News letter

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Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:
AA00023227:00056

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text
LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD
U-j\ i-r7 D O -rAT.-E
DEPATIJ\ENT OF A JCULTU UIRE








BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER







VOLM E YI /f /
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter41 no10






UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER

FOR AUGUST 1941



Vol. VIII, No. 10 (Not for publication) October 1, 1941



BUREAU EMPLOYEES CALLED TO THE COLORS OR TRANSFZERED TO
SPECIAL NATIONAL DEFENSE ASSIGNMENTS


Badman, Cecil S,, Agt., Forest Ins., on furlough, inducted, Select.
Serv., June 18, 1941

Finney, Gerald N., Agt., Forest Ins., inducted, Select. Serv.,
Jan. 29, 1941.

Herreman, Dermont E., Jr. Fld. Aide, Truck 0 Ins., 1st Lt., O.R.C.,
called to active duty Aug. 7, 1941.

Marucci, Philip E., Fld. Aide, Fruit Ins,, inducted, Select. Serv.,
Sept. 8, 1941,

Woke, Paul A., Asst. Ent., Cont Inv., Lt H.V.S., U S. Naval Res.,
Naval Medical School, Washington, D. C., called to active duty
May 27, 1941.

FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

A Darasite of the olive scale.--Specimens of an encyrtid para-
site, Aspidiotiphagus citrinus Craw.,, have been reared from males
and females of the olive scale (Parlatoria oleae Colv.) by Oscar G
Bacon of the Fresno, Calif,, laboratory. Two individuals emerged
from 400 scales on leaves of Virginia creeper placed in emergence
boxes on July 14. Other material which was rather generally para-
sitized yielded 10 of the parasites. The species is said to occur
in a number of scale hosts and has been reported in Southern Europe,
Brazil, California, and tropical Pacific islands (Essig: Insects of
Western North America). Determination was made by A B. Gahan.

-1-









Pr c.= -v cit mctL inrfesetKtion in oeaches unusuall, !., in
,f liheroe have been fewer worms of Grapholitha molesta BtBsck
i.. ca:es in h or':chards of southern New Jersey this year than for
is t.e coclausion reported by H. W, Alien, of the
J. borar- In a surve- of Elberta peaches at har-
es:t -. j '. r: igt.. ,amden, and Gloucester Counties it .as found
.. injur d< u -:" f:it nroth r:as less than in an;- other season
]9': l e:: t + d of he injur' caused in 1940. In
Sa mot r- was only one half of 1 uercent. No
.rc.ars e f. i h:; t .e fit moth injur- was higher than 15
r .... T ',ie .o.al:..t- 0 t eacches marketed from that section
.c.i.. .-.a:: eeon due" large ieroee to their freedom from fruit-
Jn:;t or- s eatier eoditis ducring th- season of 1941 have been
hi.!- fa.vor:.le for a ra id icre se in fruiit-moth copulation. The
Sct .::. -.i od .not .-cocn is dthout doubt due princJiall- to the un-
i :,rsiti n a t econd o rcood cf tu-ig infesting lar-
a:. .i' .er ed i :r'cet., as co iiare.. to c,7 ercent in 1940.



..r1 ;:- '.1.... ir a:b.v--' A -ust t:ran recoveries of fruitflies in
.exas indi' a t fri._ o:oulation in the lower Rio Grande
ale-- ;. s s l n fr t is s eason of the year. Over
C ir. Ieciors nde and the onl.- iexican fruitflies taken
froi, t. redo dist, ic: e:nosite the kexican border town of Nuevo
i- is c ri acros s the river to the Texas side.
Ce:ause of irneular cboo..: c eiods i season, manr citnrs plantings
u o an f i ore o i. in the surmer it appeared that
s-c. e Kof tIs fui -t adc bscu- me a source of earlo- fall infesta-
i o. HRe- eated inc ions : r, e vrcie not onl-: failed to disclose any
.-if... as.t. nos, ut. te a show: tat ver- little differenc exists be-
t:een. fruit of tI is sari: blocr s ad that of normal bloom. Very little rain-
fal 0.0as re:orded in the rL e. lae, area in Audast, but normal growth was
crad bt the cit.rs crop. indi a-inrs for this season s fruit production
are that there ..ill Dte litte diffie:ce from la t scason's tonnage.

CZIz Lb .O: INSECT I7-'ZTI'GTI INS

Domestic collentior and em:er ene of cErocean corn borer parasites
ic:r release in 1941. A. C Mrk, .oorestovl, N. J., reports that approxi-
matel 'l 17::10 corn borer larvae woere coLlected in southeastern Massachusetts
and about the saee u-ober in ce rt a Connecticut in the fall of 1940, and
that fromli these hosts .5,509 adult parasites of imported st:ck were reared
in the sring of ic;1 for libera ion in the field. The principal species
rcared ere law.ro. n.rus cifuensis sh L-&del1a g:risescens R. D., Inareo-
l.ta Yjnto'1a euon0a and 'i.e ,oncs annulioes lesm. Emergence of the para-
site adilt mts t ited to s nchro;rie their release with the borer in the
field in a suitable stas for atLtako Total parasitizat.ion by the foregoing
s ecie r t roI:v Conne:' .ic'; .L ercent, corresponding closely with estimates made on
tioe L asis cf data ob ained durr l n the :urvev of the field statuis of para-
i<: in t fal of O. l :iauensis and C an C nnulioes were obtained from
t.e i:assacrst, ts s coilections and cre than three fourths of the supply of
I -Ois e.,:s:3 *e rcro, ti s so.rce. Over 90 percent of the I punctoria
auLits reare-d vee from t-C Co_ ie t icut collections.




3

European corn borer in early market sweet corn in western New
York.--H. L. Chada conducted a survey of corn borer infestation in 25
fields of early market sweet corn from July 30 to August 6, 1941, in a
section of western New York cnprising the counties of Niagara, Orleans,
Monroe, and Wayne. An average of 5 3 borers per plant was found in this
tier of counties, the abundance of the insect being somewhat greater in
the western than in the eastern part of the section. The maximum popu-
lation in a single field was 13 7 borers per plant, in Niagara County.
Midsummer pupation in Niagara County was 1.3 percent, based on a count
of 556 specimens, and in Orleans County it was 0.8 percent, based on a
count of 243. No pupation was found in counts of 441 and 274 individuals
in Monroe and Wayne Counties, respectively.

Midsummer pupation of Euroocan corn borer in early sweet corn in
Ohio.--A. M. Vance reports that in early market sweet corn near Toledo,
Ohio, the percentages of first generation corn borer that pupated im-
mediately in 1940 and 1941 were similar. Courts taken in 20 fields
July 25-31, 1941, showed 21.7 percent pupation and about 7 percent moth
emergence.; In 1940, in 18 fields examined on August 7-8 in the same
vicinity, pupation averaged 28 4 percent and moth emergence 3.8 percent.
Midsummer pupation in 1941, in accord with the generally earlier seasonal
development of the corn borer in Ohio, was at least a week in advance of
that in 1940. Only 6.6 percent pupation had occurred in examinations
made during the period July 29 to August 2 in 1940, as compared vwth 9.4
percent found on July 16-23 in 194-1

Infestation of European corn borer in white potatoes in Michigan
Mr. Vance also reports that an examination of 2 large fields of Irish Cob-
bler potatoes in Lenawee County, Mich., on July 30, 1941, showed popula
tions of the European corn borer of 86 8 and 61 6 borers per 100 plants,
respectively. Pupation of the first generation borer infesting the plants
was 22.9 percent in the former field and 43 2 percent in the latter. Ap
parently, these potato fields were the earliest in the vicinity and the
plants in them had reached a stage of growth attractive to the moths at
oviposition time.

JAPANESE BEE I CONTROL

Japanese beetle fumigation.--Beetles declined in numbersat the load-
ing points on the Eastern Shores of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia late
in the month, so that it was possible to discontinue fumigation at Edge
Moor, Del., on August 26 and at all other points the following day. The
heaviest fumigations of the season were durlng July.and the first 3 eays
of August, after which they gradually diminished. A total of 133 refriger-
ator cars were fumigated in August and 873 cars during the season. This
was a decrease from previous years, due principally to the short crop on
the Eastern Shore. The New Jersey crop was moved by inspection of the cars
and potatoes so that fumigation was eliminated. During August 313 cars were
fumigated empty with HCN, making a total of 1,01'7 cars for the season This
is a considerable decrease from previous years. In the New York and Phila-
delphia areas beetles were not present in sufficient quantities to warrant
fumigation. Inspection and certification of cars and ootatoes in New Jersey




-4-

in place of fumigation greatly increased the need for inspectors. To re-
lieve the situation two men from the treating section were assigned for
most of the month on truck and car certification. Assistance was also
given by relieving the inspectors of routine chemical treatments of nur-
sery stock. A demonstration of methyl bromide fumigation was held during
the month at the establishment of a grower of potted strawberry plants in
southern New York. This grower is interested in the construction of a
chamber for fumi ating next year's crop, which he expects to be a large
one. At the demonstration 800 of his potted plants were fumigated, to
take care of his sum-.er orders, as he had no other way of certifying them,
all of his plots being infested. Two refrigerator trucks loaded with
sweet corn and 1 loaded ;.ith beans were fumigated in New Jersey. The loads
of sweet corn were fumigated at the White Horse office after loading in the
Asbury Park and Newark markets. This method of certification simplifies
the movement of this produce, as it would require several inspectors a
considerable time to hand-inspect the ears.

Planting dates changed to conform to beetle emergence.--Beetle damage
was greater on the Eastern Shore than ever before. In the summer of 1940
the damage was a parent in some sections of Virginia. Many of the Eastern
Shore farmers accordingly planted corn 30 days later than usual in order to
avoid heavy beetle darage and obtain a better yield per acre. Thus, corn
was planted around lMay 15 this year, instead of A ril 15. Even with the
later planting date, damage was severe. Some farmers report that they will
have only from one-third to one-half the regular yield of corn per acre.
Much damage was also done to small orchards and shade trees. Many trees
were completel- defoliated during the heavy flight. This visible damage has
focused public attention on the problem, and individuals, county leaders,
and State leaders are ::orking on methods of control and eradication.

Japanese beetle infestation in New York City area.--Continued checking
of infestation conditions in this area revealed very few beetles in New York
City proper but heavy infestations on Long Island and in Westchester County
within a 50-mile radius of New York City. Residents on the north shore of
Long Island reported thousands of beetles washed ashore and an inspector in
that section substantiated this report. These beetles apparently originated
in Connecticut. Fishermen and boatmen on Long Island Sound encountered
large numbers of beetles in the air and in the waters of the sound. Live
beetles in the water attached themselves to the sides of boats and crawled
up out of the water.

State unable to purchase needed lead arsenate.--A communication from
C. H. Brannon, State entomologist, North Carolina Department of Agriculture,
states: "Out of some 'O invitations for bids we received only 1 full bid
from a small concern; therefore, we will have to pay a high price for lead
arsenate if we get it at all." The State Department called for bids on
201,250 pounds of the material to be used in conjunction with their Japanese
beetle control campaign.

Increased truck shipment of farm oroducts.--Owing to the heavy move-
ment of defense materials by rail and their priority over farm produce,
more truck ship- ents of produce resulted during the inspection season. This




-5-

was especially true in the movement of perishable commodities, where a
few hours' delay would mean almost total loss of the shipment. There
was an especially heavy movement via refrigerator trucks of certified
cantaloups, potatoes, and cabbage from the Eastern Shore.

Autogiro scouting for Dutch elm disease.--During the greater part
of July and August autogiro scouting was performed for the purpose of
locating Dutch elm diseased trees in parts of the major disease area
where ground scouting will not be performed outside of developed areas.
Owing to the extent of the area covered, the work could not be done
systematically. It was therefore necessary to cover sections where elms
were most common. This type of scouting was carried on in New Jersey and
New York, using the cabin autogiro carrying a pilot and an observer, and
in Connecticut with the Division's open autogiro, with the pilot acting
as observer. Particular emphasis was placed on the location of spots
where the disease is intensified or is likely to become so. It is ex-
pected that similar work may be done next year and that by comparing
conditions observed in 1941, 1942, and the following years, some indica-
tion of the development of the disease can be recorded. It is not ex-
pected that the locations mapped from the air ;-ll be visited by ground
crews; however, areas of special interest may be referred to research or
State officials for further investigation. Few diseased spots were
found, probably because the disease has not had an opportunity to become
intensified following previous scouting and sanitation work. In most of
the areas in New Jersey and to a slightly less extent in New York, the
elm leaf beetle had so severely damaged the foliage of the elms that de--
tection of disease symptoms was seriously handicapped. Early in August
new foliage had begun to show on some of the defoliated trees and thus
some of .the difficulties for the observer were removed,

Summer scouting handicapped by insuficient personnel --Failure
to reach the desired quota of W, P. A employees between the first of
July and the last of August has reduced the effectiveness of Dutch elm
disease suspect scouting. The time lost because of insufficient person-
nel has made it necessary to increase the original number of men requested
in all work areas, in several instances s s much as 50 to 75 percent.
Further delay in filling requisitions for men will reduce the efficiency
of the fall and winter work. As an exalple of the difficulties experienced
in procuring qualified W. P. A. men, I of the State leaders reported that
of 61 men who have performed services on the project since the end of July,
the personnel is scattered throughout 19 towns and 6 counties of the State.
In 6 of the 19 towns there is but1 aI reporting from each, and in only 5
of the total number of towns are there as many as 5 men reporting. In 1
group of 29 referrals it was found that 15 of the men were over 60 years of
age and the average age of the entire group was 58. Not one of the group
had worked for the project previously nor had any experience that made him
adapted for the work.

Elm virus mistaken for Dutch elm disease in Ohio.--A news item in the
August 4 issue of the Athens, Ohio, Messenger erroneously reported that
Dutch elm disease is causing elms to die in Gallipolis, Ohio. Undoubtedly
phloem necrosis, which appears to be prevalent in that area, is being






-,6-

confused with the Dutch elm disease. Advance survey scouting under way
around the Athens disease area extends into Gallipolis, and inspections
made by the scouts for symptomatic elms showed no signs of the presence
of Dutch elm disease.

Heavy attacks by Scolytus in Athens, Ohiq,area.--An unusual condi-
tion has been found to exist in the Athens area in the vicinity of Mc-
Arthur, Wellston, and Gallipolis. Scolytus multistriatus Marsh. has at-
tacked elms in such vast numbers as to cause their galleries to be so
crowded that some beetles went below ground level to complete the mater-
nal channels. At these locations large numbers of elms are dying as a
result of the infectious "root rot" disease, phloem necrosis. In cases
where death is not too rapid, causix-g the bark to become too dry before
beetles enter, the elms are literally alive with attacking beetles. In
some instances, galleries were found 6 inches below ground. Apparently .the
beetles entered above ground level and burrowed their way down to find un-
occupied space to deposit their eggs.

First appearance of Dutch elm disease in Massachusetts.--The first
authentic case of Dutch elm disease infection in Massachusetts was con-
firmed during August in the town of Alford, Berkshire County, which adjoins
infected territory in New York. The first specimens were collected from
the tree on July 29, and a re-collection was made in August. Both col--
lections gave a good growth of the Dutch elm disease fungus. Discolora-
tion was heavy in the tree and ran back into the 1940 wood. Intensive
scouting was done in this town, where the trees seemed to be in rather bad
shape. Three other specimens from Massachusetts in 1940 yielded the Dutch
elm disease fungus in the original culture, but no reconfirmation could
be obtained on additional collections.

Dutch elm disease confirmations in detached areas.--A tree tagged at
the time of the advance survey scouting in Baltimore, Md., has been con-
firmed as infected with Ceratostomella ulmi. This tree has a d.b.h. of 14
inches and is located in Latrobe Park. This is in the neighborhood of
iort McHenry and the locations of confirmed trees previously found in Balti-
more. Two previous confirmations have been recorded from Baltimore--one in
1933 and another solitary tree in 1936. A first-record confirmation for
Horgan County, Ohio, was reported on August 9. This is the first case of
the disease found outside the Athens County limits in the Athens disease
area. The tree, a slippery elm, has a 26-inch multiple trunk. It is lo-
cated in Section 33 of Marion Township.

Big turnover in cable reels,--Cable reels are in such demand for de-
fense orders that gypsy moth inspectors have been requested by several con-
cerns to inspect and certify the reels for shipment the same day they are
ready for shipment. Heretofore shippers made it a practice to accumulate
a number of reels before requesting inspection. Now as soon as a reel is
empty it is returned to the cable manufacturer.





.-7-
FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Recently established parasite of gpsy, brown-tail, and satin moths
determined as Exorista larvarum (L.).--W. F. Sellers, New Haven, Conn.,
and R. T. Webber, Morristown, N. J., state that the dipterous parasite
discussed under this name in the News Letter for July 1941 (v. VIII, No,
9, p. 14, Sept. 1, 1941) is definitely this species. The determination
was based on morphological differences discovered by the late T. H. Jones
and the writers in all three larval instars between Exorista mella Walk.
and Exorista larvarum L.

Fire destroys thinning plots.--C. B. Eaton, Berkeley,Calif., re-
ports that the 19,000-acre Sugar Hill fire of August 2, 1940, on the
Modoc National Forest, completely wiped out the Fandango Thinning Plots,
established in 1938. These plots were set up in the Fandango Logging
Chance to test the value of various thinning treatments as a means of in-
directly controlling mountain pine beetle damage in mixedpole stands of
ponderosa pine and white fir, the theory being that, if the vigor of the
pine could be improved by removing the competing fir, the pine would
succumb less readily to mountain pine beetle attacks. Unfortunately, the
proof of the theory will never be derived from this experiment, for the
fire destroyed nearly every vestige of plot markings, as well as the trees
themselves. The presence of beetle-killed pine poles in the midst of fir
thickets on parts of the area, together with the slash from recent logging
operations, provided excellent fuel which must have contributed greatly to
the intensity of the fire.

Differences between high- and low-risk trees shown photographically.-
Mr. Eaton\also reports that progress has been made in depicting photograph
ically the difference between ponderosa pine trees of low and high risk to
bark beetle attack. In 1940 a photographic study of risk classes was made
on the Black's Mountain Experimental Forest for the purpose of obtaining a
series of photographs that illustrated the different risk types, and to de
termine whether or not change in risk could be followed through photographY
Pictures of 47 trees were taken both in color and in cblack and white, from
permanently established photographic stations. It is planned to repeat
this series of pictures annually. From last year's pictures several plat^
have been made up illustrating the risk types. Judging from the number .'
calls received for copies of these plates, the pictures are proving to .be,
useful. It is expected that these illustrations, together with the written
descriptions of the classes, will enable timber markers to recognize beetle
susceptible trees more readily, in marking stands for sanitation-salvage
cutting.

Termites found on San Clemente Island.--Donald De Leon and Mr. Eaton
report the presence of termites on San Clemente Island, 70 miles northwest
of San Diego. In the course of inspections of Navy housing facilities at
the Naval Air Station and Fleet Training Base on the island to check on
measures used in building construction to prevent termite damage, Messrs.
De Leon and Eaton collected a number of specimens of a subterranean termite
(probably Reticulitermes) in grade stakes and old pieces of lumber near the
buildings. The finding of termites in this locality was somewhat unexpected,





-8-

in view of the fact that the island is practically barren, although
there is evidence that it has been timbered in times past. Fragments
of tree trunks have been removed from the ground in the course of ex-
cavations for roads and buildings, according to the construction en-
gineer on the island. The termites probably occurred in the locality
originall w;hen the island was part of the mainland, and have apparently
survived in such wood fragments as have been present in the soil. No
damage has occurred to Navy buildings on this site, chiefly because of
the fact that the constiuction methods preclude the possibility of ter-
mite attack.

Elm leaf beetle attacks isolated elm plantings in the Sierras.--
G. R. Struble reports that, during the 1941 season, the elm leaf beetle
(Galerucella xanthomeloena (Schrank)) completely defoliated the elm trees
planted a few years ago to shade the Forest Service headquarters building
near Korthfork, Califo This insect has become established in the Sacra-
mento and San Joaquin Valle-s, where it attacks planted elm trees regu-
larl. unless the trees are protected by sprays. At times the beetle in-
vades the to.;ns and conmmunities in the mountain districts bordering these
valle s ;:here i-dely scattered, isolated plantings of elm trees have been
made for shade. One such case occurred in the floor of Yosemite Valley.
Eastern elm trees planted here during the early settlement of the valley
escaped defoliation for more than 50 years. Suddenly the beetle appeared
about 1933 and for several years caused severe defoliation. Spray control
was applied by the National Park Service and the insect disappeared in the
locality.

Oregon's ,;khite firs affected by "gout disease".--The "gout disease
of fir," caused by the balsam woolly aphid (Dreyfusia oiceae Ratz), has
been found seriously affecting the health of lowland white firs at several
points in the Willamette Valley. These European aphids were first found
b-- H, L, Furniss, of this Bureau, at Senator Charles McNary's farm, "Fircone,"
near Salem. Later others were found in the city park at Corvallis, along
the Willamette River near Wilsonville, and at Oak Grove near Portland. These
aphids cause a white cottony encrustation on the bark of affected trees and
nodules to form at the buds or twig terminals. Trees become sickly in ap-
pearance and the lower branches die. In the Northeastern States and Canada
this disease is reported as causing the death of large quantities of balsam
fir. So far in Oregon, it has been found only on Abies grandis, and it is
not known whether it will become a serious pest of other balsam firs.

H--lurgooinus rufipes reared from stripped elm bark.--A sudden need
arose in Au ust at the orristown, N. J., laboratory for a bulk supply of
H. rufioes (Eich.) free from Ceratostomella ulmi. Late in July a trip was
made by C. L. Griswold to Massachusetts to obtain the material. Infested
el. logs wer: found but their large diameters made it impracticable to saw
or load them. An examination revealed that H. rufipes was present in late
larval instars and in the pupal stage, so the infested bark was removed from
the logs and brought to the laboratory. From this stripped infested bark,
with an estimated area of about 150 square feet, over 66,000 adults of




-9-

H. 'rufies issued between August 2 and September 3, with a small emer-
gence still continuing on the latter date. Experience has shown that
H. rufipes rarely develops successfully in stripped bark if its larvae
are less than two-thirds grown.

Scolytus multistriatus feeding in crotches of trees infected with
Dutch elm disesee.--W. D. Buchanan, of the Morristown, N. J., laboratory,
reports that adults of S. multistriatus Marsh., free of Ceratostomella
uliii ,were caged in June on 10 nursery elm trees that had developed foliar
s-mmptoms of the Dutch elm disease the same month. An examination of the
trees was m.de and a complete ring of color was found in the spring ves-
sels adjacent to the bark. After the beetles had fed for a period of 5
daus, and ingested some of the discolored tissue, 234 were collected in
separate gelatin ca sules from twig crotches in which they were feeding.
These beetles were cultured for the presence of C. ulmi by P. V. Mook, of
the Bureau of Plant Industry, who recovered the fungus from 3, or 1.3
percent, of them. It was evident that the 3 infested beetles contained
only a light load of the fungus, owing to the fact that it was necessary
to hold the culture plates for 45 days before it could be identified.
These data support previous studies and imply that a very small percent-
age of beetles free from C. ulmi become contaminated with the fungus by
crotch feeding. Thus the importance of transmission by beetles having
been contaminated by feeding in crotches of diseased trees is probably
of minor importance in the spread of the disease, as compared with bee-
tles becoming contaminated in brood galleries.

GYPSY MOTH AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH CONTROL

Labor rtage hamers gy sy moth .work.---W P. A. gypsy moth work
was resumed late in July in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont,
after a temporary suspension since June 30, caused by lack of funds.
It has not been possible to obtain the required number of W. P. A.
workers in any of the three States, and many of the men who are re-
ferred to this project are physically incapacitated for scouting work
because of advanced age. Those unfit for scouting are being reclassified
to the "unskilled" grade and employed as laborers. A large percentage
of the w;orkers recently assigned to the gypsy moth project have had no
experience in gypsy moth work, as many of the former gypsy moth employees
obtained private employment or were assigned to W. P. A. defense projects
after the termination of gypsy moth work at the end of June.

Gypsy moth assembling cages placed in three States.--The placing of
assembling cages in selected towns in the vicinity of the gypsy moth in-
fested area in Pennsylvania, in eastern New York, and northern New Jersey
was completed by the first of August. The men assigned to that work im-
mediately began making regular visits to the cages to collect any male
gypsy moths that might be attracted to them. The cages consist of a num-
ber of plane surfaces coated with tanglefoot and provided with an attrac-
tant material prepared from the tips of the abdomens of female gypsy moths.
The tanglefoot is also applied to the bark of nearby trees. Male gypsy
moths are attracted by the bait and adhere to the sticky surfaces. They





--10-

are carefull; collected and sent to the central office for positive
identification. "When a rale gypsy moth is found at an assembling
cafe, the surrounding area is examined for gypsy moth infestation.

Preparation of attrahent for future assembling-cage work.--A
large number of ferale gypsy moth pupae for use in the preparation
of the attrahent material for assembling-c. e work during the summer
of 1942 has been collected and processed. Collections were first
made at heav. infestations in the central section of Massachusetts,
but the material proved unsatisfactor- because of the -revalence of
wilt disease. Later collections from southeastern Massachusetts,
where the ..ilt disease had not appeared, gave much better results.
The emergence of the moths was rapid, and required the services of
a number of ren to handle and clip them for the attrahent prepara-
tion. The progress of the work indicates that the number of charges
cbtained this -ear will be considerably greater than was possible in
1940.

Mixed results from grsy moth defoliation surveys.--Practically
comolete defoliation records taken in Maine indicate that there will
be a marked reduction from last year in the number of acres of wood-
land sho-wing all grades of gypsy moth defoliation from slight to com-
plete. Partial records from New Hampshire indicate a considerable re-
d&ction in that State also. Reports from a few towns in Connecticut
show no defoliation except in a few white oak trees located in a group
of towns in the ext enre southeastern corner of the State. Opposite re-
sults are indicated by complete records from two other States. A de-
cided increase in defoliation over last year was recorded in Massachu-
setts, and the records for Rhode Island show a slight increase this
year,

Brush-disposal machine used -.,here burning would endanger forests.--
The brush-disposal machine developed by this activity was recently trans-
ferred from the Greenfield storehouse to Sharon, Conn., where it is now
converting into sawdust and small chips the piles of brush left at the
sites of gyps moth infestations discovered during the fiscal year 1941.

Green June beetle mistaken for gypsy moth.--A letter from R. W.
Sherman, of the Dutch elm disease project, called attention to an article
in the icConnelsville Herald, of HcConnelsvii le, Ohio, concerning the
-iscover- of the gyps- moth in that locality. A regular supervisory em-
-loyee was sent to McConnclsville immediately from the Pennsylvania area.
The insect reported as the gypsy moth was found to be the green June
beetle (Cotinus nitida Linn.).

Gsy_ moth thinning operations oromote resistant groth.--Large num-
bers of ash and maple seedlings were recenti- observed in Adams, Mass., in
an area where poplar and wild apple trees were removed in the course of
gypsy moth selective thinning work last winter. This area is a good example
of the reolacern-nt of unusable growth favored as foodby the gypsy moth by






-11-

valuable species of trees which are much less favorable for gypsy
moth development.

Beavers flood area in Massachusetts.--A crew detailed to
gypsy moth scouting work in West Stockbridge, Mass., recently found
a large area flooded by beaver activity. The trees in this section
cannot be examined until the water is frozen sufficiently to support
the weight of the men.

Green-striped maple worm and elm leaf beetle in western Massa-
chusetts.--Recent reports to the gypsy moth office from western Mas-
sachusetts indicate that there are numerous outbreaks of the green-
striped maple worm and the elm leaf beetle in Berkshire County and
vicinity. The foliage of some of the elm trees where spraying was
not done has been so heavily skeletonized by the elm leaf beetle
that the leaves are rapidly dropping to the ground and many of the
trees are practically denuded of their foliage. Severe damage by
the green-striped maple worm was also reported.

Scouting work pressed in difficult mountainous regions.--W. P.A.
gypsy moth crews assigned to duty in the Vermont barrier zone area are
now scouting mountainous areas in remote localities in order to com-
plete the examination of the greatest possible amount of the most dif-
ficult area ;hile the minor dirt roads are in reasonably good condition.
Much of the area is ledgy, and a thorough examination requires more
time than is needed in more favorable locations. The foliage in the
extreme northern portion of Vermont is unusually heavy this year. This
condition has made scouting by the 40-foot method rather difficult, as
the crew members cannot readily keep their neighbors in view and care-
fully examine the upper branches of the trees. It has been necessary
to space the men less than 40 feet apart in some sections in order to
perform the work satisfactorily.

Assembling cages denote gypsy moth infestations in Pennsylvania.--
Soon after placement, 15 male gypsy moths were found at a single assem-
bling cage in Salem Township, 34 moths were attracted to 16 cages in
South Canaan, and several moths were collected at a cage in Paupack Town-
ship, all in aymne County, Pa. With a single exception, all of the
South Canaan attracting cages were in a compact group in the north-central
part of the town. The bulk of the egg clusters at this infestation were
concentrated on 1 large ;illow tree where 1,800 egg clusters had been
treated up to the close of W. P. A. gypsy moth work on June 30. The infes-
tation in Salem is located in a group of 9 old apple trees vhich contain
large cavities and are otherwise in poor condition. Most of the egg clus-
ters are undoubtedly located in the cavities, and can only be treated by
cutting down the trees and splitting them open. This work cannot be done
until W. P. A. labor is again available in Pennsylvania. An infestation
of approximately 200 egg clusters was found in the vicinity of the
attracting cage in Paupack, centered in a cluster of 4 American linden
trees. The lindens are growing in open country, and the infestation ap-
pear's to be limited to a few acres. This infestation is located about





-12-

three-quarters of a mile northeast of the Salem infestation. Be-
cause of the recoveries in these towns, assembling cages were also
set out in the adjoining toins of Cherr- Ridge and Texas, also in
ja--ne Count-. As no male gypsy moths had been found since August 13
at assembling ca es put out in Lackawanna, Monroe, and ;ane Coun-
ties, the work of removing these cages was begun during the latter
cart of the month.

Assembling-cage patrols find bear damage and incipient forest
fire.--The emplo~ee detailed to visit gypsy moth assembling cages set
out in Iarrett Township, Monroe Count-, Pa., found that one of the
cages ha; been disturbed by a bear. The animal had eaten all of the
tanglefoot and the bark on which it had been spread. Similar damage
by bears has been reported in previous -ears. An employee visiting'
cages in Lehigh Tovmship, l.a-;,e County, met berry pickers walking out
of the woods along an old trail. Shortly after passing them he dis-
covered a lighted cigarette which had been carelessl- thrown into dry
leaves. The leaves were smouldering Iehen found, and the prompt ar-
rival of t-he g- sy moth emplo3ee undoubtedly prevented a serious forest
fire in this area. Because of artillery practice on the Tobyhanna Mili-
tary Reservation, which extends into several townships, it was necessaryr
to exercise extreire care in visiting the assembling ca7es set out in
Dreher and Lehijh Townships, Lonroe County.

N. Y. A. gypsy moth work in PennsyTlvania.--The Y. A. gypsy moth
project in Lackawanna County, Pa., was closed on August 8 because of
the exhaustion of the 1941 project funds. A project for the fiscal year
1942 had not been submittel for approval at that time. The N. Y. A.
field project in Luzerne County for the fiscal year 1942 is in operation,
and the men detailed to the work were engaged in patrolling burlap bands
and performing clean-up work in the tovmships of Pittston, Plains, and
Jenkins during the first part of August. The dead wood and debris piled
up during the cleaning work will be burned later in the season, when the
fires will not endan':er the forests.

C. C. C. s7-sy moth work in Massachusetts and Connecticut.--A total
of 407 -hiour man-days was used by the C. C. C. on -ypsy moth work east
of the 'arrier zone in Massachusetts and Connecticut under the super-
vision of this Bureau during the 4-w.eek period of August. One crew was
used during the entir, period in Massachusetts, whereas in Connecticut a
crew was used during the first 3 weeks only. The work in Connecticut was
then discontinued, and the C. C. C. gypsy moth foreman in charge of the
crew vas notified that his services were terminated because of a reduction
in supervisory personnel. The work done during the month consisted mainly
of Datrollin; burlap bands and thinning 'work, with some rebrushing done in
an area in Granby, Conn., where thinning and spraying work had been per-
formed in -revious -ears. The burlapping work was discontinued during the
week ended August 16. Most of the burlap had been applied during the first
part of Jul-. Very little was attached to the trees during June, as most
of the men were used on spra-ing work during that month. In July 2 camps
in Connecticut where the enrollees had put up burlap this season were





-13-

abandoned, and arrangements were made for a crew from the Connecti-
cut State gypsv moth office to tend the burlap set out by one of
these camps. The gys-s moth crew from a third camp tended the bur-
lap set out by the other abandoned camp, in addition to its own. In
Massachusetts and Connecticut combined, 42,395 trees :.ere banded on
149 acres, and 347 caterpillars and 174 pupae ivere destroyed at bur-
lap bands during the recent larval season.

PLANT DISEASE CONTROL

Barberr< bushes destro-ed in southwestern Colorado.--'he fol-
lowing table summarizes the progress that has been made in the eradi-
cation of native barberries (Berberis fendleri) in La Plata, Archuleta,
and Adams Counties since Jull 1.


:3 ushes :Amount of
County : Area :Prooerties .found and : chemical
: covere : inspected :eradicated: used
:Sauare miles: Number :Tumber Pounds
Adams----7---- : 50 22 : 0 0
Archulet ----: 8 9 :273,135 :1,800
La Plata-- -- : 18 : 28 :390,247 6,336
Total--------: 76 59 :668,382 3,186


SAreas of native barberry.

In addition to the above, recheck work has been done in Ber-
beris vulgaris areas in Adams, Arapahoe, Jefferson, Douglas, Elbert, Pueblo,
Kit Carson, and i>organ Counties. Fruiting bushes were located in a
few areas where the initial survey was conducted in 1936.

Rust damage limited to small areas near barberry bushes.--Con-
ditions for the development of stem rust were very favorable throuch-
out Colorado this season. Rust was first observed on barberry bushes
on iMa 9 in the southwestern part of the State and on Iay 19 in a
Berberis vul:aris area near Loveland. Winter wheat escaped damage,
except in fields immediatel- adjacent to native barberr- bushes. The
amount of rust on spring wheat varied considerably, with severe losses
in some areas where barberr- bushes are numerous. Losses for the State
as a -vhole :1ill not exceed 1 percent.

Stem rust caused relatively little darage in 1941.--Tl-is year, in
general, was a relatively light stem rust year, for both winter and
spring wheat. This is particularl- interesting in view of predictions
of probable disaster to this year's crop made on the basis of abundant
fall infection in 1940. Had a general epidemic developed, it would have
been the result of a combination of many favorable factors, but as events








developed, they simply offer another opportunity to point out the
difficulty of long-range prediction in a situation so complex as a
stem rust epidemic. As a whole, there was little stem rust darage
in 1941 to hard red winter wheats, a number of varieties such as Ten-
marq being resistant to the most prevalent physiologic races. The
damage, Vhich was high in certain local areas but rather light for
the area as a whole, was mostly to soft wheats. As a result of heavy
infection on soft wvheat, the damrage in north Texas averaged about 20
percent in the area bounded roughly by Fort worth, Dallas, Sherman,
and Gainesville. Soft wheat in north-central Oklahoma was also se-
verel- damaged, making the crop loss at least in the eastern part of
that area a proximatel- as heavy as that in northern Texas. One small
section in southwestern Kansas -.as damaged to the same extent, and
there was some dramge in northwestern Missouri along the Missouri River..
In both Missouri and Kansas the effect of early maturity in enabling
susce:ptible wheat toescape damage was clearly evident. Early wheat
was not injured by rust for the most part, but late fields in the same
sections were damaged. In the western sections of these States, where
abundant moisture oromoted unusuall-- favorable crop prospects early in
the season, stem rust was unimportant. Other pathological factors did
reduce yields, l:owever, including black chaff, basal glume rot, and scab
and some of the reduction caused by these diseases will uhdoubtedly be
attributed to stem rust. Leaf rust, which overwintered abundantly and
became seriously e idemic, probably was responsible for heavier losses
than stem rust in the Miississippi Valley. It is estimated at the present
time that the loss to winter wheat from stem rust did not exceed 2 or 3
percent for any State, either west or east of the Mississippi. Stem
rust caused little loss to spring wheat on the whole. Thatcher wheat was
not affected by stem rust, and susceptible varieties of bread wheat, such
as Ceres and Marquis, were damaged only locally. Among these areas was
one near Rapid Cit.-, S. Dak., and another in Mountrail County, N. Dak.
There was some loss in the Panhandle of nebraska and in occasional fields
in various sections elsewhere. Loss to durum .--heat also occurred in oc-
casional fields in northeastern North Dakota in that part of the durum
area east of Devils Lake and Rocklake, But the aggregate loss to all
s-ring -,heat caused b- stem rust was very slight, and State loss estimates
orobably will not exceed a trace. Preliminary data thus far obtained from
slide exposures this Tear indicate that stem rust spores in quantity came
into the spring .heat area at about the same time as in 1940, that is,
about the middle of June; but in 1940 small numbers of spores came into
the area early in June, whereas this year they were almost absent. The
nurber of spores caught during the second half of June this year was not
so great as in some previous years.

Race 17 wrost Drevalent in Winter Wheat Belt.--Identification of phy-
siologic races in collections made in winter wheat areas is well on the way
to completion. Races 17 and 55 continue to be most common, with race 17
isolated more than t.-ice as often as race 56. Tiis is the first year since
1933 that an' race has been more prevalent than race 56. Such a shift in
race poou'ation presents a new problem in breeding wheats for stem rust





-15-

reoistance. In the case of the durums, for instance, all commonly
grown varieties are susceptible to race 17. Thatcher wheat, how-
ever, will continue to be resistant, Tenmarq and Kanred should be
resistant, as the- are immune to race 17, while rost of the other
commonly grown ;:inter wheats are susceptible. Race 19 was isolated
almost without exception from durum wheats in Texas, although race
17 wlas very common there. Apparently, therefore, race 19 was better
able than race 17 to attack the durums, under the conditions that
prevailed in Texas this year.

Sookane Lusiness men see control work on annual thow-me trip.'L-
Mermbers of the Timber Products Bureau of the Spokane Ch.mber of Com-
merce spent their sixth annual "show-me trip" on the Coeur d'Alene
National Forest on June 21 and 22, as guests of the Forest Service.
Sixteen members of the group and Stuart "ioir, forester for the Western
Pine Association, made the trip. Hosts and guides included Meyer
Wolff, C. C. Strong, Howard Drake, and Neal Nelson of the Forest Ser-
vice; M. Bradner, Charles Wellner, and E. Rapraeger, of the Experiment
Station; and J. C. Evenden, of forest-insect control, and E. L. Joy,
of blister-rust control, from this Bureau. Saturday afternoon was
spent inspectinL white pine cultural experiments :n the Deception Creek
Experimental Forest, and Sunday was occupied w;ith inspection of the re-
sults from various cutting methods on the forest. Included was a trip
through the Ohio Match Company logging operations. Blister rust infec-
tion centers and the effectiveness of control work were observed and dis-
cussed during both das of the trip, a keen interest being displayed in
the progress of this project.

Another forner "blister ruster" becomes suoervisor of a white pine
forest.--Announcement has been made of the transfer of P. Z. Melis to
tLe position of supervisor of the Clearwvater NAtional Forest in Idaho,
one of the six major ijhite pine forests of Region 1. Others who started
on blister rust and are now emplo-ed on the national forests of Idaho
include C. C. Strong, supervisor of the Coeur d'Alene National Forest,
Neal D. Nelson, assistant supervisor on the Coeur d'Alene, B. A. Anderson,
assistant supervisor on the Kaniksu, and W. G. Guernsey, assistant super-
visor on the Beaverhead National Forest. lr. Melis started on blister
rust work in 1924. In 1927 he entered the forestry branchof the Indian
Service and in 1936 transferred to the Forest Service in Region 1, where
he has held the positions of chief of planting, acting chief of wild life
management, and supervisor of the Helena National Forest.

Eradication of ,wild black currants effective.--C. U. Perry resorts
that V. P. A. crews working in Northarmpton and Southampton, Mass., have
found that the initial work in ;'ild black currant areas was exceptionally
effective, as practically no bushes are being found this season in areas
which formerl- supported an unusually large population. One of the crews
in Northampton is finding a scattering distri.ution of wild black currants

UBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD






-16-

and prickly gooseberries. All bushes, especially the wild blacks, are
generally and heavily infected.

Tennessee mountain crew celebrates completion of Ribes eradica-
tion task.--To celebrate the completion of the reeradication work on
the Boomer job, which Walter Stegall, the blister rust control agent,
regarded as one of the most difficult and dangerous eradication jobs
encountered by his crews since the work started in 1934, members of
the eradication crews held an old fashioned "chicken fry," mountain
style, during the lunch hour at the Boomer job-site. Every member of
the Cocke County, Tenn., blister rust crews attended the "fry" and
every man expressed feelings of enthusiasm, enjoyment, and a full
stomach. Several men said it was one of the nicest get-togethers they
ever attended.

W. V. Benedict reports on infection in sugar pine region.--Early
in August Mr. Benedict and C. P.Wessela looked over infection condi-
tions on the Beaver Creek control unit of the Klamath National Forest.
While they had already heard reports of heavy Ribes infection on this
area, as well as other areas on the Klamath, they were not prepared
for what they found. Mr. Benedict states: "I can recall no extensive
infection area examined by me in the past where rust development has
been so swift. In 1938 infected Ribes were found relatively lightly
scattered in this area; in 1939 no infection was located; and in 1940
2 incipient cankers were discovered and no infected Ribes. This year,
fruiting cankers, while not abundant, are not uncommon, and Ribes in-
fection is something terrific. It is the extensiveness and abundance
of infection on Ribes that is so illuminating. Ribes sanguineumn is the
principal offender in this locality. Like R. roezli of the Sierras, it
is found under the trees on all sites. We examined many bushes on all
sites across some 6 sections. About two-thirds of the bushes examined
were infected. In many cases all of the leaves on plants containing
several hundred feet of live stem carried infection and many leaves of
a high percentage of the bushes examined were completely smothered in
rust; so yellow, in fact, that one could spot the infection from the top
surface of the leaves some distance away. This heavy intensification of
rust on Ribes this year is probably due largely to the abnormally wet
season prevailing throughout Oregon and California, although the in-
creasing volume of near-at-hand aeciospores got things off to a good
start. Although the Klamath camp labor strength has been doubled in an
effort to clean up the worst infection centers before fall, there is
little doubt that a very large amount of infection will be returned to
pines. While Mr. Wessela and I were checking infection near where crews
were working on August 2, a crew boss brought in a trunk canker on 1937
wood about 1 foot long and 2 inches in diameter, fruiting heavily." Num-
erous sugar pine infections were reported on the Lassen Forest, with
heavy infection on Ribes in the general vicinity of fruiting cankers.
Two days of scouting around Viola, where Ribes infections were found in
1938 and 2 incipient cankers found in 1940, brought to light 30 infected






-17-

sugar pines with 61 cankers. Reed Miller reports finding a blister rust
infected pine with 2 cankers 6 miles south and east of the previous south-
ernmost known limits of the disease. This is practically at the southern-
most point on the Plumas Forest and is south and west of the northern bor-
der of the Tahoe Forest, in the SE- sec. 9, T. 20 N., R. 8 E., on Sly
Creek. The cankers had not 'et soorulated.

COTTON INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Cotton bollworm.--The cotton bollworm has caused more than usual
damage to cotton over all of the Cotton Belt this season and has been
particularly serious in central Texas. In this area large acreages are
planted to corn and grain sorghums on which the bollworms build up and
the mroths migrate to cotton. K. P. Ewing, of Waco, Tex., reports that
fromr 6 to 10 squares and bolls per stalk that were saved from the boll
weevil by dusting were later destroyed by the bollworms in many fields.
The shortage of dusting machines and calcium arsenate has prevented some
farmers from dusting, and others who have attempted control by dusting
with calcium arsenate -ere not entirely successful. Calcium arsenate
gives fairly good control against the newly hatched larvae but is not ef-
fective against the larger larvae; also dusting by airplane has not been
as successful as dusting with ground machines. Ewing has often observed
that bollworms were more abundant on cotton infested with abhids and has
advanced the theory that the moths were attracted to the cotton by the
honeydew. Studies by E. E. Ivy, of the Waco laboratory, also indicate
that the presence of aohids affected the control of bollworms by preda-
tors. Several coccinelids, chr-sopids, and the anthocorid Triphleps in-
sidiosus Say were found to destroy many bollworm eggs and young larvae,
but where aphids were abundant they fed on aphids and the number of boll-
w.orms destroyed were greatly reduced. It was also noted that Orius
n-mphs were rather resistant to a mixture of calcium arsenate and nico-
tine dust, which gives hope to the possibility of increasing bollworm
cont'ol by destroying the aphids by insecticides, thereby causing Orius,
and perhaps other predators, to consume more eggs and young larvae.

Other parasites received from Brazil and Peru.--L. W. Noble re-
ports that, through the cooperation of the Division of Foreign Parasite
Introduction, another parasite of the pink bollworm, Microbracon vulgaris
(Ashm.), was received at Presidio, Tex., on August 23. These parasites
were collected by H. L, Parker at Sao Paulo, Brazil, on August 7 and
shipped by air express on August 14 by way of Hoboken, N. J., to El Paso,
Tex., and by train to Alpine, Tex. Of the 230 adults sent from Brazil,
22 females and 2 males were in good condition on arrival at Presidio.
During the last week of August oviposition on the pink bollworm was ob-
served and it is thought that breeding stock can be maintained. This is
the second pink bollworm parasite received from Brazil, as on October 21,
1940, a shipment of 75 Calliephialtes dimorphus Cush. was received. From
this shipment 52 male and 7 female adults emerged. This was increased to
838 larvae, which were placed in cold storage for the -rinter. A shipment
of Triaspis vestiticida Viereck, a parasite of the Peruvian square borer




-l8-

(ALnthno~us vestitus -oh.), was also received at the Tallulah, La.,
laborator . These parasites weue sent. br Paul A. Berr- fror. Lima,
Peru. i.-r. Serry had previousl- forwarded several shipments of Micro-
bracon vestiticida Viereck. As it .ould nrobabl-- be difficult to
kee: this species going throuEgh the ;winter, it was decided to liberate
all adults in weevil-infested fields this fall. Ver- little is known as to
rearin'_ .et:ods for T. vetiti'ida.
Cotqon ac:hid control.--The results of work last season aroused
gret lho)e that the increase in cotton aphids, ;'rhich often fdllows the
use of calciui: arsenate, could be prevented by the ad.ition of derris
to the calcium: arsenate used throughout the season or b-- i.corporating
a Zine salt _in the clcium arsenato during the manufacturin, process.
Several insecticide dealers placed mixtures of calcium arsenate and
.erris on the mar et and considerable cuantities were used for boll
weevil control. Many growers who had previously not dusted with cal-
cium arsenate because of fear of building up aphids tried the mixture
this season. The severe boll weevil infestctions this -ear afforded
ideal conditions for tests under farm conditions. The results from
the addition of derris have not been as satisfactor- as expected. In
all cases observed the :ixture held the ap:id populations below that of
the calcium arsenate treatment and in man, cases prevented a damaging
a -hid infestation from developing during the dusting period. In South
C-rolina, oeorgia, and Florida aphid populations following its'use have
remained fairl; low until the cr: was about mature, and in rmst- cases
satisfactor- control was obtained. In Nississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
control was not so good and in :mny cases enough aphids were present
.hen dusting was discontinued so that they increased to damaging propor-
tions before the crop ratured. The difference in results seems to vary
w-ith the t--pe of soil. On the lighter, sand- soils of the Southeast
aohid control was better than on the heavier, dark soils of the Middle
Cotton Belt, and this is thought to be associated with differences in
the acidit-- and ferti it- of the soil and to the pH of the cell sap of
ti.e cotton plant. The production of a zinc-safened calcium arsernte by
one n. the insecticide manufacturers ::as based on the Division's find-
i-.gs on the relationship of the pH of cell sap and anhid development.
It -:as hoped the addition of a zinc salt would produce a neutral cal-
cium arsenate that would not increase the pH of the cell sap and cause
acceleratd aphid r~.ultinlication. The control obtained with zinc-
safened calciumu arsenE.tc was likewise not satisfactory in experimental
-lots, or by growers under the conditions of heavy aphid infestations
that prevailed this season. It is of interest to note that in some sec-
tions -irpl.nes *':ere successful>- used for applying nicotine sulfate
four cotton a-hid ccntrol. So far as is known, this is the first season
that airoianes have been used for applying nicotine sulf.te to cotton.

PINK BOLLWORM AND THURBERIA WEEVIL CONTROL

Gin--trash insoection.---Inspection of gin trash is conducted each
u-ar throughout the cotton-growing regions of the United States to de-
termine the status of :'ink bollworm infestation in areas regulated on
account of the pi-k boll.:orm and to ascertain whether or not there has
been an- s read of this insect into free areas. Inspections are also






19-

carried on in Mexico, in cooperation with the Mexican De artment of
Agriculture, in cotton-growing areas adjacent to the international bor-
der, and at other strategic points. Ins ..ection of trash from the 1941
cotton crop began in the low.er Rio Grande Valle'y on August 4, and at
the end of tLe month a considerable amount of work had been done in
south Texas, both inside and outside of the regulated area, and in ad-
jacent areas of Mexico. Results of inspection at the close of August
indicate a substantial decrease in pink bollworm infestation in the
loI-er Rio Grande Vllie- of Texas and Mexico.. In the lo.:er valley of
Texas 15 specimens of the pin: boll;.orm were found in Cameron Count-
through e:xanination of around 700 bushels of trash, as compared with
3,_41 worms from a less amount of trash for a cor-parable period in
1940. Onl- 3 :ink bollworms weere found in Hidalgo County, as com-
pared with 368 specimens from comparable amount. of trash for the same
:eriod last seaso... A light infestation was found to be present again
this year at El Indio, in Maverick County, Tex., and a few specimens
have ben found in Brooks County, in the Co.stal Lend area of south
Texas. In the lo-.:er valle- of Miexico 261 specimens of the pink boll-
worm were taKen in the Matamoros area through examination of 1,03:
bushels of trash, as compared with 5,4"8 specimens from 807 bushels of
trash inspected in August 1940. In the Re-nosa section examination of
o61 bushels of trash yielded 3o specimens, as compared with 509 worms
for the same period for the 1940 crop.

Big Bend area.--In 193E a special control program was inaugurated
to reduce the extremely heavy pink bollworm infestation in the Presidio-
Ojinaga area of the Big Bend of Texas and Mexico, resulting in a re-
markable reduction of infestation in the 1939 and 1940 cotton crops. At
the end of August, sufficient observations had been made in the 1941
cotton crop to determine that the control measures in practice in that
area continue to be effective in holding the advantages gained, and that,
for the third consecutive year, there will be no appreciable damage to
the cotton crop by this insect.

TRUCK CROP AND GARDEN INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Insecticidal control of the Depoper weevil.--R. E. Campbell and J. C.
Elmore, of the Alhambra, Calif., laboratory, have submitted the follow-ing
report regarding developments in the control of Anthonomus eugenii Cano by
the use of insecticides: "The pepper weevil situation in southern Califor-
nia presents some interesting developments, most of which are satisfactory
from our viewpoint. The infestation is general and severe over the entire
pepper-growing area. here the growers have carried out a consistent plan
of dust applications, they are obtaining excellent control, but -.here the
dust applications h-ve been poorly timed or insufficient in number, very
poor control is being obtained. At the beginning of the season we emphasized
the necessit- of at least three light ap lications at 5-day intervals,
after which a period of 10 days could elapse, and then at least three more
applications should be made. A number of the best growers have carried out
these recommendations ver-T consistently, with excellent results. Other
gro-ers, however, let longer periods elapse between applic.tions. During








-20

ise oerio.ds infestations coceurred and such growers are losing a con-
:-idrab]e portion of their crop We can go into a pepper field, ex-
-i e the pods, and nake a very accurate estimate of how many dust ap-
oei ations the grovwer has made and especially estimate the periods be-
'ween applications, depending on whether we find feeding punctures,
-Rig la-ing punctures, sm:ll larvae, or pupae and adults. An interest-
ing picture is also presented in regard to the effect of the different
treatments on aphids. Where undiluted calcium arsenate alone was used
aphid infestations got under way immediately. We have found no fields
where the growers continued to use calcium arsenate, and apparently
.;hen they s'ifted to cryolite (45-percent sodium aluminum fluoride) con-
taining rotenone the aphid infestation did not increase and in some
fields it actually decreased, Wherever rotenone has been added to the
yolite or the calcium arsenate there has been a lessening in the aphid
pcppa tl.on, With cryol te alone the aphid population remains below the
danger point, but with calcium arsenate it does not. In our own plots
the use of 03,5 percent rotenone in either cryolite or calcium arsenate
nas reduced the aphid population. We have made an additional observation
whic,-h shows that in both fields .where 10- percent powdered molasses (by
weight) was added to crvolite containing rotenone there was a further re-
duction lin the aphid population. This suggests the possibility that the
powdered molasses, acti:n as a sticker, makes the rotenone more effective."

ToyIit.y of rotenone apparently influenced by diluent used --L W.
brannon, of the Norfolk, Va,, laboratory, reports the following results of
s ,:perimcnt i onducted on snap beans for the control of the Mexican bean
!etle (EoIlachna varivestis (Muls )), in which nine diluents for derris
were :omoared (ea:h diluted to "ontain 0.50 nercent of rotenone): "Al-
ti"o: 1,75 inches of rain occurred 6 hours after the first insecticidal
i'eatment (June 14) and 0 26 inch occurred 29 hours after the second treat-
ct (Jun 26', fair control cf the Mexican bean beetle was obtained with
n.. of the rot none bearing dust, mixtures used in the exreriment. Nine
tlue.i.s were teste d with derris (each dust mi.xture diluted to contain
i er-cntu of reoenone) to determine the most effective insecticidal
carrier for this material for control of the Mexican bean beetle. Pre-
i ionar results of the experiment indicate the following relative rating
of t de diluent c: (I) Talc, (2) s~aphur, ( ) pyrophyllite, (4) redwood-
Lark flour, (5) walnut shell flour, (b) diatomaceous earth, (7) infusorial
earth, (8) clay, and (9) tobacco dust. Derris-clay and derris-tobacco
dust gave practically no protection against the insect. Control was not
so iatisfactory as usual with an- of the materials, owing to the above-
mn-i-tioned rainfall, which occurred shortly after each insecticidal treat-
;ent These results appear to confirm results of tests conducted in 1940
with ccr-ercial rotenone-bearing dust mixtures in which variations in the
degr-e of control were attributed to changes in the toxicity of the ro-
ten:ne as affected by the diluent used. Since precipitation of 1.25
inches occurred 6 hours after the first treatment and 0 26 inch 29 hours
after the second treatment, the relative adhesive qualities of the various
diluents ma-T be a crime factor in causing these variations in control




21-.

PopulatLon of tobacco moths in farmers' packouses reduced b
Ilean-up program -W. A. Thomas and C. F. Stahl, of tie Oxford, N. C.,
laboratory, renort that as a result of a clean-up program instituted
in 5 farmers' packhouses in the vicinity of Farrvi lle, N. C during
19'0, involving the renmoval of all tobacco trash and other farrm
remnants, populations of E-hestia elutella (Hbn.) were reduced greatly,
as reflected in -oltections made in 1941. The number of moths col-
lected by uniforam nethods in the packh-ouses under observation dropped
from 2,533 in 194/ to 49S. in 1941. In contrast to this, the populations
of tobacco moths in the local storage units were much higher in 1941
than in 1940

Methyl brimideo Efe tive against cigarette beetle in fumigation
tests.--In exoeriments nerformed with Lasioderma serricorne (F.) by
R. W. Brubaker and &. D. Reed, of the Richmond, Va laboratory, using
methryl bromide at dsaes of 1, 2, 3, and 4 pounds, resoectively, per
S.000 cubic feet, at redu ~d pressures, it was found that 100 percent
of the test inse-ts ere killed at the dosage rates of 2, 3, and 4
pounds, respectivel in 6 repli ates, when the exposure neriod was 3
hours and the pressure ras reduced to approximately 29 inches on a
standard mercury gaugv The results obtained with the 1-pound dosage
rate were highly variable, however, the mortality at this dosage rate
ranging from 44 to 100 p erent in the o replicates. A total of 250
well-grown larvae of the cigeaette beetle vere used in each test in a
33-cubic-foot vac su churhmr Prior to the aeginning of each test, the
insects wer imb r>d in ales of imoorted tobacco in a manner simulat-
ing natural conditions ,f -exp osure.

Toxic ity to -c erillars of com rerc ial rote enone containing
ucsts and si 2 r to ixed dust. -,. J Rei-d, Jr., reports that in
an exoeriment er .i e r941 spring rop of cabbage at Charleston,
, C,, wherein f fi e n e f fie r ersenetativ e and widely used
cercial r r *ft:r criuntaining dust mixtures and a similar lab
oratory-mrixd d s d.:_ 'ix e:. e compared :n small, wel- replicated field
lotcs of c~b' bae, lhe .>i t f the various dust mixtares, based on num
ber- of cater eilars s:r'viv:ng one application of each insecticide, was
::losely related te their cotenone content, which varied considerabi, al
th ogh the ine i terials were labeled as containing 1 percent of
cotenone cr, in t-: i. tane f the impregna.ted dust, as being equal in
effectiveness t Lh rength. In general, all of the materials ex-
cept the impre s. d ,Ie (a prduct containing 0 31 percent of rotenone)
were superior to the che:k in toxicit- to the cabbage looper (Autfographa
brassicae (Ri -, ae ph roduct either was or had a tendency to be
inferior tote h us
inferior to the i r Te duct mixturs containing more than approxi
matey 0 75 per- -none hich included the laborctory mixture)
ere, or had a tende. t, superior against that species to those mix-
tures containing 1:s iln that percentage of rotenone. Against the im-
ported cabbageworam 'F> i raoae (L.)), all of the materials except the
impregnated product -ere superior to the check, and the other materials
usually were superior I- this product Against the larvae of the diamond-
back moth (Plutella 1s.c: 'ioennis (Curt.)), which was second in abundance




-22-

brCt very unevenl-y distributed, no significant differences between
treatments were demonstrated. In general, these results corroborate
those obtained in similar experiments during the autumn of 1940.

INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS

Cuooerative _dogflyproject.- -The United States Public Health
Service is using part of the funds provided it for sanitation in and
around ar i camps to control dogflies in the Tyndall Field area,
'anarma City, Fla., and tie iglin Field area near Valparaiso, Fla,
ToI Eureau is cooperating in this work by supplying some equipment
i personnel, the latter on reimbursable basis. W. E. Dove, of the
Panama City laboratory, is serving as technical supervisor of the
croject which stretches over l15 miles of shore line between Carrabelle
and Pensacola Beach. The control project is designed to clear the
beaches of the dogfly in the vicinit- of the Arrmy Air Corps camps, and
:nsit s of spraying piles of fermenting ba- grasses on the beaches
ith a mi.ture of creosote and oil

King ade consultant, Florida State Board of Health Malaria Bur-
eau -JW. V. King, of the Orlando, Fla., laborator-;, has been made a
ie-:-r the newly formed Board of Consultants of the Florida State
Board of Health Malaria Bureau. At the first meeting of the Consultant
:.:rd, on August '3, consideration was given to a proposed organiza-
tiom and -ork plan for the new Malari! Bureau. The Consultant Board
also gave consideration to the supervision by the new Bureau of the gen-
eral monscuito-control work in the vicinit- of Army and Navy posts

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINES

Stowawayi insects in airolanes --R. G. Oakley of Honolulu, Hawaii,
reoorts that, according to his records, available insoections of trans-
o. an airplanes hav- resulted in 212 interceptions of living insec:i
atowaways (i.e., insects not associated with plant material) at Miami,
and 1,021 such interceptions at Pacific midocean inspection points
The inspections at Niami were made from January 1938 to June 1939 and
ihoe at ronolulu from April 1936 to March 1941, by the U S Public
Hea1th Service those at Guam from July 1937 to July 1939, by a Bureau
ir;enhor; and those at iidway from December 1936 to April 1941,and at
Canton Island from July 1940 to April 1941, by representatives of the
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Included in these interceptions
were 22 families of Diptera; 21 of Coleoptera; 7 of Hemiptera; 8 of
Lepidoptera; 5 of Hymenoptera; 2 each of Orthoptera and Demaptera; and
I eaih of iscptera, Corrodentia, Collembola, Thysanoptera, and Siphonaptera
Ap roximatel- 211 species were involved altogether, but 854 of the inter-
eDpticons belonged in only 76 species in 8 of the 72 families, namely, Mas-
idae, 233 interceptions (mostly houseflies) in 4 species; Chloropidae,
.i5 in 6 species; Drosophilidae, 118 in 7 species; Formicidae, 106 in 25
-i, Cu1li.cidae, 75 (mostly Culex quinquefaciatus Say) in 8 species;
Ca liip horidae, C5 in 8 species; Blattidae, 57 in 9 species; and Tenebrioni-
da, 19 in 9 soecies. AoDroxirrte1l- two-thirds of these species (exclusive




-23-

of houseflies) represent groups of economic importance, including
Anopheles litoralls King, presumabl-- from the Philip-ines,at Honolu-
lu, where no malarial mosquitoes are known to occur; Nephotettix
apicalis Mats., a cicadellid rice pest in Guam stopped at Midway on
an east-bound plane; a chrysomelid (Phytorus sp.), found on a plane
from the Philippines at Guam, w.here a leaf beetle of this -enus is
destructive to forest growth and mango leaves; the fall armyworm
(Laphygma frugiperda (S. & A.)), intercepted at Miami; Prodenia litura
(F.) at iidway; and the Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis iayr) at
Guam, probably from Honolulu. Although the insects tabulated were
alive when collected, many of them seemed to be in poor condition as
a result of the pyrethrum spra: applied by Pan American Airways
stewards prior to landing or owing to plane vibrations or other factors
incidental to th- trip. Among the dead insects found have been some
species of economic importance which never survive the trip. Observa-
tions having shown that insects may enter planes at inspection points,
Pan American Airways recuires that planes be kept closed or carefully
screened so the number of insects entering planes after fumigation and
prior to departure is reduced to a minimum. Particularly aggressive
steps have been taken by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association to
intercept pests en route as stowaways on clippers passing the Islands
of Midway and Canton. Trained inspectors stationed at those posts not
only thoroughly inspect and spray all planes, but maintain a vigilant
watch over the local faunas to note and eradicate any established
foreign newcomer using the islands as stepping stones to Hawaii, The
Association also maintains an identification unit at Honolulu where
specialists identify pests intercepted at the protective stations, to-
gether with those taken by the U S Public Health Service at Honolulu,
and incorporate them into a fast-expanding collection for further study
and reference.

Potatoes from Peru heavily infested --Potatoes from Peru found in
ships' stores aboard the Finnish S. S. Wiipunen when it arrived at New
York on Nay 30, 1941, showed 50-percent dana'e caused by the larvae of
a curculionid, identified by W H Anderson as probably Rhizopsidius
tucumanus Heller. Seventy-eight mature living larvae were taken from
a sample of approximately 100 pounds of potatoes A living larva and
pupa of Gnorimoschema plaesiosema (Turner) = tuberosella Busck, deter-
mined by H. W. Capps, were also taken from the potatoes.

Seed leis infested.--G. F. Callaghan of honolulu, Hawaii, reports
that specimens of the weevil Dynatopechus aureopilosus Narsh. were in-
tercepted in Honolulu on January 17, 1940, in a seed lei of Leucaena
glauca in parcel post addressed to the mainland. This insect, described
from Samoa in 1931, where it is said to infest seeds of Erythrina indica,
had not been previously recorded from Hawaii. Subsequent inspections of
seed leis made in Honolulu curio shops, as well as investigations of
known and possible hosts in the field, have failed to disclose the source
of infestation, although the weevils continue to be intercepted in par-
cel post periodically in seed leis of Nacuna sp,, M, urens, M. gigantea,
Diociea violacea, Canavalia sp Jobs-tears, and Leucaena glauca, Origin
of a few of these leis was traced to Hilo, Hawaii, through correspondence




-24-

with sail-rs of the fleet vho had mailed them. One sender advised
that many of his shipmates had purchased numerous leis, as prices
woe cheap, but had thrown them overboard when so many "baby cock-
roacnes" ererged from them. vhile few facts concerning the insect
in Hawaii are known, its apparent preference for leguminous seeds,
some of which harbor as many as 20 adults, might indicate it as an
indesirable pest to have on the mainland. To prevent its introduc-
tion, by means of parcel post, all known infested material found is
fumigated with methyl bromide, through the cooperation of the Ter-
ritorial Board of Agriculture and Forestry, before being allowed to
:roceed to destination. According to H. M. Armitage, collaborator
n, -harge at San Francisco, there is no record of Dynatopechus aur-
o :ilosus Marsh. having been intercepted in California.

Citrus diseases intercepted.--Recent interceptions of citrus
diseases included citrus canker (Bacterium citri (Hasse) Doidge) on
lemons in stores from Java at New York, on August 23; on rough lemon
in _tores from Java at Boston on August 12; and on orange in stores
ostensibly from Union of South Africa, but real origin unknown as
citras canker was reported to have been eliminated from South Africa
onis years ago. Sweet orange scab (Elsinoe australis Bitancourt &
*ikins) was found on oranges in stores from Brazil on August 9 at
eoston and on August 15 at Baltimore, and on tangerines in stores
from Brazil on August 4 at New Orleans. Citrus black-spot (Phoma
citricarpa McAlp.), which was recently reported as having become
established in South Africa, was intercepted August 16 at Boston
in a lemon in stores from the Union of South Africa.

Grass diseases intercepted --Examination of Heteropogon con-
tortus used as packing for a cargo shipment from Straits Settlements
inspected at eview York on October 23, 1940, disclosed several diseases
for which deter:minations have just been received. These included
LCa2ansia sclerotica (Pat.)v. Hoeh one of the ergotlike fungi;
-i.lanconium hysteriopsis Pat., a relative of the sugarcane rind
disease funus; Pleosoora andropogonis Niessl,; and a rust, Puccinia
which could not be determined The host is a good forage grass
in dry parts of the Southwest and hence these diseases might be of
ionsiderable economic importance if introduced. A smut, Cintractia
s., was found contaminating seed of molasses grass (Melinis minuti-
flora) from Costa Rica, when inspected on January 27 at New York.
Another smut, just determined as Tilletia rugispora Ellis, was found
at Ne, York on October 30, 1940, in a head of Pasoalum plicatulum
ised as macking for Mexican pottery. Cerebella andropogonis Ces.,
listed in Stevenson's manual as occurring in Ceylon, was intercepted
at New York on August 22 in 80 pounds of Paspalum dilatatum seed
from Australia.

DOMESTIC PLANT QUARANT INES

Grasshopper-baiting operations decline.---Baiting by farmers for
the control of grasshoppers declined sharply in all infested States
early in August, and throughout the month continued on a greatly





-25-

reduced scale, with heaviest distribution in Michigan, Minnesota,
and Nebraska. Slightly increased baiting was nobed in the Pan-
handles of Texas and Oklahoma, where second-generation lesser migra-
tory 'hoppers began to attack margins of wheatfields.

Adult-grasshopper surve----The 1941 fall adult-grasshopper sur-
vey was completed late in August, surveys having been made in 19
States. The purpose of this survey was mainly to determine general
areas wihere populations were of sufficient importance to indicate the
need for an egg survey. It is anticipated that parts of L3 States
.ill be surveyed for eggs later in the season. special survey of
areas of Cochise and Graham Counties in southeastern Arizona infested
by Melanoplus mexicanus Sauss. was completed early in August and in-
dicated populations of light to threatening intensity in the Dos
Cabezos and Sunset-Bonita areas of these 2 counties.

Development of second-generation M. mexicanus.--Rapid development
of the second generation of the lesser migratory 'hopper occurred in
southern Nebraska, eastern Colorado, western Kansas, and the Pan-
handles of Texas and Oklahoma to the extent that hatching was 60 per-
cent complete in Nebraska, and 100 percent complete in the Texas southern
Panhandle area. Populations range to 20 per square yard in fields and
50 in margins of small grains in the Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles.
Populations were lighter in the other areas infested. Some marginal
damage occurred, increasing demands by the farmers for bait.

Mormon cricket control.--Control operations were brought to a
close in mid-August in all infested areas, following which supervisors
directed full-time attention to the adult-cricket survey, which was
completed at the close of the month. The outstanding feature in the
iormoa cricket control operations during this season is found in the
almost complete change from dusting to baiting operations. The earlier
methods for the control of this pest revolved largely around hand dust-
ing, which later was superseded by power dusting, and in 1941 by bait--
ing. In 1940 more than 122,000 acres were power dusted, whereas less
than 23,000 acres were dusted in 1941. On the other hand, 160,000 acres
were baited in 1940, and mcre than 500,000 in 1941. The swing from
dust to bait has permitted coverage of more than an additional 200,000
acres. While actual figures are not yet available, it is believed that
the cost is not in proportion to the increased acreage treated. Of the
acreage baited, more than one-fifth was baited by airplane. The use of
planes permitted baiting in areas difficult of access to ground-spread-
ing machines, and resulted in very effective work.

Meeting of State leaders' Grasshopper Control Advisory Committee.--
Members of the State leaders' Grasshopper Control Advisory Committee,
supplemented by State leaders from Nebraska and Wyoming, met on August 15
and 16 with Bure.u representatives for a discussion of various problems,
including the availability of control materials for future work; handling
and storage during the winter of Federal bait spreaders loaned to the
States; concentration and storage of bait materials; the 1941 adult and
egg surveys; research problems; and matters of policy dealing with con-
trol procedure in future years.




-26-

White-fringed beetle survey.--During the month of August in-
tensive inspection activities have been carried on in the environs
of all known points of infestation. As a result of this work, the
beetle has been found in isolated spot infestations, ranging from
a very few acres to approximately 500 acres. Practically all such
infestations were found in the almost immediate vicinity of the
area now regulated by the restrictions of Federal and State white-
fringed beetle quarantines. In connection with this activity,
practically all nurseries within a distance of approximately 100
miles of known points of infestation have been inspected with nega-
tive results. At the close of the month of August this type of in-
spection is being extended to cover larger nurseries at somewhat
greater distances and to include similar activities in transporta-
tion centers such as Montgomery, Alas, Jackson, Miss., and other
points to which large quantities of materials had been shipped from
infested areas,

'white-fringed beetle control activities.--At the close of the
month of August control activities had been discontinued, owing to
a drastic decline in adult beetle population, except in the areas
infested with Pantomorus peregrinus Buch. and in five isolated areas
of infestation where control is being applied during the entire period
of beetle emergence for the purpose of determining the effectiveness
of known suppressive measures, as a possible means of eliminating the
pest. Continuation of control in the areas infested by P, peregrinus
was considered advisable, owing to late emergence of the beetle.

Study being made of sweetpotato weevil host plants.--During the
month of August a general over-all survey was started in Alabama and
Mississippi, south of the areas in which eradication activities have
been conducted since the beginning of project activities in 1937, to
obtain more complete information than is now available relative to the
distribution, abundance, and status as to infestation of native peren-
nial host plants of the sweetpotato weevil of which Ipomoea pandurata
and I. saggitta are the two most prevalent varieties. This study is
being made so that information may be made available for use in con-
sidering whether or not it is practicable to extend eradication activi
ties in these two States to the coast.

Phony peach disease inspection reaches peak,--During August more
than 24 million peach trees on over 20,000 properties in 8 States were
inspected for phony peach and peach mosaic diseases. Nearlyall of this
inspection was conducted in the Southeast for the phony disease, the
mosaic inspection being largely completed earlier in the season. Im-
portant mosaic inspection, however, was conducted in eastern Texas, the
farthest known eastern limits of this disease. Some second inspection
was conducted in California, where limited numbers of newly infected
mosaic trees were discovered. In the Southeast more than 40,000 phony
trees were found, of which over 11,000 were removed, the lag in removals
being largely due to temporary shortage of W, P. A. labor in Georgia
where most of the diseased trees were found. In addition, more than
180,000 escaped trees were removed, largely in Alabama and Tennessee.




-27-

Growers furnish labor for infected-peach-tree removal.--Peach
growers furnished sufficient labor in Houston, Macon, and Peach Coun-
ties, Ga,, for the removal of approximately 10,000 infected trees this
season, thereby materially assisting progress of the work. Inspections
for phony disease proceeded satisfactorily in Alabama, Arkansas,
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas, except for
delays in obtaining labor for tree removal in Chilton County, Ala ,
and generally in Georgia. Labor availability in the latter State had
improved substantially at the end of the period.

Seasonal decline in peach mosaic activities,--Inspection for peach
mosaic disease in eastern Texas was discontinued late in August, owiing ti
the poor condition of the foliage, making it difficult to diagnose the
disease. Removal of diseased and abandoned trees was discontinued in
Mesa County, Colo., during the harvest, while some abandoned-orchard re-
moval was undertaken in Delta County,

Chinch bug control program concluded for year --The chinch bug con
trol program *;as concluded early in August. From June 6 to July 10,
1941, 235,920 gallo.s of creosote was purchased and shipped to 55 coun-
ties in 7 States, namely, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Ne-
braska, and Oklahoma. Kansas was the largest user of this material, hav
ing been furnished with 114,800 gallons. During the season, cooperators
reported that 445,435 rods of barrier were constructed for the protec
tion of 226,505 acres of crops, involving the participation of 3,794
farmers, Officials of affected States estimated that approximately
$383,000 worth of crops were saved which consisted principally of corn,
with smaller amounts of sorghum and sudan grass.

Mole cricket situation in Florida.--Reports from growers in sev-
eral sections of Florida, as well as surveys conducted by representa
tives of this Bureau during the summer, indicated that a very heavy in
festation of mole crickets could be expected during the fall with com
sequent severe damage to fall-planted crops, particularly in the Plant
City area. During the latter part of August, the Bureau received re--
quests from the Florida Mole Cricket Control Committee for furnishing
poison bait for the control of these insects in Hillsborough, Manatee,
and Hardee Counties, A mixing station, therefore, has been set up in
Plant City, and arrangements have been made for establishing mixing
stations in other parts of Florida, when and if they are needed. An al-
lotment for mole cricket control has been made from funds appropriated
for the control of incipient and emergency outbreaks of insect pests and
plant diseases. Supplies of bait ingredients have been purchased to take
care of expected needs of this season. This Division assigned a project
leader to take charge of the work and to cooperate in surveys with the
Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations and the Florida
Mole Cricket Control Committee. Two men were also assigned from the
white-fringed beetle project to supervise mixing stations. The activity
of the Bureau in mole cricket control consists of the purchase and mix
ing of bait materials, furnished to the Florida Mole Cricket Control
Committee for distribution to growers through their representatives in
the various counties of Florida. Bureau reoresentatives work in close





*28--

cooperation with the Florida Mole Cricket Control Committee in
determining needs and in making prcper distribution of bait
materials

Transit inspection -As a result of a news item in the Aug-
isit 11 issue of the Memphis, Tenn Press Scimitar, the transit
inspe-'tor at Memphis intereepted eight shipments of soil which
iriginated in the Japanese beetile area. One sample was found to
o(Uatcin a dead adult Japanese beetle which originated in Camden,
N. The samples were retrieved from the personal baggage of del-
egates to a convention in Memphis, and the soil was to be mixed
vc(itfh a portioni of soil from the Mississippi Delta in which it was
proposed to plant cotton, the stalks of which would be taken to the
1942 international convention of this organization. The alertness
cf the Memphis inspector thus prevented a possible infestation of
'a- anese beetles from being introduced into the vicinity of Memphis
by means of these soil sarmples Delegates to the convention, when
advised of the hazard involved, whole-heartedly cooperated by turn-
ing over all soil :amDles to the insectors,

INSECTICIDE INiVEST'I ATIONS

Isolation of cornmounds in :esame oil and prickly ash resoonsi-
ble for s-Inergistic effect with oyrethrum--The discovery by C.
Eagleson, of the Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals, that
:esame oil only, of a large number of vegetable and fish oils tried,
enhances the tox"ci ty of oyrethrnm insecticides to houseflies, made
it appear desirable to determil.e the nature of the principle re-
sponsible for this synergistic effec.L Accordingly, H. L, Haller and
L. D Goodhue separated sesame oil into four fractions, by distilla-
tion in a molecular still Tests against houseflies by W. N, Sulli-
van, uf the Division of Control Investigatioris, showed that the
synergistic principle was to be found in the first two fractions-
Fr(mr them a previously known :Clorless crystalline compound, sesamin,
was isolated, which with pyrethrum insecticides produced a much higher
nortality of houseflies than the same concentration of pyrethrum alone,
Sesamin is a complex organic compound having the molecular formula
C .H I,0 I'. is chemically unreactive, all six of its oxygens being in
ether form. In subsecuent studies Mr. Haller and F. B. LaForge have
prepared asarinin, a mirror image of an isomer of sesamin, and Mr. Sul-
livan has shown that it, like sesamin, also enhances the toxicity of
pyrethrum insecticides. The asarinin was isolated from the bark of
the .outhern prickly ash (Zanthoxlum clava--herculis). Whether or not
it also i:; to be found in the northern prickly ash (Zanthoxylum ameri-
canim) remains to be determined, as the Division has thus far been un-
able to obli in a sample of the root or bark of this plant.

Ilnre'ticide sampo sium On September 8 to 12, inclusive, the
American Chemial Society held its sermiannual meeting at Atlantic
City. The meetig was attended by seven members of the Division. At
a s-rosium on insecticides, funsi eles, and hormone sprays, organized




-29-

by R. C. Roark, introductory remarks were made by him and the follow-
ing four papers were presented by members of the Division:

C, M. Smith and L. D. Goodhue: The Present State of Our
Knowledge Concerning Particle Size and Efficiency of
Insecticides.

H. L. Haller, L, D. Goodhue, and H. A. Jones: The Con-
stituents of Derris and Other Rotenone-Bearing Plants

H, L. Haller, F. B. LaForge, and W, N. Sullivan: Some Com-
pounds Related to Sesamin. Their Structures and Their
Synergistic Effect with Pyrethrum Insecticides.

L. E. Smith: Some Synthetic Organic Compounds Developed by
the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.

Representatives of several companies shvoed interest in the
question of particle size and in manufacturing compounds for insecti-
cidal use on a large scale, Phenothiazine, phthalonitrile, and
xanthone were some of the compounds discussed in this connection.

BEE CULTURE

Effect of environmental factors on nectar secretiono--The follow-
ing is taken from a report of work by Geo. H. Vansell, Davis, Calif.,
on the effect of environmental factors on nectar secretion: "Alfalfa
plants exposed to light from mazda bulbs from 5 to 10 p. m, beginning
February 15, were blossoming freely by March 10. Two alfalfa plants
which showed a difference of 24 percent in the quantity of sugar in
their nectars last year, were again checked this year, When on dry
soil the difference in amount of sugar in the nectar was 17 percent
and on wet soil 26 percent. Between these two plants the sugar content
of the nectar appears to show constant characteristic difference. This
characteristic difference may have significance from a breeding stand-
point, if it proved to be hereditary. Under a humidifier an Acala
cotton plant yielded involucre nectar in quantity, each gland yielding
54 microliters. The sugar content was from 17 to 24 percent. A blossom
nectary yielded a tiny amount of nectar with 7.2 percent. The leaf-gland
nectar was 11.9 percent sugar. Unlike the vetch and acacia, the extra-
floral nectaries did not yield until after the flowers appeared. Cotton
plants in the field at Davis yielded so little nectar that they attracted
no bees."


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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