The Insect pest survey bulletin

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Material Information

Title:
The Insect pest survey bulletin
Physical Description:
v. : maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly, mar-nov. plus annual[1926-]
monthly, apr.-nov.[ former 1922-1925]
monthly, may-nov.[ former 1921]

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Insect pests -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (May 1, 1921)-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vol. 14, no.9 issued only as a supplement..
Issuing Body:
Vols. for May 1, 1921-1934, issued by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology; 1935- by the U.S. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
General Note:
"A monthly review of entomological conditions throughout the United States" (varies slightly).
General Note:
Includes annual summary starting in 1926.
General Note:
Includes some supplements.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030368280
oclc - 08816534
lccn - sn 86033699
Classification:
lcc - QL1 .I56
System ID:
AA00023228:00041

Full Text









THE INSECT PEST SURVEY


BULLETIN


A periodical review of entomological conditions throughout the United States
issued on the first of each month from March to December, inclusive.


Volume 7


Summary for 1927


Number 10


BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY

UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

AND

THE STATE ENTOMOLOGICAL


AGENCIES


COOPERATING


LIBRARY
"rATE PLANT BOARD











I








S ZC SL ST S 7AV.]Y 3 ULLETIIN


Vol. 7 Su7nary for 1'27 o. IC


T'TTR :UCTiI

Followiin- the policy introduced last year '-,ce are issuin' a sum-
mary of the m.re important insect conditions thrcughnut the United States
and C-., .:. during the -e-:-- 1927. J'e are also introducing in this number
a ne' feature in having special reviews of certain insects upon 7Thich
special investigations are bei;n carried on by the Bureau of Entomology,
and for v-h'ich ve have nt published reports i- the monthly numbers of the
Survey bulletins.

G PK-I. ."\' ..'

The fall survey of 1925 sho--cc enough grasshopper eggs in eastcr:
iMontana to produce a small outbreak. In California the grasshoppers in
the fall of 192S ',-ere scarce, so egg laying wvas slight. A decrease in
the number of grasshoppers during the late summer of l126 --,as reported
from British Columbia. During 1927 the insects v-ere distinctly belo7
normal in the ',cst-Central and East-Central States. Later in the season
grasshoppers became number us in central and southern Ohio. During July
an unexpected outbreak v;as reported from the ranges of suth-ceatral
British Columbia, a territory of 2,000 square miles being badly infested
while in the Peace River region the grasshoppers, 7-hich during a number of
seasons hav. been a serious pest, ':,ce almost completely wiped out by
heavy rains in the spring. Some damage by grasshoppers was reported from
southern -uebec. Late in the season (September 30) a terrific flight of
the lesser migratory grasshopper (Mlelanoplus atlan. -is Riley) w-as reported
from western Kansas.

1.1;0i' D CRIICST.

The mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex Hlad.) in the fall of 1926
was infesting pro.ctic.-,lly twIice the territory of the previous season in
Ionritana, so.ame 250,000 -cres. Ai unusual number of e were laid during$
the fall. !urii. June of 1927 tie cricets were reported s being
.- c Ke U er reported L ,s being
more abund nt than in 1926, but control measures -ere very effective
and depred.'tions .',ere sli.-ht.

COmLi mJi E
During the vdiiter 7.nd spring months u-o to 1 .:y the corn ear
worm (Heliothis obsolete Fab.) was more .:i1.c.nt i. the uerte Valley,
:e:.ico, then it h-'s been any season for the pest four ye.rs. About the
middle of Februa.ry corn heavily infested was coming on rhe market .t
Brovawnsville, Tex. During the lo.st ee in April this insect _- '-,ared in
injurious numbers in Louisiana .and central Texas. First adults vxere ob-







-- -)-

served in Alabama on April 17. E7-,s .eore Very numerous by the 23d of
M., in the tomato p-i-ntaations of that State and in Mississippi. By the
first of July it :. occurring in serious numbers in the South Atlantic
and Gulf States as well as in southern California. During July sweet
corn "'s more seriously injured than ever before recorded in Ohio. The
insect 7:-,s also more abundant than usual in Kansas, By September 1, reports
of heavy damage had been received from practically the entire corn belt,
the lo"er Mississippi Valley, and the East-Central States,

STALK BORER.

The stalk borer (Papaipema nebris nitela ,uen, ) was -enerqlly pre-
valent over the entire upper Mississippi Valley, reports of uansual
abundance of the young larvae having been received from Indiana, Illinois,
Kansas, Ncbraska, and Minnesota. During July reports were received from
New England, the Middle Atlantic, and the entire ast-Central Areas,
-estward to Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, and South Dakota. A large number of
these observations were made incident to the search for the uIrop'ean
corn borer,

LESSER CORN STALK BORFER.

A serious outbreak of the lesser corn stalk borer (El-.smrooalnus
lignosellus Zell,) developed early in May in the southern raIrt of
Mississippi, Previous outbreaks occurred in 1921 and 1924, Later in the
season similar injury to corn w7s observed near Gulfport, La.

LII:_D CG07T BORER.

The lined corn borer (Hadena fractilinea Grote) caused some
injury during June in the upper corn belt from western New York to
southiesterb- Minnesota.

CUTT0 7 S,

Early in the season (M-1rch) cutworms (Thnctuidae) were unusully
abundant and injurious in south-centr.,l Tex-is. In April the -rrmy cut-
worm was reporte-I in dama in." numbers from i.-riisr:S an,'' Nebr-',ka, -,here
the insect was attacking '-heat anr alfasga. In ".v similar dim-qe
extended into South Dakota. In Cr-.--on out-orms were- cutting alfalfa
and were ',:ry numerous in the 'heat fields. Cut-or. d,-\-.c 'as also
reported froi.m Utah and indications of an outbreak of the -estern army
cutworm in southwestern Saskatchewan and southern Alberta rere re:ooted
early in the season. By the first of June it Was evident th-t cutworm
injury was not so prevalent as during the last t-o i.rs over the
entire country, the damri,-e being confin-,d to restricted are.as. During
June, ho-ever, cut'-oi-rms '-ere very trouble.?o,:.c in th, entire Mississippi
Fiver Valley and Great PIiins Statct. In i.iztssirnpi D,-lta these
insects caused curiiderable ,n',,e on the l-,r/.s -hich h'd 'rcn flooded
early in the sen son, Cut'orm injury continued in the floo'"r- areas
of Mississippi, and at several points in Indina and i :..br aska,through
July,




i










FALL *..iOQn.

About the middle of April the first record v.as received of the
fall a.r: or (..phy.n fruiperd ) .hen lt was reported r, in-
jnrious to young, corni in ,ouisi ana. .Durin, Waugst it v.ias cnerrally -re
valent in th.- Suou-^ens ^_. i .,, lo-er mississip-pi V ley1 d ,n.e bei-,
exceedinl1y b.?d in the )elta region. The first serious outbreak of this
insect since 1920 develo oed in eoster. Knsas and OklahoIa aurin c.t-
wjer. :-ior otbreJi e oere recorded fro. Indianc, Lississiippni -n.r
__ic.i, ad *OYi.i 7 Octo)or QOnSldir1ulo Lae a ae ,jc.S done in central
Jl.in oi e;'. befn '-s 1:,.. c end f.',s [.s


i- "p h adlt s i wc re observed
A'kiY\~.:F.;

T7e trua a r>y ,or>; (' lirphis unip'mtcta :"c" aats verG observed
duri,.- the first xee. in r.Lr.l Tllinois. .iv s is bout wee- earlier
tha.n these insects appeared last yea-.c. Durin. :, locai outbreaks %,ere
reported from pDrts or .ssouri and :.br.:J,:a, Duior, ,Jiue moderate ..r-
bers of these insects ere observed in llnois a.a indiala, in Jliy
rather hev o .-atbro developed in. Iowa ac.d South l-ota, but not so
serious ,,s as anticipated.

, -. i ,-' j x ^

Incrocsi-ni n1iibers of repor-ts of d _;e by xireuorAs (Slateridae)
have ae. received the past fev years. Serious dc:mai e this year v-s re-
ported froa Virginia, :Torth Carolina, oth Crolin, Idin o.
Kansas, Nebrassk,, ,. nne.ota, --.ont.n -uebec, :?ani-: o,, f S a.tc.e.ax" ,
.i'berta, aid Vaoncouver island, 11 2ese insects :tt.ck a sreat variety: of
crops, corn, garden vegcta2ies, ,_.d tobacco, ":.. a report from hainc on
the feeding. of the adult beetles on fruit buds is tne first record of
these insects doing this type of injury in the E-,st. For several years
this met -cd of feeding; has been observed in the cc'ific Northwest.

*IIITE Gr2-Th32.

)urirg June reports of rather severe dcra e by hite _CiLbs
(PhyllophgSa spp.) .ere recciveo fromt the upper C-reat Plains region,
darage being particularly severe in io0'i a.nd south eastern ,ebraska
(brood A). RLther u-sual n1-11bers of these insects vore lso recorded
from British 'Joltmui"i 7.ad *-nitob In the former province they were do-
ing considerable d-svr-e to the roots of yovun- fruit trees. Later in the
season reports of damage Cre received from central 1nd northern Indi -na
anrid Illinois. Lcte in .ucr'Ct reports of dcage xere received from
rts of Kans s

SPOTTED CUCI_ BETL.L.

Very intense infe'st tion of corn i. t he s.. -tted cuouiber beetle
(Diabroticoa duodedi.n ..tata b.) occurred in xhe cotton elt irona
oo rt r -l .ol t;, ,..,1 .. and i, the co n.I belt in the so.,thorn part of










the East-Central States fr-oi., southern Indiana westward to Iowa and south-
ward to ilissouri, d:;.'-.,e being particularly prevalent in the overflow
areas along the .issouri and I.ississippi Rivers. In t-he area north of
this region the corn root worm 7. lo.,. icornis Say was destructively
abundant .nd, i.Yinedi'tely west of this area in Colora.do a new si.ecies,
D. virgifer, ,,'tacked corn seriously for the first tie in that State.

H2SSIAi) FLY.

During. the f.ll of 1926 the Hessian fly (-hyto_.h._i_ destumctor S)y)
was not appearing in throatenin_: numbers east of : .sas, ana t.ie early
spring situation over the i idle Atlantic and South-Central States indi-
cated a very light infestation. In eazst-centra.l OLio there was aif indi-
cation of possible damage. CviriL to wet weather at harvest tire in 1926
much grain shattered in Ohio, Indiana, -:.i Illinois, and as a result
there was much volunteer wheat in that region. In the '-crth-Central
States the fly was extremely scarce. The situation in Kansas was a very
general infestation with indications of a decided increase this spring.
This condition was also prevalent in Ckla.ho.ia. Light infestations were
also reported from the California wheat belt. During 'i-.y The fly
progressed rapidly in Kansas and the infestation was found to be heavier
thc-' two years ago when a very serious outbreak occurred, :'spite the
favor 'ble conditions early in the season there v.: s but about 7 per cent
infestation in central Illinois during ::ay. During Junec the insect was
reported as being negligible in Hebr ski, but very serious in the 50
south-central counties of Kansss. In general, the Hessi-n fly did prac-
tically no damage to the wheat crop over the greater part of the wheat
belt, with the exception of the very serious development in Kansas ':-here
a preliminary estimate showed a crop reduction of approximately 2u,C'CC,00C
bushels. In the East-Centr.,l Ste!ves, ow;iri- to the large quantity of
volunteer wheat ,the fly has built up a. rather threatening infest.: tion
for 1928. The fall survey showed pri-actically normal conditions in
Illinois. T'.rj summer fly surveys over the :iddle Atlantic States shov.,
a decidedly higher infestation than has prevailed for sever-.l years over
most of this territory. M-ryland has a rather high infestation of 21
per cent, most severe in the western part of the State. The fall survey
in Kebraska indicted but little d.-...4ue bj the fall brood of flies. In-
dications are of a heavy infestc.tion in Kansas. This insect wvas destruc-
tiv.- for the first time in Sedgwick County, Colorado, vhere it was infest-
-.3 s >i;h as 10 per cert of the crop in some fields.

CKii'CH .

The chinch bug (Blissus cloucopterus Say) v. s generally less abund-
anrA than usual in \,inter quarters iroi.. central Missouri eastward. Ini
eastern Kohnsas and western :i;;Jouri, however, there were indications of
chinch-Ju. trouble early in the season. XsIite a. very wet spring th)e in-
sec-t passed tie 0'inter rather succe-ssfully in Illinois, but as not prosenli
in sufficient numbers to occasion alarm. Late in '.'y re:':,-ts of threaten-
.-I..'..jrs of these insects were received from *:s-ouri and South Carolini
?.. contii..-',! wet wAtherie of June practically put an end to chi.Lch-bug


-562-








-S83-

trouble in the East-oentr-I SttAte3, a nd decidedly reduced the infcstation-
in eastern T.nsas and western I.Iissouri. Destructive aburnd&nce in parts
of eastern :Tbresh-. developed during Jiue. Tne !xorth Carolina outbreak
developed to be of some consequence, 'cut not very serious. The 1,ebraska,
outbreak was much less serious than jas originally anticipated. -s
whole, the chinch-bug situation was not serious this ye,,r. A brood of
chinch bugs is building up in the East-Central States Ahich mny cause
trouble in 1928.

G2EEN BUG.

During the winter and early spring months the green bug (Toxoptera
_r-mihL .1 Rond. ) was reported as unusually abundant in Loui3iana and r rt3
of *kl -Lrna and Texas, nd in the Salt River Valley of .rizona. During
>:orch the Oklahoma infestation becseme more exensive, but no further de-
velopaents were reported from other Statcs. small outbreak in liorth
Carolina, with sone damage, was reported late in April, after vhich date
no further reports of this insect were receive.

FA.LSE 1"''LI I' ...

Though generally not so prevalent as durin tle past few years,
the plains false virev;orm (Eleodes opac, S-y) destroyed thousa-Zds of
acres of wheat around Syra.cuse, Kans. It wa s a-lso reported from iebrska,
and a species heretofore not known as'crop pest, lieodes trcostata 3"
, ~ ~ co latet-t. a er ~zthe serso co;ze-statae
was recorded from the la:1ter tato. Ler i the season
da;iage was done in eastern Idaho by ]. hispilobrins.Say.
..Li?.LFPA T1!IL.
(Phytonomus posticus Gyll.)
Rather severe injury to the first crop vxes reported from Delta,
Utah. The weevil is no'; :"c..t 8 miles west of the :lebraska line in
xJ7oiineg, the known infestation having extended 56 miles e-stiward. The
outbreak in Idaho is the most destructive since thult of 19i,. (See also
Special Review.)

CLOVER LEAP ".L.

Oving to severe wet v.'eathe, last f.-li but little d ... _e Vwas exper-
ienced this year by the clover lef weevil (iKyper., pr ctata Fab.) in
Illinois. During April this insect bec..:e U:,uA ) ly troublesome to al-
falfa in Kansas and deage would have been very severe had it not been
for heavy rains late in April. The insect also appeared early in the
season in r.eri :cing numbers in 11issouri, but v;:.s controlled by prolonged
cool, wet weather. During early June fevi reports were received from
Indiana.

LESSER CLOVER LEAF EVIL.

Severe damage u: the lesser clover- leaf ,eevil (Phytonomus nigri-
rostris ?eb.) to clover buds and seed crops w's -i.iccteod in Illinois









this spring,as a large nj LTb'r of t'e adult s .ssrd the winter success ily.
Late in April a flight of beetles vas observed ..'-ut A.lbany, r7;
outbreak evidently did not develop as anticipated, as no furt-rr re-rts
.,ere received during the season.

:, JOIdT o j:0

To yards the end of March the wheat joint '-jorrm (Kn-oj ii" tr:.; ci
Fitch) li.s reported as seriously d....inV 'eat in St-.iley .., rth
arolin In southern Illinois it *'as much less abPundant -l it .;s oien
for several years, the only records being fro.: a very fewv wcst, rn .:
southv'jestern counties of the St.te ed a. single infestation In c:,
County of 28 per cent.

-;n-z'T S3-7 32JPLY,

The hea2?t stem s, -fly (Cephus cinctus :lort. ) which v : '.os t
serious pest of the year in Saskatchewan in 19.6, vhen it c-...:. loss of
12,000,000, -ent into ,:inter quarters in enormous numbers, 1'urif l-'26
it spread vwest'.ard until it now covers one-third of the rhe .-r_'.. i
areas of Alberta. L survey this yea-r (1927) indicated that o. :.UU a per
cent of the -ru-in 's infested in Kanitoba, end but little srcous : ...e
was done over the rest of the infestso, territory.

CO)DLIX MOTH.

The codlin& moth (Crocaps" pomonella L. ) in- te iddle e-st
during April promised to be as serious as it -:.s last year, vey nigh
percentage of the larvae having p%.ssed- the winter successfuli, iur'-. tionr
cvas generally later than norm.,l from Pe-.nsylvania -" st:d ccr.:-ss central
IMissouri. Duri..; June the situation vi',s much more favora.ble, i.ne insect
bein-g slightly more numerous than usul1 in the East-Central it.tes :.nd
bec,.,in less troublesome from Illinois :jestvj. rd.
In the Pacidic orthaest the situation at this ti.e .vas very i- vjr-. Ie.
Dur.: ij ..'gust the infestations in the South Atil ntic and Last-.,ntrai
States were serious enough to indicate he..v, d.:.re b'C the ter 'roods.
A similar situation prevailed in parts of Idaho and Colorado. .ou:
comparatively x.ell controlled in t.he Eastern StLtezs the codlic r1ih t -s
prevalent enough to occsion co.'tiet on the cQucntity of ''oiny fruit offered
to the export tra-de. In .. sections of the eastern p ort of the -nited
St.-ites late frosts so reduced the ple crop tht the initix i co.l]n:-
moth populations ,,ill be minterially lover next spri.-

0RIE^JT.-L FH~iJ '... .".

The oriental fruit moth (Lr.speyjrcsiTh molest usc) i-._. r, ;i'li.r
th. ., lst ye r in the Fort V lley section of ".-- and th st -duit
motlh w;s observed on Febirery .-, injury t ,nc.e notice dle d,:t
the first of i.-ri' .nC full-rc;n lavae of die firut brood :. 1on.':rved
on tie l.th of the mo1t>. -.> '..,jk of z.he second ,enerticn 5 r...c.cd
durn, the first ;ee: in 2' ,, a.d ,.-,'i.. this month the est s r."-i- 'ted
for t'e first ti:.-e from ii!olly springs, Aiss. urin, June the inc-t :.s
recorded for the first time from the :;est-central :. rt of ecrgi,


mm














.'. ... rirwot r- Coun.ty and it r.'.s oo 2ervcd t o 1b1 ti '' 1W Uu !Lintc.ftf scc
ancd hest Virgixia.

"This insect is quite widely distributed in Ohio, having been
found from the most south rly to thle most northerly sections of the State.
The aro.. o4 c .-'tio is in- soute.o aii central Ohio although .t
Sm-udus::' bc. 3Stams fo.ud a, rather heavy infestation. Fortunately, the
insect has not beco:. e thor.u-. ly established as yet in the :reat p7oduc-
ing area. of Ohio vest of Sc&-,'-usky. In so,,e instances Nr. Stearns found
as much as 56 per cent of the lte peaches infested with the larvae of
this spoci.s,. O-,e o tlhe ar tiG-fyig aspects of the situation is that
parasites re already established and act-vely opratng in Ohio. It has
been deaertained that" six spe,2es of larval. parasites are present. The
total parasitism of the season cavec'i-,:1 18.7 per cent.' (J.S..1Toucer,
Ohio LAricultural ExperiaIent Sttion, -.ooster, Ohio.) (See also Special
Rev ie wv.)

-PPLE '7D THOG I "'N -'- ""T'-
*u~j- ji~i i~jj n .'J i ^ --, ,.'i .. .tj.,<)

The -:ipple and thorn skeletonizer (Hej.1erophila pariana Clerck) was
was decidedly belc- normal this .c.-r throughout the greater part of its
range. It was reported for the first ti-r from :iaine during the past
season, but even in badly infested crchardz in i'ew York State and New
England it ;as not serious.

PEACH BORER.

The peach borer (".e-oria exitiosa Sav) is so.-ewhat more abundant
than. usual over the :idde _iltic a nT 'st- Central States, repoit- of
unusually heavy b r, .i h.vii: beee received from C-eorgia, Ohio, Indiana,
:nI Illinois. In Georgia ,-ie paradichlorolen-ene has been used this
year than was used during the la st few; ye.,rrs ouing to the unusually heavy
infestations of the Fort Valley section.

EA' TEj7 TT'- C EP ILLAR,

The eastern tent caterpillar (Kalacosomia am,.ericanra Fab.) appeared
to be as numerous as it was in 1926 throughout ':T .I,id and the ::udson
River Valley region of .ev York 3t1,,te. Ll t,:. Middle Atlantic States it
was apparently noce abundant then last year, while in the South A.tl.rrtic
States the infestations had decidedly decreased.

PLUMT CUBCULIO.

Early in the season the situation of the plum curculio (Conotrachelus
nenuphar Hbst. ) was ,or serious t>i it ha d been s--rce 1921 in the South
AttlntLic StAtes, This i:?-ct also u-i-Lred unusually early in the East-
Centra2 States DurinX :.y the n-sect .,as reported as seriously attacking
the crops in 1issouri, and by Ju-ne it bfeceie evident th-t it was more
&L.tunlt in 'ew ,:.l-IL.; than lost ye:r. During July ---e was very general
@ver the entire seaboard.







- 36-


Oortra.rY to the conditions during M.rch, 1926, when fruit--,- h.id
e s w eore so extrei.:ely scarce, ejE:s v:ere re: ,.-;c,. normally 'i-: n'...nt
throughout tha East-Cetal a. d ..outi. eastern States 'th the e -.cAtion
*of ev Zor3 Stat hey u.uro' still reported as less .b ;.d.. h-n
usual ts ps r. I l.. .. .in the .inc-c-ter section
of Virminio -,oout the .iidle oa :.ro. About the sime time hwtc".in V'as
observed in Illinois and MissoM~ri. During 4ril these inisects wc-re re-
portea s g ener:2liy i.iore prevalenit than last yearr throughout -.r. hr.gland
and mubnoi.',j in the nust-Cencrai Sta:tes. Towards the end of ".i. hatch-
ing *ias observed ouite generally Uthrou....out southern and central P.nnsyl-
vania. In tho lii. i-ctte VoIley, Ore-on, hatchii.g vas so. e,'w:t .Iaer,
occurring aboft tie first wee1: in April.. The rosy apple ..'iLd (.n'j.ra-Lhis
roseus 3-.ke1() vas not u usually -obu-dan.t ovcr the !idC.lc Atlantic .2.d
:mt-'cntr.al Satcs. Aphids, other than fruit nphids, w.ere unus., -.i.Lly
br.o:d.na t over very vwifle territory, exte..;ij well into Cand-. in most
cases thTcse outbr.-aks were associa.teJ '"ith a delcyedO npr-i. ?f.d c3ol,
wet :)e.ther. lurin' July the infestations of aphids on ornamentalis were
very conspicuous in the eastern part of the Ur-.itd tl:.*tes. By te first
of A-agu t, the aphids had rather abr ted, and but little trouble "as r.e-
corded the. remainder of the summer.



Throughout w Enal.land the previl ence of the San Jose scale
(Aspidiotus pjrniciosuj Comst.) duri'.: the winter of 1926-27 was not at
all aTariing. his conciti-on also prevailed ove the L-ast-Centr 1 States.
From ',-.rylan.r.d -rouo.hwa.rd to So'ith Ca,:rolina e, neral i-:creoase vas being
obsorve,. In Ceorgia this was very decidedly chec*:ed by the twice-stabbed
lady beetle, 'K:ich occurred in abno'rmn.1ly la'ee r..be. s in 192G. In the
East-Ce.tral States conuit-ons remained about as tn-,' ere in 196i. In
t"e '.est-Central States the insect was not considered of much eccn:i-,.ic
import'.nce. These conditions of subnormal rbi.,1 nre of the scale pre-
vuiled throvL.'-ut the se,.son over the eastern fruit belt. Late i:. the
season, he ,cv-..r, extreely v wc.rm leather in southern Inidana c.a-.isc a heavy
inc;rea in the scale. -opu.l l.ion,, in mrny orchards.

j A.


urin 3, the yea r no remarkable deve 'opt ents of the anomala
(Lr oiiol oriet.iiis ".%torh.) vere rcco.rded.

CTTRTCXO,.. T;C.LE.

The citricol-" scale ( _se'.dooccus citricola rtpily in Ctuiare C.!. Caio .ir'nb.



..!tati :.;.j of *'l2 .w;.tybul ?seu cocus .*i i Green) L..v2 been




_^i\









-:37-


is'aterially heavier during 1926 in the southern California citrus belt.
During the fiscal year ende: June 50, 1927, the Los Cnouees Comty In-
sectary propagated anld distributed over the ,iealyba-T infested orchards
of the county ap-proximiately 4-,OCO,000 adult Cryptol emus, an enemy of
this pest. An area, of 7,000 acres \, s covered, ui ten adult et](s
per tree. TUnfortuor tey, fi coid.i-ions ..... 'ere such this season
that, vhile .the- prmittd the no:,.al develoe of* the miealybug, the
proloni;d cool, d ,)eOat her m.terially (e 1'1i the activity of the lib-
era,ted Cryptolemus. However, they have -ad up in part for their spring
delay bv a late seson lof .ctivitv which is resulting in satisfactory
seasonal control.

SPOTTED CUJIDT3 IT :L-7L

.bout t"e euildle cf _,ril ve y serious infes t1tons of Satsu1ma
orarnes vby the spotted cucujber beetle (Di brctic,- cuopdec;:i buic_,ataL Fab. )
oc ur e -.. -- - 7 c7 -
occ-urred i., southern si1sssippi ). The be-ti f did v L :',.-,..' C
deai.:. -o o ot h f o "I il a,
oth foliae .r.d blossoms cs swel ss to oun- fruit.

MnilIr'iL.LS.
Ashm. riorgan
..hiteflies, DMaleurodes ctri/id D. ^i'i-tl. '..:ere soruev,,-,hat
oiore a, bu.mdant in -lo...a for sever.-J yea1, s. ..;as ciue to the com-
paratively poor development of the _ntomoienous ui .LeL erit a xebberi
and .`schersoni:. aleyroiis caused by the abnorma.liyj dry sum.er. The
~citrus rte '^ fc'r... -can nto a.nc'/s the first record of this
insect in this valley of Texas t.ls



.- species of Solcropsis is recorded for the first ti.le a-s a serious
pest of the citrus fruit in southerli Daliforn-a. 2his year it practical,ly
ruined the entire first crop of tree citrons in the LHa.ra ihts sec-
tion east of .hitier.

SEED C027 "-"...GG.OT,

Coincident with the l ate spring and corti-inued cool, wet we ath x,
outbreaks of the seed corn maggot (Hyle-yia cilicrura o:d.) v-ere reported
early in froi oth 12arolnd iLt iz-ona. in Arizonc,
damage wav.s observed _--r -era rc. 1. siilar ered-
tions were reported front iMissouri. Durin.i June damage to seed potctocs
was reported from Ohio, and melons and cucumbers were severely dcaziaged in
Iowa anid iMichia-n. This insect ia.de necessay repla.nting 0of .ni acres
of beans in the Tin Falls District, Ildho, cnd ,id considerable dmage
to seed potatoes. During June similar damage waj;s reported from M'aryl7,nd,
Indiana, UTbra'ska:, :Tii-,-sota, South Lakota, and ontan.

CABBAGE :AC--Gc.

iry in :vy the flies of tiie cabb:.ge Cr ogoL (H::lemyi, brassicae
3ouche) were observed to be very cbunrdznt ir t seec.. on g Island,








andt by the end of the month they v.e:e ve-., prevli ent thionuioi' Che
northern prt of L'ew York Jttae. In ,sacae+. +.hi iru'-i appe.. red
sorleOIlt earlier uhun usuai in tuie .... l- ": ,.,( of rt0 Cu.t
aOhd lut2 i- .i M-. .at .X.as reported as doing much dhr.. 2 2nd nj-i ssitatin.
Si; replat.: i prbs of U i Iarlndo Sc;Jttered re or's of d.. co e
re22ivod t.a'o ho spring from niiaaa;, lo, '.nd Colorado. In t,
latter Sita"t it. h;,s increased rtidly hiringa the l-st few L -Lrs nrd is
doing co0s deraor e d --.- It h ...so sL.reari to the western slope of
the mout-hs xn -.> `-Ito.



L-te iL F..ru ry re:orts of ... by the h' 1-.'in 'ux ( -'ir-ntia
hi.strionica .l.nl \0o teO.:? reoivc d fro r mc n- v;e '-its of 1jais.. i. Dur
-f'r ; .u il r)rt Cr n fro re ,.. s' S esic region
Oxter. c& ^. ftf~ I0 1 13 3 to '') *< '* C'?,cl-1-r.;. JI.,3 tr bii3. C co~2Ii ti .ia thr i'C.V-iL3ut
Y;A. is t...: ..o 0. .ln I. tnrou^hott sas t in tie or pnr of
its :2arL,e -dp, th3o J1 3eU ?tci ,fer in tL! Cu-ll rce:cn. An, :uus-di'l record
wv;s received roa Tjyas ',her- the bis a .ere dcstro i:-. the blossoms of
1i1 ?e s.

"ILOOD 2 POTATO BEEP IE.

The i'-st r'ecor)! of the, secsor of the Coicr*,o rotaoto beetle
(Le''irota";3 d i>ct, ) w s received fror : Picajmi, "iss., v oenn
a( l b.oces 1' .... I.:: ed in the field o0h .'ortr. ly in -I'
the insc;ct.j v;ro ree: bCd ,.s modrz.teCK, '\.t &r s:.m
Louisianr,, t; tc e'a -.ti Ictaio crop in the Cr;2' iin ios flzbu.iu ly i rto-
duc:d without t ncd of 1-oi"onin-> :[ovye?, ,.i-ri '. it ws re'- Jrt3d
Oas doinr consid111ibo e ir .orKs of Sam*,, .eccsi:tat.L co+t. :_I
mInc as17re!s. \ o"y. t.e ot -er p'2..t of -cI t it edovolod iA i. ormal r.,ri-
bcrs in northi.;:os.... ,-ozl-..i- ecoosix t.r-< sprjyl 4s i V,' w s lso *.h-,
S irvud ir fields in 01 bi .. oL'c t. .d f hil .. .It
beetles vi'er oU.32rv'< or.i Long Is9 ?.Q 2.N Y Iine l're co_.3 rcitl pc C to
rugeior. of scuthorn. .:U,_:c :'.e fro f-:.'o. this pes a:d ove y 1fort i So-
ino narec to eli ix.ac t. e after iLiitud 'rf..fst *,tio-rs in that l 'ate.
iI'trcIstins s dtu.tio has develoed jn -J'c rd to thiis insect in L t in
the oriinally i afeit:, area' of Colrado the iiect' rrely Lo .cvore
e ri 3i.i1.,, ceo ien h idovco, -d in t nc so7tl-enc part of t.e
middlee l.'t1 C Jtc 2.1 bes vc't ard to Tenne see, ",hera', tiouah reiaedial
ntsure are ar'--.,ly aplied, vwhether the in'edt is pos eo.t or not, it
100does very .ittl 1anC -o evcn in r3-; r;.}, 'l. fi'1d-, ,xc- pt .' -ic' .
SDiff cult i controll ni. the b, b.t .c t':is se so- oo.i. to fre -e..t
rains, is re, o fro:.1 the :na ritiue Q'.rvc .. r o. lI soot c, rn
~ 11-0-1fIOl the :m:.rit i:iu1 6:e~ 1' C s,2 f
.-'nitoba it ha.s ver7 deci.'edly he 1ee'c in iu:eab '"L : lst C'ar.
eavy LnfestatoZis ,re also r."eprtjt frcn Ai!crcao Infast at2on in 3:'iish
Col'A ,.'ia arc limited to t..c jo1 be istrn con.er of the r vnce in :--i -rca
oi.c nrestci nu anoticr cx', -d: n.; frrnm ,i.nbrooiC to I-ernie ,. the
grc's i.est dov.n to the intoer.atioi,.-l "ioii: d -'y.


L tPOT._ '.",Ott leAraf hP;r .,icb-R.
Late in i-.,irch t-io potato leafho;.'T-r ({Br..p. .-,c f*.bae Ha r. wa b






-,89-


served to be very abundant in winter quarters in Missouri. During May
hopperburn was very serious in the early potato districts of North
Carolina, in which State this insect ras also seriously attacking soybeans
and peanuts. Late in Juno damage was reported from Indiana. In northern
Illinois the leafhopper was mrauchli more abundant than usixl, severely
injuring potatoes and beans, Similar unusual infesta iorsI-were reported
from Iowa and moderate infestations in the northwest portions of Chio
and in parts of South Da.ota, In XKansas this insect became ctrn..ly
abundant in bhe "]frlf'i fields, v here it did very considerable damage though
this v' not easily distiiguish2 from that produced by root diseases. The
insect was also -.'L-aJant in Wisconsin.

SUGAR BB>ET LTTIOPPERP.

"The sugar beet leafhopper (muetti tenell'is Baker) has been numerous
in the beet fields of Utah since early spring, and considerable curly-
top disease has resulted throughout most of the State, The first notice-
able injury in the northern part of Utah cccurred in some fields at Lehi,
Parmington"I, Laytcn, North COgen, and Willard. The disease developed rather
slovly in most parbs of the State in spitc of the 1" rge number of leaf-
hoppers present throughout the season. The beets in most areas had acquired
good size before late-season injury became serious, damage starting to-
ward the end of Ausast in most parts of the State, Before the end of the
season, the beets -.ere nearly all severely curled at Lehi, North Farmington,
Lynndyl, Leamington, 3rantsville, Hooper, American Fork, and North Ogden,
while considerable drahnge had resulted in niny fields at Layton, Delta,
Santaquin, northwest of Provo, Goshen, C'che Ju.lt-on, Lakeview, Penrose,
Bothwell, Thatcher, Bear River City, PlaJn City, nTorth Garland, Honeyville,
Draper, and scattered fields thro'-hout the State. Damage "as fairly
light in Cache Valley in some -,rts of Boyelder, Salt L-ike, and.Davis .
Counties, and in most fields bet-een Nc.phi and Manti, Considering the
State as a whole, the damage from curly-top would be proportionately 1'ess
in the territory north of Manti then in arens south of this point."
(C. F. Knowlton, Logan Utah, ) (See also Special Reiew. )

PEA APHID.

"The pea aphid (Illinoia pii 4Kalt.) appeared very early in the
season in threatening numbers in the alflfr fields in p-irts of Oklahorn,
About the middle of Aoril reports rere received of damage from parts of
Kansas. The infestations in Kansas rapidly developed into an outbreak.
Heavy rains, ho-evar, to-ard the last week in the month reduced the aphids
to negligible numbers. During 74ay reports of serious damage were received
from Utah and southern California and during the latter part of that
month and early June other serious damage to newrly-seeded alfalfa was
reported from Jnbraska. The insect 7.s also prevalent in parts of
Illinois, Missouri, and Mississippi. Toward the enid of June there were
indications in the pea-canning districts of Wisconsin that this insect
v'ould be more than usually abundant during July. This condition prevailed
up until about the middle of July when severe wind and rains reduced the
6utbreok3 to a negligible factor. Early in the season an umusually severe
infestation developed on alfalfa in Idaho. This outbreak dovel6ped while
the plants wore still very !mall and in many cases they completely elimi-









nated the first cutting. Parasites l..ter in the season almost eriAtol
de;tro,-ed the aphids.

PEiTC"E_ '..L=VIiL.

o,( te end of I' arch, tLE. epper weevil (Lxitono:us euLE.enii
Oanol di,'0 co i.1 ..... 1 SAi Coauty,. C 4 late spring
delay..d the apJa(.. rcr. o0. theve Le-v i C. ..,.. county. The first
reovil t. bo obsrcvxed va .eea on July I, aixd b/ the middle of the month.
the ,eev.]is Z -r. well d(istri Iut ed. ovur the pepper fields of Or-r'.e 3oounty.
,eevil s wIore fojxd t.isi sw1Li.er oni a single pl ,ce ne.r Douglas and ..pprox-
imately 1 i/2 riilos north of the Unit-d StAte -;.7-ioo bo,.u-idc1?.ry. I,,festa-
tions aveCraged 1 'CeeVil or mcre per pepper plant, ,-here were indications
of Weevil iii-etics on djceit places north from DouSl.: s in Sulphur
$Srinr s Valley.

AiSPB3Jaf F.&.I C "..C3.I.

A ve- serious infestation, of raspbLrries bv, the r.spberry fruit
vworm (B-y-ur'-.s '.i:.olor ) developed in the rspberry and loUar.brry
ca1ni .i district. of S t..hgton 3tate. Ti- s infestation became so in-
tense th:-.t he fra.it v.;,s rejected at tie ca'nneries .i ...-r growers
stopped pici.2,.



,joiut the ,di'le of e'ebru .ry tho cotton floa recr (r'1lus
seriatus Reto.t boc,.%i to e&.iore a, 3olleo, St.-tion, T7. ,anJn b. the mid-
cdle of i,rch t.is Inocu* c s ek5. i i.. rather laCt'- !.uL.;bors in this
locality. r ri i latc .vrch a.d -pl c...- were hatc'-.: throughout
iouisiana a.- uc sideoioe i.uay ,;',r a a ticlpated. Duiini the latter
ntonth it ,asc obve:v0d t7. t t;.;ro wx.ee practic lly no infestations in the
lov:er .o G:.unde l lley ..d v, t' ro :.ia Corpus 'I.risti, in Texas.
u~in, ay h iccj w e objr.,eic to be hatching, in mcderately lar.e
nuabeis? 11, Phe lu l t teci&ro uf outh Jtaroli., 'i.d duriu:i June so:,G
injury was tport.d frou partj oCf ortj Car'olina. Late ir. June oand e..rly
i:i July there 'as cli.ht d.u.: i. Scuth Carolina. &,d similar light infes-
t .:tionb %ero observed i- i7o, t',. ioin2- rea iO a1 t that time. A little.
t.:ore intense i ,t .......o' ".ere observed in p-rts of Pennessee, while over
the roiainu.r -i thne colton :.,,It no d. .:' \:s re ortd.
:e r o/;1 : z d i :[_ -' ., i *. ".*


S'.cottctC: lea l.ter th"n usujl .in its"invair3on of the mtocu S'ttes this.'cr. It
eItcrcd the cotton bolIt so late Iat very little d :.' resulted fro.i t:.c
fecdin of the drva .nd thou .: a feblea northern flih't tas tte,.Cpted,
little da'ae oa:s doiLe to fruit ir., t-"2 nortl.crn St.tes.


- .;- c0









PERIODICAL CICADA.


Brood 1 of the period tica cicad, (Tibicina s tendecim L. ) is t he
first of the series of v:ell xauthenticc ted r) r of th is insect, .and..
due to cppe)ar this year. ."ell substantia.ted records .or the occurrence.
of this i-sect ii s2outheO.stern Pennsylvanio, south-cP.troal 7lrylad,
Virginio., `.est Y.ir-i.., nd 'ort'. ,a'.olina *.ore m.de in 1863 by Prof.
C. V. 2iley rand sever...] -aditional locali.ties in 'oest "Virgini. were a.d>.,'
by Dr. Ho)kians _t-. t t-; tie loabtxfal rccordy -prior to 10 '-ere f r'
Kansoas and Colora-do. The loclities in jansas received doubtful cor.'zirm.-.
tion in 18S3. Scae sca.ttcri erts vere aluo rec-rtd irn 1093 from
southern Indiana, Ti ino1 o, and northern K-nt. .'. j. I ms ,-l id, horth
Carolina, Vx rinia, and .est Virginia records v;were CO1fxLr.ed in .210 anc
nov;' record froim southh Luntinotoi, Lonr. isl I.nC, v.s made that year. Th
records froe I-idia., Illinois, aid Xentuck,,, vere not confirmed in that
-e rrsOIL.- I- _
y.ar nor ":ere those frct, I:ansYas .nrd Coloradc. T',e .lorado raco"d u-
doubtedly refers to another pecits of this insect. This ycar Brood 1
careded ,n large nui.ijers in Ro noke, Bedford, Boutetourt, Rockbride,--
Rockiniha-ii, l.bssell, Scott, and .od ux.d Preston oJunties, \est Virginia.
'T.c.u.,_ definite efforts 'err r. ,de to confirm the records fromx the ..ast-
Centra States and Kasas, no records vere obta'ined.



This yTear the br..' jrn (Thyri d opte Zryx e-phermereformis Ha,.:,'.
v.as decidedly more prevalent and destruiive than last .yc-,r, p.Xrticii1arly
in the ,issi'si,,i Vliley and east-central Sta.tes, reports of mrvmuillJ
darge. having b-ere received frou Del,:,vare, Ceoria, Ohio, ndian.n:,
-i:ssouri, :Ala a,,, :ebr-'.s Kansa s, an, i7' 1sssip pi.



Lnrly in the dueson e_-, of the v;hite-.marked tus-ock 1noth (Her.ero-
c.?..-" I .,sli '': 3. -. -.) ".'ere observed q-zite nu ierCse in fes e orK.,
so,.ther.. Ohio a- d Indiajn, These eggs beg.', ha-tc.i ..n Ohio and Indi,:.
the first Y'week in Jian-e a in central :cw Ycrl: SOte the last of thAt
mrionth. Later in the se..son considerauble dax'-c especially in city paris
X'2s reported from the ,nol Elast-Central region "'estvd,.rd to oebr.sk,, t.
insect being reported .s much :nore nun-erous thc-n usu.l inr Ohio, Indiana,h
Illinois, loxa, and 7ebr .ska. Though sliht d-ri.age ,e s reported frori.
Le1a w're, this insect is at a.n oxtrc:..icly lo' .ebb throughout Iew Sgland
,oand the Middle lc tintic St.tes.

BIRCH J "..

The sbirch leaf mine: (lcnuaa p':ila. 71'.._. o. ,-._ain coundnt
throughout rova Scotia, ensdtern. sc-acasetts, co o eca-ct, l ine, rnd
eastern o'e;: York St tLo.








]b':iOCK SP, ".'. 'A
The bPciCCo SbreK
Phey ba.d otbreak of the hemlock s,.'-.,orr (:2:opia fisce >.r ia C-u.n
repor+tee l.st ye.:r from ..iscoL5.ha pr;ctica lly-4. O u. ftr. t
pa-st a .aoi- e. 'Lravepi au.t liritedl oatnrea- oocuvrdi i-i .:.e ad ,r:.=*.ll
outbreaks in northern I'ww Yorl; *t -te :,id several sections of OQ-t..rio..
T" jjT, .. .j ..: ...

The epidemic of the mouxtC.in pile beetle (D.nnirocto...s r 0onticol.e
J-Ip.) Li~ch hus been ui-Yder aj/ for se';rl ye;rs noT-,-t-T,...':-.s no'-' d--
stroyed. front 50 to 70 per ccit of the tiuwer on t..e. Lr.1'..trdi ,.rez.. During
the p)ast t' o ye;,rs the infestn.tions have spread into the .i) 131 2isiin
*",J3 c Ut r :F'.tional Forest, from the east fork crr .-;,ate oi te -itter
Root. AnotIcr epiceaic of this insect ha.s st.-.rted thri.;.hout tie L '..ite-
pine stands of northern iL'%ho.

.T7. 1-'2 F.Y*L-P IKE'3LT '2.

Th'e infestations of the Jeffrey-pine beetle (De., frotonus jeffreyi
Hok. ) inr the mnyo >,Ition-.,l lor3st 1-ave .terillt d ecl Ied t .Ls year.
In the 0re.,o-14lifornia ContIol Project r, ho0sever, the heaviest
losses rqc'adu6d ,-f the tast 10 years were observed this .;.er r.nd uiore
thp.n 3505 0C oo feet of t.i,,ber were killed

DO&'LC'J.'G S i .>.'T,

Throho!u-t tihe -;vsteri ':-.-rt of ;:ontotin thie Doulas fir beetle
Dendrc0tonus pseudotsu c".e "-Hopk.) h s beeii destroy ,no rather :.srming
cu intites of Lou>l ,s fir Canu.lly. T',e d-....e occurs in :ro-is of trees
sz .ttercd o._ou,.,hout the forested .,re, s

-. . J A J.-*U ~..^

slit outbr .Lk 3: the spruce o 1.'worm (. .rolog> fumfi'er?.na Cleri.
i: a nirsery in (h o . 10r:0 l.0,o t'.e <-;7tCer2: order of Michif.n arnd 4,500 .,,',re miles north of
Thor L.]* in Ontrrc w'.s badly inf.stcd. This l-.'..-r outbrcakl h.c been inI
progress since 192 :;.(, has resulted in the death of most of the firzb
2:,,r dcidodly retarded the .oth of the spruce. On tihe mi:niid ea.t ..
cf .ocsf island in the vicinity of L2J.c '.'innipeg, .I-nitoba, it h's *.:ntiro-.:|
'.y killed out the mc.tare balscia ,ud hcrs deci-.edly weakened vhit.. spruce. -H,.
kn infest.tion vhich has beon urder *;jy in the so.-thcrn htlf of G pB Brctoa
[sl .'d hcs decidedly abttcd during the prst sea.sor.

.'.RC H S ,".' VLY .

The outbre.'-, of the larch s-'.fly (l'enatus cri:hsonii H:.rtg}
inq the Spruc2 ,ioods Rcsrv i :nitob,:. h. s Ibc-:.. vary effectiv-ly reduced
>y t--..: introduced "*-.rsite 7 eli us thr'hlri-. : '.-;rl., 86 per cent of
t.-0 cocc-) r oiu ] pf '". i -. -






1*.















2
z

-J






LLI
Ce


Ou
dg

i-
zl






n'n
z0
32:
0. u
6- gn



i- n








.393-


SPF-:IAL 2EVIEWVS

K,.,2?I:T COIRU BORER

The fall survey in TTe'v7 Engandr was completed about the mid lie
of November. This .'ork included a comparative survey of the kno7n in-
fested territory an a survey to determine new infestation bor!ering
on the known infested area. The single-generation infestation is
spreading from New York easti-ard into h._- England nhilo thn t'o-genra-
tion infestation in New England shows a normal fluctuation,

Perhaps the most outstanding developmn-t in the corn-borer ,ork
during the past season was the $10,000,000 corn-borr ln- exprHt.
The two main objects of this c.ep.xiga were to .tontri+re (1) -:bather
it was possible to retarl further spread of t.r pest by a thorough farm
clean-up of corn, stalks, etc., over the western an, 6outhrn area
then known to be infested with the borer an, (2) -hlether such a clean-
up woula result in the prevention of increase and, possibly, in the
actual reduction of the number of 7bererats in infested territory for the
following year and thus demonstrate the practicability of control as a
continuing farm practice.

The results of the 1927 campaign indicate that:

(!) It is improbable, under existing conditions .overning State
cooperation in such effort. that the natural spread of the borer to ne',
terri:ory c.in be r-:tr'.e:. materially, although it is ap-oreciated that the
volume of such spread may be reduce by the thorough clean-up of the en-
tire infested area, inclusive of the border counties and townships. Be-
cause of the inability of some States to include in the cl1.an-up campaign
the lightly infested border area, the normal spread of the post
tA, such areas occurred in 1927.

A total of 794 townships were added in 1927 to the area previOUsly
quarantined on account of the corn borer. The spread lisco"ord in 1927
is shovn roughly on the accompanying map.

(2) It is possible to keep down the number of borers .and -to prevent
serious commercial damage to corn by a thorough concerted clean-up in
infested territory. The infestation survey following the 1S27 spring
control campaign showed that the number of borers per 100 stalks in both
Ohio and Jw7 York, representing two-thirds of she townships in the con-
trol area,had been reduced. The reduction in Ohio -as f-fom 6 borers per
100 stalks in 1926 to 5 borers per 100 stalks in C'27. -.e ri.iCtion
in JTe- York was from 12 borers per 100 stalks in 1926 to 10 borers per
100 stalks in 1927. In i.'-higan, ho-ever, o-ing to the existence of con-
ditions deciJe3ly favorable to the borer increase, particularly, as
regards reinfecstation from Cnr-dc, there 'as an increase in the number
of borers. Penn'ylvania also showed an increase. The increase in :.ichi4n
was from 12 borers per 100 stalks in 1?2r3 to 27 borers per 100 stalks
in 1927. In Pennsylvania the n-umber increased from 7 borers per 100







-39j.._


;talks in 'I926 to 24 borers per 1'O stalks in 1927. In In.4ianq, the
nrmiber of borers even in 1927 was less than 1 borer per 100 sta*'lks. 0.-er
the v'hol0e area, ]ue to coaIrlitionn especially favor'ible to borer iLr'.-
in Michi$-'n in 1.'7, tL.re were !- times as rany bore's in 1"A27 as t".ere
-ere in 1926. This cho 'in-, ho' ver, compeare favorably -'ith the increase
to 4 times as .;-,y in 1926 as there were in 1925, "*hen no such rnifier
control effort '.s rattcmpted. TMe figure for the -hole area is 14 borers
per 100 sta:lks in 1927 as co.rpared with 9 borers pqer IC6- stalk's in 19.I
4Tithout any control effort, we probably would have ha'. over the "hole
area 4 or 5 tirn.s as mnny borers in 1927 as in 192S or from 35 to 45 borers
per 100'stalks, This result is strongly i.ncouraging to fe r:.erG in their
efforts to control the borer in infested territory, It is thou4.t that
.:;rious commercial injury by the corn borer cai be largely prevented if
farmers '.7ill adhere to the lowv-cutting, clean-plo'"ing, -oling, rakin-,and
burning methods of control.

In addition to these two main obj'-cts of the campaign, the -orr: of
1927 further supported ari demonstrated conclusions "hic'n have come to
be generally accepted relative to the corn borer, n-;.Ily:

(1) It j..is possible to r;'enrt, for th'e mornt -j-rt Ion--istinc-3
spread of the borer b:y h,;^.ia -.=enci,:s. The fact that no ins tance has
been reported of a jump of one or two hundred miles by the borer that
could be properly credited to transportation by hIr ,n a r,:.y inidrctes the
effectiveness of the r, intenance of a strict quarantine as far as move-
ment by hu.-r:n -;.ncies is concerned.

(2) It is .iot p .i. e to .radicete th borer, 7hieh fact has been
rIe'AteZy ,sittd- in the Doast. Repeti field tczts mac1o in the 1927 cam-
paig 4ler:.jotr ted that it i- i- o'-.sible to elirminate every borer over
uny considerable area, (W. H. Larrimer, Bureau of Entomoloi-, U. S. 7. A,)

ALFALFA 'V.,VIL.

"The extensions of the territory infested by the alfalfa vY.,-il
(ihnto t.o ;.i -o stic -_iGyll. ) have been inconspicuous, ani have r-sulted
in brinin- in only two new counttqsDougl-s, in i:va.a, and ::iolrire in
.'o:rn\f. The borders of the infested territory are, for the rmo:,t -).rt,
in mountainous rc,-i,',-; where the rr,'-j', 'of the insect can not be minv:ely
follow b-:c-mi.e of tihe di-stance between fields. The In-. .e inflicte-1
by the alfalfa -7eevil has been slitit, except in the vicinity of .'.xb'Irg,
Idiho, The n,-m.er of adIult weevils present in the fields throur".out the
iisct' : r ,m..c set..ns to be a>out normall" (G. I. Reeves, Lurcau of Ehtornoloo
U. S. D A.
I':LX C.' i ",If-'. "'j ^".';,

"In the prin! of 19: ,,hr A Mexican fruit wor (Astrph
lu1ens Locw) Wrs !i>c(v r d in the citrus plc,ntinr-c of the Rio Gr-nde
Valley of Tex:--, larvae occurring in ,m;rr 11 numbers in fruit from Mission
to :r U 'tisvilln. Scati ered inf 7.t'tions, their, fore, oc-1ur ed throu..-hout








-.395-


the entire valley. The Federal Horticultural Foard, as a result of this
infestation, promulgated a quarantine restricting the movement of all
host fruits from the infested territory. Eradication measures were at
once undertaken, the Bureau, Board, and State DeDpartmont cooperating.
The measures were based on the maintenance of a host-free period, and
the inspection of groves and t me movement of fruit under certification.
Volunte- r comr-iittees rcre organized in the different valley towns to
assist the F-deral and State men, and aill ho!.t fruits throu hout the
valley were collected and destroyed. The exicn authorities in "-tamoras
cooperated in carrying into effect a similar program. As the next season's
crop began to mature the valley was divided into is-oection districts,
each in charr of a district inspector who is held responsible for the
careful inspection of all groves in his district ev-ery 30 days and the
certification of groves found to be free from. Thu fruit 1orm. All drops
are destroyed and culls processed. The first 30-day inspection was com-
pleted on October 1, and car lots of graoefruit began moving out of the
restricted area. 'Thile it is too early to predict the condition of this
season's crop, the result to this writin: (October 15) has been very
promising, no fruit worms having been discovered since the clean-up in
June." (A. C. Baker,Bureau of Entomolorv, U. S. D. A.)

ORITMTAL 'UL'T MOTH.

"Tn sections where the oriental peach moth has been established
for a number f years (five or more) the infestations this Past sq-son
-r? light to moderate while in newly estnablished areas they Vr Ggenerally
severe. In the southern part of 'TeP- Jersey end also in parts of U,-'ryland
the infestations wre lighter than they have been for several years.
In some orchards E4berta and later peaches showed les than 10 per cent
injury rhile in previous seasons 'h i-"...-..- .s "been 25 to 75 per cent.
In Georgia, it appeared in the heaviest infestrtioi ever recorded in that
State," (-lvah Puterson, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. D. A,)

JAPANESE BEETLE.

"The spread of the Japanese beetle (Popillia j:ponica N-e n.)
during the s'Ltmer of 1927 has been largely on the south and west of the
infested area. To the north, approimately aO30 beetles were found at yTnck,
N. Y, on the west side of the Hudson River. This was the first infestation
found thus far in Reckland County. No infestations "-ere found north of
the Croton River in Westchester County. On Ion, Iland 31 beetles vrere
found in Liinddnhurst, a few miles northeast of the Nissau-Suffolk County
line. In Connecticut a general infestation was found in Bridgeport and
1 beetle in :i,,v Canaan, On the west infestations ere found in
Pennsylvania at ,4eissport, Lehi4hton, Pottsville, ShenanO.oah, Sunhury,
Milton, Bloomsburg, and "il'-es-Barre, 16 beetles were found in Gettysburg,
I in York, and 2 in U charicsburg. In M-ryland a small inft-.. *tion -as
found in Chesapeake City. One beetle '-as found at Perryville, 1 at
Ridgeley, 11 at Cambridge, and 30 distributed at several points in the
city of Baltimore. Thirt- -n beetl-s were collected in the District of







.396..


Columbia. In Dela"-are 1 beetle s found at Dover, 24 at Clayton, 1 at
Fort Pwn,- and 1 at Stanton. It is believed that the lon', rriny period
in Augl.ist and early September did much to retr.rd the -n ril spre.-d of the
insect in 1937, Most of the infestations found outside of the known in-
fested territory were located in towns and cities and rere carried to
those points, it is believe 3, lar rly through artificial channels, such
as railroad trains, automobiles, and contrab'in produce." (L. B. Smith
Bureau of !ntomoloqy, U, S. D. A, )

MEXIC... B-..-T BE'TL-7.

"in general, over the Southern and 2-stern States, the ,'I-icon
bean beetle (Eilachna corrm.t-, Muls.) has ,'' more numerous an-d has
done more damage than in 1925 and 1926. The dispersal into ne'7 territory
has been the .fr-;test in point of sr'-re miles, and about as -e;t in
point of distance, as in any y:nr since 19.20 '-hen it 1',q first dis-
covered in northern Alabama. This spr(: lI has been chiefly to the *?'t
and northeast as in previous y* r;:, the beetle having reached seven
counties in south-,estern Ne-," York and at least five counties in Ontario,
as far north as Toronto. The presence of the beetle in four southeastern
counties of Michigan is very important. No pr .ictions as to its serious-
ness to the 1 rge bean industry there are attempted, but it should be
carefully -ntcht.id. It has reached the coastal section in Virinia, occur4-.
err in injurious numbers at ':orfolk. Thi-onrts front Alabama, Georn., the
Carolinas, Virginia, Tennessee, Indiana, and Miscissiipni s';-te that the
infestations are heT vier than in 1926. In Kentuc':y fe r rcr:rts from
gro,-ers vere received at the E--.perim-.nt Station, probably ?c:-use of in-
creased fr7.ili-rity with the pest and the methods of control. In southern
Ohio emergence fror, hibernation occurr-l a fe-' I-",ys earlier than in 19'6,
the first adults being noted in the fiolV' May 23. .Ta.r *.-ce oroceedud
rapidly and ',inter survival ,; hi -her than in 1926; 4 per cent of the
beetles in large. ,-1:c. survived, as compared -ith ls' than !-)or cent
in 1926. The spring and carly surnr-.er infestation in southern Ohio was
very heavy in many localities, but on account of the rapid emer_,'nce,
ai-l the scarcity of early beans due to -"et 1-eather, the e--laying period
was. confined to a shorter period than usual. This r'e-iledT irn a v-;ery
distinct -ap, after the dis-aipenrnnce of the overrinter ,'- -tl'.s, and
before the arrearance of the first-gene'ation et -', ...s plante!' in
the latter half of June had fe- e.-gs deposited b.i them ani 1*ere not
severely injure,. Beans planted later were again hec'vily i.-rfested :,nd
in mnny instanc'.s -ere dt-stro:,:c. Only the suminer .:icls bore a normal
or nearly normal cro- without treatment. A lar:.e number of beetles -'ent
into hibernation, r.any earlier thb-n usual, but the Oncoloafel-i dry '-a-ther
this fall in southern Ohio may seriously affect '"inter survival. In
northern Alab'-:.. the survival in large ca-,'s '-as 16 opr cent as comr-ored
with 10.8 per cent in l'T.. he first beetle "-is noted in the field on
1i-irch 31 17hich "f,, 1. d'.) 1irli thIn in 19,',. The infe tatie..s ttere
heavier than in the precediri Th-'Cee v.l rs, but the yield of ear'l.:'
beans "'as not rueT.c' rduc d al-houIh the fields which h "er.- not nlo 'ed
=under i'-j.",-di-tuly after pickiiw 'ere d-fol'iIt d. Latrr beans an 'pole










-397-


beans were severely darmned. The fall crop ; not severely damaged, the
beetles going into hibernation earlier than usual and also probably
migrating. The prolonged drought in that section may reduce winter
survival." (N. F. Ho :n rd, Burcau of Fncomology, TJU. S. D. A.)

VEGETABL., 7'EEVIL.

"Scouting for the vegetable weevil (Listroderes obliquus Gyll.)
has been carried on during the prst year, with the result thpt the
known distribution has been consider-bly extended. Thirteen infestations
in six counties of the San Francisco Bay region have been found at the
following points: San Rafael, Vallejo, :.3rtinez, Berkeley, AgneS, San
Jose, Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Sweerney Station, Half Mvoon Bay, Millbrae,
South San Francisco, and at a point about 2 miles south of Colma. In
1926 i was known only at Bericeley, San Jose, and Palo Alto. All of the
other infestations have been added during the p.-t year.
Most of the above infestations are very light and each covers a
very limited area. Commercial dar- ge has resulted in only four places,
nearly, at Saa Jose, Palo Alto, M75rtinez, and Aiew. The riost severe
infestation, which covered a zin-le 13-acre truck farm in 1926, has
spread to about four times that area in the course of one year. Some of
the infestations, as the one at Palo Alto, were much lighter in 1927
than 1926, probably owing to the fact that but a single crop of tomatoes
was grown during the year. Sufficient adults -'ere not produced, owing
to lack of food plants for larval development, to cause economic loss
,as was the case at this point in 1926. It is believed that infestations
}7ill not be heavy except in truck-crop areas where host plants are grown
continuously through o t the year.
The weevil is known to occur in 32 counties in Mississippi, 7 in
Alabama, 8 in Louisiana, and 2 in Florida. It has been more abundant
the ppst year than before in southern Mississippi, and the indication's
are that it is moving north q-:ite rapidly. Mhen it -as first found in
southern Mississippi it was only in small inf-estntions, and up to the
present season it has been difficult to find during the summer months.
However, during 1927 it has been found in the fields every month of the
year to date, and in larger numbers than ever before. The weevil con-
tinued to be inactive during the summer months, but it *,s very active
the other nine months of the year." (M. M. High and H, C. Lewis, Bureau
of Entomology, U. S. D. A.)

SUGARBEET L1AFHOPPYT.

"The only dnm-ge occurring in the Idaho area this year was due
to a movement of sum-i)er-brood Eutettix tenellus "'hi.ch occurred about the
,15th of June, The only places '"h3re seriously large populations existed
were on the outskirts of thne irrigated tract close to the bad breeding
grounds. It so havpejthnt th e isolated fields were also late-
planted or in poor cultural conditions for the most part. Th-re the
cultural conditions were excellent, ho'vevor, and the beets were planted










durin,- the normal plantin: time, e-cellent cronos were harvested and the
highest yields in the history of the T-'in F-lls and Burley areas obtained.
Conditions in east Idaho brJKL were also 2xcell-nt as far as frte=lom
from Eiutettix tenellus was concerned. An are, in the nest -:-nd of the
Snake River Valley which h was more or less experimental. ;.ve a yield of
22 tons to the acre on SO0 acres plant,..In the Sevier Valley, Ut-h, a
.'cry mixed condition holds. There '7as a considerable movement of inst:cts
into the valley early in ."y, though the populations w-ere not uniform.
-hes poplaton where not "ni orm"
Those areas where the populations '-era high suffered sever-ly, but some
sections give fair averages. In both Jhe Idaho Lnd Sevier Valley areas
the percentage of E. tenellus bearing the curly-top virus was very
lov7. (hiter Carter, Bureau of Entomology, U, S. D. A,)

SUGA7TC.,TE BO3RZ.

"The damage froni the su-rcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis Fab.-)
was high in Louisiana in 1927. The winter of 19262.7 ras rather dry
and favored hibernation. The spring development "'"a at least a month
earlier than usual, By August 1 as ntuch as 6, per cent of the stalks of
sug-i'cane were infested in some fields, -nd thh incr.-..se '-as rapid until
at the time for cutting (October 1 and later) the stalk infestation over
the sug.r section of Lorisiain averaged 82,8 per cent,rith some fields
having an infestation of 100 per cent. It is estimated. in a preliminary
w7y that there was a loss of 27 per cent of the sugar crop from the moth
borer in 1927,
Ex.mi.i,-tions on the zpra-id of the moth borer were not i::-'ie in 1927,
but it is known that little new territory is acquired from one year to
another. Roughly, the territory occatpi' da .n the southern half of
Louisiana, the southern half of Florida, the coast of Te-..s, the coast
of liississippi, and a section around '7oodville, Miss." (T, E, Hollolay
and 7, E. Haley, Burea'i of F-itomology, U. S. Db A.)

GYPSY MOTH.

"As a result of the exterminative me-isures used by the 3urun'i of
Entomology "iith the infested States cooperating, no additio.i-l territory
ha-s been found infestci. by the -.--7vy -ioth (Porthetria dispar L.) inring
the past yepr. There ha. bneca a decrease in the infested area in Wcr.
Jersey and New York. Conditions in the barrier zone in w^s:t.rn ::ew
England and eastern New York have improved -1nd it has been oossible
to release from quarantine 13 toms in Vs.-mont and 2 in Conn.cttcut. East
of.-Viis area the infestations were moil severe, than during the popcvious
year, .and the parasites and natural enemies have not been ef-ective
this sear-on. in L.-,ssschusetts fe',dirig was especially severe in Bristol,
Plymouth, iTorfolk, ,iddlesax, and F-se- Counties. L'.,r u areas .:.re almost
entirely defoliatud north of Lpke 7innipe,-,twuee in ie-.C HI..r, shire, and
the acr.'-i,-, in the Lake Sebi ?o s otion of Maine was thlie lr,-?st that has
ever occurred in that St.ate, In 1holo, I-l ,ni th-.re -ere several heavily
defoliated areas. A survey inclu:1in- thc. heaviest i:,fested areas in
all of the re'/ Zn-land Sttcs shc. rirtial to co'.plete defoliation
in 142,000 acres.








-.399-



Considerably over one-half of tlis zrea sho'-'- from 75 to 100 per cent
defoliation, The infestations mave increas-- in the territory bet-,een the
Connecticut i.vor :jnd the barrier zone and intensive ,"ork 'ill be necessary
to prevent reinfesltion of the barrier zone." (A. F. B ir es, Bureau of
Entomology, U. S. D, .)

SATIN P'!CTTI.

"The satin moth (Stilpnotie salicis L.) hias continued to spread
ahd increase in abundance. illo7; -nd po-olar trees have been entirely
defoliated in many villages Flono .he !.-T' Zuland Coast from Yarmouth, on
Cape Cod, to Biddeford, MAine, L.ndi as far '"est as Nashua, 13. H., Leominster,
Mass ,an.d. Providence, I. I. In evwril cases the caterpillars have s-armed
over and into 1-el-lings after defoliating near-by shade trees. This insect
has crossed the Connecticut River at Hclvoke, :ess., and is present in most
of the area east of a line dra-n from Holyoke to Con''ay, N. H. In Maine
it 'was found during the summer es far north as Sko,7hean and Bangor, and
east to the City of 7llsvorth. The oumrantine line hbs been extended to
include 88 more to"'ns in IiPiiie,4 more in Ne-' Har-pshire, and 25 more in
Massachusetts." (A. F. Burress, Bureau of Entomology TU. S. D. A.)

OPIZITAL fOTi;

".A'.ccording to c sual observations the oriental moth (CnidocarmTa
flavescens "77al,) was more abundant than -us:al during the suiLer of 1927
in the older irnfested area. irani' of its, favored food plants -ere entirely
defoliated. It is most aebindarnt in Boston ane the surrounding towns and
cl-ties and has been founr.d, in Sr-'rpscott during the present season." (A.F.
Burgess, Bureau of F-.tomoloy, U. S3 D. A.)




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