ntral
States infestations were normal or blo-w.
PEACH BOr ?R
,,ith the exception of scattered localities in LMississipoi, 3corgia,
and North Carolina, -herevcOr the paradichlorobenzine method 7as either not
adopted or incorrectly carried out, the pz:ch borer (A-.ria exitiosa
Say) occasioned unusual, damage. Late in the season,, particularly in the
Georgia poach belt, infestations 'rore much heavier than usual.
UROPEAN B2D MIT3
Early observations of c."s throughout the Middle Atlantic States
indicatAd t'-at 'the Europcan red initc (Paratctranvchus nilosus Can. &
PFanz.) -7ould b. at least normally abundant. Although first discovered.
in .nirne in 1927, ;-'-s "cere extremely abundant in that State this spring.
As the season advanced, however, no unusually heavy infestations "yre
reported, and as a !"hole the year may bo said to have been one of
:..LICAiN FRUIT '.C.
That the Miexican fruit worm ('.nastrpoha lu..ns Loew) '.had re-ainad
foothold in the lorer Rio Oranda Vall-y of Texas *-:-s dot.rrin-d in
April by the finding of infestations in t"-c local -Dcyin; houses in
which a small quantity of fruit had been stored at the close of the
period permitted for the harvesting of the citrus crop. Previous to
such reappearance almost t-o years had
area. An intensive reexamination disclosed that the premises of 10
growers in Hidalgo County were involved in this rcinvasion. (Plant
Quarantine and Control Administration.)
C IT!0PHILUS ',-z;ALYBUG
The parasite Coccophagus zurneyi Compere of the citrophilus mealy-
bug: (Pseudococcus gahani Green) has now been proved sufficiently
adaptable to California conditions to make possible its propagation and
distribution commercially for the control of the pest. During the
past season 172,000 parasites were liberated over a wide area for
establishment purposes only. Potatoes represent an extensive item in
insectary operations for the propagation of the lady beetle Cryptolaemus
montrouzieri :.iuls., used to fight the mealybug in Los Angeles County,
Calif. Approximately 2,000 sacks of high-grade potatoes will be
required in the operation of the laboratories at Downey and Rivera
during the coming season, The potatoes are used in developing sprouts
on which the mealybug is grown as food for the lady beetles. This
quantity of material should easily produce the 10,000,000 beetles
estimated as required to met the field need next season. Production
will start in March and reach a peak during April, May, and June. At
present the mealybug situation in the field looks more satisfactory
from the standpoint of control than it has for several seasons.
RASPbERRY FRUIT -70R.'
The raspberry fruit worm (Byturus unicolor Say), which has been so
injurious to loganberries in Washington State, seemed more prevalent
than last year and was observed this year destroying strawberries and
causing injury to the petioles of apple and cherry. This insect also
caused very considerable damage to red raspberries in the lower Hudson
River Valley of New York State and attracted considerable attention in
Minnesota, Wisconsin, and southwestern Michigan.
Late in March the pea aphid (Illinoia pisi Kalt.) -"as reported as
doing rather severe damage in many localities in Florida. This insect
was very abundant in Virginia throughout the winter on alfalfa and in-
creased very rapidly during the spring, causing considerable damage.
In the Pacific'Northwest it was so scarce that specimens were difficult
to find in vetch where it usually has been quite abundant. Continued
cool, rainy weather in April retarded the development of this insect
in the big cannery district of Wisc6nsin. During the remainder of the
season no unusual conditions were reported.
COLORADO POTATO BEETLE
The first Colorado potato beetle (Lcotinotarsq decemlineata
Say) recorded from the field, was observed on :.:arch 25 in Mississippi.
About the middle of April this insect became decid-ily troubl.-som- in
the Uorfo'lk section through its fe-ding on eggplant in cold fram.-s.
An adult was first seen in this section on April 4. By th, middle of
April eggs were hatching in the Carolinas. In Florida ani the 3ulf
section during late March and early April' this' ifisct was quite trouble-
some in tomato plant beds. Late in May adults were unusually prevalent
on Long Island, N. Y., and by this time were doing some damage in the
big potato-growing district about Hastings, Fla. A rather unusual
occurrence was reported from Michigan where the overwintering adults
were said to have been attacking the young shoots of asparagus. As the
season advanced, this insect b-cam- so prevalent in Suffolk County,
N. Y., that the usual sprayings were not sufficient to control the out-
break. This unusual abundance extended into Pennsylvania and parts of
Ohio, 1innesota, and Wisconsin. Owing to the very effective control of
the beetle by insecticides it is very difficult to ascertain its status
over any considerable territory.
During the late winter months the Harlequin bug (Mur3antia
histrionica Hahn) did considerable damage in the Gulf Coast trucking
districts to a wide variety of cruciferous plants. Late in March this
insect was reported as seriously damaging cabbage, peas, and beans in
Dela'aru; early in April it was reported from Eastern Maryland,. and by
the middle of April was seriously abundant in certain coastaJ plains.
sections of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Towards the
end of April reports of severe damage were received from all parts of
Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and northeastern Texas.
MEXICAN M r -.'LZ
The winter survival of the Yexican bean beetle ( pilachna corrupta
Luls.) in the Southern States was the highest in 1929 of any year on
record. At the Arlington, Va., Farm 62.4 per cent of l,-00'beetlcs
placed in the hibernation cage mergedcd in the Spring. This is more
than twice as high as the record for any of the last eight years in
Alabama. Reports from the Southern States indicate that the beetle
was generally very numerous, jsp-cially in Alabama, Kentuc!ky, Uho
Carolinas, Virginia, .and Maryland, and that much damage was done to
the bean crop. In Ohio the p,.rc-ntage of survival was 2.88 p.r cent
at Athens and 1.76 per cent at Columbus,. both figures being- higher
than in 1928, the highest for the last five years for Columbus, and
higher than any year for the last four ycars at Athens, with the
exception of 1927, 7when 4 per cent survived the winter. On the
Eastern Shore of Maryland the spring infestation was heavy, but
droughts during the summer prevented a ,reat incr-ase in population.
In some localities, however, control practices were necessary throughout
0 : ''\P * .* ^
SqSXI CAN BEA BEETLE
Dotted areas indicate
knovin ?-:reap.d in 19?9.
the season. The same was true in southern Ohio; about Athens the
population decreased in summer and late fall to the lowest point on
record, but along the Ohio River heavy fall infestations were not
uncommon. In Kentucky and in some southern Ohio counties infestations
were reported to be unusually heavy.
Since northern and eastern limits had apparently bzcn approached
in 1928, relatively little new territory was available. The chief
spread occurred in New York, Connecticut, and just into the south-
western edge of Massachusetts, and in the Carolinas. In North
Carolina practically the whole State is now covered, and in South
Carolina only a few counties in the southern portion are free from
the beetle. Slight spread to the west occurred in Michigan, Indiana,
Tennessee, and Mississippi, and probably in Kentucky, though no new
records were received from the.latter State, It appears that
survival in New York State and Michigan is very low, except poasiIbly about
Chautauqua Lake in New York. No infestations of sufficient proportions
to cause commercial losses were found in the sections of either State
where beans are extensively grown. In Canada only one new record
(at Guelph) was obtained. Dominion entomologists have found that the
insect, in some instances, failed to survive the winter.
SEED CORN kAGGOT
Late-planted beans in rather large acreages were destroyed by
the seed-corn maggot (Hylemyia cilicrura Rond.) in the Norfolk
district of Virginia; and although scattered reports of slight damage
were received throughout the spring months from various parts of the
country and of rather serious infestations in western New York, east-
central Iowa, and central California, the year as a whole was not one
of unusual injuries.
The situation with regard to the sweet-potato weevil' (Cyls
formicarius Fab.) is practically the same as last year in Mississippi
and Alabama. During the year actual loss to the sweet-potato crop
has been negligible. The percentage of injury on farms where the
insect has been found was very slight and the area of infestation has
not increased. The weevil was found this year on a total of 58 farms
in the five counties known to be infested.
Severe winter conditions produced a high mortality of the beet
leafhopper (Eutettix tenellus Baker) in southern Idaho where the insect
was unusually scarce in the spring. This condition extended into
northern Utah and eastern Oregon. The leafhopper was observed for the
first time in the Willamette Valley section of Oregon in 1926. Late in
the season reports of large populations in the desert breeding grounds
were received from Idaho and Utah.
The _--ttablc weevil (Listroderes obiiquus Gyll-) has continued to
spread. It has been found during the year in 28 new counties in four
States, as follows: Mississippi 10, Alabama 12, Louisiana 5, and
Florida 1. This brings ths total knorn distribution in these four
States to 85 counties; Mississippi 50, Alabama 19, Louisiana 13, and
Florida 3. The infestation on the east includes Coffe.e County in
Alabama; on the north, Monroe County in L'ississi-o-i and Fayette County
in Alabama; and on the west, I;est Baton Rouge and Jest Feliciana Parishes
in Louisiana. In som- sections the -weevil has been less plentiful than
last year, while in others it has been more numerous and the injury to
crops more serious. Its favored food plants continue to be turnip,
carrot, cabbage, spinach, and related crops.
Reports from Louisiana late in February indicated that the numbers
of the sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fab.) then in hibernation
were unusually small. By the end of Au:ust the third generation 7as
developing in the cane but not in very large numbers. The eg--parasite
Trichogranmma minutum Riley was destroying about 50 per cent of the eggs
at that time, and by the end of September it was destroying practically
95 per cent of the eggs in many localities. A superficial survey of the
Gulf Coast section of Mississippi failed to locate the borer in the
widely separated plantings in that State.
Brood III of the periodical cicada (Tibicina septendecim L.) ap-
peared this year in the following places:
Adair, Appanoose, Boone, Clarke, Dallas, Davis, Decatur, Des
Moines, Guthrie, Hamilton, Henry Iowa, Jasper, Jefferson, Lee,
Louisa, -Lucas, Madison, 1ahaska, Marion, Monroe, Po..-eshiek,
Ringgold, Story, Tama, Union, Van 5urcn, ".'ap2llo, and W.ayne
Adams, Brc-n, Cass, Fulton, Hancock, '"--rsor., ox, ;:acon,
:M-son, McDonough, i :nard, Montgom.ry, .:or-rn, PiLo, Schuyler,
Scott, Tazewcll, and -rarren Counties.
"i.'i s s ori.
Boone, Cedar, Clar.:, Harrison, Holt, Mcrcer, Pi'., Putnam, and
,.,ric Coint y.
..-T.qy.vq -' -.,tc7tj%~.swnr '~'
,' r iANT BOARD
-- ~tJ( ~*
WHIT-TAR:T D TUS3C% WOTh
Early in the spring there were indications, from the number of u-i
masses, that the white-m.arked tussock moth (-h m-:roc;,-,!a leucostigma S.
& A.) would be somewhat more abundant than usual in ]lcw England. Later
in the season larvae were quite numerous in the Middle Atlantic States.
The first brood developed to rather serious numbers in the East Central
States, but this brood was heavily parasitised and the second brood ras
of minor importance.
FIR TUSSOCK MOTH
The fir tussock moth (Hemerocam-oa pseudotsugata McD.), which suddenly
appeared about three years ago as a new defoliator, as far as our
experience is concerned, continues to spread and appear in new areas,
although in some of the first outbreaks reported a marked reductitm due
to parasitism and starvation is apparent. A forest ranger has advanced
the theory that this caterpillar is locally transported by sheep and
cattle passing through the infested areas. The female moth is wingless.
The principal centers of infestation at the present time are at Jarbridge,
Nev.; on the Weiser and Idaho National Forests, Idaho; and near Northport,
During the winter and early spring the bags of the bagworm (Thyridop-
teryx ephemeraeformis Haw.) were quite numerous in the Middle Atlantic,
East Central, and West Central States. Scattered reports were also
received from the lower Mississippi Valley. As the season advanced,
considerable damage was reported from many places in Mississippi and
also from the Middle Atlantic States southward to South Carolina, and
conditions in the East Central States westward to Kansas became
"The gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar L.) extermination project in
ITew Jersey has been continued by the NDw Jersey State Department of
Agriculture and the Plant quarantine and Control Administration of the
Federal Government. The intensity and size of the original infestation
have been greatly reduced. Since the start of this work over 2,000
square miles have been thoroughly examined and whenever necessary
extermination treatments have been applied. At the present time less
than 140 square miles remain to be intensively scouted and the annual
expenditure is gradually decreasing.
The gypsy moth situation in the barrier zone is not as gratifying
as in New Jersey. The spread of this insect has been stopped since
the establishment of the zone in 1923. As a result of the intensive work
carried on by the New York State Conservation Department and the Federal
Government conditions within the zone improved each year until 1927.
Since then, because of heavy infestations developing east of the zone,
it has bcn more and more difficult to kee.p the zone clean an. the
number of infestations have been incrcasin: in the southwest corner of
assachusetts aand the north-rest corner of Connecticut anr.d in the
adjacent territory to the wst in liew York State.
'Considering the area in N-7 England as a whole, the gypsy moth has
continued to increase each year since 1924 when 825 acres were reported
defoliated. Since then the area defoliated has approximately doubl-d
each year and during the past summ:r over 500,000 acres in New England
-ere partially or completely defoliated. There was a larg: increase in
NTC7 Hampshire and "aine; conditions -were slightly better in Rhode Island,
eastern Connecticut and the eastern part of Massachusetts but serious
infestations continued to exist bet-een the Connecticut Riv:r and the
barrier zone and these arc a constant source of reinfestation of the
zone." (Plant quarantine & Control Administration, U.S.D.A.)
"The records mhich have been obtained in regard to the brown-tail
moth (!Tyjia phacorrho.a Donovan) indicate an increase in abundance in
some sections in :,assachusetts and in the Merrimac Valley in Hew
Hampshire. It has not been abundant over most of the area." (Plant
Quarantine & Control Administration, U.S.D...)
"The satin moth (Stilpnotia salicis L.) was abundant over a larger
area in NLw England than previously and caused sevcre defoliation and
injury of poplar and willow in many to-ns. In several locations heavy
infestations of this insect were found in woodland growth of poplar.
This is the first time this has been observed in New England, only
poplar and willow on estates and roadsides had previously been attacked.
Since its discovery in this country near Boston in 1920, it has spread
rapidly and is no7 b:yoni the brown-tail moth line in most places. In
linee it has spread nearly 50 miles in a northeasterly direction beyond
the brown-tail moth quarantine line. In ITe- Hampshire it is about 30 miles
further west and in M:assachusetts 40 to 50 miles beyond the bro-n-tail
moth line. In V-rmont, Massachusetts and Connecticut it is well
established %est of the Connecticut River. The -ntire State of Rhode
Island is infested. This insect -bs not reportAd from outside the
present quarantined area on the Pacific Coast, and as far as is known
it does not extend south of Lec7is County, Wash." (Plant Juarantine &
Control Administration, U.S.D.A.)
"No special effort was made during 1929 by this Division to determine
the exact area infestAd by this moth. The situation in regard to the
oriental moth (CnidocarMpa flavescens Walk.) remains about the same.
It is present in the towns and cities near Boston, occasionally causing
severe defoliation of tro-es and shrubs in this area. It has spread
slowly but there was no noticeable spread of this insect recorded
during the season". (Plant uararintine & Control Adaministration, U.S.D.A.)
The Great Basin tent caterpillar (Malacosoma fragilis Stretch) has
been so numerous around Mt. Shasta, Calif., this year t.at trains on thne
Southern Pacific Railroad zer- detained by the 7-orms on the rails, it
being necessary to equip the engines pith steam jets to clean the track
in front of the -wheels. In v'estern :ashiniton the forest tent
caterpillar (L. disstria Hbn.) and the 7,est-rn tent caterpillar (1;.
pluvialis Dyar) were more nuwirous than they had bcen at any time during
the last several years. Fruit tre.s, shrubbery, and shade tres vers
badly defoliated. In the city of Seattle th-se insects '7ere so numerous
that street cars "'ere stopped by the insects on the rails.
The spruce bud-orm (Harmologa fumiferana Clcm.) was rcoorted in
scattered localities in *7isconsin, I:in-iesota, South Dakota, and Torth
Dakota. The South Dakota outbr.:: 'as the second that has been observed
in recent years in that State. An infestation of lodgepole pine.,
involving from 75 to 100 square milis in the southwestern portion of
the Yello"stone i2.tional Park and the adjoining Targhce National
Forest, continues unabated, although there is evidence that in areas
hich have beeoon infested for three years there has becn a .Larked
diminution in the number of insects so that relatively few trees rill
be killed. The forest officers report reduction in the numbers of
this insect on the Idaho :ni Pay>ttoe Iational Forests where it has been
especially destructive., to fir for the last fc- years. The outbreak
centering along the Shoshone Canyon and the eastern entrenc- to the
Yellowstone national Park continues unabated. Apparently a con-
siderable percentage of the fir in this canyon 7ill be killed. Other
outbreaks which have oecn rc.ort.d from time to tim- in Yello-'stone
Park have almost compl-tely subsided. Some local feeding 'as found in
the fir type of the Coeur dVAlne and Colvill. :"?tionel Forests. r"is
insect has continued active in the jack pine forests near Higgins Lake,
2-ich., and has done considerable d-mae, although no accurate estimates
of abundance or injury arc available.
The parasite Campoplex frustranae Cushean of the pine tip moth
(Rhvacvonia frustrana bushnelli Busck), rhich "gas introduced into the
pine plantations at Halsey, i1.b., in 1926, has shown remarkable
increase in the last three years. The tip-moth infestation at points
of parasite introduction has bcen reduced from 92 to 33 per cent during
The hemlock budsorm (peronva variana 7,rn.) has defoliated western
hemlock over an area of 150,000 acres on the Olympic peninsula of
Vashington. It is not thought that the trees will die unless heavy
feeding on the neodlcs is continued next year.
Heavy broods of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis
:imm..) overwintered in the North Carolina forest areas, but they
suddenly disappeared during the early spring after an excessive amount
of rainfall. During the latter part of June and early July the cxc.-ss
precipitation was greatly reduced, and by the nd of July the insect
was noticed again in increasing numbers. In the Pisgah National
Forest dying pines were reported particularly among the second-gro-th
shortleaf pine trees. Similar reports were received from other South
Atlantic States. Hymenopterous parasites wore very abundant. During
July an undetermined species of Dendroctonus was reported as damaging
between 10 and 15 per cent of the longlcaf pine trees on a 1,000-acre
tract in Louisiana. The eastern spruce beetle (D. piceaperda Hopk.)
has been reported from many districts in Miaine and this may indicate
an approaching outbreak. The mDuntain pine bcetle (D. monticolac Hopk.)
occasioned heavy losses of timber on the eastern fork of the Bitter Root
drainage area in Montana. This is a continuation of the outbreak which
has been under way for a number of years. Surveys of the area showed
over 1,100,000 lodgepole pine trees infested, an increase of about 250
per cent over the number attacked in 1928. Outbreaks of this insect
were also recorded in California, Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming, involving
the Bitter Root, Nez Pcrce, Salmon, and Beaverhead :Iational Forests.
A lesser outbreak in white pine ras reported from Pond Orwillc County,
near Sullivan Lake, Jash. The Douglas-fir beetle (D. psoudotsuna-
Hopk.) is doing an increasing amount of damaf" in Pond Oreille County,
and causing considerable timber loss. There is a marked decline
ranging from 40 to 90 per cent, in the inf-st3tion of the ,western pine
beetle (D. brovicomis Lee.) this year. This almost phonomjnal decline
is largely attributed to increased growth of the trees during the season
of 1928, which was made possible by the reserve of moisture built up by
the heavy precipitation during the spring of 1927. Only two outbreaks
of the Black Hills bectlj (D. pondcrosac Hopk.) have been reported, one
on the Colorado National Forest involving about 500 trees consisting of
marginal groups around the main infestation which was put under control
in the last two years. A few yellow pines were reported attacked on the
Ashley ITational Forest. For the last two years the Forest Service has
conducted control work on the Prescott National Forest against a
vigorous outbre-oa of the southwestern pine beetle (D. barberi Hopk.).
Preliminary reports indicate that the past season's rork has materially
checked this outbreak.
Injury by the whitn-oine weevil (Pissodcs strobi Peck) 7as more
prevalent in 1929 over the entire northeastern area than for any past
yvar, acccrling to the records kept by the assistant entomologist
stationed at the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. It also
appears that a greater number of trees were killed back more than two
years than has previously been the case. As in previous years it was
found that the greatest injury occurred in widely spaced pure stands.
The increase in infestation in mixed stands, however, was scarcely
The widespread killing of Abies concolor and A. magnifica by the
fir scolytus (Scolytus ventralis Lee.) in the Sierra and Cascade
Mountains in California and Oregon shows little tendency toward
reduction. The recent outbreak first attracted attention in 1924.
Termite damage to the woodwork of buildings, service poles, etc.,
is becoming increasingly serious in the Southeastern, Gulf, Central,
Western, Southwestern, and Pacific Coast areas of the United States.
In the possessions of this country in the tropics, termite damage is
also becoming much more of a problem. It has recently been reported
that in addition to the serious damage to buildings, living citrus
trees in Texas and California have booeen damaged by termites, causing
the death of recently planted trees. Cities are gradually adopting
the recommendations of the Bureau of Entomology for the inclusion in
mandatory building codes of brief provisions designed to prevent types
of construction that favor termite damage. Honolulu, T. H.; Pasadena,
Long Beach, and San Diego, Calif.; and New Orleans, La., have such
provisions in their codes. The Termite Investigations Committee of
the University of California is makinZ an extensive study of the
problem and in the near future will probably publish their recommcnda-
tions. Eight souticrn counties in California have passed lars re-
quiring commercial operators intending to undertake termite control
to pass an examination as to their fitness for the work. If they pass
the examination they are given certificates guaranteeing that they have
a knoeldge of the subject. (Forest Insects, Bureau of Entomology,
Corrections The note on the periodical cicada on page 341 of the
Insect Pest Survey Bulletin should read "Brood III."
The note on Aegeria exitiosa Say in Georgia by 0. I. Snapp dated
October 18, referred to Sesia (Aegeria) pictipes G. & R.
Four moths now to our North American fauna are recordci this year.
Th.ly are Chrysoclista linncxlll. Clerck on linden near New York City,
Batodcs angustio -nria Haw. on yew in Victoria, B. C.. Cn-phasia lonana
Hal-. reared on stra-berry fruit in Oregon, and Epinotia sub-!iritis
Hoinrich attacking cypress in Snohomish County, ',ash. The last species
was described in 1929 (Proc. U. S. hat. Must., Vol. 75, p. 15) from
material collected at San Diego, Calif., and from British Columbia.
The only other locality from rhich this species is recorded is
The apple fruit worm (;rvyr..-sthia conj-j.gclla Zell.) was observed
for the first time in the Montesano section of 1ashington.
The apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonclla '-alsh) ras found for the
first tim: in Georgia.
The first record of the boxwood loaf miner (Monarthropalpus buxi
Labou.) in the Pacific Northwest was made at Seattle, '.ash., on May 18
of this year.
An European weevil, Brachvrhinus cribricollis Gyll.,has been
discovered on citrus and privet in Los Angeles County, Calif.
very unusual infestation of strawberry croe-ns by the larvae
of Chrysobothris pubescens Fall 'as r-oort3d from .ashington this
year. A similar report 7as received from Oregon l~ovembcr, 1928.
Pseudococcus boninsis Ku-ana was recorded for the first time in
Mississippi, where it was collected at Lelton late in :'larch.
The dictyospermum scale (Chrysomphalus dictyospcrmi .Iorg.) was
found for the first time on field grown avocados in Los Angeles County,
near the city of Los Angeles. Heretofore this insect '-as been
knownlas a greenhouse pest, bcing particularly prevalent on Kentia
palms. A survey shows the infestation to be rather gen-ral in the
West ,dams district of Los Angeles with one infestation in Hollyc.'ood.
The filbert bud mite (Eriophycs avellanae IJal.) was discovered in
Stamford, Conn., this year. Heretofore this insect has been known in
the United States only in OrLgon and ?ashington, vh.nre it is a pest of
Two heretofore unrecorded species of springtails are doing
com-nrcial damage to mushrooms in Minnesota and .-i.issouri, Achorutes sp.
in Minnesota and Schotella sp. in iissouri.
On October 24 larvae of the pink boll worm (Pectinophora ,oscypiella
Saund.) were discovered in gin trash near Mesa, Ariz. Subsequently other
specimens were found near the town of Gilbert, Immediately, on the
confirmation of the identification of these specimens, :;3ricopa and
Pinal Counties were placed under quarantine on account of this pest.
Coincident with this a large rnumrbr of scouts were placed in this area
to delimit the infestation. Scouting conducted during the remaining
part of the year disclosed infestations at some twenty-five different
places in the eastern end of the Salt River Valley and on the Indian
Reservation near Sacaton. The infestation at the eastern end of the
cultivated area was rather severe, :.n some fields 45 per cent of the
bolls were infested and in a considerable area 25 per cent of the bolls
Intensive scouting throughout the Valley as well as the other
cotton-producing area to the westward, including the Imperial Valley
of California, failed to disclose the presence of the pest.
Early in January the State Horticultural Commissioners of Arizona
established a non-cotton zone extending two miles beyond the outermost
points of infestation. They also established a buffer zone extending
three miles beyond the margin of the non-cotton zone. In the buffer
zone restrictions are placed on the time whicl cotton can be planted.
Climatic conditions in the Salt River Valley are very favorable
to the development of the pink boll worm and this pest presents an
immediate menace to the production of cotton in this region. Its
presence in this Valley also jeopardizes the cotton-producing areas to
the 'est and the main cotton-producing area to the east.
(Plant Quarantin: and Control Administration, U.S.D.A.)