News letter


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News letter
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Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
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 s/newsletter41 no11





Vol VIII, No. 11 (Not for publication) November 1, 1941


Clement, Clarence, Clk.-Stenog Gypsy Moth Control, Chief Yeoman,
U. S, Naval Res., Newport, R I called to active duty September 8,

Flowers, Dan L Agt. (Inspector, WFB), Dom P1 Quar., U. S A.
Air Corps, Maxwell Field, Ala., enlisted September 3, 1941

Hoyer, Richard G., Agt Truck Crop Ins joined Canadian Air Force
May 2, 1941

Maratea, Domenic J Asst, Biol. Aide, Fruit Ins inducted, Select
Serv March 18, 1941.

Schroeder, Philip M Fld Aide, Fores-c Ins O-R.C U. S. A., called
to active duty December 2, 194C

Shierk, Daniel E,, Msgr Adrin (Mail Room), inducted, Select. Serv.,
September 21, 1941.

Whitcomb, Edward L Jr. Fld. Aide, Truck Crop Ins inducted, Select.
Serv., October 9, 1941

Winburn, Temple F Assoc Ent., Cer, & For. Ins., U. S. A. Res.,
called to active duty September o, 1941


Plum curculio control by soil treatment with dichloroethyl ether.--
The results of the large-scale orchard experiments conducted by Oliver I
Snapp at Fort Valley, Ga., this year for the control of the plum. curcalio
attacking peaches show that two applications of dichloroethyl ether emulsion
applied to the soil under the spread of peach trees, with jarring to catch
overwintered adults, are just as effective against this insect as the regu-
lar schedule of lead arsenate sprays on the fruit. One application of the

-1 I-


ether with either one application of lead arsenate or jarring to con-
trol overwintered beetles resulted in considerably more curculio-wormy
fruit than that from the treatment in which two applications of ether
were made. Jarring, as a supplem ntary control measure, caused a 3.9-
percent increase in curculio-free peaches, there being 95-1 percent
more wormy peaches on the trees that received the full schedule of
lead arsenate sprays than on the trees that received these sprays plus
jarring throughout the season.

Oriental fruit moth control by mass liberation of parasites.--
H, W. Allen and M. H. Brunson, of the Moorestown, N. J., laboratory,
report that mass liberations of parasites against the oriental fruit
moth in peaches have now been made through a period of five consecu-
tive seasons. From the data accumulated it is possible to fcrm a
fairly accurate idea of the effect of such liberations in controlling
infestations of the fruit moth in the current season's peach crop.
The following table shows the percentage of ripe-fruit infestation in
check and liberation orchards at the time of harvesting Elberta peaches.

: Infestation in :
Year : check orchards : Infestation in liberation orchards
: (average) : Average : Values for each orchard

1937 .- -: 6<0 : .7 : 1,7

L9 38- --- 2(0 9 1 4 : 26,2; 11.3; 5.4

1939 .- 26,4 21,2 : 42 5: 14 5; 6.5
: 25.9 7 5 i5-4; 7-9; 5.8; 4 6; 3.9

1940- --- 39 4 : 237 ; 6.6; 28 9; 15.9; 13.4
S 16 2 8 9 7: 9 5; 3 4

L9o I- -- 77 4. 11 3 7; 2o1; 1.7
: 6 9 30 4-3; 3.5; 1.2

These results indicate that while these li.erations have not always
been followed by low fruit infestation there has been in the liberation
orchards a general and substantial redu 'ion from the level of infestation
in the check orchards. In the 26 liberation trials there have been only 4
instances in which ripe fruit infestation was in excess of the average of
the check orchards, in which no liberations were made

Outbreak of shot -hoLe borer -E J Newcomer, of the Yakima, Wash.,
laboratory, reports that Scolytus rugulosus (Ratz.) appeared in large num-
bers in a cherry-growing area near Sunnyside, Yakima County, Wash., in Sep-
tember. Investigation showed that thousands of adults had emerged from
piles of cherry and apricot limbs that had been removed from trees in the
string and oiled up to be used as firewood. These adults have been attacking

nearby healthy cherry trees and, by boring into the buds or bud spurs,
have killed a great many of next year's fruit buds. On account of the
copious secretion of gum, however, the adults did not succeed in making
oviposition burrows. It is cossible that a succession of mild winters
may have allowed this insect to become more numerous, as prunings have
accumulated for many years, but the beetles had not been noted pre-
viously in any large numbers.

Exposure of dried--fruit insects to low temperatures.--Recent tests
of the lethal effect of certain time-temperature combinations on three
suecies of insects common in dried fruits have shown unexpected contrasts
The work was done by Charles K Fisher, of the Fresno, Calif., laboratory,
in commercial cold-storage rooms held at temperatures of about 320 F
(relative humidity 90 to 100 percent), and 38 (relative humidity about
95 percent). Adults of the saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaeohilus surinamen-
sis (L.)), full-grown larvae of the Indian-meal moth (Plodia interpunctella
-Hbn )), and full-grown larvae of the raisin moth (Ephestia figulilella Greg.)
were tested in an attempt to find the minimum exposures that will assure com-
plete mortality. The resistance of the raisin moth larvae may have been in-
creased by previous exposure to outdoor winter temperatures. The other test
insects had been accustomed to warmer conditions. Although the work is still
in progress, the following records are given to indicate the comparative hardi-
hood of the three species tested.

Exposure at
Insect 320 380
Period : ortality Period : Mortality
Saw-toothed grain beetle :Das Percent Days : Percent
adults ------ ------------ : 22 100 33 100
Indian-meal moth larvae---------: 2 100 47 : 100
Raisin moth larvae- -------- : 125 86 130 :74


Citrus census completed.---The number of citrus tr'ees in the area regu
lated under Quarantine 64 increased over 418,000 beiween August 1, 1937, and
August 1, 1941. A citrus census has just been completed and, according to
this tabulation, there are 7,458,981 citrus trees in the 7 counties comprisirg
the regulated area. Of this number of trees, almost 800,000 are pink-type

No Anastrepha ludens found in September.--Trap inspections approximating
33,000 resulted in the taking of only 1 A serpentina Wied., and 1 Toxotrypana
curvicauda Gerst,, in Texas in September No specimens of A ludens Loew were
found in Texas during the month. Fruit had matured enough in limited areas by
the close of.the month to pass the State maturity requirements and the harvest
ing season was officially opened on October 1



Drouht affects nursery shiprrents.---Drought throughout the entire
Japanese beetle regulated area seriously affected shipments of nursery
stock. In the New York City area the total rainfall during September
was 0.11 inch and nurserymen reported lack of moisture in the ground to
deoths of 18 to 30 inches. Despite this condition, nine carloads of
stock were shipped under certification from the Long Island area. Digging
of this material was difficult and expensive, owing to the dryness, so
most of the grow.ers postponed shipping, except rush orders. As a pre-
cautionary measure, the soil balls of trees dug were immediately soaked
w.ith water before loading into freight cars. Reports indicate that most
of the material shipped arrived in good condition. Inspectors in the field
anticipate a decided rush in nursery-stock inspecticns at the first rainfall
In New Jersey late truck crops and apples were severely damaged Fruit is
undersized and off-color. Wells are very low and in sore instances have
dried up comnletely. Dahlia growers in South Jersey experienced severe dam-
age and loss The plants have not developed and the bloom is unfit for sale
Many of the dahlia growers depend on their cat-flower sales to cover part of
their running expenses. Reports from the Delmarva Peninsula state that many
types of nursery stock have made little growth, and in some instances have
died. The number of strawberry plants per acre in many instances will not
be half the exoected 3vield.

Soil treating under way in 7 States --A total of 163 2 acres in 13
cities was treated'with lead arsenate for Japanese beetle control during
September. Treatments were comnleted in 7 localities, and the work was con-
tinued into October in the remaining localities. Cities in which the treat-
ments were applied and the respective acreages covered, were as follows:
Atlanta, Ga., 10,9; Chamblee, Ga., 0,8; Chicago, Ill., 45 2; Highland Park,
Ill 33.4; Elkhart, Ind., 3.3; Fort Wa7yne, Ind., 9.2; Richmond, Ind., 13 3;
Dearborn, Mich., 942; Detroit, Mich., 14.9; llelvindale, Mich., 3.0; St. Louis,
Mo 5.6; Newark, N Y 9.1; and Greensboro, N. C 5.3.

Restrictions on farm prodLcts lifted for season,--Owing to cessation of
the 1941 flight of adult Jacanese beetles early in Septembe:r, restrictions on
the movement of fruits and vegetables via refrigerator car and motortruck were
rescinded for the season, effective September 8. This was about a week earlier
than the usual date for lifting the seasonal quarantine, Cut flowers continued
to be a hazard, because of the beetle's habit of crawling down into flower blooms
when relatively quiescent. Consequently restrictions on the movement of cut
flowers continued through October 15.

Increased Jacanese beetle infestation in farm products in Baltimore.--The
total number of beetles found in connection with inspection of farm products at
the Baltimore inspection platform during 1941 was 1,362, This was a considerable
increase over the 2S5 beetles renrved in 1940, and the 146 found in 1939. The
total numbers of packages inspected during the respective years were 608,416,
753,257, ard 546,381:


Dutch elm disease eradication difficult in Pennsylvania --One crew
spent an entire week in eradicating a large elm, heavily infested with
bark beetles, in Huntington Township, Luzerne County. Because of its lo-
cation, this elm, 50 inches in dianeter, required careful roping and
handling of small pieces. To add to their difficulties, the workmen had
to contend with a nest of haneybees and a concrete-base filling. An in
fested elm removed in Quakertown borough grew in a back yard, with a
house standing within 10 feet on two sides and a maple and a Kentucky
coffeetree within 25 feet in another direction, The tree was a full,
open-grown elm 55 inches d.b.h., 90 feet high, and had a 110-foot branch
spread. A major leader 34 inches d bh projected conpletely over the
house, almost touching it. Another hung over wires and the maple tree,
and still another large leader grew over the coffeetree. The tree had to
be topped to the main crotch and all cuts lowered carefully by ropes.
Several cuts over the house had to be double crotched. A total of 46
lowered cuts was made before the base could be sawed. No damage whatever
was incurred. Work was started the last week of the month on the eradica-
tion of a 62-inch confirmed tree located in a tomato field in the borough
of Wyoming, Luzerne County. On this tree the dying smaller branches were
found to be heavily infested with larvae of Scolytus multistriatus Marsh.
In parts of the crown and on the leaders 1941 color was found.

First-record Dutch elm disease confirmations --First-record finds
of infected trees were reported during the month in the following towns
and townships: Connecticut-I-Hartford County, town of Southington (a
first record for the county); Litchfield County, towns of Cornwall,
Goshen, and New Hartford; Middlesex County, town of Clinton; Pennsylvania---
Bucks County, Lower Southampton Township; Delaware County, Haverford Town-
ship (also a first record for the county); Wilkes-Barre, Pa., area--Luzerne
County, Hunlock Township. The confirmation in New Hartford Town, Litchfield
County, is the first and only diseased tree located in the Connecticut bor-
der zone through the collection of beetle samples. The first-record find
in Cornwall Town, Litchfield County, represents the most northern infection
thus far reported in Connecticut. The diseased tree at Clinton, Middlesex
County, is the nearest tree yet confirmed to the isolated Old Lyme, Conn.,
infection. The confirmation in Lower Southampton Township, Bucks County,
Pa., leaves only one township in the county from which the disease had not
been reoorted,

Summer sanitation work in Westchester County, N. Y.--Satisfactory re-
sults have been obtained in summer sanitation work in Westchester County,
despite numerous difficulties. When the W. P. A. men returned to work in
July it was anticipated that the lack of foremen would be a serious handicap,
and it was necessary to raise men from unskilled laborers to foremen These
men were lacking in experience, but they tackled their jobs with enthusiasm
They worked in small crews and produced results that won them favorable com-
ments from the public.


Dutch elm disease workers released to pick aooles. -In the fruit-
growing area of southern Newi York demarnds were made on the Dutch elm
disease district project offices for apple pickers. Approximately 300
.orkers were needed in Dutchess County alone. The peak of the picking
season lasted from 2 to 3 weeks. The woarker was returned to work with-
out the frmalitiv of reassignment by the W P A ff'e, if he had not
been away from the job an entire work period

Farmer with rifle thlreatens scoat crew- -A Dutch elm disease crew
engaged in strip-scouting a small piece of woodland in Bucks County, Pa.,
was suddenly confronted by a far.,er armed -with a high-powered rifle.
After a hast~ explaration and identification by the scouts, the farmer
lowered his gu.n and ejected a cartridge from the chamber. His reason for
being suspicious of strangers was that recently someone had stolen 250
chickens frosm him. He left the scouts after extending an invitation to
come on his olace at any time.

'1. P.F A en'rol .es return to work in Athen Ohio area. -In the
Athe s area. ;;here no ., P. A. workers iad been employed by this Division
since l'- oensi.on f the Dutch elm disease project there at the end of
June, 175 mr: were :si~ned to work in mi d September. A total of 120 were
ascir ned from Vinton Count- and 55 from Athens County. Practically all of
these .ere wit ,1.e. ':riele.c' in D.t;,. lAm disease eradication work.

Trai"i .. D ...for 1m dIi:ease scouts ----Training schools
were condu cted in Pemnsilvsnia and unio thie last week in September to in-
struct, ne. l ass._igned .j P. A emrnpi. ees in sca ting for beetle-infested
or ootientia l1 beetl infested elm wood Very few of the men had pre
viousl ::orked on thle project The problem of supervision was also be-
coming acute< in these two areas, becaus of lack of foremen.

Fire hazard increased With continued dr,; weather through rmst of
September, the danger of fire increased to the point whrex the burning of
elm oodopiles coUdd be done onl': in swamps, gravel pits, or other safe
So ca tions. an-, voodpiles were on hand at the end of the month awaiting
better burning conditions.

Limited err.it_ issued under modified Sgyoy mth quarantine regula-
tions. --The first formal agreemren under administrative instructions ef-
fective Jul- 8, 1941, authorizing the issuance of limited permits for cer-
tain restricted articles, was signed by a manufacturer of gas-purifying
materials in Astoria, Long Island, N Y Under this agreement the firm
agrees to conrpl with certain prescribed sanitation provisions in handling
uncertified wood shavings received in tight box cars from points within
the gypsy moth infested areas. These sanitation provisions require strict
control of the shavings from the time they arrive at Astoria in box cars
until they are chemically treated ,with soda ash and iron filings in their
conversi on into raterial for filtering illumi-ating gas. A special type
of limited etrmit vwas printed to take care of such shiorients These are
issued in triolicate, tihe ori inal to accompany the shipment to destina-
tion, the first carbon for the file of the issuing inspector's field of-
fice, and the second arcon for imnediate forwarding to the inspector


assigned to be present at the destination point upon arrival and unload-
ing of the material,

Record shipment of lumber for Defense --K H. Flaker, district
gyps- moth inspector at Rochester, N. H., reports that a great deal of
lumber is being moved to supply various needs incidental to the National
Defense effort. Over 3,000,000 board feet of lumber was inspected and
certified from his district during September, the largest amount for any
month on record. With few exceptions, the only dry lumber now available
in this section is that fror. the storage sites of Government-owned hur-
ricane lumber. This.Division has been saved considerable expense by the
excellent location of storage sites selected for the Government-owned
lumber. JWhenever possible, open fields have been selected for the air-
drying of the lumber. It is stacked in high piles, making it possible
to store a large amount in a comparatively small space away from tree
growth and bushes. As a rule, it is the custom of many iill operators
to pile lumber in low piles, using only slabs for bed pieces on waste
land, among bushes and tree growth at the scene of the mill operation.
Although use of waste land incurs little or no expense during the period
of air-drring, there are disadvantages to this t 7pe of stacking. The
lumber ma- become infested by the gypsy moth, and therefore recuires
piece-by-piece inspection. There is an additional fire hazard, and lum-
ber is often stained from being piled close to the ground. Practically
the only danger of moth infestation of lumber stored in open fields,
where there is no activity during the larval period, is the presence of
high, smooth-bark trees from vwhich the moth might be wind-blown into the
lumber oiles. Mr. Flaker reoorts instances in which the moth has been
blown aoproximatel-- 300 feet from a tall tree. He has observed that,
when lumber is oiled in or near bushes and is found to be infested, the
infestation nay be found at any height of the pile, but is more abundant
near the bottom; however, egg clusters have been found in the first few
layers on the top of lumber piles, even in areas vhere there is only
small growth.

Gypsy moth egg clusters removed by insnectors.--From products of-
fered for inspection and certification cdring the month, inspectors re-
moved 241 gypsy moth egg clusters. In addition, 984 egg clusters were
found on naterials inspected prior to their manufacture or preparation
for shipment as novelties for subsequent shipr.ent to nonregulated area
Among the heavily infested products examined were 4 carloads of paving
blocks inspected at Nilford, N. H,, for shipment to Harlem River, N Y
These were found to contain 32, 39, 35, and 47 egg clusters, respectively.
A less-than-carload lot of lobster buoys examined at East Providence,
R. I,, for shipment to Milford, Conn., netted another 41 egg masses.
Four lots of nursery stock insrected at 2 Massachusetts and 2 Connecticut
establishments yielded 8 egg clusters, No heavy infestations were found
in lumber inspected, as onlr 39 egg clusters were found in 9 carloads,
in the entire anmunt of lumber inspected during the month.

New England gypsy moth inspections.--Owing to extremely hot and dry
weather during the month, there was considerable reduction in the digging


and shipping of nurse.y stock from points in New England. A number
of carload shipoents were canceled in Rhode Island. At the end of the
month very little stock had been dug for fall planting because the
ground was so dry that it was impossible to get a good ball of dirt
with the plants. This continued drought had so diminished the water
supply- in some districts that smaller sawmills depending on water for
their oower were forced to curtail their ooerations. A chocolate
com-anT in Cambridge, Mass., is sending small birch-log containers
-ith each 2-pound box of candy. Several thousand shipments will prob-
ably be made durirg the Christnas season. The birch containers are
inspected at the manufacturer's plant before being made up and decorated
for shioment to the candy plant.

Changes in temoorary oersonnel in New England.--Ten temporary in-
spectors were employed on gypsy moth inspection during the month--5 in
Connecticut, 2 in Massachusetts, and 1 in Maine on nursery inspection
work, and 2 in Vermont on insoection of lumber and pulpwood. One in-
spector paid by the State of Massachusetts was employed in the Boston dis-
trict, in cooperation with the Federal inspectors, for the inspection of
products requiring certification for the corn borer. Nursery and green-
house scouting for Japanese beetle was conpleted in Maine on September 3,
in Massachusetts and New Hampshire on the 6th, and in Rhode Island on the
11th. Eleven of the inspectors were on the Federal pay roll, 2 on the
State of Maine pay roll, 3 on the Rhode Island pay roll, and 6 on the Mas-
sachusetts pay roll.

Projectile shipments accompanied by certified lumber.--At Hanover,
Mass., considerable old lur.ber is used on carload shipments of projectiles
for the Navy consigned to ports along the East c Dast. The lumber originates
from wrecked buildings in Boston and vicinity, but later this supply will
not be sufficient. Lumber will then be purchased from local dealers and
will require actual inspection before certification. The destinations of
these shipmentsLre not known until a few hours before they leave their point
of loading.


Beetles controlled by salvage logging.--In 1940 a 1,000-acre tract of
ponderosa pine near Bly, in southern Oregon, was covered by sanitation-salvage
logging operations and 13 percent of the trees and 18 percent of the volume,
representing the most beetle-susceptible portion of the stand, was removed
Trees to be cut were marked by Bureau men, basing their judgment on studies
of the characteristics of high-risk trees. According to F, P. Keen, of the
Portland forest-insect laboratory, a recent check cruise of this area showed
a 90-percent reduction in the 1940 volume of beetle-killed timber, as compared
with that killed in 1939. The partial loss found up to September indicates
that this same reduction apparently' would be sustained during 1941 Thus the
results, so far, indicate that this method is much more effective in control-
ling pine beetles than the direct fell-peel-burn method; and also much less
expensive to apply. In accessible timber it can be carried on with a net
profit, instead of at an exoense uncompensated for by .any return from salvage.
It is hoped that the results w;ill be effective for at least 5 years


Mountain pine beetle development retarded in northern Utaho--On
September 16 and 17, in preparation for a large-scale control project
on the Wasatch National Forest, 20 spotters were given instruction by
R. L. Furniss, of the Portland forest-insect laboratory, in the.prac-
tice of marking lodgepole pine infested by the mountain pine beetle.
During the instruction period it was found that a large percentage of
the trees attacked in 1940 still contained numerous larvae, pupae, and
new adults. Inasmuch as snow had already fallen and cold weather had
begun, it was evident that there would be little, if any, additional
emergence this year; therefore, plans were made to treat those trees
containing an appreciable number of hold-over brood. Additional evi-
dence of retarded development this year was the preponderance of new
brood occurring in the egg stage, whereas larvae normally overwinter.
This retarded development was attributed to two factors--the abnormally
short, wet seascn of 1941; and the high elevation of the control area,
which is approximately 10,000 feet.

Mountain pine beetle found on Mount Rainier glaciers.--For many
years high barren ridges have been utilized as logical unit boundaries
in pine-beetle-control operations. It was reasoned that spread over
such ridges would be slow in comparison with spread within a stand of
susceptible timber. That the high ridges do not act as a complete
barrier to dispersal was suspected and is now substantiated Living
mountain pine beetles were found on July 30 by Mr. Furniss on Sarvent
Glacier, at an elevation of 7,000 feet, in Pount Rainier National Park.
This glacier is on a divide,between the White River and Cowlitz River
drainages. Control is being carried on in the White River drainage, an
area of intensive recreational use, but for varicus reascns infestation
has been allowed to develop in the Cowlitz River drainage, an undeveloped
area of little current recreational use.

Matsucoccus gallicolus Morrison infestation lighter on Cape Cod,
heavier in Pennstlvania.--Thaddeus Parr, New Haven, reports that a recent
inspection of pitch pine areas on Cape Cod, Mass., indicates that the in-
festation is considerably lighter than it was 2 years ago. The number
of shoots killed on infested trees near Provincetown is about 50 percent
less than was the case in 1939, and no trees were observed which had been
killed by the insect during the last 2 years. The area infested, however,
has increased durirg the last 2 years, the insect havirg spread westward
as far as East Sandwich. The most westerly infestation by M. gallicolus
previously noted on the north side of the cape was at Orleans. In Pennsyl-
vania, however, examination of the pitch and shortleaf pine plots at Mont
Alto and Mount Union shows that the number of twigs killed was greater in
1941 than in 1940, althouSg fewer leaders were killed in 1941 than in the
previous year. The data on the Pennsylvania plots are summarized in the
followin g table.


Plot Current twigs killed .Current leaders killed: Trees dead
Soecies Location -
No. : : 193 :1939 1940 :1941 .193 1939 1940 1941 :1938:1939:1940:1941
: : No. :No. : 1o. No. : No.: No.: No.: No. : % :% %
I------:Pitch pine :Mont Alto, : : : : :
:plantation : Pa 2,393 :3,22:3,E24:5,016: 56 61 : 75 : 62 :0 :2,8 : 2 5.2

II------:Shortleaf : : : : : : : :
natural stand: do. : 216 : 316: 564: 640: 20 : 22 : 17 : 23 :8.26:7.6 :128:15.4

III------:Pitch pine :Mount Union, : : : : : :. : :
:olantation : Pa. : 173 : 169: 401: 883: 0 : 0 : 2 : 1 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 0

IV------: do. : do. : : : : : : : : : : :
939 : 757:1,604:1,222: 26 : 21 : 21 : 13 0 :2.8 : 0 : 3

V------:Pitch pine : do. : : : : : : : : :
natural stand: :1,237 :1,295:1,000:1,146: 27 : 24 :16 : 8 0 : 0 : 0 : 0


More on habits of Hylurgoninus rufioes (Eich.).--Accumulated data,
supplemented by additional information obtained this year by R. T. Webber,
tend to corroborate previous observations that most H. rufipes pass the
winter as adults. Spring emergence varies considerably from year to year.
In 1941 adults were first observed on April 14 and stragglers continued
to issue up to June 15. The height of emergence was during the period
May 1-25. Upon emergence, the overwintering adults immediately seek breed
ing material and give rise to progeny, rmst of which hibernate as adults
in normal elms. The emergence of adults of this first generation ranges
over a long period. First emergence was noted on July 14 and adults are
presumably continuing to issue (September 24) from material attacked on
Nay 2. Judging from a limited amount of sampling, certain individuals will
evidently pass the winter as larvae. Since the earliest emerging adults
of the first generation will produce progeny when held in confinement,
probably a partial second generation may occasionally occur in the field
Ordinarily, however, most adults from this first generation go to normal
living elms, rather than to elm breeding material. This is clear from a
large-scale experiment involving several thousand beetles that had a choice
between anproximatelr 100 normal elms and an amount of attractive breeding
material. The beetles made camparatively little attempt at reproduction
in the breeding material, but fairly swarmed to the nornal living elms, fre
quently boring in or making their bark cells in wood 3/4 inch or more in

Some results of fumigation of elm bark-beetle larvae.--R. R. Whitten
states that all tests were conducted in July 1941 at the Bureau's quaran
tine station at Hoboken, N. J., through the cooperation and assistance of
G. G. Becker, of the Division of Foreign Plant Quarantines, and J. W Bu._
of the Division of Control Investigations After treatment the material
was reared at the Morristown, N. J., forest-insect laboratory. The materid.l
fumigated consisted of 4-foot elm logs infested with approximately nalf
grown larvae of Scolvtus multistriatus and H rTfipes. Five logs were used
in each test and 5 untreated logs were held under similar conditions as
checks. Treatments were made in 50- and 100-c-bic-foot fumigation chambers
during a time when the air temperature registered 88C F. In September ea
log was carefully examined for bark-beetle-emergence holes and was then.
barked and the bark-beetle galleries were counted. Notes were also
the presence of any living bark-beetle larvae Data and results on mf-izs
ing the larvae with hydrocyanic acid gas ard. methtyl bromi-K a-re presented
in the following table.

S: : Total
Fumi : Dosage :Chamber :bark-beetle galleries :
Fumigant -
:per 1,000 :Exposure :vacuum :S. multistriatus:H ruf ;e e
: cu ft, -
Pounds :Hours :Inch es Number : Number : NI ;

HCN----- 4.0 2.0 : 30 146 55
CH3Br-----: 1,5 : 2.0 : 0 132 :37
Do-----: 1.5 : 2.0 30 114 : 9
Do----- 30 2.0 0 71 9
Do-----: 3 0 : 2.0 30 129 59
Do------ 5.0 : 2.0 : 0 :57 : 5
Checks---- -- : -- : 137 : 31 4!AL
SMany live bark-beetle larvae found in two logs.


No serious defoliation by European spruce sawfly in 1941.--
P. B. Dowden, of the New Haven, Conn., laboratory, reports as fol-
lows on the present status of the European spruce sawfly: "During
1941 there has been practically no defoliation by Gilpinia polytoma
Htg in southern New Hampshire and southern Vermont. In the areas
severely defoliated previously it now is difficult to find living
cocoons, and on the outskirts of these areas the infestation has re-
mained very light. State entonmlogists in Maine have reported larval
disease as common in the northern part of the State, with a conse-
quent reduction in infestation. In eastern Maine there has been little
change from 1940, with generally light to medium infestations. In
central Maine (Katahdin section) and western Maine (Rangeley section)
there have been moderate increases in infestation at a number of points.
Notwithstanding the reduction in infestation at many of the areas
formerly defoliated severely, there are still a number of places where
a moderate infestation persists. Many of these are in old growth
stands, notably Cornell Mountain, in the Catskills of New York, Green
Peak and Mount Equinox in southern Vermont, and the Scott's Bog area
of Pittsburg in northern New Hampshire. The infestation at Deer Moun-
tain, in Pittsburg, N. H., on the other hand, has decreased noticeably
since last year. A light infestation also persists in a number of
plantations in New York State."

Severe outbreak of the saddled prominent in New Hampshire.--J V.
Schaffner, Jr., New Haven, reports on the results of a recent survey of
infestations of Heterocampa guttivitta (Walk.) in the White Mountains of
New Hampshire. During July and August reports were received from S, H
Boomer, assistant pathologist, of the Division of Plant Disease Control,
North Conway, N. H., and V S. Jensen, silviculturist, of the United
States Forest Service, Bartlett, N. H., concerning severe infestations
of this insect and the areas being defoliated. Through the courtesy of
the White Mountain Airport officials, Mr. Boomer was able to fly over
some of the mountains the first week in August to see the extent of the
defoliation in that area. He estimated that scme 4,000 acres of betc-.
maple, and birch were from 90- to 100-percent defoliated, and -; _aul'i or
more about 30-percent defoliated. Extensive defoliated are were lo-
cated on the eastern side of North Mote up to about 2,000 feet elevation;
the top and northwest side of White Horse Ledge; northern and southern
slopes of Attitash; the south side of Iron Mountain, extending up to
limits of the hardwoods; the north side of Bartlett Haystack; patches on
the north side of Kearsarge and the southern side of Spruce Mountain; the
north and west sides of Cathedral Ledge; and some on Table Mountain and
Thorn Mountain The insect passes the winter in the pupal stage in the
duff beneath the trees and it is subject to heavy mortality by rodents
and predaceous insects, particularly Calosoma frigidum Kby. Through the
cooperation of the Forest Service, several areas were examined in Septem-
ber to study the injury, to obtain data on the present status of the in-
festation, and to collect pupae for parasitization records. It was dif-
ficult to collect large numbers of pupae in the areas examined, partly
because of the large number already destroyed An average of 59 percent


of the pupae had been destro-ed b- oredators in each of three areas ex-
amined, v;hile in another area 91 percent had been destroyed, In 1 sec-
tion of a rodent burrow, not more than 2 feet in length, the remains of
17 oupae ;hich had been eaten, were found. In the areas observed '.lere
the trees were 100-percent defoliated orn> a ver- small number showed
an;- degree of refoliation prior to September 23


Field conditions excellent for gjps' moth w-ork. Although frosts
of var-ing intensit- occurred during September, particularly in the
northern ,art of the area, most crops apparentl1 suffered little damage
and tree foliage was not thinned out appreciabl-o The prolonged dry
pericd prcvided excellent conditions for most t-pes of gypsy moth work,
but also resulted in the development of a severe fire hazard in the wood-
lands. It has not been oossible to burn accumulated brush piles, and a
continuation of the dry weather may necessitate the banning by State
authorities of all persons from the woodlands. This would seriously in-
terfere with gr-s- moth field work.

Procerty owners in barrier zone area visited by coooeration of-
ficial,. On September 5 and o, J. C Holton, who is in charge of co
operative field relations for the Bureau, made a field trip through the
Massachusetts ardConnecticut portions of the gypsy mrit h barrier zone.
Contacts were made with the owners of property where selective thinning
of favored food species and gy~sy moth spra-ing 1.ork was done at in-
fested sites during previous, years. These property owners have coopera-
ted satisfactoril- with the g-.psy moth project, and fully appreciate
the effort being made to prevent the westward spread of the insect.

Few able-bodied men available for gorsy moth work in Connecticut.-
The emplo~-ment situation is particularly difficult in Connecticut, owing
to the large amount of Defense work in progress in that State. Many of
the men assigned to gypsy moth work are aged and physically unable to per-
form scouting w-:ork. -Of the able-bodied men assigned, many fail to report
and others leave after a short period to enter orivate industry

Brush-disposal machines at work in Connecticut and Massachusetts.--
Large quantities of brush and other waste wood accumulated as a result of
gypsy moth thinning operations in Sharon Township, Litchfield County, Conn.,
during the fiscal -rear 1941 were reduced to chips and coarse sawdust in
September by a brush-disposal machine developed by this activity; Dust
rising from a nearby dirt road had settled on the trush, and the gritty
particles quickl-r dulled the cutting knives, As several sets of blades
are available for use, delays were confined to the time reruired to remove
the dull blades and reolace them with a sharp set. The dull blades were
iormerl- ground at some nearb- machine shop, at considerable expense and
inconvenience, but they7 are now sharpened quickly and econo:ically on an
automatic grinder recenti-7 installed at the Greenfield, Mass., repair shop
The work in Sharon ::as completed about the middle of Septeober and the
equipment was moved to State property in the neighboring township of Corn-
wall, where large cuantities of brush had accumulated. Anotler similar
machine was operated in the town of Sandisfield, Berkshire County, Mass.,
during the month.


Advance in.orrLation tas to future movermnt of forest products.-
Information has been obtained b- regular field supervisors concerning
the areas ,;here spruce boughs wvill be cut, beginning abcut October 15,
in southern Vermont and in Berkshire County, Mass. These boughs are
pressed into bales weighing approximatel- 100 pounds, and are shipped
in large quantities to urban areas .;here ther- are used to cover graves
and flower beds, and for holida-- decorations. Similar information was
obtained from operators and shippers relative to the probable origin and
volume of sawlogs, lumber, pulpwood, and similar forest products likely
to be transported from infested areas in the g-psv moth barrier zone to
uninfested localities outside of the zone. This information will enable
the planning of g-os-- moth wiork so that such areas may be scouted in ad-
vance of the harvesting and logging operations, while conditions are
favorable for the examination of the tree growth, and ::ill permit the
destruction of an- gZops r moth infestations that may be present. Indica-
tions ooint toward increased activit- in both industries, and a consid-
erable novement of forest products from the gypsy moth infested area is

Larage _Zs- moth infestation found in Berkshire County.- --Gyps- moth
scouting work in Massachusetts progressed slovily during September, be-
cause onl-T a small force of inexoerienced men was available. An infesta-
tion containing several hundred egg clusters was discovered in Richmond
Township, adjacent to the New York State line, in Berkshire County. The
known infested area covers _bout 5 acres, but the outside limits have not
ret been reached. A nur.ber of g-psv moth pupae were found and destroyed
at this infestation during the first week in September, although very
few puuae are normall-r found after the middle of August,

Evidence of heavr larval and oupal mortality found in Hampshire
Countjy.--A reoort from the town of Cummington, which borders the barrier
zone in Hampshire Count--, Mass., states that the wjorkers are finding
that most of the g--os- moth egg clusters located in that section are old,
rather than new This definitel> demonstrates that .there was a heavy
mortalit- of g ps-- moth larvae and pupae this season in the section
scouted, although this condition probably does not prevail throughout
Hampshire County.

Tree growth favor able to gyrsv moth development removed in barrier
zone area.--Large numbers of hollow and otherwise defective apple trees
were cut do:n b-- W. P. A. g-ps, moth emplo-ees at infested sites in the
Massachusetts barrier zxne area, Many thorn apple trees were also re-
moved. The destruction of these trees will not only facilitate future
scouting and control work, but will also eliminate two varieties of tree
growth whose folia e is greatl-> favored by the gypsv moth.

Apple oicking and lumbering reduce available man power.--The Vermont
State Employ.ment Service found it necessary to assign most of the W. P. A,
W-orkers carried on the g--ps'- rmoth pay roll to apple picking in some sec-
tions of Vermont. This action co-opelled the temporary suspension of
W. P. A g-ps-- moth work in Sennington Count'-, a drastic curtailment of
activit- in Rutland Count-', and lesser reductions in other sections early
in Seotember. The a3ole Dicking did not progress as rapidly as had been


anticipated, as the labor shortage necessitated the employment of in-
experienced men, but most of the W. P. A. employees should be returned
to gpsy moth work soon after October 1. One small group of apple
pickers resumed gypsv moth work in Addison County near the end of Sep-
tember, Additional men are needed in Orleans County, where much scout-
ing work remains to be doee. Although this section is not located in
the apple-growing area, increased demands for labor in the lumbering
industry is reducing the number of men available for gypsy moth work.

New g:osy moth infestation found in Addison County.--A crew of
regular gypsr moth employees recentl- discovered a woodland infesta-
tion in a stand of mixed hardwoods in Salisbury Township, Addison
County. Only three new egg clusters were found, but dense foliage on
the oak trees, which are ver-- abundant in the area, prevented a satis-
factory examination of the stand at that time. Close scouting of the
area will be done after the leaves have fallen.

Forest Service coooerates in gypsy moth scouting work.--At a con-
ference in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., attended by A. F. Burgess, C. T. Davis,
W. H. Hanley, and A, J. Pruett, of this Bureau; Stanley Mesavage, in-
dustrial forester for the Wyroming Valley Chamber of Commerce; and R. D
Forbes and Clement Mesavage, of the Allegheny Forest Experiment Station
of the United States Forest Service, arrangements were made for the in-
struction of W. P. A, men employed by the Forest Service and engaged in
a special survey in the gypsy moth infested area of Pennsylvania in how
and where to look for the gypsy moth, and for them to report any evi-
dence of the insect they might find in the course of their work to the
gvpsv moth suboffice in Wilkes-Barre. This arrangement will continue for
an indefinite period, provided the Forest Service officials do not find
the additional cost of doing the work excessive. Mr Pruett, who is
thoroughly experienced in gypsy moth work and has an extensive knowledge
of forestry practices, has been assigned to instruct the men in gypsy
moth scouting methods.

N. Y. A. crews perform cleaning work in infested areas.--N. Y, A
crews assigned to gypsy moth work in Luzerne County were engaged in
picking up, examining, and piling deadwood in infested areas during Sep-
tember. In one area in Jenkins Township, where this type of work is in
progress, large quantities of treetops and limbs remain after the cutting
of mine props last year. The burnin' of these piles of debris will be
delaved until the opening of the deer-hunting seasan on December 1, as
this is one of the few localities in the township where gypsy moth work
can be performed safely at that time. Under existing conditions it would
be extremely difficult to scout this area and apply effective treatment
work, and it is estimated that the removal of the treetops and limbs will
reduce by at least 50 percent the cost of future scouting and treatment

Scouting work begun at assembling cage sites.--The work of removing
gypsy moth assembling cages put out in the Pennsylvania area last summer
was completed early in September, and check-up work was begun at the sites
of the cages where male gypsy moths were found. The preliminary work in-
cludes a rough examination of the area in the immediate vicinity of the
cages in an effort to locate the infested sites quickly and economically


If the infestations cannot readily be found by this method, intensive
work must be performed later in order to determine definitely whether
a gypsy moth infestation is actually present in the region.

W. P A. gypsy moth work resumed in Pennsylvania.--W. P. A. em
ployees assigned to gypsy moth work in Pennsylvania began reporting for
duty on September 9, and approximately 500 men were employed by the end
of the month. Very few of the men have had previous gypsy moth experi-
ence, and there was a serious shortage of men qualified for the skilled
grade. No men were available in Wayne or honroe Counties, where a
large amount of gypsy moth work is planned for the current year, and
work in those counties will entail the transportation of crews for long
distances from the source of labor supply in adjacent counties. Many
of the regular employees who took their vacations during the period
when W. P. A. gypsy moth was suspended, had returned to duty by the mid-
dle of September and assisted in organizing and training the new crews.

Scouting begun along Susquehanna and Lackawanna riverbanks.--Gypsy
moth scouting along the banks of the Susquehanna and Lackawanna Rivers
was begun by several crews about the middle of September. Tree growth,
driftwood, and rubbish along the course of the rivers, from the vicinity
of the city of Scranton to Hanover Township, in Luzerne County, is care-
fully examined each year during periods of low water in order to exter-
minate any gypsy moth infestations that may be present, and thus prevent
the transportation downstream of egg clusters or parts of egg clusters
by later high water

Clean-up work started at large gypsy moth infestation in South
Canaan.--A crew of unskilled W P. A. workers commenced rough creosoting
and brush cutting at a gypsy moth infestation in South Canaan, Wayne
County, during the latter part of September. A large percentage of the
egg clusters found were old, their appearan.ce indicating a normal emer-
gence of caterpillars during the past larual season.

Beavers flood large area in Wayne County.--Beaver colonies are
abundant in some sections of the Pennsylvania area where gyp'! r~oth work
is conducted. A crew scouting in Cherry Ridge Township. '.ane County,
recently discovered a flooded area, several acres in e-tent, in which
some of the trees were dead. Two new dams were responsible for the
flood, while evidences of 6 old dams were found in the same general lo-
cality, and the number of dead trees indicated that beavers had been
present for several years. The scouting of a large number of trees in
this area was necessarily deferred until the freezing of the water and
boggy ground.

C. C. C. gypsy moth work discontinued.--During the first week in
September all C. C. C. gypsy moth work east of the barrier zone that has
been done under the supervision of this Bureau, was discontinued because
of a severe reduction in the number of camps and the necessity of reduc-
ing the cost of supervision within the remaining camps, which resulted in
the termination of employment of the remaining C. C. C. gypsy moth fore-
men. This cooperative work was started during the summer of 1933 and
continued for more than 8 years. At the peak of operations gypsy moth


work was done from 50 different camps located in Connecticut, Massa-
chusetts, Vermont, and a few along the western border of New Hampshire,
by as many as 2,300 enrollees. Such an extensive program was not main-
tained for a long period, owing to reductions in the C. C. C. personnel,
and the great bulk of the work was performed between the Connecticut
River and the eastern edge of the barrier zcne. The work that has been
done is helpful not onl> locall-b-talsoto the barrier zone itself, by
decreasing the intensity of g--ps- moth infestations just east of the
zone and reducing the danger of westward spread of the insect. During
the earl- part of this period all of the work was hand labor, such as
scouting, creosoting, chopping, and burning, but increasing emphasis
was later placed on the thinning of infested woodlands to reduce the
percentage of favorable g: 'sy :oth food plant growth. In many instances
the woodlands were left in an improved condition and much less suscep-
tible to g:rs moth increase. The practice of burlapping trees at the
sites of infestations, which is one of the control methods used ex-
tensively in earlier work, -:as revived because of the absence in the
C. C. C. of spraying equipment, and this type of work proved very ef-
fective in reducing the internsity of gypsy moth infestations. A lim-
ited amount of spraying equipnEnt was made available for C. C. C. work
by the State of Connecticut and by this Bureau during the last 3 years.

Gypsy moth work acomplished by the C. C. C.--During the period of
slightly more than 8 years that C. C. C. gypsy moth work was performed,
approximately 1,127,000 6-hour man-days were used and, based on 240 work-
ing day-s per --ear, a dail- average of approximately 500 enrollees was
distributed from northern Vermont to Long Island Sound. A gross acreage
of over 3,607,000 acres of woodland was examined, and treatments were ap-
plied at the sites cf manyT of the most dangerous infestations, Nearly
6,000,000 isolated trees were examined, approximately 35,000 of which
were re-oved, Thinning was done on approximately 23,000 acres. Over
25,160,000 g-opsy moth egg clusters were destroyed, and men patrolling
burlap bands crushed approximately 48,500,000 caterpillars and pupae. The
figures for egg clusters and gypsy moth larvae and pupae destroyed were
obtained by actual counts in areas of light infestation and from esti-
mates where the infestations w'ere heavy. Slightly over 11,000 enrollees
worked on the project.


Plans for fall and winter work in Iowa.--D. R. Shepherd, in charge
of barberrT eradication in Iowa, in summarizing plans for fall and winter
work says that survey will be continued in Allamakee, Cerro Gordo, Dubuque,
Howard, Linn, W-inneshiek, and Worth Counties and some work will be done
in Jones, Shelb- and Guthrie Counties. The original plan of work for
1941 has been changed considerably in that laborers have not always been
available in the counties where wve originally planned to work. Other
changes have been necessary because of the type of laborers available.
It is particularly noticeable that the men available for the skilled jobs
are not of the caliber of the foremen employed during the last few years.

This trouble will be overcome to a certain extent b7 keeping experi-
enced crews on longer and working them in adjoining counties. When-
ever possible, experienced foremen will be transferred to other coun-
ties. In counties where onl enough men are available for one crew,
the unit has been set up with an experienced foreman in charge. Sev-
eral such units are placed under the direction of a supervisor. This
is considered desirable, however, only when experienced foremen have
charge of the individual units.

Surve- work completed in Muskingum County, Ohio,--An intensive
surve- of Muskingum County just completed has brought to light many
properties infested with barberr- bushes which were not found some
.ears ago, when a preliminary farm to-farm inspection v:as made. The
records show that more than 1,500 bushes have been destroyed on 30
properties. Four of these properties were in cities and towns and
26 were in the country. Eighteen of the 26 rural properties had wild
bushes growing on them. The original farm to-farm survey, made some
-ears ago, resulted in the eradication of about 500 bushes on 44 prop-
erties, 280 of which were located in cities and towns. During the
survey just completed these old properties were rechecked and 25 per-
cent of the cit- locations and 33 percent of the rural locations had
additional bushes. In commenting on the survey of this county, Harry
Atwood, State leader, points out that many of the infested properties
found as a result of the intensive survey were located at some dis-
tance from traveled high;;a s, and that in -any instances the bushes
were found growing around abandoned farm buildings, with not even a
lane leading to the site. Some of these locations were planted 50 to
60 years ago

Germination of old Ribes seeds.--In the course of Ribes-seed
germination work at Berkeley, Caif., C. R. Quick reports that a num-
ber of old seed samples acquired from herbarium specimens in the
Spokane blister rust control office were tested for viability. Six-
teen seed samples of various western hibes species, which were 17
years old, were tested and seedlings were produced from 14 samples.
The species showing germination were Ribes aureum, R. lobbii, R. ni-
veum, R. odoratum, R. petiolare, R. setosum, R. viscosissimum, and
R. watsonianum. One samole of R. cereum seed, collected in 7-vada
in 1912, and therefore 27 years old at the time of viability test,
gave 4-percent germination (1 seedling from 24 seeds). So far as the
writer is aware, this test extends b- several years the known longevity
of Ribes seeds in the laboratory.

Soils exert confers on blister rust ecological studies.--During
a recent visit to the western white pine region, Robert Chandler, soils
orofessor of Cornell Universit -, inspected the Ribes ecology experi-
mental work conducted by V. D. Moss. In corpany with ir. Moss and Mr.
vellner of the Experiment Station, Professor Chandler spent considerable
time examining Mr. Moss' extensive plot studies of the germination and
development of Ribes and white pines under various conditions of ex-
posure and soil treatment. Very helpful discussion and advice on many
of the finer points regarding th. soils, concerning wLich Professor
Chandler is an authority, resulted from the trip.


Control work dela-ed by excessive rain.--Rrolonged and unusuall,
heavy rains from August 15 to Septetmer 15 in the western ..hite pine
region have greatly impeded the progreuss of control ;ork. This wvet
weather, together with other extensive periods of rain this season, has
resulted in an unusuall large amount of nonwork time, difficulty in
holding labor, and a severe cut in total production. In several in-
stances the projected accomplishment for a canp will not be reached and
small unicrked areas will be left for completion next year. Careful
planning of the work, however, has resulted in the location of many of
these small units, so that the-r can be reached readily in connection with
the working of new units in 1942.

Blister rust exhibit.--An interesting and attractive blister rust
display at the Eastern States Exposition at West Springfield, Mass was
arranged by R. E. Wheeler, in charge of blister rust control in the
Springfield district. The display consisted of a central panel with de-
scriptive signs. In the center a concealed motorscope was used to show
a series of lantern slides depicting the life cycle of the fungus. On
each side of the central panel were placed in realistic fashion, a number
of infected pines, ranging from small saplings showing young infection to
pole-sized trees with typical stem cankers. Red arrows with the legend,
"This Is a Blister Rust Canker," were affixed to the trees and directed
toward the cankers involved. the trees were planted a representa-
tion of the Ribes native to the area, each labeled as to soecies. Skunk
currants were featured along the edges of a miniature brook bottom. The
entire exhibit was enclosed by a miniature stone wall and barway. The
attendance at the exposition reached an all-time record during the first
2 days, with more than 81,000' on Sunday and more than 76,000 on Monday.

Western white pine may produce false internode and growth ring in
1941 .--Evidence of the effect of an unusual amount of moisture during
the 1941 growing season is to be found in the terminal buds of western
white pine ;hich have suddenly "taken off" on another growing spree. This
was observed early in September on young pines ranging up to about 20 years
in &ge, which had terminal bud growth up to 2.5 inches in length. The
growth is very succulent and could, with favorable fall weather, continue
until a definite false internode and growth ring are produced. There is
also the possibility that a sudden hard freeze will not only nip the new
growth but damage the buds sufficiently to cause delay and possible damage
to the 1942 development,

No rust development found in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National
Parks.--Scouting work late in July and early in August in Yellowstone and
Grand Teton National Parks and on adjacent National Forest areas faled to
disclose blister rust infection. It is now 4 years since a single Ribes
infection was found about 19 miles northwest of Yellowstone Park and it
now appears that the long-distance spread of 1937 was very insignificant
in this locality and that no pine infection resulted. This supposition is
based on failure to find the rust after a thorough examination of thous-
ands of Ribes petiolare bushes and several hundred white-bark and limber
pine in major drainages of thee area. The results are interpreted to mean
that this part of the northwestern region is still the invasion front and
not an area where the initial rust intensification stage has been reached.



Cutting cotton stalks far boll weevil control.--The early fall de-
struction of cotton stalks has been recommended by the Bureau for many years
as one of the most effective measures for reducing boll weevil damage the
following year. Weevils usually continue to feed and multiply until the cot-
ton plants are killed by frost or are cut down. Extensive hibernation ex-
periments have shown that the survival of weevils is much greater when food
is available until late in the season than when food is removed early, caus-
ing them to go into hibernation in poor condition. In some instances more
than 20 times as many weevils that had food until November 15 survived as
when food was cut off October 15. Following the unusually severe weevil
losses this year, the Bureau, in cooperation with the Extension Service and
other Federal and State agencies, is sponsoring an intensive program of
stalk destruction. The Director of Extension Work has requested extension
workers in the Cotton States to take an active part in stimulating the
adoption of recommended control measures and to make every reasonable effort
to impress the growers with the importance of getting their stalks cut at
the earliest possible date. M. P. Jones, extension entomologist, is visit-
ing the various States to assist in any way he can and at the same time ob-
tain information concerning methods that may be helpful in other States.
Wide publicity has been given the program through the press and radio ser-
vices of the Department and information furnished State officials for local
use. Posters have been displayed at gins in North Carolina and county
agents in several States have sent out one or more special letters. Dry
weather has caused early maturity of the crop in States east of Texas and
Oklahoma and permitted the crop to be picked and the stalks cut early. The
cotton leaf vjorm has also helped in bringing about early maturity of the
crop in many areas. It has reached all of the cotton-graving States except
California, but for some unknown reason it has not become abundant enough
in the Atlantic Coast States to cause extensive defoliation of cotton, as
in the other States. Reports received to date indicate that good progress
is being made in cutting stalks in same States. A survey by Bureau repre-
sentatives during the first week of October in South Carolina, where weevil
damage was extremely heavy this year, showed that more than 25 percent of
the stalks had been cut on 657 farms in 9 counties. From 10 to 15 percent
of the stalks were reoorted cut in the Mississippi Delta. In sone States
a shortage of cotton pickers and other farm work has dela;ed stalk cutting
to some extent.

Insecticides for boll weevil and cotton aphid.--E. W. Dunnam,
Stoneville, Miss., repoorts recent investigations with insecticides on
cotton insects. In boll weevil and cotton aphid control experiments the
aphid populations increased following the use of insecticides in the fol-
lowing order: (1) Calcium arsenate; (2) calcium arsenate-sulfur 1-1;
(3) calcium arsenate-sulfur 1-1 and derris to make 4 percent rotenone in
the mixture; (4) calcium arsenate-derris (I percent rotenone in the mixture);
(5) talc-derris (1 percent rotenone in the mixture). The boll weevil
infestation did not reach damaging proportions until the crop was set, and
boll damage did not occur in plots dusted with arsenicals The pH of cot-
ton-leaf cell sap was considerably higher and the leaf drop was heavier


following dusting with insecticides containing arsenicals than in the un-
treated controls or when dusted with talc and derris. The results of
another test to determine the effect on the aphid population of adding
zinc and iron salts to calcium arsenate to reduce the pH were not versr
oromising. Sufficient quantities of the dry salts were added to neutra-
lize the calcium arsenate but the chemical reaction that occurred caused
the alkalinity to increase before the materials were used. The pH of the
materials used and the average seasonal number of aphids per square inch
of leaf area were as follows: Untreated control, 5.6 aphids per square
inch; calcium arsenate y.ith low water-soluble arsenic and oH of 11.00,
15.5 aphids; calcium arsenate with intermediate water-soluble arsenic and
pH of 12.15, 13.6 aphids; copper hrdro-arsenate, pH of 7.96, 12.5 aphids:
calcium arsenate with low water-soluble arsenic and zinc chloride, with
,)H of 7.75, 10.9 aphids; calcium arsenate with intermedicte water-soluble
arsenic and zinc sulfate, with pH of 8.20, 10-8 aphids; calcium arsenate
with intermediate water-soluble arsenic and ferrous sulfate, with pH of
10.'0, 9.5 aphids; a commercial brand of calcium arsenate in which a zinc
salt was incorporated in the process of manufacturte, vith a pH of 9.60,
9 3 aohids. The addition of the zinc and iron salts to the arsenicals
reduced the leaf shed and caused the plants to appear healthier. The boll
weevil infestation in squares did not exceed 6 percent in any plot and was
too light to determine the effect of the insecticides on this insect. The
heaviest vield was from the control plot, but there was no significant
difference between the yields from the treated plots and that from the

The effect of fertilizer on cotton leaf aphids--Observations during
recent years indicated that leaf aphids were more abundant on cotton
following cover crops and where nitrogenous fertilizers were used than on
unfertilized land. In a test conducted by R. L, McGarr at State College,
Miss., this season, the average seasonal aphid populations on dusted and
undusted cotton, fertilized with different percentages of nitrogen, were
as follows: No fertilizer and no calcium arsenate, 091 aphid per square
inch of leaf surface; no fertilizer and calcium arsenate dust, 6.05 aphids;
0:8:4 fertilizer and calcium arsenate dust, 6.75 aphids; 2:8:4 fertilizer
and calcium arsenate dust, 8.34 aphids; 4:8:4 fertilizer and calcium ar-
senate dust, 8.88 aphids; 6:10:4 fertilizer and calcium arsenate dust,
9.76 aphids; 6:10:4 fertilizer and no calcium arsenate, 1,07 aphids. It
appears from these results that the use of fertilizer caused no appreciable
increase in the number of aphids when calcium arsenate was not used, but
that aphids increased roughly in proportion to the amount of nitrogen in
the fertilizer when calcium arsenate dust was applied to the plots.

Egg oarasites of the conchuela and Say's stinkbug at Presidio, Tex --
During 1941 the conchuela (Chlorochroa ligata Say) and Say's stinkbug
(Chlorochroa savi Stal) have been abundant and have caused noticeable dam-
age to cotton and other crops in the vicinity of Presidio. On August 14
L. W. Noble and W. L. Lowry collected from grain sorghum 176 eg s of C. li-
gata and 123 eggs of C. sayi. These were placed in petri dishes and para-
sites emerged from 94.3 percent of the C. ligata eggs and from 94 9 percent
of the C. sai eggs. All of the parasites reared from C. ligata were deter-
mined b- C. F. W. Muesebeck as Telenomus mesillae (Ckll.). Most of the


parasites reared from the eggs of C. savi were also determined by Mr.
Muesebeck as T. mesillae, but 30 other parasites from these eggs were
determined b- A B. Gahan as Ooencrtus californicus Gir.


Gin-trash inspection.--One of the most important operations look-
ing to the control and eradication of the pink bollworm throughout the
United States, with which this Division is charged, is the annual in-
spection of gin trash, in order to obtain data on the status of infesta-
tion or spread of the insect into new areas. Inspection was continued
during September in all regulated counties in south Texas. In Cameron
Count-, in the lower Rio Grande VallerT, where infestation was heaviest
in that region last season, 8 additional pink bollworms were jund, making
a total of 23 so far this season. One larva was found in the Quemado
Valley near Eagle Pass, in Maverick County. Reinfestation had previously
been established this season not far from this point at El Indio, in the
same county Inspection in all other south Texas counties was negative
during September. At the Qeginning of the last week in September inspec-
tion crews began operations in Tom Green and Concho Counties, in the Pan-
handle regulated area, but no specimens had been found at the close of
the month Outside of regulated counties in Texas, inspection was con-
centrated in central, northeastern, and southeastern cotton-growing areas,
no infestation being found. Inspection of gin trash was begun in the
Salt River Valley of Arizona on September 15, and during the period of in-
spection 5S pink bollworms were found, all of which originated in the same
spot near Glendale, in Maricopa County, where a light infestation existed
last season. This find was not unexpected, as a clean-up campaign under-
taken for that area at the close of the 1940 crop was abandoned on account
of excessive rainfall throughout that winter and early spring. Inspection
of trash was conducted throughout September in Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
and Mississippi; also, during the latter half of the month, in Louisiana
and Oklahoma. At the end of September no pink bollworms had been found in
any of the se. States. Gin-trash inspection in Mexico, in cooperation with
Mexican inspectors, was completed at Anahuac and honterrey, Nuevo Leon,
and at Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. Result of the season's work in that part
of Mexico was the finding of 1 pink bllvworm at Anahuac. Las' season 37
larvae were found at Anahuac and 3 at Nuevo Laredo.

Stalk destruction,--In the program for combating the pink bollworm in
the south Texas regulated area and adjacent cotton-growing areas of Mexico,
an attempt is made to have all stalks destroyed as soon as the crop is
picked out. Owing to unfavorable growing conditions throughout the present
season, the cotton crop i-- south Texas was several weeks later than usual,
and only a comparatively small acreage was available for cleaning at the
beginning of September. Also, a serious shortage of cotton pickers has
existed in that region, owing principally to the poor yield. These condi-
tions, together with adverse weather throughout practically all of Septem-
ber, resulted in stalks being destroyed on only about half the acreage in
the lower Rio Grande Valley counties by October 1, the deadline established
by the State for completion of such work in that area At the end of Sep-
terber annroximrtel- OO extensions had been grantee individual farmers in
order to allow them to comolete the harvesting of their crops In the other


south Texas counties the deadline for completion of stalk destruction is
October 15. It was estimated that from 75 to 90 percent of the cotton
crop had been harvested in those counties at the end of September, and
fairly good progress was being made in clean-up work, from 50 to 75 per-
cent of the stalks being destroyed in some of the counties, and a good
many additional farmers starting work toward the close of the month. On
account of flood conditions in the Matamoros area of Mexico during the
latter half of September, not a great deal of progress was made in the
stalk-destruction work; however, it is believed that a vast acreage of
stalks will be killed by existing conditions. In the Reynosa area, on
higher ground, about 40 percent of the stalks had been cut at the end of
the month, and about 50 percent in the Mier area In the other cotton
growing areas of Mexico adjacent to south Texas not so much progress had
been made on account of the lateness of the crop.


Control of iris thrips by sprays and dusts---On July 2, L, G. Utter
and Floyd F. Smith, the latter assigned to duty at the Beltsville, Md ,
laboratory, concluded field exoeriments for 1941 at Brooklyn and Farming-
dale, N. Y., in which they compared 13 treatments against Bregmatothrips
iridis Watson on plots containing several species of iris (Although a
number of iris species are attacked by this insect, greatest damage occurs
on Japanese iris.) Eight applications were made during May and June, the
period in which the plants rapidly develop vegetatively, and prior to
flowering of the Japanese iris. An effective treatment will reduce the
numbers of thrips and prevent their damage to foliage and flowers. In
these experiments derris powders at rotenone contents of from 1--4,000 to
1-32,000 (with sodium oleyl sulfate resinous sticker 1-1,000) were highly
effective, causing from to 99-to 100-percent reduction in population. A
commercial derris extract (rotenone content 1-21,052 to 1-42,104) ard
derris dust (1 percent rotenone) were alrost equally effective, although
breeding of larvae was not prevented. Nicotine sulfate (40 percent solu-
tion) diluted 1-400 to 1-3,200 gave complete control in these tests. The
commercial DN dust (1.7 percent dinitro-o-cyclohexyl phenol) killed only 66
percent of the thrips and severely injured foliage of Japanese iris When
a spray was made by using the above dust at the race of 3 pounds per 100
gallons, 85 percent of the thrips were killed and no foliage injury re-
sulted. A commercially prepared product containing 97.1 percent mannitan
monolaurate, killed only 80 percent of the thrips, while the same material,
but containing 10O percent of rotenone, gave 100-percent control. These
results conform with those of previous years' work and further emphasize
that derris and nicotine are the most effective thripicides for this species
The percentage reduction in thrips population was higher during 1941 than
in previous years, apparently because fewer rains followed closely the ap-
plication of the sprays and dusts. Although the derris and nicotine sprays
are extremely effective against the iris thrips and in some plots even at-
tained the point of eradication, they cannot be depended on to do this in
actual practice. Observations at Farmingdale, Long Island, N. Y., pointed
to the importance of the need for a continued and regular spray program each
year in order to check the damage by the iris thrips, Derris powder or nico-
tine sprays had been applied to a 2-acre planting in 1940, which was practical-
ly free of thrips, and little injury was evident on the vigorous growth at


the end of the season. The growth in 1941 on the same plants was
stunted, being from one-half to two-thirds the height of the growth
the year before. The iris thrips had again become abundant throughout
the planting and their typical injury was severe and general. No
sprays had been applied in 1941

New method of using crude naphthalene against wireworms.--A new
method of mixing crude naphthalene with the soil to kill wireworms gave
excellent results in a practical test this season by M, Co Lane and
R S, Lehman, of the Walla Walla, Wash laboratory. The wireworm
species concerned in this test were principally the sugar beet wireworm
(Limonius californicus Hann.) and the Pacific coast wireworm (L. canus
Lee ). An acre of fine sandy loam soil was tre-ted by evenly sprinkling
250 pounds of finely flaked crude naphthalene in front of a disk harrow
before an7; plowing was done This dosaie of naphthalene was then plowed
under before a second application of 250 pounds was sprinkled before the
disk harrow. The quantity of crude naphthalene used totaled 500 pounds
for the cacre, but this method gave a better horizontal and a deeper verti-
cal distribution of the material with the soil than has been obtained
heretofore by placing 500 pounds per acre on the sides of the furrow at
the time of plowing and attempting to mix it with soil by a subsequent
disking. The results obtained by the new method this season showed 72
percent of undamaged tubers in the subsequent planting of potatoes, as
cormared to 37 oercent of undamaged tubers for the plowed-in treatment
(furrows 18 inches apart) and 31 percent of undanaged tubers with the no-
treatment check. The farmer received $82 per acre higher net profit
where the double-disk rmthod was used than with the no-treatment check,
even after deducting $15 per acre for the cost of naphthalene. Cost of
labor and machinery did not exceed 45 per acre additional for applying
naphthalene by the double-disk method

Zinc sulfate a possible safener for paris green on tobacco foli-
age --As the result of recent experiments, F. S, Chamberlin, of the
Quinc-., Fla., laboratory, reports that, although paris green exerts a
relatively high toxicity against hornworms, principally Protoparce sexta
(Johan.), and is used extensively in the southern cigar-tobacco rE.gion,
the outstanding limitation of this poison is the serious bur-!ng hazard
which accomoanies its use. This factor has become of increasing impor-
tance during the last several years, owing to the fact that both the sliac:.
and sun-grown tobaccos now produced are more susceptible to arsenical in-
jury than were the varieties formerly grown. Although large quantities of
paris green are still being used in the Florida-Georgia tobacco-growing
area, the increased burning hazard is causing the growers to change to
lead arsenate, which appears to be the only alternative. Paris green is
applied to the crop in the undiluted form and in mixtures with hydrated
lime. The mixture most commonly used consists of the poison and lime in
the oroportion, of 1 to 60 The lime has a tendency to reduce, but fails
to eliminate, the foliage burning caused by the arsenical. In an attempt
to reduce the paris green-lime injury, a number of powdered materials were
incorporated in lots of the mixture which were tested on tobacco foliage
The weight proportions of each test mixture were as follows: Paris green,
1 part; hydrated lime, 5 parts; and corrective, 1 part. The effect of the

--2, j--

mixtures was obtained by determining the percentages of burned leaves
and the severitTy of the injury on the tobacco plots The results showed
that only one of the materials, zinc sulfate, exerted an appreciable re-
duction in the degree of burning caused by the paris green. In the case
of the zinc sulfate the extent of burning :;as approximately one-half that
sustained by the tobacco treated :*ith the I to a paris green and lime
mixture, indicating that this material has upromise as a safener for the
arsenical on tobacco foliage.

Early peak of beet leafhooper coDulation on Russian-thistle in
southern Idahoo--J. R. Douglass and his associates at Twin Falls, Idaho,
laboratory, report that quantitative samples taken throughout the season
on Russian-thistle (Salsola oestifer A. Nels ) plots showed that the
highest populations of Eutettix tenellus (ak,) recorded during the sum-
mer of 1941 were 11 1, 57 4, 42,u, 13.7, and 1.4 per square foot on
June 27, July 22, August 8, Septemhbe_ 5, and October 2, respectively,
These data show a gradual decrease .i the beet leafhopper populatinns
since approximately the middle of July This indicates a comparatively
good reproduction of the first summer generatic of the insect on Russian-
thistle. From infor.ation at hand, it is nob 'ossible to determine the
exact factors responsible for the poor reproduction of the second summer
generation on Russian-thistle The highest populations of beet leaf-
hoppers recorded per month during the summer of 1940 on Russian-thistle
were 10.4, 37.8, 426, 515, and 85-3 per square foot on June 28, July 16,
August 13, September 13, and October 1, respectively. A comparison of
the development of beet leafhopper populations on Kussian-thistle in 1940
with 1941 shows thnct in 1940 there was a gradual increase in the popula-
tion throughout the season, the peak being r'ached on October 1; whereas
in 1941 the peak was reached on July 22, and subsequent to this there was
a gradual decrease in population.

Two-spotted mite causing damage to lima beans --R- E. Campbell, of
the Alhambra, dalif,, laboratory, reports that in Orange County, Calif.,
the infestation of Tetranychus bimaculatus Harv. on lima beans has been
very severe. About 1,000 acres was so badli damaged that no beans we e
harvested. An additional 1,000 acres was sufficiently damaged to cause
25- to 50- percent reduction in the crco. The beans affected -were the
regular limas raised for dry beans. The infestation occurred in an area
where lima beans have been grown for over 20 years; however, a few alfalfa
fields have been started in the last few years to meet the needs of the
dairy industry in Orange and Los Angeles Counties, which has expanded dur-
ing recent years. The two-spotted mite develops on the alfalfa, but does
not cause apparent damage to that crop. After the lima beans are planted,
the mites migrate from the alfalfa to the beans, on which they develop
and cause damage. According to reports received, every field of lima beans
damaged by the two-spotted mite adjoins an alfalfa field.


Fluorescent lights attractive to Clear Lake gnats.--A, W. Lindquist
and C. C. Deonier report that daylight fluorescent lights attract up to
nearly four times more gnats than do filament lamps of nearly equal lumen
rating. When compared with filament lamos of three times greater lumen


output and four times greater wattage consumption, the catch is about
equal Four 40-watt daylights, producing 5,920 lumens, attracted 141.3
pounds of gnats with an average of 10.8 grams per lumen and 343T1 grams
per watt, while filament lamps producing 17,400 lumens took 115,7 pounds
with an average of 3 0 grams per lumen and 52 5 grams per watt. The
initial cost of fluorescent equipment is high bat the operating cost is
454 percent less than that of filament lamps.

Dog fly control operations yielding good results --W. E. Dove re-
ports that control operaticns for the dog fly (Stomo.xs) on the west coast
of Florida, carried on in cooperation with the United States Public Health
Service, have given a high degree of relief from this pest to those engaged
in National Defense activities at Tyndall and Eglin Fields, as well as to
local residents and the livestock in the area. Most of the personnel, as
well as spray rigs, tanks, and trucks for carrying on this operation, were
made available to the project through the courtesy of the Division of Do-
mestic Plant Quarantines During September a total of 110,590 gallons of
spray was applied on 159 lineal miles of windrows of bay grasses along the
beaches, an average of 696.6 gallons per mile During these operations
opportunityr was presorited to make field tests on (a) light gas condensate
and fuel oil, b() ligit gas condensate and water, (c) undiluted light gas
condensate, (d) creos:,te and fuel oil, and Ce) creosote and water The re-
sults show thai both creosot e and oil, and creosote and water are effective,
and that light gas -ondensate is less satisfactory than either of the creo-
sote mixtures Large scale tests have shown that bay water can be substi-
tuted for oil as a diluent for creosote, and this is considered the out-
standing research developrment Cdring the control operations, By the use of
water instead of oil, large savings can be made in any subsequent control

Pyrethnnm ...tra deterioration aging -W. V King and R C. Bush-
land, of the Orlando, Fla laboratory, report that in a comparison of two
lots of nyrethrurn extract concentrate, one obtained in 1934 and the other
in 194I1 the difference in mean mortali :T among mosquito larvae was only
12 percent in favor of the fresh sample, indicating much less deterioration
than expected of the old stock The difference, however, was highly sig-
nificant statistically, whereas no appreciable difference was found in a
chemica] analysi of the two sarples or in Peet-Grady tests on houseflies.

Susceptibility of mosquito larvae to pyrethrnm larvicides,--Experi-
ments conducted by V V King showed that larvae of Psro2dora columbiae
D. & K were less susceptible than larvae of Culex quinquelasciatus Say to
pyrethrum larvicides. Pupae of P columbiae appeared to be nearly as
susceptible as the larvae of the same species, in the tests with an emul-
sion of the 5-percent concentrate in fuel oil, but showed very little mor-
tality from an emulsion of the straight concentrate.

Sod samoling methods not encouraging fcr determination of mosquito-
breeding areas ---Studies by Hr King and W. h. Wilson during the last
season on egg infestations and natural breeding of species of Psorophora
and Aedes in the vicinity of Orlando have been summarized. Flooding


records were obtained on a total of 2,471 sod samples and larvae were
produced from 127, or 5.1 percent, of these. The average number of lar-
vae per sample was 0.42, with an average of 8,2 per positive sod and a
maximum of 73 from 1 sample. Inspections for larval breeding in the
sane stations were made at about weekly intervals and for the 3 months
of June, July, and August the mean larval density for all collections in
which breeding was found was 25 9 per square foot (10 dips), The com-
parable rate for egg infestations, based on the positive collections, was
17.0 per square foot (20 samples)

Medical entomology discussed before U. S. Army officers.--At the
invitation of the Arm-n Medical School, F. C Bishopp gave an illustrated
lecture before a group of about 50 medical officers who were taking a
special course in Tropical Medicire. This course is now being repeated
every 30 days for different groups of officers and Dr. Bishopp has been
requested to participate in the course each month.

Ticks resistant to submergence--Experiments reported on by
C. N. Smith show that flat larvae and nymphs survived submergence in
fresh or salt water for 1 day, adults for 5 days or nore. Engorged lar-
vae and nymphs survived for 5 days in fresh water, and for 1 to 3 days
in salt water.

Parasites aopear ineffective agoainst American dog tick.--In an
area on Martha's Vineyard, Mass., where many tick parasites (Hunterellus
hookeri How.)were released a few vears ago, Mr Smith finds that larvae
were more numerous than ever, and nymphal abundance was relatively high
Adults, though less numerous this season than in some years, were still

Effectiveness of dipping dogs for orotection against dog tick---The
fourth season of dipping in derris wash of all dogs in an area on Martha's
Vineyard produced the usually satisfactory control on the dogs, reports
Mr Smith. The number of adult American dog ticks in the area dropped to
an extreme low, indicating that this nethod had finally effected a sub-
stantial reducticm in tick abundance.

Effect of rasture burning on American dog tick.--Studies conducted
by Mr. Smith, Moses M, Cole, and Harry K. -ouck show that the rreadow mouse,
the principal tick host in the area, was absent from the burned area until
August, but during this period white-footed mice were utilized as larval
hosts. Larvae and nymphs were rot abundant at any tire in either the burned
or unburned portions. Many adult ticks were killed by the fire, as shown
by the fact that throughcut the season they were less numerous in the burned
than in the unburned portion, and in collections from areas partly or en-
tirely burned they were less than in 1940, whereas in collections from areas
entirely unburned they were equally abundant in both years. Incomplete but
immediate control may, therefore, be expected from burning

Diking of marshes at Fort Pierce, Fla., continues to show good sand fly
control.--J. B. Hull and S. E, Shields report that, from 260 soil sanples


collected from the undiked marshes daring the quarter, 5,818 sand fly
larvae were isolated. This is an average of 22.33 sand fly larvae per
1-quart sample. From 260 samples collected the same dates from the diked
;arsh 1,11,2 sand fly larvae were isolated, an average of 4.39 larvae per
1-quart sample An analysis of variance was calcmlated to determine
whether the differen,:e in the number of larvae found in diked and undiked
marshes was significant. The F-value found was 13 46 and the F-value re-
uired awas -I for 5 Dercent and 6.70 for 1 percent: therefore, the dif-
ference in the breeding of send flies in diked and undiked marshes was
ver highly' signi fie ant during the last quarter

Creosote oi0 usefuIj in sor':-ing ditches in sand fly control --Mr Hull,
reecrting on ;wcrk ccndad-ted at Fort Pierce, sa-s: "During Haay a ditch in the
diked oickleweed :arsh was soa-ied with creosote oil No. 1. This material
killed the Dickle-.,eed and thus far has m t it free of this graith, which
normali ,i sigs the ditch. T-e sand fl- larvae oopulation was greatly re-
kaed als' .. TI> waste :r ducts from a cas ;lant were tried as larvicides.
or of these amars t be alr it,- as gp cd as creosote and is much cheaper."

Sleeoing s:1knes: St LoL- and s.eyeron i strair. ) found in
mocuto l The temporar. Laboratcry at Yakima, Wash was clos ed on Sep-
tenter 10 and the field work of the enceohalitis sur ve-r in that area was
discontinued. The s'rve--, which was begun IHa- 15, was a cooperative study
of encephalitis in the Yakima Valle- by the George Williams Hooper Founda-
tion for Medical Research of San Francisco, the State of Washington, the
City of Yakima Health Laborator-, Washington State College, and the Bureau
f Entomology and Plant Quarantine C. M Gjollin, of the Portland, Oreg j
labor at or reoresent- d tih= bureau in these studies Of the 7 men with head
quarters at the tenmoorar-- aborat r- 3 devoted their entire time to obtain-
ing blood of dil: and oa-esticated birds arnd mammals in the valley.,
These samples were shipped to San Francisco and tested for immunity to the
disease. Two of the men usin: a soecially constructed live tran and a
New Jerse-- trap in which drr ice was used as an attractant captured 14,000
live insects which wre separated to species, frozen, and shipped to San Fran
ciLco at week--- int r'als for inoculation into mice. St. Louis virus was re-
covered from 1 lot of Culex tarsajis Coq il 1 of these shipments, and from
a later 1ot of thi same species western -quine virus was isolated. This is
the first time the virus of these diseases has been recovered in mosquitoes
in nature A oaoer discussing these findings has been submitted to Science.
Six New Jerse- traos were operated in 'YIkima Valley and 2 traps in adjacent
areas during the season. The 20 soecies of mosquitos taken in the traps or
by other methods of collectinr include Aedes vexans (Meig.), A. lateralis
(Meig ), A.'s tlie A increpitus Dvar, A camoestris D. and K ,
A cinereus Aneij., A nir.:ra-.ulis (Ludl 7, A varijaolpus (Coq.), A flaves-
cens (Muller), TIheobaldia inornata (Will,), T. incidens (Thomson), TL morsi-
tans (Theob.), T. im.tiens (Walk), Culex tarsalis, C. stigmatosoma D77ar,
b. ?ioiens L., C. aoic-lis Adams, Asnooheles punctioennis (Say), A. maculi-
oennis 'Meig.), and iarnsonia -ertur'-.ns Walk. Numerical data have not been
comoi'ed as -7et however, it is evident that Culex tarsalis is by far the
most numerous s ecies in the valle-. Of 60 different moscuito breeding places
inscected at random in the Yakima Valley, :5 percent contained C. tarsalis lar-
vae and in _0 cercent of these breeding places this species was the most
numerous. Durinn the summer 27 human cases diagnosed as encephalitis occurred

in the Yakima area and there w.ere 4 deaths. The last case , re orted
on September 17. Between 40 and 50 cases of encephalitis occurred in un
vaccinated horses in the valley during the season.

Distribution, abundance, and economic importance of mosquitoes at
Portland.--C. F. Knipling and W. W Yates report that the population of
floodwater mosquitoes was probabl-r the lowest on record for the Portland,
Oreg., area. This was due to the low flood crest which reached a maxi-
mum of 9.0 feet this season, ard to the control operations by the county
and city. The mosquito population therefore continued to be low during
this quarter. Of special interest, however, was the first recorded oc-
currence of Mansonia perturbans in Oregon A high population of this
species was found in the vicinit- of Scappoose, in Columbia County, late
in July. Some specimens of this species were also taken in the mnosuito
light trap at Lotus Island, in Multnomah County. As high as 59 mrosquitoes
were taken in a 10-minute collection at Scappoose. Of this number, 53
were M perturbans Lilht -trap collections showed a high of 310 Mansonia
in 1 night. Because of such high population, this mosquito must be in-
cluded among the species of economic importance in the Northwest. Ano
oheles mos uitces aooeared to be more numerous than usual in the Portland
area. At Scapooose a maximum of 254 were taken in 1 night, by far the
highest number of Anooheles taken in light traps in the Northwest. Lar
val collections in the Cedar Creek area indicated Anopheles to be much
more numerous than in other years. A total of 36 cases of malaria were
reported for the State of Oregon up to October 1, cases being reported
from 10 counties. Theobaldia morsitans was taken near Scappoose in Aug-
ust, a new record for the State Culex stigmatosoma was found to be
rather common, being taiEn at several points


Living fruitfly found on window.--E. Kostal, at Hoboken, reports
that on July 14 J. M. R. Adams found a living adult of Anastrepha
striata Schin. on one of the windows of the Inspection House after or
chids from Venezuela had been inspected. This incident illustrates how
an insect ma7r be introduced on or in material other than its real hos.,

"Cancrosis B," or "false canker," on Argentine lemons- ,; 'ntine
lemons in ships' stores examined in New York on May 17 and on Se;-m'er 11
were found to be diseased. Some lesions looked very .iiun like citrus ;an
ker. Anna E. Jenkins, of the Bureau of Plant Indcstry, has determined th-
disease as "Cancrosis B," or "false canter," a South American citrus disease
with symptoms similar to those of citrus canker. Apparently the pathogen
has not vet been named, but is said to be a bacterium.

Holly rust from new locality --While inspecting holly trees shipped
in from Mocksville, N. C., for landscape work in Washington, D. C., W. B
Wood found Chrysomnxa ilicina (E & E.) Arth on some of the leaves. This
rare rust had not been reported to occur anywhere except in central West

Lespedeza rust in Janan.--A rust has been intercepted on leaves and
pods accompan ing lesoedeza seed from Japan (see News Letter v. IV, No ,
p. 20, March 1, 1937) on several occasions. Although the Japanese rust is


assigned to the same s-ecies (Uromrces lesoedezae-procumbentis (Schw.)
Curt.) as the rust of American lesoedezas, the oriental species of
lespedeza are immune to the rust that occurs here. A paper by Naohide
Hiratsuka, the leading uredinolo ist of Japan (Trans. Tottori Soc. Agr.
Sci. 7:63-79, Dec. 1940) entitled, "Studies on Uromyces lespedezae-
procumbentis in Ja an," names 3 form species occurring there. A total
of 21 hosts is listed but not all were included in inoculation tests,
therefore it seems oossible th:t other forms exist in Japan. The form
species named are (1) U. macrolesedezae on L. bicolor, L. bicolor var.
jaoonica, L. bueeri L. homoloba, L. nikkoensis, and L. thunbergii;
2) U. lesredezae-cuneatae on L, cuneata: and (c 3 U, lesDedezae-Dilosae
on L. nilosa. Aecia are said to occur earl-- in the spring and were used
in some of the inoculation tests. No 2 of the rust forms infected any
cf the hcsts tested.

Entorolo pical intercetions of interest --Eight living larvae of
the euribiid Anastre-Ia fraterculus (Wvied.) were intercepted at Baltimore
on Jul- 24 in gra-efruit in stores from Brazil. Two larvae of the Mexi-
can fruitfl- (Anastreoha ludens (Loe:;)) 7.'ere found at Douglas, Ariz., on
Jul.- in ango in ba~gage from Mexico. Fift--eight living and 33 dead
larvae of the euribiid Anastreoha serpentina (Wied.) were found at Charles-
ton on Jul 17 in name-- sapote in stores from Mexico. Five living larvae
of the galleriid Ajanactesis indecora Dyar were taken at New York in a pod
of Cassia fistula in cargo from St. Lucia. Four living larvae of the gal-
leriid Aepheias consoirata Hein, were fo-.nd at Laredo on June 20 on pine-
apples in cargo from Mexico. A living adult of the curculionid Clas formi-
carius var. elegantultus Summers was interceoted at New Orleans on July 8
in sweetootatoes in stores from Cuba. Specimens of the ,hitefly Dialeurodes
kirkaldvi (Kot.) were found at San Francisco on June 13 on Tabernaemontana
sp. in baggage from Tahiti. A living adult of the elaterid Drasterius livens
Lec, was found at El Paso on June 17 with beets in cargo from Nexico. One
living adult of the anthribid Eugonus subcylindricus Fahr., 10 living adults
of the plat-podid Platyous rugulosus Chapuis, and 5 living adults of the
scolttid X7leborus torcuatus Eichh. were intercepted at New York on June 17
in mahogany logs in cargo from Mexico. Living larva and pupa of the phycitid
Eumnsia maculicula (D-ar) were taken at San Ysidro on June 23 in the roots of
a succulent in baggage from Mexico. Living adults of the mirid Eurycipitia
vestitus Dist. were interceoted at Brownsville on June 27 with an orchid
plant in baggage from Mexico. Livin- larvae of the West Indian sweetpotato
weevil (Euscenes postfasciatus (Fairm.)) were taken at iobile on June 8 in
sweetpotatoes in stores from Trinidad Living larvae of the phycitid H,-Jsipdla
grandella (Zell.) were intercedted at New York on July 9 in mahoganr log in
cargo from Guatemala. One living adult of the curculionid Metamasius callizona
Chev. was interceoted at Laredo on Ma- 16 on pineapple in cargo from Mexico.
Six livine adults of the bostrichid Micraoate scaoularis Gorh. were found at
Nogales on June 21 in wooden crate for pottery from Mexico. A living larva
of the curculionid hietamasius spo, probably M. ritchiei Marsh, was taken at
Hidalgo on Jul- 3 in 'inean ple in cargo from Mexico. Living larvae of the
Philinoine oran e moth (Pra-s citri Mill.) (?) were found at San Francisco on
Jul- 21 in lime in stores from the Philicpines,


Pathological interceptions of interest. --An avocado found on
August 27 at Brownsville in baggage from Mexicc bore the Dothiorella
stage of BotrvosDhaeria ribis Gross. & Duggar Leaf spots caused by
Cercosoora angraeci Feuill. & Ro:m. were intercepted at Laredo on Jan-
uary 8 on succulents from Mexico; at El Paso on May K0 on Oncidium sp.
from Mexico; at hoboken on Ma; 21, June 10, and July 2 on Odonto lossum
sp. from England. Banana leaf soot (Cercospcra mrsae Zimm.) was inter-
cepted at Brownsville on August 8 on banana leaves used as packing for
orchid plants, illustrating a possible means of introduction of this
disease into Gulf coast areas where bananas and relatives are much-used
ornamentals. A leaf srot+ disease on calla lilies in baggage from Mexico,
intercepted on June 24 at Brownsville, vwas found to be caused by C. ri-
chardiaecola Atk. A Cer osocora, unlike species reported on orchids, was
found on June 27 at Hoboken cn Combidium ;oo from England. A Diolodia
on Philodendron sp from the Canal Zone inspected on July 7 at San Fran-
cisco was determined as D. theobromae (Pat.. Nowell, from which D. philo
dendri. Tassi reported from Italy is rrobably not distinct A black rot
cf sweetpotatoes found at Phil.-aelphia July 28 in 3st.res from Sierra
Leone was determined by L T Harrer a; D 1tubri- lo] (E & E.) Taub.,
alttlough the spores were extremelV small for tht opecies, A shipment of
Colchicum bulbs from England inspected on September 9 and 10 at Hoboken
was found to be infested with Dit..ienchus dirsac. (Kuhn) Filip., the in-
fested varieties being D. atro rubrum, D. bornmuelleri, D. speciosum, and
D speciosum album. An undetermined Gloeosporium (no species rep.orted on
host genus) was intercepted on Brassi.a ~reoudiana from Costa Rica and
another on Earina autumnalis and E. mucronata from New Zealand, all at
San Francisco on November 20, 1940. Another Gloeosporium, with spores too
short fcr G. vanillae Cke., was found on June 9 at San Juan on vanilla
leaves in air express from Mexico. HeterosDorium ornithogali Klotzsch,
which has been intercepted occasionally for several years on ornithogalum
flower stems from South Africa, was found on June 20 at San Pedro on leeks
or young onions in stores from Japan. Vhat appears to be an undescribed
species of Macrochoma was found on May 2 at Hcbeken on Cattle-a sp. from
Venezuela. An undetermined scecies on Mcnochaetia, apparently different
from the species previouslyr intercented from Japan on peony, was found on
November 28, 1940, at San Francis co on Paeonia mi utan. Penicillium giadi
oli Machacek was intercepted at Hoboken on June 19 on Watsonia 3p. corms
from South Africa Phoma insidiosa F tassi w~s iound on August 26 at
New York on Paspalum comoressum seed from Australia. PToma mali Schultz
& Sacc was intercented on July 30 at Brownsville on an apple in baggage
from Mexico. An undetermined species of Phryllosticta with spores far
smaller than those of P. gladioli E. & E,. was found on January 20 at New
York on gladiolus leaves in cut flowers from Brazil. A fungis cultured
from an avocado found on August 19 at Brownsville in ba gage from Mexico
oroved to be Ramularia so. Stach-rbotr-s, apparently an undescribed secies,
;jas found on July 1 at Hoboken on a Cattlea leaf from Brazil. Stachylidium
bicolor Link was intercepted on July 1 at San Francis co on Cattleya var
"Harold" from England. Tritirachium deoendens Limber was found on May 16
at New York on kudzu roots from China. A rust on unlabeled orchids from
Guantanamo, Cuba, interce ted at Hoboken on Septerber 25, was determined as
Uredo e!idedri Hennings, althourih it did not fit the description very well



Gr7as_3 :_ ereo irrve.eunduer ea: --The grasshopper adult survey
havin been ::;leted late in Au-cist, district meetings were then held
for the istr cion1 f cf surveorrs on the egg survey, which was begun
about Se tnemrer .5 h e adult surve-- had indicated the need for egg
surve-s in var-ing egrees, deenrdirg on adult and nvmphal populations
in the vacKo; St:a es It ,.as determined that rather extensive egg sur-
veys :'aild be nee -ed in Colorado, Kansas, hinnesota, Montana, Nebraska,
North Dakota, kil '.ot, South Dakota, Texas, and Utah, with a special
surve- to be "nd oed later in sorutheastern Arizona, where second-gen-
eration l irJnus Sausr.) reached a ooint of prominence dur-
ing the surmer ES -- urve-s were also planned for limited areas in Ar-
kansas, Idaho, so-t :iestern Iowa, Nichigan, Missouri, Wisconsin, and
W-Tomirg The ea servee- in California vill be conducted by State repre-
sentati ves Ic sur'v-- is pianned for the formerly infested States of
Illinois, DNevada, Nevo 4exijco, Oregon, or Washington. Continued rains in
extensive oart of tIh rsre heavil-- infested areas have seriously ham-
pered the con r t of the eg; surve. and ::hile some apprehension has been
exnprs :ed as to the possoibiities of horough coverage, it is believed
that sufficient in for mation -.ill be gained from the egg survey to furnish
adequate information uoon :;hich to estimate the prospects for next year's
grasshooper outbreak S-ecial consideration is being given, in coopera-
tion with the Divs lcn of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, to sur-
ve -s of the pe cial siuda areas thrcughout the Great Plains region.

Raoi of m e -e 0ro ene ration Li mexicanus --Development of
the second -e raio of the lesser migrator- hopper proceeded rapidly in
the infes-ed aSreas of estern Kansas, the Panhandles of Oklahoma and Texas,
contiTJous :r'i o 1; f C7 -loadc arn Nebraska. and in southwestern Iowa.
Hatch1in a: col'eed rl- ir i Septeirber and at the close of the month
aororLma el- 85 -:r of this geceratii n -;as in the adilt stage. In
this area, a shar i nrease n gra. shop damage occurred in the first
mart of S terber to fall :own heoe Most daw.age was confined to crop
margins ea esOecl to those nlantings adjoining weedy stubble fields,
In a few instances, e ntire fields were destr eed. Toward the close of the
month, -roc dat-age decreased riteriall lar-ely because of heavy rains
occurri g over a larae oart of the nfested area. Some yr-cng injured
whe at rade crowhar and farnrs reseeded many field margins danaged by
horeers. The second n er atic of tnese hoppers 7ras reported flying in
varicus art of thI infested aresa throu:, out the latter part of Septem-
ber. Moderate '-o heav -flights Vire reported moving south over western
Kansas and ite PanI ndles of Texa; and Oklahoma, as far as Lubbock, Tex.

Late baitint i :I're e ea -barr -- For the protection of fall-sown
alflfa, 7 -at, aind r-e. a;nd afalfa seed crops, farmers materially in-
creased baitin;- e.r-. in Seoteber. This .ctivity slackened later because
of Coor batn wether A total of 3,335 tons of wet bait was used in
Colorrido, Koasas, Minnesota, Nebraska, and the Panhandles of Texas and Okla-
homa dnnric the n. lh The lar-est quantities---975 and 900 tons,, re-
soect' vel I wer:e used in Kansas and Texas


No phon- _each in VirEgnia or West Virginia.--Reported cases sus
pected to be phony peach disease at Lovingston, Va., and -untinrton,
W. Va., were recently investigated b7y HowVard L. 3ruer and. d. F. Turner,
reoresentatives of the Bureau, acconmanied by pest control officials of
the res:ective States. A careful check of the orchalds involved and of
surrounding properties, revealed that while the trees in cuestion were ab
normal, there was definitely no indication of the phony peach disease.
This disease is not known to exist anyherre in either of these States.

September accomolishments on peach projects Following inspection
of u:pwards of 2 3/4 million orchard trees, more than 300 laborers were em-
ployed during September throughout the phony peach and peach mosaic area
in the removal of nearl"- 35,000 infected trees and more than 25,000 aban-
doned trees. In excess of 115,000 escaped trees were also re-.oved. The
various States cooperated b-, furnishing 19 suoervisors and ins;ectors, and
1 office vworker.

V.hite-fringed beetle control activities. -Control activities
the white-frinred beetle were continued throughout September in several
isolated areas where it was considered advisable to conduct such v:ork
throughout the period of beetle emergence to determrine the effectiveness
of control measures as a means of eradicating the pest. Inspections for
species of Pantomorus are being conducted, cooperatively with the States,
at the more important ports along the Atlantic coast from Charleston to
southern Florida points and including the Gulf coast from Florida to Texas,
No beetles have been found in localities remote from known infested areas,
The inspection was intensified in such places as railroad groands, docks,
airports, and lumber -ards. Delimiting inspections were also conducted
around the areas where infestations were found for the first tine in 1941.

White-fringed beetle administrative instructions modified --Sug
gestions to nurserymren for the construction of plunging or growing beds
and their maintenance in a status free from white-fringed beetles, were
modified in a revision of Circular B. E P. Q 496, effective August 25,
1941, to provide specifications for barriers of a less expensive t:pe
Several nurser-nnen in the regulated area are reported to be constructing
such aporoved ecuiTment. Instructions as to varicus methods of treatment
of plants in pots, or in soil balls, and of potting soil, r-eviously
authorized in Circulars E. E, P. Q. l86, 489, and 50), r ere brought to-
gether in a revision of Circular 503, which became effective September 11,
1941. In addition, the instructions as to treatment of balled nursery-
stock by msth-l bromide solution were somewhat modified in this revision
of the circular.

Sweetootato inspection resumed in Texas.--After suscension of Fed-
eral participation in sweetpotato weevil inspection in Texas since May,
work was resumed in the areas where it is believed that sweetpotato weevils
have been eradicated. The activities, consisting principally of inspection
of crop remnants in the fields, and of culls after harvest, resulted in
finding no weevils in the area. Work in Angelina and San Augustine Counties
is being conducted by personnel furnished by the cooperating State agency,
and the Federal inspectors are acting largely in an advisory, capacity Two
infestations were found in the latter county.


-Mole Lcj.iet anntrol..--The control of mole crickets has been con-
ducted throughout September in those sections of Florida where surveys
have shown that emergency conditions exist. Mixed bait has been furnished
to the Florida Mole Cricket Control Committee for distribution in the coun-
ties of Hillsborough, Manatee, Hardee, and Polk, Infestations of mole
crickets in these counties have been particularly serious. Mixing stations
have been in operation at Plant City and Wauchula and 658,000 pounds of
bait was mixed and distributed to growers up to Septenber 30, through local
reoresentaties of the Florida State Plant Board H. T. Rainwater is the
Bureau reDresentative in charge of the control project, with headquarters
at Plant City, Fla.

Transit inspectiao --Transit inspection was resumed in September at
Atlanta, Dallas, Kansas City, Omaha, and Pittsburgh. The inspectors assigned
to these stations were temporarily employed during the summer on other proj-
ects of the Division. During the summer the inspectors assigned to Memphis
and Houston were engaged in white-fringed beetle scouting in the vicinity of
their stations, in conjunction with transit-inspection duties. These sta-
tions are now operating on full-time transit-inspection schedules. At New
York City, b live Japanese beetle grubs were recovered from a soil sample
consigned to an Ohio firm for analysis, and a live adult beetle was recovered
from a shipment of cut flowers. Several other insects of economic importance
were also found in shipments of plants and flowers moving in violation of the
Japanese beetle quarantine

Terminal in.ection extended in Mississippi--The State Plant Board of
Mississippi has arranged through Federal channels for the enforcement through
terminal-inspection provisions, of its quarantine relating to the intrastate
movement of sweetpotato plants and the tubers, because of black rot, stem rot,
nemat des, sweetpotato weevil, and other injurious pests of the sweetpotato.
Under the quarantine (Rule 23 A, amended November 23, 1940) no shipments of
sweetpotatoes, sweetpotato plants, or vines, may be accepted for mailing un-
less there is attached to each container a certificate tag and each bundle of
100 plants is tied with a valid certificate tape issued by the Mississippi
State Plant Board showing compliance vith the State plant-quarantine laws or
regulations pertaining to injurious pests. The quarantine rule pertaining to
interstate movement into Mississippi of hosts of the sweetpotato weevil from
certain infested States (Rule 24 A) had previously been brou+ght vithin the
provisions of the terminal-inspection procedure, and this quarantine and pro-
cedure remain in effect.


Effectiveness of ethylene dichloride against confused flour beetle,
In tests on various chemicals as fumigants, H H. Richardson and A. H. Casanges,
of the Beltsville, Md., laboratory, have used ethylene dichloride as a standard
of comparison. In 1939 ethylene dichloride showed very high toxicity. Further
tests in 1941 have again indicated that ethylene dichloride is mnre toxic to
the confused flour beetle than has been reported in the past. Apparently this
is due to a latent toxic action that does not kill some of the insects until 10
to 20 da-s after fumigation at 770 F. (5-hour exposures). Judged by the effects
after 20 days, ethylene dichloride was nore toxic than ethylene oxide and not
far from the toxicity of methyl bromide. If this latent toxic effect occurs
against other insects, it helps to explain the wide practical use of this fumi-
gant Ethyl bromide--a compound closely related to nmthyl bromide--was found


much less effective. Approximately 15 times as much ethyl bromide as
methyl bromide was required to kill this beetle in 5-hour exposures at
770 F.


Improved method of preparing pure geraniol.--During the last 3
years it has been necessary to prepare comparatively large quantities
of pure geraniol for use in Japanese beetle baits. The method of prepa-
ratin given in the literature, involving direct mixture of the source ma-
terial with calcium chloride, was unsatisfactory from several standpoints.
In the course of this work it has been found by Howard A. Jones and John
W. Wood that treatment of a hexane solution of the geraniol-containing
oil with calcium chloride, together with certain other changes in the tech-
nique, effects a marked improvement in ease of handling, as well as the
purity and yield of the product. The procedure has been prepared for pub-
lication in the Journal of the American Chemical Society

Study ofnicotine silicotungstates.--A paper entitled "Nicotine
Silicotungstates" has been prepared by L N Markwood for presentation at
the annual meeting of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists in
October. This association has an interest in the subject of nicotine sil-
icotungstates, as its official method for determining nicotine in tobacco
and in nicotine preparations involves precipitation of the alkaloid with
silicotungstic acid. Of the several kinds of silicotungstic acid known
when the matter was originally studied the acid of composition H20O.Si02.
12WO .22H2O was selected as official; it forms a higily insoluble pre-
cipi ate with nicotine, lamellar in character. Recently a new silico-
tungstic acid of composition 4H20 SiO2.12WO3 4H20 was described. It also
forms a precipitate with nicotine which is granular in character and
might therefore offer an advantage in filtration. The composition of each
precipitate is the sane, viz, 2H 0.2 nicotie .SiO .12WO 5H20, and the as-
sumption might be made that the new acid could serve eq ally well for the
nicotine determination. It was found, however, that the new acid does not
quite precipitate the nicotine to the same degree as the other acid and
hence must be rejected as a quantitative precipitant for nicotine. The un-
precipitated nicotine occurring in each case was readily determired by the
very sensitive color test with cyanogen bromide and beta-naphthylamine.


Honeybees resistant to Nosema disease at brood-nest temperature.--
Nosema disease of honeybees, caused by the protozoan parasite Nosema apis,
kills or weakens colonies of bees late in winter and spring, but during the
rest of the year losses are usually unimpcrtant. Infection subsides rapidly
in spring after settled warm weather arrives and in summer infected bees may
be difficult to find. A moderate increase in infection may occur in autumn.
This seasonal variation in Nosema infection is commonly recognized but an
explanation for it seems not to have been offered C; E Bumside, Belts-
ville, Md., reports that, when bees in cages were inoculated with Nosema
spares by mixing the spores with honey or sugar sirup given the bees for food


(about t4,000 spores per cc.), very heavy infection developed in practically
all the bees kept at the temperature of the room (700 to 850 F.), as well
as in bees that were chilled at about 500 in a refrigerator for 5 hours on
3 consecutive days and then allowed to remain in the room. Epithelial cells
containing mature spores were found in the bees after 7 days and after 10
days cells containing spores, as well as free spores, were extremely numer-
ous. On the other hand, bees that were kept in an incubator at brood-nest
temperature, about 95 and inoculated by feeding vith fractions of the same
inoculum given bees kept in the room appeared to escape infection completely.
Spores in epithelial cells were not seen in any of these bees, although the
experiment was continued for 22 days. Bees that were similarly inoculated
and kept in the incubator for 10 days also appeared to remain free from in-
fection after they were taken out, given food free from Nosema spores, and
kept at the temperature of the room for 12 days. These results are in line
with recent work in Europe in which Nosema disease was found to develop more
rapidly at 860 than at 680 Higher temperatures were not tried by the
European workers. It seems probable that temperature may be an important
factor in the seasonal variation of Nosema disease. In the latter part of
the winter and early in the spring, when colonies are rearing but li]t1e
brood, or in colonies not strong enough to maintain full brood-rearing tem-
perature, most of the bees are subjected to temperatures within the range
where infection was obtained. As the colonies become stronger and the
weather warmer an ever-increasing number of bees are eposed to temperatures
near 950 The nurse bees and queen, which remain in the brood nest at
about 95 are usually free from Nosema disease, even when a large percentage
of the field bees are diseased

Nosema disease of honeybees not controlled by phenothiazine.--Since
phenothiazine is higily effective for controlling some animal parasites of
domestic animals and is practically nonpoisonous for honeybees (Jour. Econ.
Ent. 34(1):24-33) it was thought it might also be effective for controlling
Nosema disease of honeybees caised by the protozoan parasite Nosema apis,
Mr. Burnside reports negative results in emperiments to determine whether
phenothiazine is effective for controlling this disease. About 100 worker
bees were placed in each of a number of cages. Some of the cages of bees
were inoculated by mixing Nosema apis spores (approximately 25,000 per cc.)
with the honey or sugar sirup given the bees for food. Other cages of bees
were similarly inoculated, but phenothiazire in the proportion of 1 gram per
liter in some instances and 2 grams per liter in others was also mixed with
the food. Each cage of 100 bees consumed between 20 and 25 cc. of this
food. Other cages of bees were fed with honey or sugar sirup alone, or with
honey7 or sugar sirup containing phenothiazine in the proportions named and
kept as checks. The bees were kept at the temperature of the room in the
laboratory (700 to 850 F.). Inoculated bees that received phenothiazine
were infected by Nosema apis as quickly and in practically the same degree
as were those that did not receive phenothiazine. Microscopical examina-
tion of stomachs of bees showed numerous particles of phenothiazine in con-
tact with infected epithelial cells. The check bees remained free from
Nosema disease but bees that received phenothiazine had a somewhat higher
death rate than those which did not. While the experimental work on this
oroblem was limited the results in every instance indicated that phenothia-
zine was without value for controlling infection of honeybees by Nosema apis.


Impaternate females common in the Italian and Caucasian races of
honeybees.--The honeybee, in common with other members of the order Hymen-
optera, regularly produces females from fertilized eggs and males from un-
fertilized eggs. The production of females from unfertilized eggs (im-
paternate females), however, has been reported in the honeybee native to
the Cape region of South Africa In the Cape bee, laying worker bees are
very common and the eggs usually produce female offspring, either workers
or queens, but some drones are also produced. Impaternate females have
been reported in other races of honeybees but many of these were not pro-
duced under circumstances that made their origin from unfertilized females
certain. Most of these cases have been explained as egg stealing. Some
data obtained by Otto Mackensen, Baton Rouge, La indicate that impaternate
females may occur more frequently in our common races of bees than has been
commonly believed. During last season a great many virgin queens were
forced to begin laying without fertilization, by clipping their wings and
confining them to nuclei behind queen excluders. In the drone brood of
many of these queens a few worker pupae were found. Of 13 queens of the
Caucasian race, 3 produced a few workers, and in 2 Italian strains 1 out of
11 and 17 out of 30 oueens, respectively, produced impaternate females. The
highest number produced by any 1 queen -vould probablj not exceed 1.0 percent,
if an accurate count had been made. In most cases either the workers or the
queen in the hive at the time could have produced these impaternate females;
however, in a few cases representing both the Italian and Caucasian races it
was proved that queens produced them. To obtain this proof Italian and
Caucasian queens were maintained in nuclei stocked with bees of the other race
so that any workers produced by the queens could be easily distinguished.
Under these conditions 2 generaticns of impaternate queens were produced. One
such queen artificially inseminated and another permitted to mate naturally
were lost before any eggs were produced. Of 710 larvae transferred from the
brood of 1 virgin laying queen 6, or 0.85 percent, developed into impaternate

The mechanism of colony resistance to American foulbrood,--Colony re-
sistance to American foulbrood is reported by A. W, Woodrow and E. C. Holst,
Laramie, vWyo., to consist of the removal of diseased brood from the comb be-
fore Bacillus larvae White, the causative organism, has reached the infectious,
spore stage within the larvae This was demonstrated by the contrasting be-
havior of a resistant and a susceptible colony when they wer-' given equal n'-i
bers of inoculated sister larvae for rearing. The bees c2 the resistant colony
removed 138 inoculated larvae within 11 days after inoculation and no spores
were found in any larvae being removed, although 23 of the 25 examined con-
tained rods. All infected larvae had been renmved at the end of this period,
The bees of the susceptible colony also renoved diseased larvae, but nore slowly,
Less than 60 percent of the infected larvae were removed within 11 days after
inoculation, and 30 percent of them had not yet been removed at emergence time.
B. larvae spores were found in inoculated larvae being removed in this colony
as early as the ninth day after inoculation and each day thereafter Thus the
spread of disease is halted in the resistant colony by the renoval of all in-
fected larvae while they contain only rods of B larvae which were found to be
noninfectious, whereas in the susceptible colony the contact of the bees with
infected larvae containing the highly infectious spores is certain to spread
the disease to other larvae



Staphylinids causing oainful skin rash.--Specimens of a staphylinid
beetle were recently received from C. H. Ballou, chief of the department of
entomology, Venezuela Ministry of Agriculture, with the report that when
crushed against the body the insects produced a severe burn. The species
was identified by R. E. Blackwelder as Paederus columbinus Lap. Upon re-
ceiving the determinaticn, Mr. Ballou wrote further concerning this species,
stating that a boy had been observed "whose body from the waist down was
covered with ulcers caused by crushing these insects." He added that in a
mining district in Venezuela "there were over two hundred men with these
ulcers and some were so badly affected that they could not work." Various
species of the genus Paederus have, from time to time, been recorded as
causing dermatitis and in 1926 Chapin (Arch f. Schiffs. u. Tropenhyg.
30:369-372) summarized the literature dealing with such cases but, as this
summary and most of the reports it covered appeared in journals not widely
consulted by entomologists, the association of Paederus with dermatitis has
largely escaped notice in acr field.

A new pest of "mimosa" in the District of Columbia.--In August 1940,
injury to "mimosa" (Albizzia sp.) in the District of Columbia was brought to
the attention of L G. Baumhofer, of the Division of Forest Insect Investiga-
tions> He reared a series of Lepidoptera from the infestation and later sub-
mitted the specimens for identification. The moths represent a species here-
tofore unrecorded from North America. It is probable that they belong to the
Australian genus Homadaula, family Glyphipterygidae, but definite assignment
to this genus must await comparison with determined material requested from
Australia. During the last summer more extensive observations were made, but
the biology is as yet not fully known. Apparently the life cycle is short,
indicating that there is nore than one generation a year. Trees which are
heavily infested become undesirable 'as ornamentals. The larvae, while feed-
ing, spin webs which hold the dead blossoim and leaves on the tree in un-
sightly brown masses. Pupation takes place in cracks and crevices. To date
the injury has been noted only in the Disorict of Columbia and immediate vi-
cinity. It is possible, however, that it occurs farther south but has not
yet attracted attention.

Notes on the Brazilian fire ant --The Brazilian fire ant (Solenopsis
saevissima var. ritcheri Forel) was first recorded in this country by W. S.
Creighton (Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. Proc 66: 88, 1930). He saw specimens
in the collection of H. P L'6ding who had collected them at Mobile, Ala. Mr.
L'dding was of the opinion that the ant became established near Mobile about
1919. Since that time it has spread considerably and now is rather abundant
in Jackson County, Miss., and Mobile and Baldwin Counties, Ala. D, E. Read,
of Foley, Ala., from whose remarks these notes are drawn up, believes it also
occurs in Washington County, Ala., althou4u he has not collected it there.
The ants build numerous mounds which average nearly 2 feet in height in culti-
vated fields around shallow deoressians where water stands, except during dry
spells. This ant is of little if any importance as a household pest, but it
is believed by farmers that it is more injurious to agriculture than any other
ant in the area. Losses in Irish potato production are charged to this species
because of attacks on the tender leaves and branches during early growth. Dif-
ficult- is frequently experienced in obtaining or retaining labor for potato


harvest because of the aggressive nature and irritating sting of the ant.
The attacks are more disagreeable than those of our nLtive fire ants.

New record for Lysiognatha,--Recentl, received for identification
were several larvae of the sawfl- genus X ela, submitted by H. H. Keifer, of
the California State Department of Agriculture. The X4ela larvae wjere found
dropping from lodgepole pine (Pinus murrarana) on July 6, 1941, at Lyons Creek,
El Dorado County, Calif. Three of the larvae bore on their heads eggs of the
ichneumonid genus LTrsiognatha. Identification of the eggs was possible because
of their distinctive shaoe and method of attachment to the host. Cushrman (Wiash.
Acad. Sci, Jour. 27 (10): 439, 1937) reports that the egg of Lysiognatha "is
attached to the host (Xvela larva) by a short pedicel thrust through the skin
of the host. Embedded in the foot of the stalk is a black heavily sclerotized
body that apparentlr serves as an anchor." The record is carticularly interest-
ing because it constitutes the first rLcord of the genus Lysiognatha from the
Pacific coast.

The National Collection of Thysanoptera.--In March 1938 a thysanopterist
was appointed in the Division of Insect Identification. Prior to that time it
had been necessary to rely on unpaid outside collaborators for thrips identifi-
cations. Under those conditions the reference collection of Thysanoptera, a large
section of which was comprised of material assembled by A. C. 'organ, remained
almost static. It contained named representatives of only 265 species in March
1938. Since the appointment of a thysanopterist there has been rapid and steady
expansion of the collection, ihich now has in excess of 480 determined species.
Its value for reference purposes in connection with thrips identifications has
been correspondingl-- increased. However, many of the species are represented by
only a slide or two from the type series or by old, rat-er poorly prepared slides;
and the collection even now contains specimens of only about half the described
secies occurring in America north of Mexico and slides of less than 10 percent
of the described exotic species. Well-preserved series of specimens are, there-
fore, much desired by the Division of Insect Identification, particularly if ac-
companied by accurate records giving host, locality, and date of collection. The
best preparations of thrips can be made from material that has been collected in
a solution consisting of 9 parts of 70-percent alcohol, 1 part of glacial acetic
acid, and 1 part of glycerine, although specimens submitted in 70-percent alcohol
are satisfactory.

Collembola found 26 to 28 feet underground --An interesting report of sub-
terranean Collembola was submitted with specimens, late in September, by A. I.
Bourne, of Massachusetts State College. The insects involved were determined by
Grace E. Glance as Achorutes armatus (Nicolet). This species is known to feed
upon fungi in soil and in manure, and has been reported as a major pest in mush-
room beds. The specimens sent by Professor Bourne were collected, however, in
very fine white sand through which workmen were digging to make a well. At a
depth of 26 feet the men observed the Collembola to occur in some numbers, and
at 28 feet, where a good vein of water having a tenrmerature of 4 6 F. was en-
countered, the insects were found to be even nore abundant in the buckets of
moist sand as these were pulled up out of the shaft to be emptied. It was re-
ported that no organic matter was present in the sand at these depths.


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