News letter

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:
AA00023227:00058

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text
ATS pLAN BOARk
UN Ji-rTD 3S-Ar.
DEPA.TjJ.ENT OF A..JCULTU.RE








BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER







VOLUME IX c. .
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter41no 1







UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULLTUR

BUREAU CF ENTO'MOLOGY AiD PLA1WT QUAEANTIE

NEWS LETTER

FOR NOVEIER 1941



Vol. IX, No. 1 (Not for publication) January 1, 1942


---------------------------------


REBI3B3ER PEAEL HARBOR



ADM:INISTEPATION


Rohwer and Popham Receive New Assignments

On December 4, 1941, Sievert A. Rohwer was placed in
charge of regulatory work, retaining his position as first
assistant chief of the Bureau, and William Lee Popham was ap-
pointed an assistant chief in charge of control operations.

Mr. Rohwer was born in Telluride, Colo., on December 22,
1888. He was educated in Colorado and came to the Department
in 1909 as a taxonomist. In 1923 he was placed in charge of
the new Division of Insect Identification of the Bureau of Ento-
mology, and in 1927 was assigned to general administrative
duties. When Plant Quarantine and Control Administration was
created in 1923 he was appointed assistant chief of that Bureau.
In 1933 Mr. Rohwer was transferred to the Bureau of Entomology
as assistant chief and continued as such when the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant QCurantino was created in 1934,

Mr. Popham was born in Corvallis, MIont., on February 26,
1901. He received a B. S. degree in agriculture from Montana
State College in 1923, and did 2 years' postgraduate work in
botany and plant pathology at the same school. His first po-
sition was with the Montana State Horticultural Board, and he
entered the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Plant Industry
in September 1924 as a State leader in black stem rust control.
In 1928 he became regional leader for Montana and Wyoming and in
1930 a field supervisor for 13 North Central States. He came to
Washington as assistant chief of the Division of Barberry

-1-





-2-

Eradication in 1931 and when this work was taken over by con-
solidation with the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
in 1934 he was placed in charge of "barberry-eradication work.

Report by Bureau Eyewitness of Attack on Pearl Harbor

"On the morning of December 7, 1941, Jim Nichols and I
had gone to Hickam Field for a routine inspection of planes due
to arrive at 6 a. m., and also to cover ships due to arrive- at .- -
Pearl Harbor, which is adjacent to Hickam Field, a little later.
Since the planes had not arrived by 7:30 a. m., I told Jim that
perhaps I should go over to Pearl Harbor and see if the ships
had entered. On the way over to the Pearl Harbor Gate, I had a
hunch that maybe it would be better if I ?phoned the Officer of
the Day from the Gate, and, if the ships were not in, go back
to Hickam Field to help him. I called the 0. D. and he told me
the first ship would dock in about 45 minutes, and asked me to
come up .nd have coffee with him and the customs officers. At
first I thought I might do so, especially since I had not had
any that morr-ing, but before I had much time to think, I had
told him that I had to go back to Hickam to do some work. When
I returned to Hickam Field, about 7:45, 'Nichols was walking around
outside the operations buildin. I honked, and he came over and
sat in trie car with me. We had sat there talking perhaps 5 or
6 minutes when suddenly the quiet Sunday morning air was torn
with the droning, whistling screech of planes in the direction
of Pearl Harbor. Then we heard an explosion, then another,
We immediately got out of the car, and saw dive bombers diving
into Pe'c- Harbor in quick succession, each releasing his deadly
explosi-,s. We watched this, stunned, for perhaps JO seconds,
thinking at first--and hoping--that it was practice fire. Boil-
ing, swirling clouds of black smoke told us, however, that this
was not a practice session, but the real thing. Of a sudden
there cme roa-ing from high above on our right a dive bomber,
nosing directly toward our location in Hickam Field. The bomb
burst within perhaps a hundred yards of our car, sending giant
streaks of bluish-brown soil high into the air. Up to this
time, I had noticed no unusual activity on the field; the men
standing around seemed stunned, as we were, at the show taking
place before our eyes. Then I asked Jim if he didn't think we
should try to get out of the reservation before activities or
bomb holes blocked our way. I suppose he said 'yes,t because
we were soon under way. Now the air was filled with planes-
not only dive bombers but with bombers skimming just over the
trees and over our heads as we drove along. Army men with pis-
tols pulled them out and shot at the invaders. They replied
with machine-gun fire. The bullets made puffs of dust along our
way and zinged through the air as they ricocheted off the pave-
ment and other objects. We could see the boubs under the low-
flying planes as they flew into Pearl Harbor. In the excitement,
it seemed that there were hundreds of the ships, all enemy, but
perhaps there were not more than a hundred. Before we were more





S-3-

than a mile from Pearl Harbor, other clouds, of-smoke were billow-
ing from the Naval Reservation, and the sky was flecked with
puffs of antiaircraft shells. Back in Honolulu the streets were
quiet and no one seemed to know of the attack. Our fellow-workers
on Sunday duty in the Post Office laughed at our story of an
attack on the islands. Of all the birthdays I will ever celebrate,
December 7 of 1941 will no doubt remain the most indelibly marked."

W. C. Goolsby


BUREAU EMPLOYEES CALLED TO THE COLORS OR TRANSFERRED
TO SPECIAL NATIOKAL DEFENSE ASSIG1TENTS

James, Edwin F., Under Biological Aide, Fruit Ins., inducted,
Select. Serv., November 7, 1941.

FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Lead arsenate injures peach foliage in South.--This year
weather conditions in the South were unusually favorable for in-
jury to peach trees from the use of lead arsenate. According to
Oliver I. Snapp, of the Fort Valley, Ga., laboratory, some pre-
cipitation was recorded on 19 days in June, 16 days in July, and
16 days in August. Injury fror. lead arsenate applied to Elberta
peach trees according to the regular schedule increased until,
by the end of peach harvest on July 21, it amounted to very heavy
foliage injury, severe defoliation, and occasional fruit injury.
The trees that had received the regular schedule of lead arsenate
sprays duaring the season were from 90- to 95-percent defoliated
when the final observations for foliage injury were made on Sep-
tember 12, 7 weeks after peach harvest, whereas the trees that
received no lead arsenate during the season were in full foliage
on that date. This injury caused r.any fruit buds to open in Sep-
tember, which will reduce the 1942 peach crop on these trees.

Partial protection of raisins from saw-toothed grain
beetle.-Two experimental stacIs of boxes of stored raisins, pre-
pared by Charles K. Fisher, of the Fresno, Calif., laboratory,
were sampled at intervals. One stack was protected by an oil-
filled trough barrier at ground level and by a canvas cover,
edged with a tanglefoot preparation, to prevent infestation by
insects falling from the roof structure. The other stack was un-
protected. Before the storage period began, the raisins wore
passed over a cleaner. The calculated infestation of Oryzaephilus
surinamensis (L.) per ton in the protected and unprotected stacks
is shown in the following table.





-4-


_.0. surinamensis in--
Date of sampling : Protected stack : Unprotected stack
: Immature: Adults: Immature: Adults
SI/ : Number : Tumber: Nhunber :" Number
December 7,2 O940----- 1,099 : 2,777 : 457 2,511
Do. -------- 111 : 186 : 69 : 379
March 1, 1941---------- 0 : 0 263
April 5, 1941---------: 0 : 203 : 0 : 2,548
May 3, 1941------------: 5,212 : 316 : 14,579 : 1,944
June 7, 1941-----------: 6,329 : 1,600 : 48,806 : 6,314
July 5, 1941------------: 8,867 : 7,126 : 11,670 : 13,157
August 2, 1941--------: 3,033 : 2,933 : 3,038 : 4,921
September 6, 1941-------: 649 1,53 802 6,915
October 4, 1941--------- 249 : 3,019 : 120 15,218
November 1, 1941--------: 34 : 1,536 : 114 : 35,380

l/
Before cleaning.

2/
After cleaning.

iiXICAN FRUITFLY CONTROL

ITo larvae nor adults found in Texas.--Grove inspections
were made in ovemrber in 2,256 citrus plantings in Texas without
finding any larval infestations of the Mexican fruitfly. Approxi-
mately 9 .000 traps were also operated throughout this period, but
no adult Mexican fruitflies were taken. From these results it
would appear that the annual fly movement northward from Mexico
is no further advanced than normally, and may be somewhat later
this season than usual. Fruit certified for shipment from the
re-ulated area amounted to 4,49601 equivalent carlots during the
month of November. For the season, fruit shipments have reached
7,398 eqgivalcnt carlots. This is a slight decrease from the
amount of fruit moved from the area for the corresponding period
last season.

CEIAL AITD FCOAGE IT'S3CT IVESTIGATIOTS

Coleoptera captured in Japanese beetle traps during 1941.-
Philip Luginbill, Lafayette, Ind., reports that, for the fourth
consecutive season, the May beetles captured in Japanese beetle
traps operated at ;many of the field stations of this Bureau through
the cooperation of Erle G. Brewer, in charge of Japanese beetle
quarantine operations, were sent to the Lafayette laboratory for
determination and study. With these Phyllophaga were many beetles
of other genera, most of which were identified and included in a
special report, which is on file in this Division. The collections
during 1941 yielded 9,668 May beetles, representing 54 species and
3 varieties. These cane from 64 locations in 22 States and, as in
previous years, most of these were from the southern part of the







United States. These collections also provided new State records
for 8 species, and 63 new courty records for many other species.

Rice stinkbug as a pest of sorghum.-R. G. Dahms, Lawton,
Okla., reports that sorghums at the United States Dry-land field
station at Lawton were attacked by hordes of rice stinkbugs (Solu-
bea pugnax Fab.) from August 7 to August 23, 1941. As there were
many varieties and strains of sorghums growing at the station, an
opportunity was afforded to study the effect of this insect on dif-
ferent varieties and on sorghums that matured at different dates.
The varieties that were nearing maturity when the bugs invaded the
field were injured less than were those in the early bloom stage.
Plats of Sumac sorgo maturing on August 13, August 18, and Septem-
ber 5, yielded 49.6, 20.3, and 7.4 bushels per acre, respectively.
One variety, White Darso, Ks. 33-378, was injured much less than
were two other varieties of White Darso (Sharon X Darso 7dw. 48-12
and Dawn X Darso Wdaw. 52-29), although all three varieties were
"first headed" on the same day.

JAPAHESE B3TLE CONTROL

Safety practices and Red Cross first-aid training.--To inex-
perienced men, scouting over rough terrain, climbing large trees,
and topping and felling trees are dangerous occupations if definite
safety practices are not observed. The use of poorly adapted
W. P. A. personnel for such work has increased the need of safety
training. Because the field crews are often away from roads and
other help, first-aid training is important. Furthermore, the
possessiec of good first-aid and snake-bite kits and a knowledge
of first aid has often made it possible to help injured nonemployees.
The foremanship training manual corried by each field crew contains
a section on safety orders, regulations, and suggestions, and a
section on first aid. The first-aid section is Tritten to serve
the type of i juries likely to occur and the conditions likely to
be present at the accident site. Each crew or truck carries a 10-
unit first-aid kit. The crews working at distences from their
trucks crrry pocket kits. Crews working in poisonous-snake areas
carry snake-bite kits. Antivenom for the use of our men is kept
at conveniently located hospitals, police stations, and physicianst
offices. Red Cross first-aid training has been used extensively
during the last 3 years to supplement our safety and first-aid
training. Not only are all supervisors urged to take advantage of
any Red Cross first-aid courses but security-wage workers are en-
couraged to join classes, often conducted by our supervisors. Of
a total personnel of 2,200 over 350 have taken Red Cross first-aid
work. In addition to these 350 men now employed, it is estimated
that 1,000 former W. P. A. workers took first-aid courses when
working on Dutch elm disease. Ten regular employees have instructor's
certificates, 13 others have had advanced courses, and 45 have
standard certificates, whereas only 8 have not taken advantage of
first-aid courses. Among the field security-wage workers, there are
3 instructors, and 8 advanced and 262 standard certificates. Among
the regular and W. P. A. employees at the Division headquarters there








are 4 with standard training and 14 who expect to enroll in
courses this season. Those now conducting standard and ad-
vanced courses are 0. I. Liming, J. F. Tootten, D. H. Slayback,
R. E. LcCarthy, H. L. Cramer, S. L. Stonebraker, F. Theall,
A. E. Peters, V. S. lanifold, and D. Buxton.

Connecticut sanitation crews aid in extingiishing fires.--
A sanitation crew arrived at a property in Clinton to haul away
a GCraphium tree. They found painters had been burning paint off
an unoccupied house. Blow torches had set fire to the walls and
the fire had already reached the roof. The foreman immediately
put into use his fire pump and at the same time sent a driver to
the nearest telephone to notify the fire department. 3y the time
the fire equipment arrived the blaze was pretty well under con-
trol. On another occasion a crew foreman, scouting ahead of his
crew tagging trees to be removed, smelled cmoke. He knew that
he had an firos going in the vicinity and that there were no oc-
cupiec residences nearby. He finally located a grass firo, which
was s ra .ding ramidly, toward the barn in an unoccupied farmyard.
With th help of one of his crew mejbers, he boat out the flames
and by the time help arrived. had the fire under control.

Many confirmations obtained by s-~pling elms removed within
25-foot r-dius of co.rfirmed trees.--Resuits obtained in Pennsyl-
vnria from removal oc elms within 25 foet of original iaht'h elm
disease cas~s offer additional corroboration of the benefits of
this. practice. Some 20 confirmations hveo boon obtained in the
Allent'-:n work area in this man-er. In most cises the original
suspect 7was relovd as be:tle sterial, an.d the removal of the 25-
foot-rc:a-s elms could not be considered at that time. After a
confirn:tion ws received, poernissicn was obtained for the cutting
of nearby oal.ls cnd sevoral other diseased trees were found. In
many instances the trees involved displayed no outward symptoms
and very little streakago was present. In some places confirma-
tions were o-btined bcyondr the 25-foot raaius by sampling all elms
in the immediate vicinity of the original D. E. D. In the Easton
district, o elms that were within the 25-foot radius have so far
been confirmed. All were tagged by sanitation workers while carry-
ing out assignments to remove these trees as elms n-ar D. E. D.
Four of the 6 so removed showed extremely few dying tips, while 2
showed none, and it is doubtful whether any apparent symptomatic
wilt was present when the scouts first inspected them.

Beetle material left after lumbering in Berkshire County,
Mass.--Beetle-mat-rial scouts in Massachusetts located an area of
about 50 acr-s which had been cut over in connection with lumber-
ing operations. Approximately 100 elms have been cut for lumber or
damaged in the nroces The olms cut are sa-ed into 2-inch by 6-inch
timbers which, it is reported, are to be used for the crating and
shipping of defense machinery built by a manufacturer in Pittsfield.
The operation was started early in the fall and is still going on.
The material first cut is heavily infested with Sbolytus, and that
cut at a later date is still potential beetle material. The beetle





-7-

material in this area is almost as great as the total amount
tagged in other parts of the area to date. It is believed that
the Scolytus found in this area are the first to be found in
Lenox Township. This discovery is not surprising as Scolytus
has been found in nearly all of the adjoining townships. The
county of Berkshire has large stands of white pine, and defense
needs have increased the cutting of large amounts of this timber.
In nearly every instance some elm is cut or damaged in the
process. Seven of these areas have been found to date and they
are an important source of beetle material.

Cooperation of property owners in Connecticut.--Through
contact with the Connecticut Experiment Station, R. J. Benham,
of Washington, Conn., learned that this project would remove and
burn beetle-infested elm material, so he wrote the district super-
visor asking that he inspect a tree on the Congregational Church
property in Washington. The Experiment Station had notified him
that it '.'as beetle-infested and should be removed. It was a large
and difficult topping job, and with the present scarcity of capable
toppers in the district, it would have been an extremely difficult
undertaking. Mr. Benham agreed to have the tree topped by a com-
mercial tree company, and also made all arrangements necessary for
acquiring a burning location from a local selectman. Permission
was also obtained for the removal of freshly cut elm wood nearby.
It is believed that 1,r. Benhnams active participation in the prob-
lem gave him a greator interest in the Dutch elm disease eradica-
tion project than if this project had taken over the entire job.

Opw ning of hunting season necessitates care in placing men.-
With th. opening of the small-game season in Pennsylvania on Novem-
ber 1, a large number of gunners were afield. Although some of the
crews were scouting in areas well stocked with various kinds of
small game, the shooting caused the men no inconvenience and there
was no reason for removing the crews from these areas; however,
when the bear and deer season opoened the latter part of the month,
crews we;re removed to safer areas. The possibility of being mis-
taken for a deer or bear is too great; then, there is always the
chance of being struck by a stray high-powered-rifle bullet. A
crew assigned to scout for beetle material in alarge special prob-
lem swamp in the East Stroudsburg district of Pennsylvania ran into
a bear and they all made for trees. One or two men who could not
cli.ib in training were able to make the grade under these circum-
stances.

Nursery cooperates by advising location of slash.--One of
the local nurseries is wholeheartedly cooperating in the attempt
to free the Wilkes-Barre, Pa., district of elm slash, which in the
past has been found in large quantities and which in many cases has
attracted large numbers of beetles. The nursery is enga-ed in clear-
ing electric light and telephone wires in the city of ilkes-Barre,
the city of Nanticoke, and in the borough of Plymouth. During the
course of this work they naturally cut considerable elm slash large
enough to harbor beetle infestation. They keep the district office








informed as to where the brush and limbs are taken, affording
the opportunity of seeing that it is completely burned by the
durp attendants or by our own crews.

Heavy beetle infestation in beaver swamp.--A large crew
has been engaged in removing infested trees from a beaver-flooded
swamp in the town of Washington, Dutchess County, N. Y. This
work progressed rather slowly because of the deep water which
covers most of the area. Beetles are extremely abundant in the
trees being removed, Scolytus galleries predominating. Adults of
Hylurgopinus were observed hibernating in the outer bark of some
of the trees. A quantity of this material was collected for use
of the Morristown forest-insect laboratory. As an indication of
the density of the beetle population in this swamp, it was ob-
served that the woodpeckers waddle rather than fly from tree to
tree.

Chi o forest ranger approves burning methods.--The ranger of
the State Forest at Zaleski, Ohio, made an insrpction tour of the
burning operations within forest lands in the Athens, Ohio, Dutch
elm disease 'ork area. He expressed his complete satisfaction
v:ith the methods of burning used on the project, especially the pre-
cautions exercised in presuppression work before fires are set. He
was in full accord with the manner in which fires were safeguarded
for the night, which consists of covering over the burning piles or
ashes with a thick layer of earth.

Trees have place in war spheres.--The following news item
appearc iVn the Stamford, Conn., Advocate of i1ovember 4: "The
slogan, -Doughboy, spare that tree!' may gain currency in the army
if the advice of a. Stamford tree expert is followed. In a letter
to Secretary of War Stimson, F. A. Bartlett urged better protection
of trees around army camps and airports for camouflage purposes.
Reports from the European battle fronts, he said, indicate that
high-speed cameras have exposed camouflage with fake trees and
paint."

Interesting removal in Pennsylvania.--An interesting D. E. D.
tree was removed in the Philadelphia district of Pennsylvania the
first week of the month. It was a blown-over tree and color was
found whire the beetles had.attacked it. This proved to be Cerato-
stomell ulmi, and when the tree was cut it was found that the color
had penetrated to the stump. The tree stood on the bank of a wet-
weather stream. When the top was remov-d, the trunk and stump
assumed an upright position and the trunik section had to be felled
in the regular way.

Troe-surgery company cooperates.--Mr. Sandt, a representative
of a tree-surgery company, visited the East Stroudsburg district
office of Pennsylvania and advised that he had a crew on line-
clearance work for a power and light co:.pany and was conducting opera-
tions along the Delaware River and west to Log Taverns Ponds. He
agreed to notify the district office of any elm material left over 3
inches in diameter.





-9-

Scolytus found entering green wood.--Recent observations
in the southern part of Dela7are County, Pa., indicate that
Scolytus multistriatus Marsh. has again been attempting to enter
green elm wood.

Property owner hires crew.--Three men in Columbia County,
N. Y., did such a good job of removing a tree on a property that
the owner hired them to take down another tree on one of their
days off duty.

Speedy Bureau action authorizes reshipment of out-of-area
elms.-Information was received on November 5 from a nursery lo-
cated in the New Jersey DuTtch elm disease regulated area, to the
effect that they had an order for some elm trees to be delivered
to a number of defense-housing projects in adjoining States out-
side the infected zone. They wished to purchase these trees in
nonquarantined sections, bring them to their nursery, and ship
them to the destination points along with items other than elms.
Under proper safeguards there would be no hazard involved in
handling elms from noninfccted points when they are both received
and reshipped during the dormant season of the insects that spread
the disease. Observations of the Division of Forest Insect Inves-
tigations at the Morristown, N. J., laboratory show that the in-
sect vectors of the disease fungus may come to nursery trees to
feed and to hibernate any time between April 15 an-d October 15.
Accordingly, such receipt and reshipment night be permitted with
safety between November 1 and March 31. Reconmendations for the
issuance of administrative instructions to authorize reshipments
of this nature were forwarded to Dr. Annand on November 5, and he
issued the administrative instructions as 3. E. P. Q. 517 on Novem-
ber 8, effective November 10. A form of identifying tag to cover
these reshipments was devised and the nursery made their first re-
shipment under this authorization on November 24. There is a
Japanese beetle inspector on full-time assignment at this nursery,
so that the mc.tter of rec ipt and segregaion of the trees was under
constant observation. This inspector also issued the tags at the
times of reshipment. The reshipped trees had been received from a
firm in Iowa.

Difficulty in obtaining temporary inspectors.--Competent,
temporary inspectors, such as are usually available in the New
England States during the Christmas-tree- and greenery-cutting
season, have been almost unobtainable this year, owing to the
draft and the demands for defense workers. The sane difficulty
was experienced in obtaining nen for the seasonal nursery- and
greenhouse-inspection work in the large Connecticut nurseries. In
both instances it was necessary to employ some inspectors with lit-
tle or no previous gypsy moth experience after a short period of
schooling. Men who returned to the Bloomfield, N. J., headquarters
from Japanese beetle soil-treating work in North Carolina and Ohio
were irmediately reassigned to the Christmas-inspection activities.
Ordinarily these men would have been loaned to the Division of Do-
mestic Quarantines for transit-inspection work during the heavy





-10-

movement of Christmas ornamentals. Because of the threat of a
railroad strike in November, cutters intensified their efforts
to get their shipments off early. In a few instances it was
necessary to employ some men in owv Jorsey and send then to New
England on a temporary assignmcnt. Nurserics and greenhouses are
experiencing the same problem in obtaining help. Some of the es-
tablishments in the Philadelphia area were reported as unable to
fill their orders for this reason. In New Jersey a number of
nursery.en have offered to employ their help during the winter
months, if they agree to stay until the end of May. In some in-
stances wages have increased as much as $1 a day.

Heavily infested soil intorcepted.--Among the interceptions
at the Japanese beetle highway inspection station on U. S. Route
211 at Sperryville, Va., was a truck containing about yard of
soil, en route fron Arlington, Va., to Roanoke, Va., the latter a
point some 130 miles outside the main regulated area. The nursery-
nmn ha~. b cn doing some landscaping at Arlington and had loaded on
his truck the surplus dirt remaining on the ground after his plant-
ings lhad ben comp:leted. 71nen informed of the quarantine, he ir-
mediately unloaded the soil and left it at the inspection station.
Seventy Popillia japonica larvae vere removed from the soil by
screening prior to the usual fumigation of confiscated soil.

Baltimore office moved to Fikesville.--The district Japanese
beetle quarantine office previously located in room 306, Post Office
Building, Baltinore, Md., was moved late in November to 2 Sherwood
Avenue, Pikesvillo, Lid. The new quarters ore in a one-story, con-
crete-bloc'ck building. They are particularly satisfactory from the
standpoirt of light, office, garage, and parking space. The loca-
tion is :ore centrally situated for activities in this area. The
new office is a short cistance south of Route 140.

FOREST INISECT INVESTIGATIONSS

Pip.e reproduction weevil found on Sierra National Forest.--
C. B. Eaton, of the forest-insect laboratory at Berkeley, Calif.,
reports the discovery early in November of an outbreak of Cylin-
drocopturus eatoni 3uch. on the Harris Ranch burn, Miaii ranger
district, Sierra iTational Forest. The outbreLak is in a stand of
reproduction growing on the fertile slopes of a ridge southwest of
Si-nal ?eak Lookout. The infestation extends over an area of ap-
proximately 4,000 acres, which was naturally restocked with ponde-
rosa pine seedlings following the fire that burned off the original
stand of timber in 1934. It is estimated that between 25 and 40
percent of the pine on the burn has been killed. The appearance of
the weevil-infested reproduction resembles the damage light ground
fires sometimes cause to similer stands. Many trees are dead, hav-
ing brown needles, while others are sickly andC yellow. The mortal-
ity is not confined to individual trees scattered throughout the
dense brush (Ceanothus spp.), which forms a major part of the cover,
but it occurs in the patches of pure-pine reproduction spotted over
the area, and in the scattered pine seedlings growing in the open
over bear clover. By far the greater part of the damage has occurred





-11-

within the last 2 years; however, there are remnants of trees infested
earlier, and probably there has been an endemic infestation for some time.
The insect is now in the larval stage, and a large potential population of
weevils is present. This is the first occasion in which the pine reproduc-
tion weevil has been found to be causing economic damage in naturally es-
tablished stands. Hitherto, it has only been known to be injurious to
planted stock in the brush fields of northeastern California.

Infestation of Cacoecia conflictana in northern New Mexico.--An aspen
leaf roller, which has caused severe defoliation of aspen on the Rio Pueblo
drainage southeast of the Angostura Camp Ground, on the Carson National For-
est in northern New Lexico, has been determined by J. F. G. Clarke as Ca-
coecia conflictana (Walk.). According to observations made by N. D. Wygant,
Berkeley, from August 25 to 29, the infestation occurs at elevations of
about 10,000 feet, and 2,000 acres or more have been heavily defoliated.
Light damage to aspen was also observed in other areas on the Carson and
Santa Fe National Forests in northern New Mexico. Previous records indicate
that this insect is widely distributed from Maine to Utah and northward to
Labrador and Alaska. At the time of the examination the insect was in the
egg and newly hatched larval stages. The eggs are laid in flat masses, leaf-
green in color, on the leaves and trunks of aspen. The larvae apparently
feed on the leaves for a short time and then go to the ground for hibernation.
The heavy defoliation occurs in the spring, when the larvae curl the leaves
into truapet-shaped rolls. When the insect was first observed by David 0.
Scott, district ranger on the Carson National Forest, on July 7, it was in
the last-instar and pupal stages. Mr. Scott observed that the general emer-
gence of the moths in the field was from about July 20 to about August 10.
An ichneumonid parasite, Herpostonus hariolus (Cress.), was reared by him
from both C, conflictana on aspen and C. fumiforana (Clem.) on white fir.

Tent caterpillar defoliates aspen in northern New Mexico.-The tent
caterpillar Malacosona, probably fragilis Stretch, defoliated about 4,000
acres of aspen in the Big Tesuque Creek Basin northeast of Santa Fe on the
Santa Fe National Forest and about 25,000 acres northwest of Taos on the Car-
son National Forest in New Mexico during June and July, according to Mr.
Wygant, who examined the area in the latter part of August. The infestation
on the Big Tesuque Creek Basin received considerable attention by the press
in New Mexico, leading people to believe that much of the aspen would be
killed unless control is brought about. The aspen, much of which is 3 to 6
inches d. b. h. and 20 to 40 feet high, has little commercial value, but is
highly prized by the natives for its scenic, recreational, and watershed-
protection values. According to the Forest Service personnel, the insect has
been widespread in the aspen in New Mexico and Arizona for yoers, with the
worst epidemic years probably 1933-35. The heavy epidemic centers seem to
shift from year to year, indicating that its natural control factors build
up locally and bring about its control. Several consecutive years of defoli-
ation are necessary to kill the trees on the usual sites, therefore little
mortality of the trees has resulted. On the poorer sites the trees succumb
to the effects of defoliation more quickly and mortality has been considerable
in such small local spots.

Heavy infestation of Jeffrey pine cone moth in northeastern California.-
Heavy damage to the 1940-41 Jeffrey pine cone crop was reported to P. C. John-
son by officials of the Modoc National Forest, during the annual forest-insect





-12-

survey of this area early in October. An examination of Jeffrey pine stands
in the Big Valley ranger district revealed a widely distributed infestation of
cone moths, subsequently determined as Lassneyresia toreuta Grote. Preliminary
field counts of cones showed a heavy incidence of attack,and several sacks
were collected from trees and shipped to the 3erkeley laboratory. An examina-
tion of this material by J. E. Patterson on October 28, showed full-grown cater-
pillars and pupae in the axial region of the cone. Out of a total of 15,222
seeds, 35.8 percent had been destroyed by the young caterpillars; however, 90
percent of the cones were infested. This checked to some extent with records
of the Durbin Nursery at Susanville, Calif., where 200 sacks of seed from this
same area yielded slightly less than 50 percent of the expected normal amount.
The examination at Berkeley further disclosed the presence of the following
parasites and predators: A chalcid (8.0%), an ichneumonid (1.5%), a small mag-
got (2.4L), and an enoclerid (0.5f). Efforts of the Modoc National Forest to
fully utilize the current Jeffrey pine cone crop, one of the heaviest in recent
years, ended in disappointment and the abandonment of cone-collecting activities
following the discovery of the infestation. Examinations of Jeffrey pine stands
in the Lasson LTational Forest also showed a widely scattered but lighter infes-
tation of cone noths. The current infestation in those two areas is of eco-
nomic importonce, o-ing to the infrequency of good seed years and the increas-
ing demand of seed for reforestation.

Defense program accelerates salvage from Tillamook burn.--Early in Novem-
ber, while mrking en examiniation to determine the extent of insect-caused de-
terioration of fire-killed Douglas fir trees in the 8-year-old Tillamook burn,
R. L. Furniss, of the Portland, Oreg., laboratory, found that the output of
salvage operations has been greatly increased in response to the recent demand
for low-grade lumber. Logs that only a short time ago would have been culled
because of exc-;sive borer holes are now being marketed at a profit. It is
expected tharc the increased use of lumber cut from borer-infested logs will
swell the already numerous reports of borers emerging from various parts of
new homes. Cerambycids of the genera Criocephalus and Asemum are the princi-
pal insects responsible for these reports. Although the holes they cause are
of considerable concern to property owners, the actual structural damage is
slight. Appar-mntly there is no danger of reinfestation.

Low winter temperature study continues.--Temperatures lethal to over-
wintering broods of the western pine beetle have not occurred in the pine for-
ests of eastern Oregon and Washington during the last 4 winters. Nevertheless,
according to J. M,. hiteside, of the Portland laboratory, a study designed to
obtain data on low winter temperatures within the forest proper has again been
set up this winter. Six natural divisions of the pine region of eastern Oregon
and three life zones, corresponding to high, mid, and low elevations, within
each division were selected for sampling. Thirty-six duplicate stations.were
located on the western pine beetle survey check plots within each zone. All
we need now is some 20- or 300-below--zero weather to complete an analysis of
variance.

Sanitation-salvage integrated with other marking practices.--Marking pon-
derosa pine timber on a sanitation-salvage basis, to remove from the stand trees
highly susceptible to attack by the western pine beetle, is now being studied
by the Forest Service and private operators as a desirable feature to combine
with other marking practices, according to W. D. Bedard, Portland. Two 40-acro
sample plots on the Deschutes National Forest have been marked in three differeni






-13-

ways, including sanitation-salvage in conbination with a system of value
selection. The Forest Service uand limber operators will study the results
of the various systems for effect on the sta>d, value, and grade recovery, in
the hope of evolving a revised mark:in rule which will be satisfactory to both
Federal and private interests for use on Forest Service timber sales.

Elm bark beetle trapping experiment.--R. R. Whitten, of the Morristown,
N. J., laboratory, has compiled data covering 4 consecutive years during
which elm bark beetles have been trapped in a small woodland plot loccted at
Whitehouse, T. J. The object of this experiment was to determine whether
traps were effective in reducing the elm bark-beetle populations in small wood-
land areas. The traps used in this experiment were elm trees killed by the
internal application of a water solution of sodiu- chloratc. Approximately 4
percent of the trees standing in this plot were used for each series of traps.
This plot has an area of 3-2/3 acres and is surrounded by- open farm lands,
with occasional scattered elm trees. Through the cooper-tion of the Federal
Dutch ela d.is. ase eradication unit, for the last 3 years all the elms within
2 niles of he. plot area have been carefully examined and pruned of all parts
infested or liT.ely to be infested. This year, in addition to trapping beetles
in this area- samp: cs of the beetles were collected in individual, sterile,
gelatin capsiles and submitted to P. V. iiook, of the Bureau of Plant Industry,
to be cultured for the presence of the Dutch elmr disease fungus (Ceratostomella
ulni). The trapping results for 138S, 1939, 1940, and 1941, and the culture
results for 1;41, are presented in the following table;


:Scolytus multistriats :EHlurgopinus rufipes:Beetles
Total: otal : otl : Average : : Average :contan-
Year tcrap :sections:galleries: galleries :Total :galleries : inated
trees: : :per section agalleries:pcr section: with
: : : : :C. ulmi
:Nuiber: Number : Tuebor : Iuuber : Th-unibr : iu-bber :Percent
May to July :
Tras: : : :
1938-----: 22 95 : 5,67 : 5,5 : 2,850 : 30.000 -
1939-----: 20 113 : 3,990 : 35.31 : 5,141 : 45.500 -
1940-----: 18 : 120 :2,298 : 19.15 : 4,49 : 40.410 : -
1941-----: 1 : 8 : 733 : .33 : 2,925 : 33.240 23.4
July to Oc-
tober Traps: : : : : :
193S-----. 221 : 106 : 10,314 : 97.30 : 1 : .009 : --
1939---- : 44 : 979 : 22.25 1 : .023 :
1940-----: 18 : 112 :4,612 : 41.1 : 26 : .232 :


Beetles trapped 3 niles fron Whitchouse plot were 14.5-percent con-
taminated.


Beetles in over 50 percent of the traps treated did not die and so
have not been included in the data.





-14-

Caged elm trees infected with Dutch elm disease fungus through S. mul-
tistriatus.--W. D. 3uchanan, of the Morristown, N. J., laboratory, reports
that 5 of 80 well-established trees growing in a large cage developed foliar
symptoms of the Dutch elm disease. The trees were attacked by approximately
4,000 S. multistriatus that emerged from field-infested and infected logs in
1941. About 7.7 percent of the beetles were found to be contaminated with
the Dutch elm disease fungus-. Discoloration caused by the organism was found
in the 19l1 vessels of 8 of the 80 trees, but foliar symptoms developed in
only 5 of them. The culture results indicate that most of the beetles had a
very light load of C. ulmi, which probably explains why the Dutch elm disease
did not develop in more of the trees.

GYPSY MOTH AND BROIN-TAIL MOTH CONTROL

Gypsy roth inspection work and Christmas trees.--The volume of ever-
green boughs and Christmas trees cut in western Massachusetts and the southern
half of Vermont appears somewhat smaller than usual, because of scarcity of
skilled chcpe-.s. lhe operators have had to rely largely on the purchase of
small lots cf :ree- cut by farmers who have been attracted by the high prices.
While littl iCffi.'ilty has been encountered in examining woodland areas for
the gypsy moth eiTel- "n advance of the regular cutting crews, the field super-
visors have lI..d to remain constantly on the alert to inspect the smaller
scattered locations where the trees were being cut by the farmers. The op-
erators are rot permitted to cut boughs or trees in the innediate vicinity of
an infested : 3a.

Brush-clisposal machines transferred to new locations.--The brush-disposal
machine which was operated for several weeks in towmships along the western
border of Berkhire County, Mass., w:as recently transferred to Charlemont, in
the eastern < -ion of the county. 'Arrangements were also made to transfer
the other mac ine from Connecticut to lIasschutsetts. The latter machine has
corpleted the disposal of approximately 1,200 piles, or about 600 cords, of
brush accuvilated in some 35 acres of woodland found to be infested by the
gypsy ioth during t-i past year.

W. P. A, gyp .oth work in Vormont.--Six crews of scouts and one crew
of laborers poCfor gypsy math work in Vermont during Noveober. Two of these
crews continued scouting work in Lowell Township, Orleans County, where the
prospect of completing .the work in the imost inaccessible areas before the ad-
vent of severe winter conditions had appeared to be good. However, the resig-
nation of several W. P.- A. employees reduced these crews to such an extent
that it is now very doubtful whether, the scouting work in Lowell can be
finished before the minor roads are blocked by snow. Another crew has found
no evidence of the gypsy moth while scouting in Swanton Township, Franklin
County, where woodland areas are relatively small and scattered. Three single-
egg-cluster infestations were found and creosoted by two crews which have al-
ready finished scouting a large portion of Middletown Springs Township, in
Rutland County. No indication of gypsy moth infestation has been discovered
by a crew scouting in Sudbury, Rutland County. The crew of laborers was en-
gaged in chopping dead and worthless trees and creosoting egg clusters at a
woodland infestation in Woodford, Bennington County. Scouting conditions were
generally good during November, although some tine was lost because of stormy
weather during the first part of the month. A 7-inch snowfall in Lowell Town-
ship caused no serious interruption in gypsy moth work. Unseasonably warn tern-
peratures and drying winds caused the forest litter to dry rapidly and again







produced dangerous fire conditions during the latter part of November. The
gypsy ioth crews were detailed to work in open country in the vicinity of
settlements, and in other localities not likely to be frequented by hunters
during the deer-hunting season, which comprised the last week in November.

W. P. A. gypsy moth work in Massachusetts.--At the beginning of Noven-
ber 9 W. P. A. crews were engaged in scouting for the gypsy moth in the town-
ships of Hinsdale, Mount Washington, Richmond, Savoy, Washington, West Stock-
bridge, and Windsor, in Berkshire County, and in Blandford Township, Hampden
County. Numerous small scattered infestations were discovered in each of
these towns. In addition to the scouting, considerable treatment work at in-
fested locations was performed by 10 crews of laborers in the townships of
Alford, Lanesboro, North Adams, Peru, Richmond, and West Stockbridge, all in
Berkshire County. The work of the laborers consists chiefly of rough creosot-
ing of egg clusters;cutting dead, defective, and otherwise worthless trees;
and piling the resultant brush and limb wood for disposal by burning or by
means of the brush-disposal machines. The crews engaged in thinning and
ground work at a gypsy moth infestation in Richmond Township have already ac-
complished :much treatment work, including the creosoting of large numbers of
egg clusters in the most heavily infested spots scattered through the wood-
land area. As usual, these spots of heavy infestation are found in areas
where the tree growth is composed of species most favored as food by the
gypsy moth. So far'as possible the favored species, such as poplar, gray
birch, and oak, are being removed.

W. P. A. gypsy ioth work in Connecticut.--Of the 4 W. P. A. gypsy moth
scouting crews working in Connecticut at the beginning of November, three
were scouting in Litchfield and Salisbury Townships, in Litchfield County,
and the other v:as working in Southbury Township, New Haven County. All scout-
ing work planned for Litchfield Township was completed by the middle of Novem-
ber, and the crew was assigned to scout in the vicinity of infestations lo-
cated during the last fiscal year in the neighboring town of Cornwall. A few
scattered infestations were found in each of these towns. A crew of laborers
was detailed to treatment work at a gypsy moth infestation in Litchfield Town-
ship during the month. As a result of a cooperative arrangement with the
State of Connecticut, one State crew was assigned to scouting work in Kent
Township, Litchfield County. Considerable difficulty has developed in con-
nection with the transportation of W. P. A. workers, particularly in Connecti-
cut and Massachusetts, because age or physical infirmity renders many of the
men assigned to gypsy moth work unfit to operate Government-owned vehicles.
In some sections it has been necessary to assign regular employees to the task
of transporting W. P. A. crews to and from work daily.

W. P. A. gypsy roth work in Pennsylvania.-The number of W. P. A. em-
ployees engaged in gypsy moth work in Pennsyl-vania remained fairly stable dur-
ing November, ranging from a high of 630 to slightly less than 600. This
force was divided into 32 crews of scouts and 12 crews of laborers. Fourteen
of these scouting crews and 4 crews of laborers were assigned to work in Lu-
zerne County, S scouting crews and 5 crews of laborers to work in Lackawanna
County, 8 scouting crews and 3 crews of laborers to work in Wayne County, and
2 scouting crews to work in Carbon County. In addition, 4 crews of N. Y. A.
enrollees performed scouting work in Luzerne County. Several of the crews in
the Pennsylvania area were engaged in scouting wood lots found to be infested
in previous years, and which were subsequently thinned and cleaned of ground





-16-

debris. Work in such locations progresses more rapidly than in the aver-
age woodland, where many egg clusters are deposited in concealed locations
in dead or defective trees, in thickets, and on all types of ground litter.
Much treatment work was done at gypsy moth infestations in South Canaan
and Salem, in Wayne County, where it was necessary to tear down numerous
stone walls, creosote the egg clusters, and rebuild the walls. Selective-
thinning operations were also conducted at these infestations. About 15,000
gypsy moth egg clusters were destroyed at the center of the South Canaan in-
festation. The outside limits of these infestations, indicated by the ab-
sence of egg clusters, were located early in November. Close scouting work
around an infestation in Paupack, Wayne County, indicated that only a small
area is affected, and it is believed that this colony can be exterminated
without difficulty. Scouting work at a site where a male gypsy moth was re-
covered at an assembling cage in Cherry Ridge, Wayne County, was completed
in November. No indication of the presence of the gypsy moth was found.

PLANT DISEASE CONTROL

Bureau-spconsored W. P. A. project for North Dakota.--Presidential
letter dated Sepjemb:er 29, 1941, approved a Bureau-sponsored W. P. A.
State-wide barberry-eradication project, which was started November 3 in
Emmons-County. Work will also be carried on in Logan and McIntosh Counties,
which are in the same W. P. A. unit and district as Emmons. At present the
assigned personnel consists of 1 nonrelief superintendent and 19 relief la-
borers, includin- 14 foremen. State, district, and local W. P. A. officials,
as well as farmers, business men, and others located in the areas in which
operations are in progress, are manifesting interest and cooperation in
barberry eradication.

Barberry bushes found in Big Fork area of Montana.--Work under the re-
cently approved State W. P. A. project was started in the Big Fork area on
a narrow strip of land, much of which is low and swampy, at the north edge
of Flathead Lake. In this area 18 escaped bushes were located, ranging in
height from 3 inches to 6- and 8-foot fruiting bushes. Upon completion of
this small tract, the survey was moved to wooded areas along the Flathead
River and, by the close of November, 8 additional bushes had been found,
mostly large and fruit-bearing. In this area some of the most suspected
terrain has not yet been worked; however, preliminary reconnaissance in
this locality already had revealed 1 location of 15 "escapes" including
fruiting bushes, and 2 other locations of large, individual fruiting bar-
berries. At this time 35 relief laborers and 1 nonrelief superintendent
are assigned to the project. As is the case elsewhere, it is necessary
to take assignments of a number of older men, several of whom are from 60
to 65 years of age. The average age of relief laborers now on the project
in Flathead County is 51 years.

Barberry-eradication activities in Nebraska.--During the current fis-
cal year inspection crews have been established in various counties in Ne-
braska. At present, seven crews are operating in the northern Nebraska
counties ard four are working the southern unit. As workers become avail-
able additional crews will be added in the southern counties. With the
State enjoying one of the most favorable crop-production years in nearly a
decade, plus the stimulus of defense activity, procurement of efficient la-
bor under current limitations proved to be a difficult problem. All of the





-17-

certified skilled workers employed on the Nebraska project entered pri-
vate employment with the approach of the harvest season. With the ex-
ception of three foremen who later returned to the project, all have con-
tinued in the status of private employment.

Memoranda to arew men.--Enthusiastic reports have been received con-
cerning a series of memoranda prepared and distributed in Massachusetts
this year by C. C. Perry, State leader, for the information of the field
men engaged in the actual eradication of Ribes. During the 1941 field
season 14 memoranda were issued; that is, 1 approximately every 2 weeks.
These brief statements were designed to give emphasis to important points
involved in the field work and to acquaint the workers with different
phases of the entire control program so as to stimulate their interest,
and psychologically they seem to have a very helpful effect in that the
system serves to tie the individual field man into the general control set-
up. The 1941 series of memoranda were titled as follows: (1) The Blister
Rust Control Crew as a Unit; (2) Searching for Ribes; (3) Favored Locations
for Ribes Grov:th; (4) Uprooting and Disposal of Ribes; (5) Making and Fol-
lowing "TLe Line;" (6) Miscellaneous Weaknesses in Control Work; (7) Blister
Rust Kills i*Lite ?ines of All Sizes; (8) The Eradication of Ribes is Ef-
fective in the ConLrol of Blister Rust; (9) Annual Examinations NSot Needed
to Maintain Control of Blister Rust; (10) Blister Rust Quiz--Questions;
(11) Blister Rust Quiz--Answers; (12) Blister Rust Cankers on White Pine
Persist afte- Ribeo-Eradication Work; (13) Why Blister Rust Control is Im-
portant in the Economic System; and (14) Thank You for Your Efforts! The
final memorandum was mailed direct to the laborers (relief and nonrelief).
It contained a brief word of recognition of the part played by the individ-
ual worker in the control program. The fact that this word came direct
from "the office" seemed to be especially appreciated.

Blister rust display.--C. C. Perry also reports that he assisted Dis-
trict Leader William Clave with a blister rust display at the second annual
Worcester County Conservation Congress and Exposition, held cooperatively
by the biological department of Clark University and the Worcester Museum
of Natural History. The display was a duplicate of the one recently staged
by District Leader R. E. Wheeler at the Eastern States Exposition, which
proved to be very successful. David Potter, director of the Museum of
Natural History, saw the original display at Springfield and was so im-
pressed by it that he requested District Leader Clave to abandon another
display he had been planning and to duplicate the one at Springfield. Mr.
Perry has been requested to transfer the central panel of this display to
the Worcester Museum of Iatural History to be used as a part of their col-
lection of aids to visual education in natural history.

Data on white pine.--The following, selected from a list published in
the July issue of Northern Region News, region 1, Forest Service, are a
few facts on the importance of western white pine in the Northwestern region:
"More than a million matches can be made from an average Ideho white pine
tree. In order to supply the demand for matches made from Idaho white pine,
about 13,000 acres must be logged annually. The manufacture of a million
feet of finished pine lumber provides employment for 13 men for the greater
part of a year. In 1939, 77 percent of the lumber cut in the Northern Rocky
Mountain region was Idaho white pine and ponderosa pine, compared with 65
percent in 1929 and 54 percent in 1919. Less than one-third of the merchantable







timber remaining in Montana and north Idaho is white pine or ponderosa
pine."

Development and use of Ribes-ercaication tools.--H. R. Offord, of the
Berkeley, Calif., office, reports that the two-pronged Ribes peavey and
the hydraulic Ribes jack vere tested on a number of R. roezli plants. The
two-pronged poavoy has proved to be an excellent tool for auxiliary clean-
up work in areas where the power methods are being used. It is planned to
nake several more tools of this same design this winter. The hydraulic
jack works effectively but appears to have no practical place in R. roezli
eradication that cannot be taken ca.re of as well or better by other tools
and methods. The special problem which has been kept in mind in the de-
velopment of the Ribes jack has been the eradication of large R. nevadense
in stony ground, of which the Yosemite National Park has a considerable
amount, where the draws are too narrow and steep to operate a tractor and
where dynamite cannot be safely used because of stony soil and absence of
trees or stunips for protection of the workers.

Ins cti on of pine and Ribes in the High Sierra country.--W. V. Bene-
dict made a urip in the High Sierra country of Yosemite Park this fall, in
company with Park bu 'rintendent Frank Kittredge and members of his staff.
The party examined principally the high country in the upper basin of the
South Fork of the Herced River, along the boundary of the park as it ad-
joins the Sierra Forest. They noted a general distribution of both Pinus
albicaulis a:-d P. nonticola in the high country, but in no locality did
these 5-needle pines occur in sufficient number to be considered as blis-
ter rust control units at present. Ribes montigenum, R. viscosissimum, and
R. cereum we:-e observed, and frequent inspections of the first two species
were made to determine whether or not either blister rust or pinyon rust
was present. No infections were found.

COTTON INSECT INT ESTIGATIIOTS

Division conference.--The Division of Cotton Insect Investigations
held a conference at the Delta Branch of the iiississippi Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, Stoneville, Miss., on December 10, 11, and 12. Repre-
sentatives from all the field laboratories and the Washington office were
in attendance. In discussing past and future investigations, the 19 di-
visional workers in attendance had the benefit of comments and suggestions
from F. C. Bishopp, assistant chief of 3ureau; C. M. Smith, of the Division
of Insecticide Invostigations; F. i'i. Wadley, statistical consultant of the
Bureau; H. 3. c:cNarra a nd others, of the Bureau of Plant Industry and the
Delta Branch Experiment Station; Clay Lyle and A. L. Hamner, of the Mis-
sissippi Experiment Station; J. C. Gaines, of the Texas Experiment Station;
Dwight Isely and W. R. Horsfall, of the Aransas Experiment Station; and
others. Results reported regarding investigations of the boll weevil and
cotton aphid and their control suggested several changes in Bureau recom-
mendations, as follows: (1) The making of boll weevil infestation counts
may be simplified. The grower who wishes to determine the percentage of
squares infested simply vwalks across his field, picking cotton squares at
intervals until 100 squares are collected, taking care that the'squares
are collected in about equal numbers from the bottom, middle, and top
branches of the cotton plants. These 100 squares are carefully examined
and the number punctured by boll weevils is the percentage of infestation.





LIBRARY
-19- STATE PLANT BOARD

(2) Instead of the former recommendation that dusting with calcium arsenate
be started when 10 percent of the squares are infested, the studies indi-
cated that in fields with fertile soils and plenty of moisture, where the
cotton grows rank and continues fruiting until late in the season, it is
not profitable to begin dusting until from 25 to 30 percent of the squares
are infested; in fields where, because of low soil fertility, insufficient
moisture, determinate growth of plants, or other factors, the plants do not
grow rank and stop fruiting early, it is recommended that dusting begin when
from 10 to 15 percent of the squares are infested. In areas where boll
weevil damage is serious the growers are advised not to plant cotton in fields
that cannot be expected to produce at least one-third of a bale if the weevil
is controlled. (3) To prevent losses from the cotton aphid following the use
of calcium arsonate for the control of the boll weevil, it was decided that
the safest recommendation is the addition of 2-porcent nicotine to the calcium
arsenate for each alternate dusting. Investigations will be continued with
0.5 percent rotonone in each application that gave promising results in 1939
and 1940 brut only feir results in 1941.

2eol wve:vi. conference called for Atlorta.--In response to a call from
agricultural officials in the Southeastern States for a full discussion of
various phases of the boll weevil problem, P. N. A-nand, chief of Bureau,
M. L. Wilson, director of extension work, and Jomes T. Jardine, chief of the
Office of Experiment Stations and director of research, invited many State
and Federal .nci.on: to participate in a conference to be held in Atlanta,
Ga., on Janua-ry g rAd 9. The agencies requested to send representatives to
this conference were the experiment stations, extension departments, agri-
cultural colleges, departments of agriculture and other State agricultural
officials in the eight Southeastern States--Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Mis-
sissippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Invita-
tions to participate were also sent to the following agencies in this Depart-
ment: Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Bureau of Agricultural Chem-
istry and Engineering, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Market-
ing Service, Farm Credit Administration, Farm Security Administration, Fed-
eral Crop Insurance Corporation, Forest Service, Bureau of Plant Industry,
and Soil Conservation Service.

Effect of boll weevil and cotton ophid control on yield, factorial ex-
periment.--Experiments employing factorial designs were again conducted in
1941 at Florence, S. C., Gainesville, Fla., Tallulah, La., and College Sta-
tion, Tex., to determine the comparative effect on infestation and yield of
treatment with calcium arsenate dust for boll weevil control, with nicotine
dust or spray for aphid control, and a combination of the two treatments.
Small plots, ranging in size from 1/20 to 1/4 acre, arranged in randomized
blocks, were used. The results at the different localities have been sum-
marized by R. C. Gaines as follows: The combined records for all localities
show that the treatment-locality interaction was highly significant, indicat-
ing as in 1940, that the differential response to treatments at the various
localities may be attributed to the combination of infestations which pre-
vailed during the course of each experiment. At Florence there was a heavy
boll weevil infestation and an extremely light infestation of aphids. At
Gainesville there was a very light infestation of weevils and a heavy aphid
infestation. At Tallulah there was a heavy infestation of both weevils and
aphids, and at College Station the boll weevil infestation was intermediate
and the aphid infestation light. Average records of the boll weevil





-20-

infestations, aphid populetions, and the yields at all localities are shown
in the following table.


:Boll weevil-: Aphids :Yield
Treatment : punctured :per square: per
: squares : inch : acre
Percent : Number : Pounds
------------
Check -------------------------- 3 6
Calcium arsenate---- -----------: 18 : 22.54 : 900
Either nicotine dust or spray-----------: 36 : 1.07 73
Calcium arsenate and either nicotine :
dust or spray------------------------ 17 : 3.51 : 1150

Parasites of the piik bollworm.--L, W. N.oble, of the Presidio, Tex.,
laboratory, reports that a shipment of Oclliephieltes dimorphus Cush. was
received fre',i iazil on November 6. This was the second shipment received
this year tr-ronh cooperation with the Division of Foreign Parasite Intro-
duction. It erniv-l in good condition and consisted of 2 adults and 66 pu-
pae. Breeding of t-is species was continued during the month and the larvae
after spinning cocoons were placed in cold storage. Small-scale breeding of
Chelonus pectinophorae Cush. Microbrocon nigrorufum Cush. and the new Mi-
crobracon sp near vuaris (Am.I was continued. The Microbracon larvae
were placed in cold- stoor C. prctinophorrsie will be carried over winter
by continuous: breecing on the Mediterranean flour moth. Material for a par-
asite hibernation test was collected from a field in which Chelonus black-
burni Cameron and C. pectinophorae had been released during the summer. Ap-
proximately ,500 bolls were collected and placed in hibernation cages on
November 13.

PIhKI BOLLWOR1M AND T-URBERIA WEEVIL CONTROL

Gin-trash inspection.--During the month inspection of gin trash was con-
tinued in Arizona in Laricopa, Pima, :d Pinal Counties, and 264 additional
specimens of the p.-: bollworm were found in the vicinity of Glendale, Mari-
copa County, brin.t-~ the season's total for that rather limited area to 701
specimens. Io pini bollworms were found in any other part of the Salt River
Valley, and results were negative for the season in Pima and Pinel Counties.
Last year 2 pink bollworns were found in Pinal County. In the Pecos Valley,
of New Mexico inspection of 156 bushels of trash from Eddy County yielded
12 pink boll-orns. From about that same quantity of trash last year 266 pink
bollworms were taken. In Chaves County inspection of trash yielded 1 speci-
men of the pink bollworm, which is the first finding since the 1938 crop,
when 3 larvae were found. In Luna County, N. M:ex., 19 specimens of the pink
bollworm were taken for the season through examination of about 9 bushels of
trash. In the Texas Panhandle regulated area larger quantities of trash
were examined than for several years past, but the only pink bollworms found
were in Terry County, where 2 specimens were taken. These were the first
pink bollworms taken from that county since 1938. Last season very light in-
festations were found in that area in Howard, Martin, and Midland Counties.
Outside of regulated areas, inspection was performed in the San Joaquin Val-
ley and Riverside County, Calif., with negative results as to pink bollworm
infestation. Some inspection was also done at Mexicali, Baja California,





-21-

Mexico, with negative results. Inspection of a considerable quantity of
trash in Sonora and Sinaloa, Mexico,gave negative results as to pink boll-
worm infestation. Inspection of trash in the Juarez Valley of Mexico
showed several rather heavily infested spots. Gin trash inspection of the
1941 cotton crop was brought to a close at the end of November. As a re-
suit of the seasonts inspection, no new areas were found infested with the
pink bollworm, and in a considerable number of counties found infested last
year results were negative for the 1941 crop.

Stalk destruction.--Climatic conditions in south Texas are conducive
to the growth and fruiting of the cotton plant throughout the year. Con-
sequently, in combating the pink bollworm in that region it is necessary
to create an off-cotton-growing season by destroying the stalks as soon
as the crop is picked out, and, in order to maintain this condition, all
sprout or stub cotton that develops prior to the fruiting of the subsequent
planted crop must be destroyea. On account of extremely unfavorable con-
ditions ov3r a period of several months farmers were unable to comply with
the State r,, julation requiring the completion of stalk destruction in Octo-
ber, and ext~isicns were granted to permit completion of harvesting. Fairly
good progress war mode with stalk destruction in Novemiber, although rains
interfered with ali field activities in most areas. Of the 206,700 acres
planted to cotton in the counties comprising the Coastal Bend district,
stalks had been either cut or plowed on 204,293 acres at the end of Novem-
ber, leaving 2,4,02 acres of standing stalks. In the lower Rio Grande Valley
counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr, and Villacy, comprising 233,100 acres
of cotton, only 765 acres of stalks remained standing at the end of Novem-
ber, 395 acres of this being in the area flooded by high waters from the
Rio Grande and a little over a hundred acres is abandoned acreage. Also,
during the :u-nth, fields were seing systematically checked for standing
random stals or sprout cotton, and grubbing crews were operating in Cameron,
Hidalgo, and Willacy Counties in an effort to destroy all plants that might
furnish material for build-up of infestation. In many instances farmers
are cooperating by replowing fields where stalks make grubbing impracticcble.
At the end of November grubbing crews had removed scattered stalks or sprout
plants from 35,393 acres.

Wild cotton eradication.--Wild cotton eradication work for the present
season began during the first half of October with a small number of W. P. A.
workers. At the beginning of November, 65 workers had been assigned and by
the close of the month the number had been increased to 88. The increase
in number cf workers was reflected in the increase in acres covered -nd
plants destroyed. A total of 3,033 acres was covered, from which 89,230
plants were romoved. It is encouraging. to note that only 65 of these plants
were far enough developed to produce fruit. At the close of INovember the
first clean-up for the season had been completed on Long Key and the late-
cumbes in the Keys subdistrict, and most of Key Largo had been covered, and
work was in progress in. the Marathon and Key West sections and along the
west coast of Florida. The first clean -up for the season in Florida Bay
and along the Dare County mainland east of Cape Sable was started about the
middle of the month.

TRUCK CROP AND GARPEN INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Carbon disulfide treatment effective against wireworms.-A marked re-
duction of wireworms"in shade-grown tobacco plots treated with carbon disulfid





-22-

was noted by A. W. Morrill, Jr., of the Windsor, Conn., laboratory, during
a small-scale experiment in which the effects of carbon disulfide treat-
ment were compared with those of deep plowing and of no control. A total
of 36 plots, each containing 1/40 acre, were arranged in randomized blocks
and each treatment was replicated 12 times. The carbon disulfide was ap-
plied, in holes made in the soil, at the rate of 1 ounce every 15 linear
inches, or a total of 30.25 pints per plot. The population of wireworms, as
revealed by an examination of 14 1/4-square-foot samples taken at random
at the rate of 12 per plot, showed a highly significant reduction of 90.47
percent in the plots treated with carbon disulfide, as compared to 30.3 per-
cent in the untreated plots. The reductions occurred during a week of un-
usually hot weather with no precipitation, characteristic of much of the
season. This condition of high temperature and low moisture in the soil,
while ideal for the use of carbon disulfide, is unfavorable for recovering
wirewiorms for comparison. Results on effect of plowing cannot be determined
until spring. The difference between populations in areas receiving various
control treat.-ents appears less marked when the general population is small
than when t. is-. relatively large. The principal species of wireworms in-
volved in t.h o tests was Limonius agonus (Say), referred to in many publi-
cations as the ca;.-:n field wireworm, in synonym3y with L. ectypus (Say).
It is now believc& that the former species is the predominant one in this
region since .o specimen of L. ectypus (Say) have been recovered in tobacco
or potato fields.

Fu.igation t-sts u th 1, l-dich-orol--nitroothane.--R. W. W rubaker
and W. D. Reod, oi the Richmond, Va., laboratory, report that high mortality
of the larvae of the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne (F.)) was ob-
tained in the fumigation of baled tobacco at reduced pressure with 1,
l-dichloro-] ;. sroetihane. Six replications each were conducted with bales
of imported ciarette tobacco (Turkish types) using dosages of 4 pounds and
3 pounds, respectively, per 1,000 cubic feet, with an exposure of 3 hours.
The tests were conducted in a steel vacuum chamber 50 by 36 by 22 inches,
with a total volume of 33 cubic feet. The following is a summary of the re-
sults obtained.


:Larvae : Mortality at inches' depth--
Dosage :treated : 1-1/4 : 3-1/4 : 5-1/4 7/4 : 9-1/4
: umber :Percent:Percent:Percent:Percent: Percent
4 lb. per 1.000:
cu. ft.----..- 1,500 99.7 : 0 o 99 99.0 99.3

3 lb. per 1,000:
cu. ft.------: 1,500 :99.3 : 99.7: 99 : 94.6 : 99.0

These results are the first obtained with this gas on tobacco. At
these dosages it is apparently highly effective against cigarette beetle
larvae, and further tests will be conducted at lower dosages. No deleterious
effects on the tobacco were noted.

Relation of crops to survival of new-brood wireworms.--Studies by E. W.
Jones and K. E. Gibson, of the Walla Walla, Wash., laboratory, performed in
1/100-acre plots and in 5 by 5-foot cages, have shown some differences between





-23-

certain crops as to their effect on survival of wireworms during their
first season of growth after 'hatching fro:m e~gs. There is some difference
in the survival of the Pacific coast \iroworm (Limonius canus Lee.) and the
sugar-beet wireworm (L. cal ifornicus (Mann.)) on the various crops, but in
general the following seemis to be true for the last several seasons: The
best survival by far was shown when germ-killed corn was the only food in
the cages. When growing crops were used as food the best survival took
place with wheat and potatoes in both the plots and cages. The poorest sur-
vival was with onions and alfalfa. Clover and corn show a good survival of
new-brood larvae the first season, but not so good as with wheat and pota-
toes. Sugar beets, lima beans, and carrots seem to be intermediate between
the above crops in their effect on survival.

Increased infestation of narcissus bulb fly in Pacific _Torthwest.--In
the annual survey conducted by the staff of the Sumner, Wash., laboratory
during August and September 1941, to determine the infestation of Merodon
equestris (F,), C. F. Loucette reports that the heaviest general average in-
festation eev:' recorded was encountered this season. The average infesta-
tion for 22 plantinis in Washington wvs 5.14 percent, for 18 plantings in
Oregon it was 9,14 percent; and the average for the 2 States combined was
6.66 percent. The highest infestation previously noted was last year, when
it was 4.84 percent in Washington, 7.71 percent in Oregon, and 5.85 percent for
the 2 States combined.. Thefigurcs are comparable becuse the same narcissus
variety and the sane size of bulbs have been sampled throughout the survey
work. In 1941 infestations above 20 percent wore found in 5 places, with
the highest 27.4 percent. At 9 places the infostation ranged between 10
and 20 percent, at 9 places it ranged between 5 and 10 percent, and in 17
places it was below 5 percent. At 2 locations the findings were negative,
corresponding with similar findings in previous years.

Effect of pepper weevil insecticides on aphids.--Observations by R. E.
Campbell and J. C. Elmcre, of the Alhalr-bra, Calif., laboratory, on the ef-
fect of applications of insecticide dusts to commercial pla!ntings of peppers,
for the control of Anthonomous eugenii Cano, showed that the application of
calcium arsenota resulted in a considerable increase in the aphid population
on peppers, and that cryolite caused a moderate increase in the populaticn
of aphids. The addition of a sufficient quantity of cube to give a 0.5 per-
cent content of rotenone in the fi.al mixture of the dust retarded the rate
of. aphid development and increase in abundance. The aphid infestations be-
came quite serious in several fields dusted with calcium arsenate, showing
considerable honeydew and sooty mold fungus. In 1941, however, before the
aphid infestation became bad enough to cause defoliation, natural enemies
of the aphids appeared and so reduced the number of aphids that little
damage was done.

Beet leafhopper in sugar beets grown for seed.--Van E. Romney, of the
Phoenix, Ariz., laboratory, reports that a survey of all seed-beet-growing
districts in the Southrwest, as well as of the surrounding desert areas, to
determine infestation by Eutottix tenollus (Bak.) was completed during the
latter part of September. This survey showed that populations of the leaf-
hopper were low in the beet fields located in the Salt River Valley, Ariz.,
and that desert conditions are such that further movements of any conse-
quence from these areas to the beet fields are improbable. Seed-beet plant-
ings near Perris and Hemet, Calif., contained low populations of the leaf-
hopper but conditions were such in the breeding source that additional movement





-2l4-

to the fields may be expected.: Beet field populations at Safford, Ariz.,
were fairly high and additional influxes of the leafhoppers from adjacent
desert areas are expected. Control measures will undoubtedly be necessary
in this area and preparations for spraying were being made by the seed
contractors and farmers. Seed beet plantings in the Mesilla Valley of New
Mexico contained moderately high populations of the leafhopper on Septem-
ber 26. At that time only one field examined had sufficiently high numbers
to warrant control measures. Conditions in the surrounding desert terri-
tory were such that additional influxes of the leafhopper were expected.
Spraying will probably be necessary in at least some of the fields. susceptible
to curly top in this region. Sugar beets grown for seed in the Southwest
are planted in the fall, usually late in August o in September. From the
time the two-leaf plants appear until soil coverage by the foliage is at-
tained during the latter part of October, the beet leafhopper is the major
insect pest of varieties susceptible to curly top.

Pyreth"'mi-oil sprays for stored-tobacco insects.--J. N. Tenhet, of the
Richmoind, laboratory, reports that a pyretthrum-oil spray containing
0.2 percent votal pyrethrins, applied at 7-day intervals in a tobacco ware-
house, gave app-rsntly satisfactory control of the tobacco moth (Ephestia
elutella (Hbn.)), Test lots of tobacco moths were placed in the warehouse
during applications and the mortality was about 100 percent. The mortality
of cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne (F.)) was only 16 percent when
placed under the sa:-e ccJiditions. Records obtained from insect traps showed
the spray to be more oeffective in controlling the tobacco moth than were ap-
plications of pyrethrum powder. Data obtained during the experiment indi-
cated that sublethal dosages of pyretirum affected the rate of oviposition
of females of the cigarette beetle. Trap catches for the period May 1 to
September 1! showed a total of tobacco moths per warehouse as follows:
Sprayed warehouse, 2,147 moths; dusted warehouse, 11,80b moths; and untreated
warehouse, 355,35 moths.

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMILS

Diking as a control measure against sand flies.--J. B. Hull, of the
Fort Pierce, Fla., laboratory, reports that in a series of 8 1-quart samples
collected from daked marshes of pickleweed and mangrove, an average of 2.62
larvae per quart sample was isolated, as compared to an average of 8.92 lar-
vae isolated from an equal number of samples collected from undiked marshes.

Cooperative advisory service to county agents and others for control
of cattle grubs.--Arrangements have been made with the Texas Extension Ser-
vice by E. 7. Laeke and R. W. Wells, of the Dallas, Tex., laboratory, for
cooperative demonstrations on the control of cattle grubs and cattle lice
by the use of powered equipment. Demonstrations will be made in Anderson
County (eastern Texas), Johnson County (north-central Texas), and four
counties in west-central Texas.

Cube-wettable sulfur dip retains toxicity for at least 10 days.--An
examination on November 29 by Miessrs. Laake and Wells revealed no living
lice on 2 animals dipped in a vat containing cube-wettable sulfur dip,
which had been used 10 days previous for dipping 661 animals. The dip had
remained exposed for the interval indicated and had retained sufficient
toxicity to destroy all the motile forms of the short-nosed ox louse.





-25-

Sesame oil and pine oil as synergists for pyrethrum in mosquito lar-
vicides.-In a series of tests on lots of Culex larvae, G. H. Bradley, of
the Orlando, Fla., laboratory, reports that no increase in mortality was
obtained with the use of sesame oil and pine oil as synergists for pyre-
thrum extract, when used in the proportions of 1 part activator to 9 parts
pyrethrum extract.

Public Health Service employees report for preliminary instruction.--
H. D. Pratt, assistant entomologist, and John Fluno and Eugene Gerberg,
junior entomologists of the U. S. Public Health Service, reported at the
Orlando laboratory the last week in November for preliminary instruction
before undertaking salt-marsh-mosquito surveys in the vicinity of National
Defense areas.

FOREIGN PLANT QUTARANT TTTES

Moth-. at sea.--On September 15, R. F. Wilbur boarded the small American
sailing yc.- W- hnite Cloud, which had just arrived direct from Hawaii at
Tacoma, WasL., He found four dead moths adhering to the oiled deck of the
yacht. R.-R. Prntsch, owner, captain, and navigator of the yacht, told
Mr. Wilbur he had run into a great cloud of these moths on September 10 at
460 37' N., 130 10' W., which was about 240 miles southwest of the nearest
land, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. He said the air was full of the
moths for several hours end many of them lit on the yacht. The wind was
from the north-north-est. 1Mr. Pratsch was particularly interested and made
a notation of his location in his logbook at the time. The moths were
identified as Peronea variana (Fern-ma). On June 20 the Forest Service
submitted to us for identification some larvae which they had received from
outside sources, collected at Snoqualmie Pass, where infestation was said
to be very )heavy on white fir. E. I. Smith reared the larvae, the adults
emerging during the first week of August. This material was submitted to
the Washington, D. C., office on August 21 and was also identified as
Peronea variana. Referring especially to Mr. Pratsch encountering the
flight of moths at sea, indicating a possible migratory habit, an article
"Butterfly Traveleos," in the May 1937 issue of the National Geographic
Magazine, by B. C, TWilliams, chief entomologist, Rothamsted Experimental
Station, Harpenden, England, is of interest. Mr. Williams requests infor-
mation on flights of moths and butterflies.

Gladiolus smut.--In the News Letter dated April 1, 1941 (v. VIII, No. 4,
pp. 27-28) is summerize d the status of the Papulospora and "smut" found or
reported on gladiolus corms. In a paper appearing the following month (orrey
Bot. Club Bul. 68:289-294, May 1941), B. 0. Dodge and Thomas Laskaris seemed
to feel that a single fungus was involved in reports of the occurrence of
gladiolus smut (Urocystis gladioli (Requien) Smith) and that it was not a
smut but a Papulospora, which they described as P. gladioli (Requien) Dodge
and Laskaris, comb. nov. D. P. Limber gave Mr. Dodge a culture of the Papu-
lospora found at the Inspection House on gladiolus corms from Holland, and
from Pennsylvania l1r. Dodge received a culture of the fungus found on gladi-
olus in Pennsylvania and reported as U. gladioli. J. A. Stevenson received
a letter from S. P. Wiltshire, director of the Imperial Mycological Insti-
tute, Kew, Surrey, England, -in which he stated that their collections in-
clude specimens of a true smut on gladiolus. On November' 7 Mr. Limber dis-
cussed the matter with Dr. Dodge at the New York Botanical Garden and learned





-26-

that Dr. Dodge had received material of a true smut on gladiolus from
the herbarium of G. L. Zundel, of Pennsylvania State College, and had
studied the afore-nentioned cultures. He now believes that probably three
species of Papulosppora are involved--P. gladioli, which he found at
various times on 20 percent of diseased corms in collections made from
a commercial storage house; P. coprophila (Zukal) Hotson, as determined
by J. W. Hotson on Holland corms taken at the Inspection House; and the
undetermined species found in Pennsylvania and first reported as U. gladi~
,li. Apparently a true smut occurs on gladiolus abroad, but is not known
to occur in the United States, and considerable care must be exercised to
avoid possible confusion of species of Papulospora with the smut.

Sclerotinia kerneri (?) on fir in New Haripshire.--The finding of what
appeared to be Sclerotinia kerneri 'Wetts. on balsam fir from Newfoundland
was reported in the December 1, 1940, News Letter (v. VII, No. 12, p. 27).
Later similar symptoms were found on material from Nova Scotia. While on
vacation, L, J. McConnell, one of the New York inspectors, found similar
symptoms ol. Lsam firs growing near Lonesome Lake, in the rhnite Mountain
National Tu. - in iew H'EL; shire. In November 1941 the same symptoms were
found by J. T. Beuchamp, of the Boston inspection force, on balsam fir
Christmas greens fro.m Lancaster, N. H. S, kerneri causes the host to pro-
duce buds in practically every leaf axil in young growth. Sclerotia form
later within lhe scales in some cases and most of them or the male cones
drop out, leaving rows of scale rosettes. The only sclerotia seen, in
American material, wore a few in one collection from Christmas trees from
Newfoundland. Only weathered material had been noted until the Lancaster,
N. H., material Was found to bear great numbers of small unopened buds in
the axils of the leaves. It is hoped that interest in the fungus may be
stimulated t- the point where its distribution, life history, and likeli-
hood of spres1 with Christmas greens and nursery stock may be made available.

Entomological interceptions of interest.--Living specimens of the
thrips Anaphothrips orchidaceus Bagn. were intercepted at San Francisco on
October 30 on Odo~itoglossu sp. in mail from England. Two dead larvae of
the euribiid Anas'e vhiia'mombinpraeoptans Sein were intercepted at Boston
on October 19 in r:aefruit (not cultivated) in stores from St. Vincent.
This represents our second interception of an Anastrepha from St. Vincent.
The first interception was also made at Boston in mango in stores. The
coccid Asterolecanium miliaris longum (Green) was found at New York on
August 22 on a bamboo leaf in mail from Antigua. Living larvae of the
cerambycid CLytus arietis L. were taken at Seattle on September 4 in an
elm branch us.d as cleat to hold plants in place from England. Forty-four
living larvce of the Mediterranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata (Wied.))
were intercepted at New York on October 10 in apples in baggage from Portu-
gal. Twenty-nine living larvae and approximately 50 eggs of the melonfly
(Dacus cucurbitae (Coa.)) were taken at San Francisco on October 1 in three
pods of Phaseolus vulgaris in stores from Hawaii. Living and dead adults
of the bostrichid Dinoderus pilifrons Lesne were intercepted at New York on
October 24 in dry bamiboo used as dunnage from India. Living adults and
nymphs of the mirid Eurycipitia vestitus (Dist.) vere found at Laredo on
September 30 on orchids in baggage from Mexico. Living specimens of the
lygaeid Exotochiomera tumens (Stal) were intercepted at Hoboken on August g
with Cattleya sp. in cargo from Venezuela. A living larva of the tortricid





-27-

Platynota rostrana (Walk.) was taken at New York on August 26 in grape-
fruit in cargo from Cuba. A living adult of the curculionid Tadius
erirhinoides Pascoe was taken at San Francisco on August 19 on Cypripedium
haynaldianum in air express from the Philippines.

DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANTIES

Survey of wild host plants of sweetpotato weevil yields significant
data.-An over-all survey of wild morning-glory plants and other species
of Ipomoea was conducted early in the fall by T. R. Stephens, field project
leader on sweetpotato weevil control. In the commercial sweetpotato-growing
areas where eradication of the weevil is in progress, wild morning-glory
plants have not been considered a serious problem, as they are rather
sparsely distributed in the eradication areas and it is believed that they
do not harbor the weevils over winter. However, in the southern coastal
areas there are concentrations of numerous wild host plants, some perennials
and others essentially so, which have seemed, on rather limited observation,
to be capa" ,' of harboring the weevils throughout the year. Further infor-
mation was ;:3ded as to the relative abundance of Ipomoea, native host
plants of the genus, and their relation to the weevil, for use in consider-
ing possible expansion of control operations into these coastal areas. The
survey, which was purely cursory,was made in the five coastal counties of
Alabama and Mississippi. Special attention was given to concentrations of
host plants in close proximity to the formerly infested areas. Infestations
were found in I. sg-ittah_, the perennial marsh morning-glory, which grows
abundantly along water edges. Light infestations were found in the upland
type, I. pandurata. No weevils were found on the annual species of wild
morning-glories. Very recently infestations have been found in sweetpotato
fields from vi:-ich the weevils apparently had been eradicated, and of special
significance was the discovery that in a number of cases these infestations
were in close proximity to native host plants. The survey further showed
that infestations are established in some species of wild plants remote
from places where sweetpotatoes have been planted, at least in recent years.
The information derived from this general survey, which points suspicion
to several species of Ipomoea as plaits which carry the weevils over win-
ter, will be the subject of a conference with State cooperators in consider-
ing future policies of the control programs in these States. Georgia
State inspectors found, in the inspection of nearly 1,800,000 wild host
plants at Thomasville, that sweetpotato weevils will overwinter in that
area on I. trichocarpa, a plant of perennial characteristics. The only
weevils recently found in the city of Thomasville, after more than 4 years
of eradication measures, are those on the wild host plants. The eradica-
tion of these plants from the Thomasville area has been conducted by W. P. A.
laborers. This work has recently been suspended for the winter.

Sweetpotato inspections resumed in Texas.--Inspection activities were
resumed in Texas in November, with the return to this project of the in-
spector who had been temporarily assigned to citrus canker inspection. With
the assistance of State inspectors, sweetpotato weevil inspection was con-
ducted in Angelina and San Augustine Counties and resumed in Madison and
Harrison Counties. The work in Angelina County was centered on formerly in-
fested properties where eradication was undertaken in 1940 for the protection
of the commercial areas in the adjacent counties of Nacogdoches and Cherokee
from which, it is believed, the weevils have been eradicated.







Chinch bug survey approaches completion.-The chinch bug survey, be-
gun on November 3 in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Ne-
braska, and on Novembe_ 22 in Oklahoma, was completed in three of these
States by the end of the month and nearly completed in the other States.
Throughout the survey, Philip Luginbill, of the Division of Cereal and
Forage Insect Investigations, maintained contact with State leaders and
discussed with them survey methods and procedure and made field observa-
tions.

Mole cricket control work torminated.--The program, which was begun on
September 9, for the control of mole crickets in parts of Florida was com-
pleted in the week ended November 26. All equipment and supplies were trans-
ported to Gulfport, Miss., for storage, with the exception of equipment and
trucks used by the research units. Preliminary reports show that during the
season nearly 2,200,000 pounds of bait was mixed and furnished to the Florida
State Mole Cricket Control Committee for distribution to growers in 11 coun-
ties, 3 pei 't having been distributed in the Plant City area. Last year
over 2,500C .1 pounds of bait was mixed and distributed to growers in 12
counties, 43 percent having been used in the Plant City area. Throughout
the program, close contact was maintained between the control supervisors
and research workers of the State of Florida and the Division of Truck Crop
and Garden Insect Investigations in order to take advantage of current in-
formation in regard to infestations and optimum-control methods.

Survey iand plans on grasshopper and Mormon cricket control.--The grass-
hopper egg survey of the areas infested with ,elanoplus mexicanus (Sauss.)
was completed in November in nearly all areas. The survey is yet to be made
in,infested 2setions of the Southwest. The survey personnel in the Denver
office continucciod the analysis of the survey data obtained thus far and the
computation of bait estimates for 1942,

Conference on grasshopper and Mormon cricket control.--Representatives
of the Federal an State agencies cooperating in grasshopper and Mormon
cricket control will meqt at Denver on January 19-20, to discuss a suggested
plan of operation; for the control of these pests in 1942. Invitations are
being extended to directors of extension, and to directors or commissioners
of agriculture and State leaders to attend this conference.

Infected peach trees removed.--The November work on the phony peach
and peach moscaic proje :t was confined to the removal of diseased, abandoned,
and escaped peach trees. In Georgia, on November 11, there remained in
Macon County 16,000 phony trees which had not been destroyed, because of in-
ability to obtain relief labor. To meet this situation, three tractors
borrowed from the white-fringed beetle project were employed, and with the
use of these machines the number of infected trees throughout the State had
been reduced to 3,000, which are rapidly being taken out. In Alabama the
standing infected trees were reduced during the month from f,840 to 20. The
destruction of phony trees also went forward in Arkansas, and of mosaic
trees in California and Colorado. State cooperation was represented by 3
field supervisory employees in Alabama, 2 in Georgia, and 1 office worker
in Alabama.

Citrus canker eradication.--Citrus canker inspection was conducted in
13 Texas counties in November and crews of W. P. A. laborers, totaling 102,





-29-

strip-worked formerly infected properties in 6 counties, destroying 167,000
seedlings of Citrus trifoliata. In the i.avasota area, where citrus canker
was found last February, formerly infected properties have been rechecked
at regular intervals and recurring seedlings destroyed in cycles of germina-
tion in an effort to destroy any incirier.t infection before it could spread
to other properties.

Transit-inspection activities.--The recent strike of express employees
at Detroit, resulting in an additional burden on parcel post, freight,
and trucking, necessitated rearrangement of the inspection tours to meet
the irregularity of the movement of plant material passing through this
gateway. A considerable movement of woody plants, greenhouse stock, bulbs,
citrus fruits, and granite was found, with heavy express shipments after
the strike was settled. At Chicago arrangements have been made with a
freight company operating air freight to report to inspectors all shipments
of plant material. At New York, with the approach of the Christmas season,
the regular force of four inspectors has been increased by the assignment
of three tr,~esit inspectors from other cities to inspect shipments of Christ-
mas trees frm the New -England area. A Japanese beetle inspector at New York
is also assisting. Interceptions of uncertified evergreen cones and bitter-
sweet cuttings were made in Nov-mber, one consisting of a freight shipment
of cones. On three occasions since July 1, Japanese beetle grubs have been
found in shipments intercepted by inspectors in the T1ortheastern States.

Permits to barberry shippers.--Forty-six nurserymin have been issued
permits under the provisions of the black-otem r-ut quarantine to ship
species of Berberis and Hahonia not susceptible to rust infection into or
between the protected States, namely, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, IMontana, 'eobraska, North Dakota, Ohio,
Pennsylvanic, South Dakota, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
The permits, which are valid for the current fiscal year, are based on in-
spections conducted by the Division of Plant Disease Control.

CONTROL INVESTI GATIONS

Toxicity to adult mosquitoes of aerosols produced by sprsaing solu-
tions of insecticides in liquefied gas.--A-paper on this new method of pro-
ducing insecticidal aerosols was read at the Eastern Branch meetings of the
American Association of Economic Entomologists by W. N. Sullivan. The work
was done in cooperation with L. D. Goodhue, of the Division of Insecticide
Investigations. This paper described the preparation and application of
the aerosols in controlling adult mosquitoes in confined spaces. Aerosols
o.f pyrethrurm oleoresin and sesame oil were prepared by allowing a solution
of these materials in dichlorodifluoromethane to escape through an atomiz-
ing nozzle. The solvent evaporates very rapidly and leaves the insecticide
suspended in the air. After some preliminary tests to determine the dosage
for complete mortality in 5 minutes, tests of a practical nature were run
on Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles mosquitoes. Culex mosquitoes were fed only
on sugar solution, but the other species were also given a blood meal. The
nontoxic nature of this insecticide to man and animals, its noninflammaoility,
its ease of application with no power requirement, and its nonstaining
properties appear to answer the requirements proposed for the control of
mosquitoes on airplanes. Additional preliminary tests show the aerosol to
be very effective against severl- kinds of flies and promising against other





-30-

insects. These findings will be published in the February 1942 issue of
the Journal of Economic Entomology.

A new laboratory method for testin_ roach sprays.--When petroleum-oil
spray, similar to petroleum-oase fly sprays, is discharged at close range
directly from the sprayer onto cockroaches, the amount delivered in a very
short time is usually far more than enough to cause 100-percent mortality.
It is also true that if a sprayer is turned on and off rapidly to reduce the
quantity of insecticide applied, the type of spray produced is often de-
cidedly different from that produced when the sprayer is operating continu-
ously; furthermore, extremely short intervals of spraying are difficult to
time accurately if the valve controlling the spraying is operated manually.
To meet these difficulties, E. R. McGovran and J. H. Fcles constructed a
pendulum apparatus which permitted the spray to pass through an opening onto
the roaches only while the pendulum was in one phase of its swing. A 10-inch
pendulum was used, which was short enough to travel rather rapidly. As the
rate of swing of a pendulum of a given length operating through a given am-
plitude is ( ,stant, such an apparatus should give an accurately timed, al-
though very i-ief, exposure of the insects to the direct spray. Below the
pendulum a gi.ss cylinder 9 inches tall and 6 inches in diameter, with a
3/4-inch hole in the top and a 1/4-inch opening around the bottom, covered
a metal pen 3-1/2 inches in diameter and 2-1/2 inches deep (tin cups with
the handles removed) which confined the insects. The inner surface of the
wall of the cup was very lightly coated with petroleum oil of heavy medicinal
grade, to keep the roaches from escaping or clinging to the walls of the pen.
To operate the apparatus the pendulum was pushed to one side until the spray
nozzle (a nasal atomizer with the tip pointed down) was directed at the
crescent-shaped partition attached to the oscillating end of the pendulum
about 1 inch iron one end of the partition. The air pressure was turned on
and the atcr:..':r was sprayed on the end of the partition until the mercury
gage indicated the correct air pressure had been established. The pendulum
was then released and allowed to swing uniformly the number of times needed
to give the required deposit. The average deposit of insecticide for each
passage of the 2-inch opening in the partition on the pendulum over the hole
in the top of the cylinder was 0.104 ag. of spray per square centimeter. A
summary of conparable tests of sprays of pyrothrins dissolved in refined
kerosene, ranging in pyrethrin content from 1 to 5 rg. per ml. and in deposit
from 2.6 to 0.8 mg. Per cr. against adult female German cockroaches (Blat-
tella gernanica (L.)), large ny-phs, and adult nales, caused mortalities of
73, 87, and 98 percent, respectively, indicating that the adult females were
the uost resistant to these sprays. A series of tests on each group with a
much heavier deposit (7.3 mg. per cm.2) of highly refined kerosene without
pyrethrins added caused 97, 60, and 41 percent mortality of large nymphs,
adult male, and adult female German roaches, respectively. While the adult
females were the most resistant to this spray, as in the ones containing
pyrethrins, it is worthy of note that the nymphs were much less resistant
than the adult males, which reverses their order of resistance as compared
with the pyrethrum sprays. As these sprays were applied as "wet" sprays to
the dorsal surface of the insects the wings of the adults may have absorbed
some of the oil and thus reduced its lethal effect.

INSECTICIIE INVESTIGATIONS

Plants reported to contain rotenone,--A list of plants reported to con-
tain rotenone or rotenoids has just been compiled by H. A. Jones. Rotenone





-31-

or compounds related to it have been definitely reported in 67 different
species of leguminous plants. Of these species, 21 are of the genus
Tephrosia, 12 of Derris, 12 of Lorhocariqpnu., and 10 of Millettia. Eleven
additional species of legumes are lited. in which reports indicate the
probable presence of rotenone or rotencids. It is of interest to note
that there is to date no authentic record of these compounds having been
found in a plant not of the family Leguminosae and of the subfamily Papili-
onate. The list should prove helpful in the development of new sources of
rotenone and rotenoids in case supplies of the usual commercial sources are
curtailed because of the war.

Preparing insecticidal aerosols by spraying solutions in liquefied
gases,-Numerous requests have been received for directions on the prepara-
tion of insecticidal solutions in liquefied gas similar to those tested
against mosquitoes by Sullivan, Goodhue, and Fales. The following brief
outline of the method is suggested by L. D. Goodhue and more complete de-
tails will appear shortly in an ET circular. The safest liquefied gas to
use is diclhlrodifluorom.ethane known to the trade as "Freon 12." It is
relatively nrl.toxic to man and animals, noninflammable, and is generally
available at any local refrigeration-supply house. A solution of pyrethrum
oleoresin, with sesame oil as a synergist, in the solvent produces, when
sprayed under its ovn pressure (approximately 90 lbs. per sq. in.), a per-
sistent and safe aerosol which is very effective against mosquitoes, flies,
and, at high concentrations, against roaches. The apparatus required con-
sists of a 5-pound-c.apacity freon tank- and an oil-burner nozzle of about
2-gallons-per-hour capacity. Enough pyrethrum oleoresin to make about 5
mg. of total pyrethrins per g. of solution and twice this amount of sesame
oil is drawn into the empty tank by suction. The air is again withdrawn
from the tank and the freon is introduced from a large supply tank through
a flexible h'se. The amount is determined by difference in weight. Some
shaking mixes the solution. With the nozzle attached it is only necessary
to invert the tank and open the valve to produce the aerosol.

BEE CUiLTURE

Nectar from Pina and Acala cotton blossoms.--Geo. H. Vansell, Davis,
Calif., reports on his investigations on nectar secretions, which are being
conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. Pima cotton blossoms se-
creted nectar far in excess of the Acala. The respective averages of the
quantity per blossom throughout October 1941 were 58 mg. and 4 mg. .To sig-
nificant difference was noted in the sugar concentration of these two va-
rieties; both averaged, when protected from evaporation, from about S1 to
20 percent. The Pima variety had daily more than twice the number of blos-
soms per plant as the Acala variety of the same age and treatment. The nec-
tar secretion occurs only during part of the first day the blossoms open.
Secretion proceeds in a seemingly normal fashion, even when a blossom is
severed from the plant. Chemical analysis revealed the practical absence
of sucrose in this nectar. The respective percentages of sucrose, levulose,
and dextrose were 0.35, 9.25, and 10.36 in a liberal quantity of .Pima nectar.
Acala nectar was not significantly different.

IDENTIFICATION.AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS

Two species of Mezium in the United States.--For some years it has been
thought that only one species of spider beetles of the genus Mezium was




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

-32- 3 1262 09244 4990

represented in the United States. It is evident now that the European
species Mezium affine Boield. has been in this country at least since 1904
but has been misidentified as M. anoricanum Cast. The latter species was
originally described from South America. From specimens at hand, it ap*
pears that M. americanum is restricted to the Gulf States, whereas M. affine
is distributed throughout the eastern part of the country, southward to Flor-
ida and westward to Iowa.

Artipus floridanus abundant in Florida.--Occasionally an insect or-
dinarily of little economic importance becomes sufficiently numerous to
attract attention. This seems to be the case with Artipus floridanus Horn,
one of the otiorhynchid weevils, which was reported to be especially abun-
dant at Fort Lauderdale, Fla., in iNovember. The beetles seemed most numer-
ous near the seacoast. Among the plants attacked were Citrus, sea grapes,
Helaleuca, Ixora, coco palms, Plumbago, Hibiscus, Chalcas, and roses.

Larvae of GaTterophilus removed from lion.--There were received for
identific .. -.' recently larvae of a species of the botfly genus Gastero-
philus, w>l;: had been submitted by C. M. Herman, technical adviser, Los
Angeles WiLd ife :isease Research Station. 1r. Herman stated that the lar-
vae were tc. kn frc. a lion on October 17, 1941, at Gay's Lion Farm, just
outside of Los Angeles. The specific differences for the larvae of this
genus are not completely understood; therefore a specific identification
is not possible at present. However, the larvae appear to be very similar
to those of G. nra.lis (L.), which usually attacks the horse. This is the
first known record of botfly larvae from a lion.

TypeL material added to collection of Hymenoptera.--Type material of
25 species ivasps was deposited recently in the National Collection by
K. V. Kro' 'n. Identified material of only one of these species was
present previously in the collection of the United States National Museum.

Probable origins of incorrect records of hostyparasite relationships.--
Many of the published records of host relations of parasitic insects are in-
correct because of various cirdunstances such as nisidentification of host
or of parasite, the assurmtion that all parasites reared from mat7rial known
to be infestjd by a certain species were parasitic on that species, con-
fusion of notes or labels, and other factors. An excellent example of an
erroneous record of host<-parasite association has recently come to notice.
A Bureau field work:er submitted for identification a hymenopteron said to
have been reared from the pupa of a coccinellid beetle. It was suggested
by the specialist making the identification that the record must be in-
correct, because the parasite in question is known to attack only chrysopid
larvae. Subsequent investigation of the host material, which had not been
submitted with the specimen, disclosed the fact that a chrysopid larva had
spun its cocoon within the pupal exuviae of the coccinellid. This indicates
what extreme care is sometimes necessary to avoid mistakes in host-parasite
records.


--oOo--