News letter

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Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:
AA00023227:00055

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text

UNTEiD .A SrTELANT BOARJ DEPART~\JET OF GR J CULTUFrE








BURE AU OF
ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE
NEWS LETTER






VOLUME VIII
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter41 no8





UNITED STAT S DEPARTMJT OF AGRICULrTURE

BUR~ATU OF NTO0MOLOGY AJD PLATT JUARAETIE

iN E YI S L E T T E R

FOR JUTE 1941


Vol. VIII, U7o. 8 (Iot for ptiblication) August 1, 1941
-------------------------------------------------------ADHIIIS TIPTION

The following statement in reference to the Bureau, its activities, nsd functions, premared on July 21, 1941, is believed to be of general interest.

The Bureau of Entomology and Plant Qaarantine was croatca by or-anizational mergers brought about by administrative orders of t'he Secretary of Agriculture issue, in 1933 end 1934 anCd given general legislative approval in the "KAricultural Anpropriation Act of 1935," ap0rovcd' March 26, 193, and the "Agricultural Appropriation Act, 1936," ap;rovC May: 17, 1935. Those mergers brought to-ether activities of the Department concerned with investigations on insect odsts, conducted by the Bureau of Entonology; activities concerned with the enforcement of plant quarantine ro ulations and operations to control and prevent the spread of insoct pests which had gained limited foothold in the United States, conducted by the Bureau of Plant Quarantine; operations aimed to control or eradicate plant cliseasos,conducted by the Bureau of Plant Industry; and chemical investigations on insecticides and funr:icidcs,carried on by the Bureau of Ihemistry and Soils.

The functions of the Buroau cover a wide field of interrelated activities concerned with (1) ways of protecting man, his crops, livestock, and possessions front insect pests; (2) provcnting the introduction and spread of plant pests through the importation and interstate movemOnt of plant anc :ple-t products; and (3) action program to eradicate, suppress, or control insect pests end pl-nt diseases. Its functions include research, service, regulatory, and control activities and involve contacts and cooperation with nost of the Bureaus of the Depar-tnent and many vnits of other Departments; with agricultural agencies throughout the United States and in other countries; and with industry, transportation concerns, farmers, and others concerned with agriculture in its broadest sonsc.

Research activities.--Therc are more than 700,000 known kinds of insects of which ore than 250,000 are known to occur within the United States. Many of th se are injurious, a goodly number are beneficial, and others are of littlA or no economic importance as far as known. The investigations on insects and their economic relations involve studies of their characters, classification, anatomy, physiology, responses, ha bits, life history, and distribution with the view of developing practical and economical methods for destroying harmful ones and promoting and increasing the usefulness and

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distribution of those which are beneficial. Such studies are concerned
with spccics injurious to agriculture aI forestry, those which attack and annoy man and eninals affcctin g their health, those which infest hunan habitations, and those which are injurious to industries or destroy possessions and products. They also deal with the culture and use of honeybees and with beoekoopinr- ractices to develop fuller utilization and returns from this important beneficial insect. The development of control measures includes considcrtion of the use of natural enemies, cultural practices, mechanical means and devices, and the use of chemicals to attract, repel, and kill noxious species. Chcnical investigations are conducted on problems relating to the composition, action, and app~lication of insecticides and materials that may be used with them and to develop nethoes by which such materials may be rmnufactured.

Service activities.--Insects affect man, agriculture, and forestry in many wayC. One 2 the i p ortant functions of the Bureaul is the service it gives by dissemi. ing information on how pests can be controlled and useful species utilized. This is done through correspondence, publications, and by other devices, includin supplying information to extension agcncios. Research is the basis of such service. The service activities cre not restricted to giving advice but under appropriate conditions include surveys to determine the status of pests and technical planning and supervision of control operations carried on by other Fedcral agencies, States, local communities, and individuals. Service also includes ani in matters relating to pla mt quar.antinos and insqnections and certifications of regulated products so the may move freely and in full compliance with plant quarantine regzlations.

Roeeulatory activities.-An important part of the work of the Bureau is concorned with the enforccmuont of plant quarantines and reoalatory orders desibned to prevent the introduction and s-read of lant pests, the introduction of a disease of the adult honoyo'ces, and the inspection and certification of plants and plant products to meet the sc.nitary requireAments of foreign countries. There are 40 Fec~eral plant quar,-atines and regulatory orders now in effect--22 of which relate to the entry of products from foreign countries, 10 relate to the movement of products within the mainland of the United States, and S relate to movement of products from Hawaii and Puerto Rico to the mainland.

These activities are carried out in close cooperation with State and territorial officials. The Bureau adviscs the Secretary on matters relating to )lant quarantines and is responsible to him for the enforconent of the following acts dealing .rith plant quarantines and related matters:

(1) The Insect Pest Act of 1905.

(2) The Plant Quarantine Act of 1912, as an:ended.

(3) The act of 1922 govcrnine the imortation of adult honeybees.

(4) The Terminal Inspection Act of 1915, as aennded, which is enforced in cooperation with the Post Office Department.





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(5) The so-called Mexican Boraer Act which is reenacted annually
and regulates the movomcnt of railway cars and other vehicles into United States from Mexico.

(6) The so-called Ex-ort Certification Act which is reenactec annually and authorizes the inspection and certification of plants and plant products to neet the sanitary requiremnts of foreign countries.

Operations to control insect pests and plant clise ses.--In cooperation with State and local agencies the Bureau carries on operations to eradicate, supress, or control insect pests and plant diseases which occur rs incipient or encrgeoncy outbreaks or have been introduced f and ined limited establishment within the United States. These activities are carried on under authority included in the act making appropriations to the Departent or under the special legislation approved April 6, 1937, and an;cndcd May 9, 1938, which authorized the Department to cooperate with State, local agencies, and individuals to control incipient and emergency outbreaks of insect pests nd plant. diseases.

Organization.--To carry out the activities rnd functions assigned to the
Bureau it is now organized into 23 divisions. Twelve of these deal with research, 6 with control and prevention of spread, 4 are concerned with service to the Bureau, and 1 has rcgalatory functions only. Five of the Clivisions are headquartered in the field. The others have headquarters in Washington.

Regular projects.--The activities of the Bureau carried out under regular appropriations cre provided for under 25 subappropriation items and classified in the project system of the Departmcnt under financial work and research line projects. Classified under the nain functions referred to above those projects are divided as follows:


Financial Work Line Function Projects Projects Projects

Research 27 81 839
Service 4 10 ReClntory 4 12
Control 9 66

Total 44 139 "' 39

Laboratoatories and offices.--The Bureau carries on the work assigned to it within every State in the United States, in Hawaii, in Puerto Rico, and in the nnal Zone -nd has field laboratories in Mexico, Japan, and Uruguay. One hundred and twenty-six la,-oratoris are maintained at various places in the United States for carrying on investigations, and 295 offices and suboffices to aid in conducting re gulatory and control operations. Where practicable headquarters for these various functions are housed in the same buildings and in -any cases the quarters are supplied by cooperating State or local aeoncics.





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Personnel.--With the regular funds appropriated for the use of the Bureau it employs under departmental appointment on the average of 3,200 people. In addition to this a goodly number of individuals are employed by field agents under letter of authorization--the numbers varying with the season and needs for the work. Those figures do not include those employed on projects conducted under allotments from funds provided for emergency relief which in June 1941 totaled 6,825.

For June 1941 the appointed employees paid from regular funds totaled 3,358--316 of these are headquartered in Washington and 3,042 at various
locations in the field.

Funds appropriated or allotted to the Bureau for 1942.--The funds provided for carrying on the work of the Bureau for the current fiscal yeor come from a number of sources as indicated in the following tabulation:

Salrrips and expenses from regular appropriation act......... ... .......... ................ $ 5,329,978
Allotment for research from funds provided
through appropriations authorized by the
Bankhoad-Joncs Act. .................. ....... ... 15,700
Allotment for research from Com odity Credit
Corporation Capital Fund.................... 16,000
Allotment for service from appropriation to
Civilian Conservation Corps..................... 5,000
Appropriation for the control of incipient
nd emergency outbreaks of insect pests and
plant diseases--season 192..................... 2,225,000
Allotnment from WPA appropriation for relief
for 6 months, ending December 31, 1941.......... 2,432,075

Total.............. .......... ...... ....... $10,023,753

The regular appropriation "Salarics and Expensos" may be divided into groups as follows:

Administration ..................................... $ 165,980
Researrch ........................................ .. 2,187,532
Control ani prevention of spread, including
enforcement of certain domestic plant
quarntines ................... ...... ... *..... 2,210,545
Regulatory only........ ....................... 765,921

Total........... ... .............. ........ $ 5,329,92

-Activities carried on to combat incipient and neergency outbreaks of plant
9ests.--Opert tions conducted in cooperation with State and local agencies to eradicate, suppress, or control plant pests with funds provided under special authorizing legislation vary from season to season. The following tabulation lists the projects now underway, gives the amount of funds now allotted to each, and the n ne of the division of the Bureau responsible for the administration of the work:





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Projoct Adltmnt Division

Grasshopper and Mormon
Cricket Control $ 553,000 Domestic Plant Quarantine Chinch Bug Control 300,000 White-Fringed Beetle Control 300,000 t T Pear Psyllid Control 365,000 Fruit Insects Hall Scale Eradication 30,000 Scrowworm Control 6,500 Insects Affecting Man and
Animals
Su,:arcane Mite Eradication 800 Cereal and Forage Insects Administrative Expensc: 45,000 Ac inistration Unallotted 624,700

Total appropriation $2,225,000

Projects carried on with allotments from WPA.--The $2,432,075 provided from emergency relief appropriation for the first 6 months of the current fiscal year is allotted foir carrying on 8 projects. The following lists these, -ives the amount allotted to each activity and indicates the division of the Bureau responsible for the administration of the work:

Project Allotment Division

Blister Rust Control $ 637,000 Plant Disease Control Barberry Eradication 391,500 Phony Peach Disease Control g4,500 Domestic Plant Quarantine Peach Mosaic Control 62, 500 i" Citrus Canker Eradication 24,500 it i Gypsy Moth Control 341,000 Gypsy Moth Control Dutch Elm Disease Eradication g64,oc0 Jpanose Beetle Control Wild Cotton Eradication 23,000 Pink Bollworm Control D. C, Administration 4,075 Aaninistration

Total $2,432,075


F. S. PUCKETT
Senior Administrative Officer
Division of Pink Bollworn and Thurberia Weevil Control

Word has just been received that Felix S. Puckett died suddenly at
San Antonio, Tex., on July 23, 1941. He was born on March 7, 1885, in Buda, Tex. He attended the Texas A. & M. College, graduating in 1907 with the Bachelor of Science degree. He pursued graduate work at that institution the following year aund beecane associate director of the North Carolina Experiment Station in 1910, serving for 5 years. He then became associated with an industrial concern dealing with potash, and served as the publicity agent for this firm until he became associated with the U. S. De-artment of A Sriculture.

Since October 8, 1917, Mir. Puckett has been in continuous croloynent









with the Departicnt and, with the e;xceptiqn of a short period beginning in 1928, has been connected with work on ,,ink boll;orn eradication and control. He was in general charge of field operations carried on in cooperation with the St2.te of Texas to cradicate the early discoverer. infestations of pink bollworm and weas responsible for organizing and directing clean-up work. His lone- association with the work of pink bollworn control made him unusually well qualified to be in charge of the business operations of this project. For nany years he has been the business manager of the work associated with .pink bollworm control and quarantinc enforcement. In 1928 he was transferred to a similar position in connection with the work on European corn borer. This assignmont was terminated in 1930, when he returned to the mink bollworn project.

Mr. Puckett was a conscientious and indefatigable worker and a valuable emp-loyce.


DUR U EMPLOYEES CALLED TO THE COLORS OR TRATSFERRED TO SPECIAL NATIONAL DEFENSE ASSIG TTS

Buck, Fred H., Agt., Pl. Dis. Cent. (BRC), on furlough, inducted, Selec.
Serv., Juno 25, 1941.

Crmuib, Sa rucl E., Jr., Asst. Fld. Aide, Truck C. Ins., inducted, Selec.
Serv., June 23, 1941.

Nalewaik, William J., Agt., Jap. Beetle Cont. (DED), O.R.C., Natl.
G., called to active duty July- 1, 1941.

Scharlach, Arthur 3., ACt., PLW Cont., First Lt., O.R.C., U.S.A., Fort
Huachuca, Ariz., called to active dutr July 1, 1941.

Walsh, Harry S., Chief Oporatinr Engin., For. P1. qar., U. S. Naval
Rosv., resigned July 14, 1941, to answer i :cediato call for active
service,

FRUIT INSECT IIVEiSTIGATIOYS

Propylcne dichloride for peach borer control.--Oliver I. Snapp,
of the Fort Valley, Ga., laboratory, reports that prcliminary e eriments havo inrlicated that propylene dichloride is nore effective than ethylene dichloridce eainst the peach borer. Ton-percent propylcne dichloride emulsion save a hi,7her mortality of borers than the recommended 15-poercnt ethylene dichloride onemulsion around 3-year-old peach trees, and 15-percent propylenee dichloride emulsion tave a higher borer mortality than the recommended 20-porcent othylone dichloride emulsion around 12-year-old trees, ITo injury to the trees has yet boon observed.

Colonization of imorted parasite of Jaranese beetl.--J. L. King and L. 3. Parker, of the Jap nose beetle laboratory, Moorostomm, N. J., have reported on colonization of the hy-enopterous parasite Tiphia vernalis Roh. durin; the snrin of 1941. A total of 14,000 field-collected







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females were distributed in 139 colonies in eow York, Pennsylvania, oew Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Virrginia, West Virg;inia, and Ohio. The colonies consisted of 100 females each, except 1 which had 200. To lte a total of 1,561 colonies have boon distributed in 12 States and the District of Colunbia by the Lureau, in cooperation with State agencies. In addition, 1,500 females were supplied to the University of Marland this spring for rearing purposes.

Use of carbon dioxide for anesthetizing J,-aanese beetle larvae.-In connection with the production of milky-disease spore material at the J.anese beetle laboratory at Moorostown, nany thousands of Ja anose beetle larvae are inoculated by injection of the inoculum into the body cavity. In this work extreme care is necessary to avoid puncturing the intestine, and the activity of the grub is an important factor in the procedure. S. R. Dutky has devised a nethod for anesthetizing the -rubs, which consists of the use of dry ice to furnish carbon dioxide gas, which is used as an anesthetic to inactivate the larvae prior to injection of the inoculue.
This prior inactivation has reduced the danger of losses of the inoculuun uring the injection process and has greatly facilitated the handling of the larvae. He has found that larvae may be anesthetized for a period of G hours with little or no ill effect.

Colonization of type-A milky-dniease organism.--R. T. White, of the Japanese beetle laborator,, has reported the conyletion of the program of colonization of the milky disease, caused by bacillus popilliae Dutslky, in Noew Jersey. This work was started in the fall of 1939 and has been carried out in cooperation with the eow Jersey Departnoent of Agriculture. A total of 450 plots, averaging about 3/4 acre each, were treated, the plots being located at z out 3-1/2-nile intervals throughout the infested portions of the State. Milkyi-diseaso colonization is also being carried on in Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Tow York, and Connecticut, in cooperation with the appropriate a~aencies of those States. Colonization treatments have also been mado during the fall of 1940 and the current spring at Government reservations throughout the -encrally infested beetle ara. About 5,500 acres in all have been treated--approximately 1,500 acres in and adjacent to the District of Columbia, and the balance on 43 Government reservations in Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, ew Jersey, and ew York.

IXICAL FRUIT FLY CONTROL

Inspection completed in Juno.--The annual tree-to-tree inspection on citrus fruits in the regulated area under Quarantine 64 was completed before June 30. This inspection was the neost difficult on record because the excessive rains had caused weeds to grow in great abundance and prevented cultivation of a 1-rge percentage of the groves. High water, weeds, and mosquitoes harassed the workers throughout the period of the inspection. Larval infestations for the season totaled 552. They were found during the following months: Noveombr, 1; February, 17;.March, 168; April, 343; and May, 23. Trap recoveries for the year a-mounted to only 979 adult A. ludens. Total fruit shipments for the season declined 2,257 equivalent carlots from last season's production. The total production for this year was 44,198.3 equivalent cars. Of this amount of fruit 16,595.5 cars of grapefruit and 45.4 cars of oranges were processed.





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CEREAL AnD FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Hessian fly-resistant whieats commercially available in California.-L.'G. Jones, Sacramento, Calif., reports that a breeding program for the production of wheat varieties possessing resistance to the hessian fly and to fungous diseases was begun in 1931 by W. B. Cartwright, of this Bureau, and G. A. Wiebe, of the Bureau of Plant Industry. This program was conducted by them for several years and has since been continued by W. B. Noble of this Bureau and C. A. Suneson of the Bureau of Plant Industry. By 1938, the first fly-resistant wheat suited to California conditions, Big Club 38, was ready for release, This was developed from a cross betwoen the fly-resistant winter variety Dawson which is not commercially suitable'to California and the fly susceptible spring wheat, Big Club, a good commercial variety there. In 193 a 3-acre plot of Big Club 38 was sown for 1939 harvest, and a 30-acre field of it was sown the following year. In I _I a 75-acre field. of the new variety showed a plant infestation of 2 percent, as compared with an average plant infestation of 79 percent, with visible fly damn;e, in neighboring fields of the regular Big Club. Another wheat, known as Poso 41, is now roady for increase. The development of this variety involved the transfer of fly resistance from the winter wheat, Dawson, to the commercially desirable spring wheat, Poso. Although Big Club 38 and Pose 41 both possess a high degree of resistance to the strain of hessian fly -revalent in California they are not resistant to the common fungous diseses. Prognross is being mede, however, in the development of varieties resistant to these diseases, as well as the hessian fly. Resistance to the fly and also to the furgous disease, commonly called bunt, has already been established in one promising variety developed from a cross between Dawson and Big Club. By the use of a stem-rust-resistant line in the breeding operations, it is hoped that a strain of the popular Big Club type possessing resistance to hossian fly, bunt, and stem rust will be ready for release in 1943.

Control of armyworm in wheat.--R. G. Dahms, Lawton, Okla., reports that the amount of poison-bran bait necessary per acre and the possibility of a bait containing less sodium arsenite than usually recoTmended for the control of the armyworm (Cirphis unipuncta (Haw.)) in wheat has recently been investigated by R. G. Dahms, in cooperation with F. A. Fenton, of the Okllahoma Exoeriment Station, In all cases sodium arsonite was the poison used and bran was the corrior. No molasses or other attractant was used. Under the conditions of these operiments, 10 pounds, dry weight, of bran ocr acre was not enough for effective control of the armyworm. Bait spread at the rate of 20, 30, and 40 pounds per acre gave approximately the samo kill. More worms were killed in a shorter tine when 2 quarts of sodium arsenite wore used per 100 pounds of bran than when 14 quarts were used; however, at the end of 72 hours there was only 7.5-percent difference in favor of the 2-quart strength.

JAPESE BEETLE CONTROL

Refrigerator-car funigation.--Preparations wore completed early in June for the fumigation of refrigerator cars with hydrocyanic acid and methyl bromide. The first car was fumigated at the Edge Moor, Del., yards





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on June 19. O-ing to the Jrcat increase in the amount of freight being handled, all opcretions at this yard re confined to ane track, whereas two tracks were available last yorr. Trri:ns are constantly being drilled on cither side of the track used for funigr:ti.o-n. This co:-dition has greatly increased the drngcr to the n n engaged in fumiga-tion work. The number of 'cars funigtecd wnc rtrcmcly light until Juno 26, w ecn 14 were fu_-i-rgted. From all indicatio-ns, thc pcnak at Ed{ge Moor will not bo reachcd until July. It is rmportc that, owing to dr-y wcther, the crops iln tis area hrve been reduced rpprpxi.atcly 50 percent. Fumigation of p;tn.tocs bc,:an at the Grccnvich YarC.s, Philadcelphia, on Junel 17. Up to Jun e 26 more cars wecre fuzigrato th,ro tlan at Edco Moor. One-pmound c ns of teo fumigant wore used at all points except Edge :oer and proved satisfactory. On cool days a little nore tie is consumed in cnptri~,-, the c.ns, because of their lower pressure, but this is the only inconvenience eno ntord. Funigation of Oepty refrigerator cars with HCN began in B,ltim.orec on Juno!e 25, The s nm procedure us followed -s l].-st yerr, usin- liquid HCYT -rd splashing 3 uinces in each end of the crr.

Cut-flo'rer end far.-;ro du cts insmoection.--Althou l the first comrmaence of adult Jarnese beetles ampere to bs c rliecr tain usual, indications are that the p oak flight of the inscoct will be no c:rlir than in other years. Accordingly, it "as ossiblo rt the beginning of the sumner qunrajntinc on June 15, in nost of the northern sections of the regulatd .ro,, to c-'rtify without actual inspection locally rown farn products an.n cut flowers. In the Elnire, N. Y., arca, where cut-'flower inspcctio:, has been a problem, arrn cm~cnts wore :-iade to have all flowers gro-n by infested or unclassified estnblisnents brought to a central location during certain hours for inspcction an+. certification. Two crrmntion raowrs on Long Island startocd during the ionth to ship thousand's of cut flowers each C.ay to southern points. Shipments to thcsce points will continue as long as prices hold, 1proba.bly a few dlrs into July. Inqucirics "t vrrious estates in Westchester County, I. Y., inlic,,tc,' that 5 statess will ack, ro sulr soniweekly shin-.. monts of cut flow-rs during July andl Au st, On June 1 and 2, 5 tomorrry inspectors bcnan ,,work on the Eastern Shore of VirJ:inia. Owing to the 1ry weather rndL the lt n-otato season, cut flowers verc the princinal items inspected the first week in the month. Sveral Ir,.rc cut-flower cstablishmcnts are now locatei in the vicinity of Cro-e Charls-, To. Because of the hca7- infestation there, all cut-floer establisnt. s :kin i? 1-ts to points outside the rcCulat'cLd arcn ?voe screconld ,ackin:- shlccs, Sevcntone acult beetles wcrc rc- ovc from 1,117 boxes of cut flowers inspect dC in this ar. On June 16, 21 to-.?o:r .ry.farnmructs insnectors rr amnlo:ya on the Eastcrn Shoris of Mar- l c n vird ii~a, 1rnl L in Dclaware. C:abbage and lettuce wocre the first varieties of farm -ro.lucts offered for i:nscction in Virginia. String bcrns was the first crom to be ccrtific- from iir lTan.c During the nonth cabr.-:c, cucumbers, .rlic, onions, strin- beans, n, whit
-potatocs wore offered for insmcction. Si:ty-ninc beetles re remover fron ":pro:inatoly 0,00O units of frn -)rolucts inspected.,

Rcduc.d cl.osage of load arsnte sists nurscrymcn,--Rcrduction from
1,500 pounds to 1,100 pounds per acre for lead Orscnatec treatment of nursery plots ".ade it possible for one lprge Now Jcrsc- nursery to retain scvcral sizable plots in a certified status that would otherwise hove been discen-





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tinued. Results of analyses of soil sales collected at southern New York
establishments showed thrt no relcading was nccessary in that area. Original Icading totaling about 3 acres was done at several establishments on Long Island, and for the first time in recent years lead .arsenate treating of nursery plots was performed at an establishment in Westchester County, N. Y. At the Westchester nursery a block of 2,000 snall Taxus was treated with this material, in order to eliminate the labor and expense of carbon disulphide e ulsion treatment which for several years has been the basis of certification at the nursery. At a-Long Island establishment a valuable topiary ,,ew was leaded for shipment in the fall. A Long Island green-house was treated with nanhthalene flakes and screened for certification. In this area there were also 6 yards of "potting soil funmiated with carbon Kisulphide for a perennial frmne,. Two ercerimental lead arsenate treatments of growing stock were made at a Mar-land nursery late in June. If the shinmer is satisfied with the results, additional treatments will be made next year.

Vogetle inspectionn in New Jersey.-Inspection of ve getable plants was the outstanding feature of plant-inspection work in New Jersey. This required the services of three inspectors during the entire month. Several thousand morc plants were certified this month than in June 1940. The largest vegetable-plant grower was from 2 to 3 weeks behind schedule in filling orders, owing to the dr- weather this spring. This same establishment grows large quantities of celery plants, which are generally shipped in July, but the dry weather ruined the entire crop. The business of this firm has been boosted by orders received from a mnail-order fiirm doing a Nation-wide business.

Certified cabbage for surplus con:modities.-Arrangements were made with a representative of the Federal Surplus Co: ,oditics Corporation at Cape Charles, Va., to obtain caj"eba:e from a certified source for shipment outside the Ja manese beetle regulated area and thereby avoid the necessity for funiaZ-tion of the cer after loading. Seven carloads of this -roduce front an uncertified source wore fumiKatedi, however. One-pound cons of methyl bromide were used at this point for the first time and worked very satisfactorily. The blowers used to circulate the gas were of the old type, with four-strap hangers for supporting them in the bunker door, making then difficult to handle and install satisfactorily. As nost of the work at Cape Charles is carried on at night, this arrngement is hazardous. Officials of the Pennslvania Railroad were a vised to return the blowers to the Edge Moor, Del., railroad yards, from which they wcro obtainedl, and request replacement blowrcrs with one-strap hangers. This change was accomplished.

F =i:iation of farn )roructs in mo tortrucks.--Informrtion was requested during June by the manager of the Eastern Shore Shippers Traffic Association, Only, Va., on the possibility of fuigating farm Droducts in refrigerator trucks and van-type motortrucks. Observations were i cediately made conccrning the fensibility of this type of funigation. After ex mining nany trucks, it was generally agreed by members of the staff of this Division and by Heber C. Donohoc, of the Division of Control Investigations, that refrigerator trucks ore tight enough to futigatc, mand that with their air-circulation equipment, bunkers, and vents, they are ideal for fumigation. The vantype of truck, however, presents a different problem. Work on fumigation of the latter t-pe was continued into July.





-. 11Railroad men instructed in fumigation procedure at Pittsburgh .--On
June 19 a representative of the treating section of the Division visited Pitcairn Yards of the Pennsylvania Railroad, near Pittsburgh, to check over the fumigation equipment on hand there. An empty refrigerator car was spotted on a spur track and railroad men instructed in the fumigation procedure. The hanger arm used in supporting the blower was too long and suggestions were made for shortening it. The devices for applying methyl bronide from the 1-pound cans were found to be of an old ty New applicators were ordered by the railroad. Two gas masks to be used by the fumigators had canisters for protection against HCNT. These were removed and replaced with methyl bromide canisters.

Weather vs. beetlos.--In reporting to the meteorologist of the W1eather Bureau at Baltimore, one of the Weather Bureau's observers at Belair, Md., on June 30 wrote: "While reporting weather conditions, we are forcibly reminded of the, havoc being wielded by the Japanese beetle. The beetle is doing more damage to crops, fruits, and truck gardens than any weather conditions, including .rind and hailstorms. Unless there be some remedy to offset the Japanese beetle, it will take everything of a food nature, and that looks like an omen of famine." The letter was referred by the Weether Bureau to the district Japanese beetle office in Baltimore.

Rhode Island leases beetle traps to residents.--The Rhode Island State
Department of Agriculture has this year adopted the policy of leasing Japanese beetle traps to individuals an others in the Sta:te at fees of 50 cents to $1.50 oneach, epending on whether or not the traps are tended by State men or by the individual rentingC the trap. Brayton Eddy, administrator, Division of Entomology and Plant Industry, anticipates a shortage of State traps for rental purposes.

Soil analyses completed.--Analyses of representative soil samples from lead arsenate treated@ nursery plots, heeling-in areas, and coldframes were completed at the Moorostown, N. J., laboratory during the month and the results were given to the nurseries concerned so that the necessary retreatnents to bring the Ic.d arsenate content up to the required dosage could be nnmade before the July deadline.

Nursery and grenhouse scouting under wjay.-Assigmnent of scouts to survey class I nurseries and greenhouses for the presence of the Japnese beetle began in Maryland and Virginia on June 1S. Beetles were found on a few plots that were uninfested last year.. Hervy flight of the adult was expected early in July in this area. Extension of the scouting to more northern districts will proceed as soon as adult emergence warrants.

Copper scarcity forces grower to screen with netting.--In rescreening seven certified greenhouses at Red Bank, N,. J., a large classified grower was able to obtain copper wire sufficient for only three houses. The hardware-supply house informed the superintendent of the greenhouses that it would take from 6 to 8 months to obtain delivery of additional wire. The remainder of the houses were screened with netting, which will require annual replacement.





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Virginia beetle found during TCNw York inspection.--On June 25 an inspector in New York City exraining cut flowers for shipment to a point outside the resulted area found an adult Japonesec beetle on cut gladiolus just received from Cheriton, Va,

Federal Housing project includes leaded plots.--One of the large nursories in northern New Jersey has sold 42 acres of the establishment for a Federal Housing project. Twenty-one lead arsenate treated plots were included in this acrage.

Gysy aru' brown-tail noth inspections.--0wing to the seasonal life
cycle of the gypsy moth, only 1 egg cluster was found in the course of June inspection. This was observed on nursery stock offered. for inspection. The itonem was refused certification and uninfested stock was substitute., Larval infestation was found in 2 truckloads a ad 1 carload of lumber, 2 carloads of excelsior, r u 1 truckload of laurel. A total of 84 ~g~sy noth larvae wore removed and stroyed. In addition, 42 larvae of 'bron-tail moth were found during the inspection of a carload of reels.

Training, schools for W. P. A. Dutch elm disease scouts.-- 1. P. A. scout training started in the States of Connocticut, ITcw Jorsey, lew York, and Pennsylvania Rurina the first week in June. In Connecticut, since a constant general training ha;1 been carried on t]roua'hout the sanitation period, it was possible to 'It crews of experienced men in the field almost imnnediately. The training of all former and potential scouts was completed in New Jersey by June 7, using portions of 2 rainy days for instruction at field headquarters. In Moe districts in Pennsylvania, training was carried on in conjunction with scoutive. The Pennsylvania, schools were established at Philadelphia, Re,-edin, an East Strausbur In the Binghamton, 7. Y., arena there was no typical wiltin7g of elm folia-:e that could be observed by the new, men, so the tine was devoted to training the mno in climbing, use of naps, and writing< of suspect cords, Traiini was stressed in the Athens, Ohio, area, aavanta-e bein,- t :or of 2 ,rs of her-v rain to keep the regular en in the ara-e and give them a review of the important features connected with scouting work. A thorou>: mental rnC physical adaptability test jras used for the new men. In the Wilkes-Barre, Pa., area, 1 coa was spent in training non in the principles of scouting for Dutchl eln disease symptoms and in the proper use of ropes for climban, Over 50 percot of the men in this area were e-cpcrienced scouts, and with the now men distributed azong the experiOnced crews, it is not 'e-clieve, that the quality of scouting will suffer for lack of a morC extended trr i:in period.

Scout schools for men on regular funds.--Trainin: of now scouts cnployod on Dopartmental funds was started on Jvno 9, with 50 men. 3y June 15, 37 of these wore sent to the various rct,che. uoreas for summer scouting work. The following week, the scout school was continued for a large group of rcgular fund en. The trainin? program was conducted on the property of the Elizabeth ,aeter Company, in Union wshi Union Couty, J, at the same location used in previous years. In all a total of 243 non were enrolled for training and of thsc 205 completed the training and were assiner to Connecticut, Tcw York, ndcl Pcnnslvania Elm idclntification, Dutch elm cdiscase synp.atons, and cliiin: were allotted the major portion of the training





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schedule, Most of the non were assigned to the field on the completion of their third Cay of scout school.

j. P. A. field operations interrupted pending,7 allotment of funds.-On June 27, owing to uncertainty as to availability of funds after July 1, the Security Wage workers were told not to return to work until notified. They turned in their tools and equipment mnd these wcre checked over. Field operations were considerably curtailed by the necessity for moving some of the county headquarters, closing garages, disnmntlinr, backing, and loading equipment an@ transferring it to storage at the Newburgh, N. Y., warehouse. As this was the end of the fiscal year and the outlook for next year's prop:ran uncertain, little or no new work was started during the last week in the month, but a special effort was nrde to finish work already started, such as the final cleaning up of wood piles, beetle traps, and scattered beetleinfested elms.

Powder-company police arrest scout crew.--YLile scouting in Bolvidere Borough, Warren County, IT. J., on a street oposite the ITew Jersey Powder Ccrmany, a Dutch elm disease scout crew was arrested by the powder company's police. The scouts were taken to the ar3l's office in custody, and after 1l hours' questioning, and long after they had shown their identification cards, they were released, The men were arrested in the town and apparently not on the -:owder conmpa~ys grounds. Their maps were confiscated but were returned to them when they were released. The foreman of the crew had previously performed work inside the fence and had received several passes from the chief guard.

Oxen ,et truck out of Citch.--Timely assistance was rendered by a
farmer to a Dutch elm disease scout crew in Connecticut. The crew's truck had become mir.-d in a mucd hole of a dirt road. A nearby farmer, observing their -predica nent, insisted upon offering aid. His yoke of oxen were soon hitched to the front buymecr and with a few "geos" and "haws, coupled with observations on the undepondability of nocdern transportation, the farmer soon had the scouts on their way.

Hot weather wilts elms.--As a result of hot weathller I.te in the -:onth, wilted elms appear in greater numbers than had been the case in some previous summer --eriods. Elm leaf beetle defoliation was also becoming ouite -ronounced by the end of June.

Bethlehem field station and Easton garage moved to Allentow.--The
Dutch clm disease headquarters in Pennsylvania, formerly located in Bethlehem, was moveo to 532 Hamilton Street, Allentomn, at the end of Jun.e. The Easton, Pa., garae wras also vacated and noved to 123 South Jordan Street, Allentown.








FOREST INSECT I3MEVESTIGATIONS

Parasitization of hibernating oriental h g moth cocoons.--P. B.
Dowden, of the New Haven, Conn., laboratory, reports as follows: "Last winter a number of collections of hibernating cocoons of Cnidocampa flavescons W'lk. wore mado by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation in the vicinity of Boston, Mass., and sent to the New Haven forest insect laboratory for dissection. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the role being played by the imported tachinid fly Chaetexorista avana B., & B., which ovcrwinters as a larva within this host. A total of 3,918 living cocoons were dissected. Fifty-eight percent of then contained Chaetexorista larvae,
but unfortunately nany of the parasite larvae were dead, Only 23 percent of the hag moth cocoons contained. living Chaetexorista. These figures are of interest, when compared with similar work done the previous year. About the scno number of cocoons were dissected. Forty-seven percent contained Chacetxori-< larvae, and 38 percent contained living larvae of this parasite. Most of the collections were made from towns north of Boston, particul0rly Medofor, Revere, Winthrop, Beverly, and Salem. South of Boston the host population wa at such a low level that only a few small colk ctions of cocoons coul, be nade."

Parasite of sawfly cocoons possibly established prior to recent
importationse--J. V. Schaffner, Jr., of Now Havn,, Conn., reports that Microplectron fusciponnis Zett. is very ab7unant in an infestation of the sawfly Gilpinia frutetorum (F.) in a plantation of red pine at Southington, Conn. This sawfly infestation was called to our attention early in May by members of thc staff of the Connecticut Agricultural E1"eriment Station. The infestation is in a block of ;about 5 acres of red pine trees, 25 feet in height. The trees had bec fed. upon rather heavily in 1940, the dclefoliation remin:; from about 25 to 60 -arcent. The sawfly hibernates as prepupal larvae in cocoons in the duff. Recent rearings h]ave disclosed the species to be Gilpinia frr.tetoru (F.), which is of European origin, and that a very large proportion of the cocoons w.re parasitized. by a small hymenopteron. The parasite was identified as Microplectron fusciennis by P. B. Dowdon, of this laboratory, and later verified by the Division of Insect Identification. Liberations of this parasite were nade in European spruce sawfly infestations in Orane, Conn., in 1936 and in Westfield, Mass., in 1938, these points bein- respectively about 25 miles southwcstorl ad 35 iles northerly from the G. frutetorun infestation in Southington. It seems improbable that this stall arasitic insect could have migrooed 25 to 35 miles and increased to such a large population as is present in the Southington infestation in the 3 to 5 yeers since the liberations weer made. It is believed, therefore, that the parasite mar have been introduced into this area with its host.

Dinitrocyclohe:yql phenol effective against gpsy moth.--S. F. Potts, of the New Haven, Conn., laboratory, reports that a concentration of 1 pound of dinitrocyclohe:-yl phenol per 100 gallons of water applied to small plots nave complete kill of fifth-instar gypsy moth larvae in 5 d ys. Five pounds of cryolite rave slightly better kill than 3 poudcis of lead arsenate per 100 gallons of water.









Dr weather causes lovcring of voltage ,gracdent in trees.--T, J. Parr, of the New avcn, Conn., laboratory-, reports that the voltage gradients in trees of all species tested hrve boon rffecteC by the spring drought in New England# Normally, bases of the trees should be positive to the top early in the Ppring, and as growth starts a reversal should take place and the tops become positive to the base. This reversal started in April, but with the onset of dry weather the gradients began to sink again, ancL only recently, following several rains, have the tops become positive. The gradient in all trees is lower by several millivolts than it was at this time in 1940, and it now seems probable that the effect of the drought will be evident in the voltage gradient readings throughout the year.

Period of activity of overwintering adults of Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eich.) uring spring.--R. T. Wobber, Morristown, N. J., observed that elm logs cut March 26, 1941, were attractive to active a dults that were moving away from their hibernation quarters in the bark of standing living elms. The fresh-cut lo;s were racked in piles and covered with cheesecloth which was supported over then by a framework made of furring. This was incidental to another experinont, but afforded an opportunity to determine the period of time when neost overwintering adults are active in search of breeding material. Adults were first attracted to the log piles late in April but appeared in large numbers from Mra 1 to May 25, then decreased rapidly in nuirers until June 15, after which date no aults were attracted. The emergence of adults in the spring of 1941 front overwintering larvae did not occur until May 29. This first emergence occurred soon after the last date of extensive activity of overwintering acults--May 25. These observations indicate that there is a vast amount of attack of susceptible elm wood for breeding purposes during May. Such material thus serves as a reservoir of Ceratostomella ulni. Further data is being collected during this season on the activity of adults originating front overwintering larvae.

Fuigation and spray tests with hibernating H. rufipes adults.--R. R. PWitten and VT. C. Baker, of the Morristown, N. J., laboratory, report on their experinmental results for the control of hibernating H., rufipes adults in eln trees of snall size, using orthodichlorobenzene sprays and methyl bromide fumigation. None of the spray mixtures tested gave effective control. In the nethyl bromide fumigation treatments, dosages ranging from 2
to 5 pounds per 1,000 dubic feet and exposures of from 2 to 4 hours were tested. Only dosages of 31 and 5 pounds geave promising results an(d these need further experimentation before any definite conclusions can be drawn.

Exoerimental forest-insect control pro_ect.--J. C. Evenden, of the
forest-insect laboratory at Coour dtAlene, Idaho, reports that the experimental bark-beetle control project conducted through the cooperation of the Forest Service during May and June, to test the practicability of penetrating sprays as a means of controlling the mountain pine beetle in white pine, has been completed, During this period extrenely bad weather prevailed, which tended to reduce the efficiency of the operation ani to place the treatment under unfavorable conditions. However, if under such adverse circumstances the method is found to be effective, it can be adopted with safety. During this project over 1,000 trees were treated with a solution of orthodichlorobenzene and fuel oil. Experiments were conducted testing
different strengths of orthodichlorobenzene as well as the possibility of





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using wr,tor. with an e:nalstifier to supplement -the use of -oil as a. carrier. The final results of this project will Aot be avail ble until the latter part of July, when the last exaninations as to the, effectiveness of .the spray will be mado.

GYPSY MOTH AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH CONTROL

Seni-inaccessible infestations sprayed from autogiro.--Plans for the aerial treatment of a number of cysy noth infestations in towns located within the barrier zone by flyin over them with an autogiro owned by this project, and equipped with an apparatus which nixes the lead arsenate and fish oil in the proper proportions inrmediately after the materials are projected into the air, were completed before the end of May. This apparatus and the method of treatment were developed by the Bureau of Entonology and Plant Quarantine. The infestations selected for this t-pe of treatment varied in si ze, and were situated on high elevations that would require the use of extra, :ely long hose lines and which would be decidedly difficult to reach with prop.nd-spraying equipment. It was planned to base the autogiro at a small nirort in the vicinity of each section to be treated. It was expected, because of the extremely early hatch this spring, that the work would bo started during the latter part of Mair. However, the foliage development at the hi;.her elevations was somewhat retarded, and sufficient growth for satisfactory treatment was not present until the first of June. On June
2 the autogiro was flown from its temporary base at the airport in Turners Falls, Mass., to the Canaan, Conn., airport. The first area selected for treatment consisted of about 150 acres in Canaan. The terrain was extremely uneven and it was found that the movements of air currents over the area at certain times, particularly in t.he evening, were so violent that there was a decided tendency for the lead arsenate and fish-oil solution to be blown entirely outside of the area where treatment was desired. Treatment flights were practical on only one cvning while the auto -iro wrs treating this area. Conditions wocro usually best for treatment flights from Oaylight until 8 or
9 a.n. and front a little before sunadovn until dark. All of the aerial treatoent work luned for Connccticut was cormpletcc on J-une 16. The rutogiro then noved to a private airport in Sheffield, Mass., for the treatment of the Mount Washineton infestation. The treatment of this area was completed on June 21. After demonstrating aerial treatment work at a meeting of foresters in Durham, N. H., the selected infestations in Vermont were treated. All treatments were made at the rate of 30 pounds of lead arsenate per acre.

Autogiro demonstrates aerial _mps noth troatent.--A meeting of the
Now Enland section of the Society of Aerican Foresters, in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science, was held on the campus of the University of oNw Hnai-shire, at Durha, from June 23 to 26. The meeting was largely attended and included prominent foresters and ontomologists, and delegates front associated activities. Shortly before noon on June 24 an o-portunity was given to examine the autogiro and apparatus used in the aerial treatment of gylpsy moth infestations, developed by the Bureau of Entonology and Pla-t Qurantine. An area of ground near the University campus was then treated front the air in view of the assembly. The aerial treatment of gyps,- moth infestations in the barrier zone area was interrupted. for 1 day in order to make this demonstration possible.





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Increased gypsy noth work in Vermont.--Shortly before the first of
June a sufficient inur er of additional men had been assigned to gypsy moth work in Vernont to organize 2 r.iore crews. One of the new crews was assigned to scouting in Lowell Township, Orleans County, where 3 other crews were already employed, and the other crew began work in Swanton, Franklin Colunty. A total of 12 1W P. A. crows were then working in 5 western Vermont counties. Four of the crews were employed in Orleans County, 1 in Franklin County, 5 in RItlond County, and 2 in Bennington County. In addition, a small crew of regular employees was engaged on a special assignment in Addison County., 'Within a few days scouting work was discontinued in all Vermont towns, except in 1 totnri in Orleans Co~unty, eand the crews began the spraying of infestations. Sone burlapping work at infestations where thinning work hld p-reviousl booeen Fone ras also acco>:plishod. Spraying work was started on May 27 in Woodford Towmship, Bennin-ton County, southern Vermont, at the base of a mountainous ridge where the foliage had developed sufficiently to warrant this type of work. S.?raying continued toward the summit of the rice as the foliage expanded. The s1praying of other sections was be-un a few days later and progressed satisfactorily, despite the fact that :iost of the crews were necessarily directed by inexperienced foremen. It was necessary to discontinue spraring operations for 3 a ys about the middle of Juno. These days were scheduled as nonw-orking, days, although they were available for nake-upr tine. Because of the long period of fair weather, the non had no time to n:ake u and a halt in the work was necessary.

Gpsy moth spray hose da aged. by hedgehos--Hsedghogs have da..aed many lengths of g~sy moth sprDa hos this season in the I4assach'usettsVermont area, by gnawing off the outside rubber casing and biting into the underlying fabric. Hose damaged by these animals is usually located in those portions of the line near ledr and densely wooded hillsides where their dens are most con 'only located. C-Gpsy noth spra- hose has frequently been so seriously damaged by hogeohogs during the night that it burst as soon as pressure was allied on the followin- day.

Grsy moth s]pryi in Massachusetts --Four Crpsy noth sprayers began operating at infested locations in.Massachusetts, where thle development of the foliage had been most rapid, on May 26; and the remainder of the sprayers assigned to the Massachsetts barrier zone area were ,ut into active service soon after June 1. Alt hou_,h working under sevcral handicaps, the prog ress of the work was satisfactory during the month.

Connecticut grsy noth sp rain accomplished with small crews.--Foliagbe development in Connecticut advanced so r,--apidly this season that sprayin7 operations could be started much earlier than usual. The first sprayer in that State was put into o-perntion on May 16, in a location where conditions were esnecially favorable. Another machine b an work in Litchfield County on May 26, and a third nachine started on May 28. Weather conditions were fav orable throughout the nonth.

Gypsy moth spraying in Pennsrlvania.--By the end of Mayo practically all residential spraying in the Pennsylvania area had been completed, and preparations had been made to move the sprnyers and equipment to woodland spraying sites in Spring- Brook, Madison, Roaring Brook, Coving;ton, Lehifh,





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andn Lackawanna Townships, in Lackawanna County; in Pittston, Kingston, Plains, Jenkins, and. Bear Creek Townships, in Luzerne County; and in Coolbaugh Township, in Monroe County. By June 6, 25 sprayers were in operation on woodland spraying, while 2 sprryers were completing the spraying of several small and scattered residential infestations. These 2 machines, together with another recently transferred from the NeTw England area, were available for woodland s-rayin:g by June 10. At mid-month 17 of the machines were workin,: double shifts, 2 6-hour periods, whereas the remainin-g 11 machines were runnin.- on single g-hour shifts. Seven of the latter sprayers were manned by Y, Y. A. enrollees. The weather wns generally favorable for spraying, although it was necessary to respray several small areas where heavy, showers washed off the solution before it had had an opportunity to dry. Recent examinations of areas in Penns-ylvania where spraying had been completed showed that effective killing had been occormlished. In view of the early date on which spraying was started and the generally fair weather that prevailer duric n the period, it is expected that satisfactory control of the insect will result this season in the treated areas.

Gypsy roth work done by C.. C, during fiscal year 1941.--A total of 56,549 6-hour man-ays were used by the C. C. C. on gypsy noth work during the fiscal ycar 1941, as compared with 70,630 nan-la-rs used duringg the previous fiscal year. The decrease in work ,was dcue chiefly to the low enrollments in the C. C. C., T]which caused the a:anldonment of any camps. Gypsy moth work was done on a total of 70,620 acres. WJoodland scouting was performed on 52,873 of these acres, and open scoutin on 11,690 acres. Silvicultural thinning work ,as erformed. on 2,070 acres, and. 'urning work on 816 acres. Rebrushing was done on 1,517 acres that ha', been thinned during previous ye, rs. During: these operations 264,274 T:.rpsy moth eg clusters were dostroyec.. Only a small amount of burlap;ing work was possible this season, because of the necessity of using most of the avail ble man power for sprayin. lDuring the fiscal yar 19 41, 161,8l66 trees wero burla-mod and 268,594 F-psy noth cterpillars nd. pupae w re destro-ed by the non patrolling the :and;however, nost of this work was done furin, the previous larval season, which overlappd.l into the prc-nt fiscal year.

C. C. C. "gypsy oth spr .i.,--C. C. C. y psy moth work (urin:g June
consisted mainly of sprayin infested loc-tions in Massachusetts and Connecticut with lead arsenate and. fish-oil solution. The weather was unusually favorable for spraying operations. ile some time was lost because of forest fires andl raintorms, the loss was offset to some extent by the relonishing of the water suppy t several set-ups that would h;ve had to be abandoned, hadl there been no rain One spra or operating in Massachusetts and. two in Connecticut were loaned to the C. C, C by the Bureau of Entomolo-y ln Plant Quarantine, while an additional machine was loaned by the Connecticut gypsy noth organization for workr in tht State. The Intter organization also loaned several men to hel in the work, as well as a considerablo quantity of snray hose. Jxcollent cooperation was -given by the camp superintendents durin: the s ring season by furnishing the men necessary: to operate the spra-oers, even though the can1 quotas were very low, In order to do this, in some cases, all other casmp projects were seriously rc~dced or temporarily suspended. Spreying work by the crews at two camps in Connecticut was discontinued towarer the end of the month, as the supply





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of lead arsenate and fish oil furnished by the C. C. C. was exhausted, and also because of the acute labor shortage st the end of an enrollment period. The Connecticut gypsy moth organization furnished an extra half-ton of lead arsenate for the use of one crew where labor was available after the original supply had been used. It is expected that sufficient materials will be available to carry the work'from the camp in Massachusetts well into July, as enough was supnlied to run the machine on the double-shift basis, while labor was sufficient for only one shift. By the end of the fiscal year 561 acres had been sprayed by the C. C. C. in Connecticut and l 40 acres from the single camp in Massachusetts.

Administrative changes affecting C. C. C. g sv moth work.--C. C. C. work in the corps: area, which includes the Now England States, has been reorganized, all State offices have been discontinued, and many of the employees have been discharged. All C. C. C. work in this -rca is now administered :~d supervised by the United States Forest Service from their headquertrrs in Boston, Mass. The Strte foresters will initiate the projects and will contact the Forest Service through a liaison officer who will represent the State interests. Owing to this drastic reduction in C. C. C. administration and supervision, it was not possible for the Forest Service to continue the services of the C. C. C. official who has been assisting in the supervision of the C. C. C, gysy moth work east of the barrier zone that is supervised by this Bureau. No C. C. C. gq)sy noth work is now in progress in Vermont, although it is anticipated that crews will be returned to the work during the winter months. Three crews remain on gypsy moth work in Connecticut and one in Massachusetts. Although the plans of work designate 20-man crows, it will not be possible for the ca-ps to furnish that number of men unless the camp enrollments increase considerably. The work of these remaining crews is important, as most of it is done in towns just east of the barrier zone wher, considerable infestation is present, andC from which the spread of the insect to tons within the barrier zone is possible.

Preliminary observations on current g -sy moth defoliation.--No
accurate records on gypsy ioth defoliption are available at this time, as the effects of the feeding were only beginning to be visible at the end of June. However, S. S. Crossman has supa liod several preliminary notes based on observations made on trips through the in-fested areas. Defoliation in the Massachusetts and Connecticut areas west of the Connecticut River does not appear to be so heavy and e=t.cnsive as during some of the previous years, and no severe defoliations have yet been noted in this region. Three large oaks, approximately 50-percent defolited, were observed in Simsbury, Conn., but these trees were later sprcnred by the State gpsy moth force. There is considerable defoliation in the Rockingham-Smringfield area in Vermont, although the damage a penrs to be less e(teonsive than last year. FTirly Inrge areas showing defoliation, were observed in Walpole, N. H., across the Connecticut River from Bellows Falls Vt.; and heaviy feeding was reported in several towns in southeastern New Hnrshiro. Severe defoliations have already been noted in Groton, Westford, Boxford, North Andover, Danvers, Peabody, and in the Concord-Aycr section of Massachusetts, and heavy feeding by the gypsy moth has been reported from several other towns in northeastern Massachusetts. Con-lete defoliation of aple trees also





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occurred in Essex4 Roleyr, and Ncwberry, Mans.

Previously defoliated nrers exaomincd.--Inspoctions of areas where one or more serious dofoliations of woodland trees havo occurred during the last 10 or 15 ycrs wore m d during June in Granb ad vicinity in Conncticut, on Cprc Cod and the North Shore in Massachusetts, and in ,,aine and New Hao.shire. A large number of oak trees rInd some .white birch, hemlock, and spruce wore found to be dead or dying. Some of the trees seem to have showed Cofinite effects during the year following the defoliation and have been Gradually d ,in since that time. In ninerous instsnccs the trees had been growing satisfactorily, although in poor soil and sonetimos on ridges, and the dr-ing out of the soil following the defoliation hastened their decline; however, many of the dead and dying trees had been growing thriftily in good soil with a plentiful sup-ply of moisture. Some of the areas had been defiliated several tines, whilc others had sufforcd hear fecling for 1 year, followed by severe defoliation Furing the cnsuin. season.

PLA TT DISEASE CONTROL

Southern States appropriate increased funds for white pine blister rust control,--The regional office of the blister rust control project at Richmond, Va., reports th.t the States in the southern Appalachian region have steadily increase. their c-sh approprip.tions for cooperative blister rust control work. This is considercd a good testimony of their pporeciation of the control ooerartions in the whitc-pine-growing sections of the Ampalachian Mountains. The States c n.cerned are Georcia, Harland, North Carolina, Ternesseoo, Vir-ini, and West Virh:inia. Th: total cash appropriations for tis gro-. of States have increased as follows: 1936, $1,200; 1937, $1,005; 1938, $7,071; 1939, $7,039; 1940, $9,224; 1941, $8,300; and 192, $11,100. Those a-propriations tro supl onted each year by other cooperative services inelvin suppl-ing office space, the value of cultivated Ribes ostrrcei, the services of State nursery ins___ctCrs, and similar fortures. The. direct State raoropriations for this -,urpose have increased almost every year, with the exception of the fiscal yoear 1941, -'during which a serious fire season pr. vented the State of West Virginia fro making as large an allotment to blister rust control as it had ,anticipated.

Tow blister rust infections.--3lister rust on white pine wrs found for the first tiro in Shenandon County, Va., on Iy 7 at the Woodstock Gap picnic around by Stato leader J. G. Luce. Infected Ribes had boon fou-nd in the county previously. Only one tree was found infected and it had a bfir-sized branch canker in the aecial stage. The infection was aout 5 years old. -.o Ribes were found nearby. Rust on h.rhite pino was found in the fruiting sta.o alon-- the oorofibld River in Eardy County, W, Ya*, in M-y. This is the western-most location in which the rust has boon found in Hardy County. The discovery of a new pine infection center on the Shasta national Forest bout 14 niles west of Vollmnrs, Clif., in the Clear Creek drainage, was reported in June. A preliminary re-:ort indicates that several su-gar pines brve m erous cankors, some of them fruiting. The infection is of 1937 origin. Rust was found on western white pine for the first time in Glacier National Park at the head of Lako McDonald, in Miont-nR.





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Blister rust exhibit attracts ottcntin.--Thc blister rust diorama
Exhibit, which w.as placed at three county fairs in California in May, namely, Angcl's Camp, Chico, and Mariposa (all those districts being adjacent to blister rust aroes), was viewed by n:r than 20,000 people. Considerable interest was shown b-1 the people in the menace of the rust an ,'.n any contents were overheard on the excellence of the exhibit.

Phenolo ical data.--In dMassachusetts, District Lepder Brockway found the first uredinial stago of the blister rust reported ,n Ribcs in Lynnfield Township, in Essex County, on June 2, one 7ay in advance of a similar report from Ipswich, Essex County. A report was also received from District Leader heel-r indicating the development of this stage of the rust on Ribes cynosbati in S outhampton, Hapshire County, Mass., on June 2. The first cvidence of the telial stage of the rust was reported by Mr. Wheeler in Southa-mpton, Hom'-shire County, on Ribes hirtellun on Junemo 40. This stage was also notch July 1 on Ribes sativi,-n (oscnod red currant) in Mid!lcton, Essex Counrty. In Connecticut State Leader Riley reported the first uredlinia on June 9, found oy Mr. iller, 1r. Riley also states that he found a little urodinial infection on Juno 12, but it was light. The first evidence of the uredinial sta-o of the rust in Vermont was recorded in Arlinto n, Benninfton County, on June 3, and in Maryland on June 14, near Dooeep Creel La]ke, in Grrctt County. In the NTorth Central region, uredinia vw.as first noted on Ribes in Mic!.ignan in the Umpper Peninsula on IMa' 23, an in the Lower Peninsula on May 24, although it is believed this wtas in evidence at least a week earlier. In Ohio it was re-orted that the production of aecia began as early as A-ril 14.

Results of initial an- s3bfsequnt surveys in three Ohio counties.-Since 1933, 3 counties in Ohio--Fulton, Geauga, and Portae--hve been given a second complete survey for barberr medication. These are rural counties. The lar!gost town, Ravenna, in Porto C County, has a popular tion of
-bout 7,000. There are 9,234 farms in the 1,342 square niles comprising the 3 cou-ties. Harry Atwood, in charge of .barbrry-ore.:ication work in Ohio, pictur-s the barberry-eradication situation in these counties as follows: At the completion of the initial intensive survey 1,619,720 barberry bushes had boen destroyed on 1,442 proyoerties. If these bushes had been evonlr distributed, the barberry concentration woule have excoeded 1,311 bushes per square nile, or more than 2 bushes per acre, with an infested propertT on every 0.7 square mile of area. Only 163, or sli-ghtly more than 10 percent, of the properties were found in tonms or villages; 11.6 percent were rural locations having planted -ushes; and 77. percent wero properties on which wild^ bushes were growing. Every sixth frrn had bushes, -,d 1 or more bushes were fomnd crov wing wild on every seventh falrm. DuringT the second intensive survey, .which has just been completed, 98 new proportics were found infested; 79 of these, or 50 percent, had wild bushes on themo. Barberries were found on 30.4 percent of the old locations in Portage County, on 14.3 percent in Goau, a County, and on 15 percent in Fulton County. During the second intensive survey of these counties a total of 140,506 barberry bushes were locatCed. This is approximately 8 percent of the total that has been eradicated in this area. The 95 new proporties represent 63 percent of the tothl number that have been found in-





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fosted, During the second survey 93.5 percent of the bushes found were on old properties. Owing to the wide distribution in these counties, at least 1 nore intcnsive survey will be necessary and thereafter only limited oreas will need attention. Geauca -and Portaoge Countics rre in theo. most heavily infested section of the State.

Stem rust causes slight dnagc to winter whoat.--Stcm rust damage in the %winter 'Wheat Bolt nay be 7,riefly summarized as follows: Stem rust omanace in Kansas is not e:q octd to exceed 1 pcrcont. In NTebraska grain is ripo, with vory little if any damn-ge in the southern part of the State. There is some green -rain in the Panhandle 'ut losses for the State as a
whole will not exceed a trace. No damage is exrctcd to winter wheat in Colorado. Da nage to winter wheat in Iowa and M1iissouri will not exceed 1 or 2 -percent, and stemn rust will cause less than 1-percent damage to wrheat in Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, Michian and Pennsylvania.


COTTON INSECT INESTIGATIOtS

Effect of nicotine sulfate for aphid control on pink bollworm moths.-L. W. Noble and 0. T. Robertson, of the Presidio, Tex., laboratory, report that cage tests with 4-percent nicotine sulfate-lime dust were conducted to determine whether this insecticide, when used to control aphids on e-perimental cotton, influenced the population of the pink bollworm moths. In previous tests nicotine sulfate sprays had been found to reduce the hatching of -oink bollworm egs. In tests with 4-percont nicotine dust, the longevity
of ioths was reduced slightly when cages were dusted at an ordinary rate used for aphid control. In 1 experiment in which cotton in a 4 by 1 by 4-foot screen ca o as dusted as for aypLid control, the 34 moths lived from 1 to 8 days, or an average of 5.59 dys, whereas in an untreated check cage the 24 moths lived from 3 to 10 days, or an vcrago of 6.29 (-ays. In another expcriment the moths were confind in small screen cylinders. The dust was aWnlie at the usual rate ,and tue blost was directed within 18 inches of the cylinders on 2 sides so that the drift made contact with the moths. Thoe wcre stupefied by the nicotine but recovered within a few hours. The 16 moths from the t-o ted c li:.ders lived from 1 to 9 drys, or for an avera:c of 5.44 days, whereas the 1S moths from the untreated cylinders lived from 2 to 9 6ys, or an avorrge of 5.78 ,Lays. In a third test in which the moths wore c-nfined in screen cylinders end givcn an extremely hervy dosage of 4 -percent nicotine sulfate dust, they we~oe killed or did not recover sufficientl- to become active. As it is the habit of pink bollworm moths in the field to hide during the day under soil surface debris or in cracks in the soil, they are not so much exposed to contact ins cticides !s the moths used in these tests. The results of these tests indic ate that 4-porcent nicotine sulfate dust applied for aphid control on cotton will not affect pink bollworm moths sufficiently to significantly affect the ex-erimental results.

The boll weevil situation in South Crolina.--For some years comparatively few cotton growers in South Carolina h1ve used calcium arsonate dust for boll weevil control. Thiis has been uce in part to the light weevil infcstations and in mart to the fact that several influential agencies in the State have discouraged its use. F. F. Bondyr and C. F. Rainwa.ter report that





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more dusting was done for boll weevil control in June 1941 than in any year since 1930. This was duo to the higher infestations in many fields, to the prospect of serious boll weevil damage over large areas, and to the development of the mixture of calcium arsenate with sufficient rotenone to purvent serious aphid infestations. In the hibernation cages at Florence, S. C., the emergence during May and June was 9.99 percent of the 27,500 weevils installed in cages last fall. The percentage emergence was higher this
year than during any previous year since the hibernation experiments were started, and the average square infestation in the cottonfields in the vicinity of Florence was higher during the 1 ast week of June than in any June during this period, as shown by the following records:

: Percentage of boll : Average percentage weevil emergence in : of square infestaYear : hibernation cages tion during last : during May and June : week of June

1932-------------: 3.95 : 21.90
1933 ----------: 7.07 : 15.20
1934 ------------- : 2.10
1935-------------: .71 : 4.50
1936-------------: .01 2.22
1937-------------: 7.03 : 16.00
1938-------------: .76 : 5.10
1939----------: 2.54 : 8.30
1940-------------: .0 : .90
1941-------------: 9.99 : 28g.

At Florence the weevil omorgencp into the cottonfields was studied by collecting all the weevils in a 1/5-acrc trap planting of cotton and on a flight screen trap. No weevils were collected before May 15; in the period Msay 16-31, 33 were collected; from June 1-114, 592 were collected; and from June 16-30, 490 were collected. Of the total weevils collected 43.9 percent were taken after June 14, or after the time for effective nop treatment of cotton. Much of the cotton was too lrge for effective mopping by June 10. Bendy and Rainwater sumarizo the situation at Florence, S. C., at the end of June as follows: "The weather in April and May was favorable for cotton, whereas in June the weather was favorable for boll weevil development and not favorable for cotton. The boll weeoovil emergence in the cages was the highest since hibernation cage experiments were started in 1932. More weevils were taken from the trap crop than any yar since experimental trap plots were started in 1938. More weeoovils were caught on the flight-screen traps than in any year since 1933, when this series of flight-screen studies was begun. The mop applications delayed the squire infestation. More dusting is being done for the control of the boll weevil than in any year since 1930. Many farmers mopped their cotton early but the square infestation is now from 18.0 to 58.5 percent, These farmers have
turned to the dust applications to try and save their crops."

Pink bollworm hibernation tests in Big Bend of Texas.--L. W. Noble and W. L. Lowry, Presidio, Tex., report that the percentage survival of pink bollworm larvae in hibernation tests conducted at Presidio was higher





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for the winter of 1940-41 than for any winter since the tests were begun. In these tests the larvae are given treatments sinula-ting various winter cultural practices. These treatments consist of different dates of burial at 2-inch, 4-inch, and 6-inch depths, with different date of winter and spring irrigations. The percentage neergence of moths in 1941 and during the previous 5 ycrrs for identical treatments was as follows: (1) In the series in which all plots were irrigated on March 15 the percentage of moths energing this spring in the plots buried on November 1, 1940, was 23.31 percent, as compared with an average of 3.11 percent in 1939 and 1940. In the plots buried on December 1 the survival was 19.54 percent, as compared with 14.94 percent for the 5-year period 1936-40. In the plots buried January i, 1941, the survival was 24.31 percent, as compared with an average survival of 10.56 percent during the previous 5 years. In the plots buried February 1, 1941, the survival was 35.25 porcont, as compared with 10.74 percent during the previous 5 years. In the plots buried March 1, 1941, the survival Wras 31.45 percent, as compared with an average survival of 7.90 percent during the previous 5 years. The average energence of moths in all of the plots that were buried on five different dates between ovember 1 and March 1, all of which were irrigated on March 15, 1941, was 26.78 percent, as conDared with an average encrgence of noths of 10.32 percent during previous years, (2) In the series in which all of the bolls and cocoons were buried on December 1, 1940, where the irrigation took place on March 10, 1941, the survival of moths was 18.12 percent, as compared with an average of 10.04 p rcont during the 5-ycur ?criod 1936-40. Whre irrigated on April 1 the survi-ral was 17.84 percent, as compared with 7.30 percent during the previous 5 years. Where irri ateC on April 20 the survival was 13.36 percent, as compared with 6.95 percent during the previous 4 years. Where the plots were not irrigated the survival was 6.25 percent, as compared with 4.31 percent during the previous 3 years. The avcraeo survival or spring enmergence of noths for the entire series where the date of burial was December 1, 1940, was 1,389 percent, as compared with an average survival of 7.50 percent during previous years. The figures given are wci ghted averages. The total number of pink bollworm larvae in cocoons and bolls installed in these experiments was 39,489. The total number of moths onemerging was 5,157.

Winter survival of pink bollworm in the Juarez Valley, Chihuahua,
Mexico.--The first record of winter survival of the pink bollworm in the Juarez Valley is reported by Messrs. Noble and Lowry. The occurrence last fall of an unusually hcary pink bollworm infestation in the Juarez Valley (on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande, opposite the lower X1 Paso Valley)
afforded opportunity for conducting hibernation tests in that area. This division, in cooperation with the Division of Pink Bollworm and Thurberia Weevil Control, assisted officials of the Mexican Departnent of Agriculture
in conducting these tests. Although the prcontage,enorgence or moth recovery from the hibernation cages was low, 10 noth specimens have been identified as the pink bollworn, thus establishing a record of winter survival in this area.






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PINK BOLLWORM AND THUR1ERIA WEEVIL CONTROL

Wild cotton eradication in Florida.--A number of years ago a
program was began to eradicate the pink bollwvorm from southern Florida and adjacent keys through the destruction of the wild cotton plant, which acts as a host to this dangerous cotton insect and from which it was spreading into the main Cotton Belt. The work for the 1940-41 season was brought to a close at the end of June. The program for the season was an unusually satisfactory one, and was carried out with from 90 to 100 W. P. A. employees, approximately 200 C. C. C. onrcllees, and a small number of Bureau employees. At the close of the season the C. C. C. camp was dismantled and moved clsewhore, as that organization will not participate in wild cotton eradication in Florida in the future. Three clean-ups were completed during the past season in no-rly all are-as, and there was a total reduction of more than half a million seeoodling plants, ovgr the previous season. For the month of June, 1,347 across was covered, from which were removed 10,138 seedlings, 34 sprout plants, and 48 plants ilh mature bolls. During the first week in June a program was inauguoratcd which had for its purpose the location end removal of dooryard cotton plants from Dade and Broward Countics. In Dade County, cotton found on more than 200 locations yielded 623 mature and 1,157 seeoodling plants. A very light pink bollworm infestation wes found in these dooryard plants. Information obtained in Cuba, as the result of a survey
for wild cotton during 1940 and 1941, proved conclusively that the pink boll-!orm could mintain itself on only 2 or 3 decryarcd plants which fruited heavily. Consequently, in the future, dooryard cotton plants in Dade and Broward Contics will be removed each year, to prevent build-up of infestation from that source.

TRUCK CROP AND GLRDEE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Studies on aphids affecting potatoes in Mainc.--Uon the return of D. J. Caffrey to the- Wshington office, after calting a.survey of the investigations on the beet leafh_oppr, W. A. Shands, who was drafted to serve as a substitute for Mr. Caffrey, has been assigned to a special investigation dealing with the biological asLects of aphids affecting potatoes in Maine. The investigatins performed by hir. Shands will be independent of those carried on by Theo. E. Bronzon, who lhas returned to Houlton, Maine, to resume work on tihe chemical control of these aphids. It is expected that the information obtained by Mr. Shanls will be of valuo in the applic tion of control measures. Thro species of oanhics are involved in this problem including the green peach aphid (Myzus pcrsicao (Sulz.)), th buckthorn aphid (Ahis abbroviata Patch), a th0e potato aphid (a.crosiphun solonifolii (Ashl.)). Little is known regarding the host plants or migratory Lhoits of th-se ap-ids. In addition to causing a direct reduction in yield as a result of the--ir feeding, tese spcies of aphids transmit a disease known as 1"leaf roll," to 'hich the Green Mountain variety of potato is particularly susceptible. Potato tulbors affected by this disease exhibit a series of -ark concentric rings within their tissue after cooking which reduces their value for culinary pur-





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Thrips control on snap boens fails to increase quality and yield
of crop.--Five applications of various insecticides during the period when blossoms of snap beans were heavily infested withh thrips failed to increase the quality and yield of this crop, according to an experiment conducted by C. B. Wisecup at Sanford, Fla., during April and May 1941. Four randomizod blocks containing 1/65-acro plots were used to compare sprays contaiinng pyrethrum, pyrethrurn-rotonone, tartar emotic-brown sugar, and nicotine sulfate, respectively, with untreated checks. In addition to large numbers of the Florida flower thrips (Frankliniella cephalica (Crawf.)), in the blooms, a heavy infestation of the greenhouse thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche)) developed on the leaves. None of these materials prevented on increase in the numbers of thrips, but both the nicotine sulfate and the tartar eoetic-brown sugar sprays resulted in thrips populations signrificantly lower than in the untreated plots. No significant clifferences in the total weight of bean pods harvestoc. were doonstrated, nor were there any significant differences in the calculated number of bean pods from any treatment. The uue of the avorag weight of the beans harvested as anq index of quality showed that the b:ean uods from the nicotine sulfate trecnments were significantly superior to all others. The degree of thrips co .trol obtained did not affect the "set" of bean pods but it appears that the tartar emetic spray affected adversely the quality of the beans produced.

Load arsenate controls vegetable weevil on shadc-grovm tobacco in plant bed.--,xprimc nts conducted by F. S. Chlaterlin, of the Quincy, Fla., labor tory, hve substantiated the results obtained in previous experiments indicating that loed crsonate, used either as a spray or as a dust, will readily control Listrodores obliquus Klug., ,which has since 1937 become a rather i rtant plant ted post in that area and which, when carried to thec tobacco fields on infested plants, has resulted in serious injury to the stand. The experiments indicated that the arsonicol will exert control in eit;r th!e spray or the dust form at dcosage rates of 3 pounds per 100 gallons of the spray or pound of the dust per 100 square yards of plant bed space. Two or three applications during the latter part of t-h plant-bcd growing season usually serve to give sufficient protection ;:ainst the insect.

Early plowing of winter cover crops roeuces w.irveworm infestation in irrigated lands.--M. W. Stone, of the Ventura, Calif., laboratory, in invotigations conducted during 1940-41 with winter cover crops in areas infested by Limonius californicus (Mann.), found tl.t increased wirewor populations will result after even 1 years planting of winter cover crops, if they are allowed to remain standing, during the tine of adult emergence or until the last week in March or the first week in April, as was the case in the experinontal plots. The following table shows the kind of cover crops tested and the average nur.foor of larvae per square foot of soil 16 inches deep in 1940 and in the early -nd late plowed plots in 1941.





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Cover crop 1940 : 19
: :arly plowed : Late plowed
: Numb or : I7uber : Numb er
Barley --------------------: 1.10 : 0.: 2.31
Mustard --------------------: 1.26 : .5 : .94
Clover---------------------: 1.09 : .42 1.15
Vetch ----------------------: 1.45 : .28 .72
Fenugreek------------------: 1.47 : S.47 .69
Control--------------------: 1.05 : .0 : .33
Average (cover crop)----: 1.27 : 0.49 : 1.16


The above results were based on cover crops planted between November 1 to 6, 1939, in 3-fields, in a randomized-block arrangement of plots, there being 16 replicates of the cover crops, barley, mustard, clover, and fallow plots mand 12 replicates of the votch and fenugroek. -Half of the replicated plots were plowed under on February 20 and the remaining half from the last week in March to the first week in April 1940. A total l of 20 in 1940 and 24 in 1941 l/4-squear-fcot samples of soil to a depth of 16 inches were taken at aendorn from each plot and sifted prior to the planting of lima beans in May and Junc 1940-41.

Green June beetle larvae in tobacco olent beds controlled by gasoline and ethylene dichlorid emulsion.--I.n e-orimnts conducted by L. 3, Scott and Joe Milan, of the Clarksville, Teom., laboratory, on the control of Cotinis nitida (L.) in tobacco plant beds, it was found that both gasoline and the othylone dichloride enulsion are effective for the control of the larvae when applied by pouring into small holes spaced 18 inches apart in both directions. The emulsion was applied at the rate of 4.7 gallons per 100 square yarOds of bed (1.5 ounces per hole), whereas the gasoline was applied at the rate of 12.5 gallons per 100 square yards of bed (4 ounces per hole). Examination of the top 12 inches of soil 3 days after the materials were applied showed that the emulsi n Imc killed 83.54 percent of the grubs, whereas the gasoline ha killed 67.01 percent. The material caused only slight d mace to the tobacco plants. Mustard. oil emnlsion, kerosene extract of pyrotlhru, carbon disulfide em'jsion, paris green-bran bait, paradichlorobenzone crystals, paradichlorobenzene in kerosene oil or cottonseed oil, and calcium cyanide failed to provide satisfactory control, the calcium cyanide. causing very severe plant damage.

Effect of sugars on production of eggs by narcissus bulb fly.--In
experiments conducted at the Sumner, Wash., laboratory, Paul M. Eide found that sugars fed to the narcissus bulb flies kept in cages for the purpose of producing eggs for ovicidal studies ha2 a pronounced effect on the egg laying of these flies. Flies which had only pollen and. water available de-posited an average of only 8.2 eggs peor female, as corpeered
with those furnished maltose, the lowest of the sugar fed flies, which laid an average of 39.1 eggs. The average egg deposition of flies furnished sucrose, plus pollen, was 98.1. The apparent crder of influence, as indicated by totals of eggs deTosited in 11 series or replic-tions, was sucrose plus pollen, lovulose, sucrose alone, dextroso, honey', and ma-tose. This information is of considerable irmortan.ce from the standpoint of bait sprays, as it is of interest to kn1ow that feeling of the flies rast precedo egg laying,.





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INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS

Clear Lake gnat as a possible food for fish reared in hatchery.-According to A. W. Lindlquist, of the Nice, Calif., laboratory, arrangements have been made with the California Fish and Game Commission and a private fish hatchery to carry on some tests using gnats caught in light traps as fish food in iatcheries. There is a possibility that these gnats may provide a valuable supplemental source of factor "H" and others that promote growth and reduce death losses. The gnats are kept in cold storage to prevent decomposition. If a profitable use could be found for the great numbers of gnats obtained in light traps, their control would be greatly augmented with funds so obtained.

Healing extracts of maggots popularized by the press.--During the last month, two popular articles have appeared regarding Willixm Robinson's discoveries on the healing extracts of maggots. One, published in the Du Pont magazine for June, was entitled, "Exit--Wearing Halo, Maggots Saved Lives before Men Fneow Why. Modern Science Solved the Riddle, and
Now Carbanide, Synthetic Urea, Is 1Medically Approved in the Healing Arts." The other article was in the June 14 issue of Collier's and is called "Hiuble Healers."

Cooperative advisory service in control of cattle grubs.--Reports
from J. Myron Mawell to E. W. La~ce, of the Dallas, Tex., laboratory, indicated that more than 15,000 cattle in 31 counties in Oklahoma were treated with the standard cube-soap wash Curing the past winter season. The treatment was under the supervision of the county agents and resulted directly from demonstrations made by the personnel of the Dallas station during the 1939-40 cattle grub season. Two pure-bred hords were treated systematically with the cube-soap washi in Cherokee County, Tex., throughout the last grub season, with practically 100-percent kills of grubs.

Rearing stableflies.--Craig Eagleson, of the Dallas, Tex., laboratory, reports that a very decided improvement in the larval medium has boon effected by mixing an equal part of wet pect moss with the fermented chopped alfalfa used as the matrix of the medium. Dr. Eagleson states that, although a coi rplto generation has not been reared on this medium, the large size of the first crop of pupae reared in it was very satisfactory.

Control of sand flies in diked and undiked mnrshos.--Isolations of larvae from soil samples obtained from dCiked and undciked marshes during 1939 by J. B. Hull and S. E. Shields, of the Fort Pierce, Fla., laboratory, showed that p reduction of 89.8 percent of the breeding resulted from the use of dikes ad pu~ps. Sand flies emerging in cages placed on the diked and unclikecd marshes also indicated that 90.65-percent control was obtained. Of the remaining 9.35 percent of the sand fly larvae not controlled in the diked areas, breeding was found to occur in wet soil of the ditches and in low nlacos which 0did not bocomn cry. During the last quarter highly significant differences were found in diked and undikod mrarshcs within the ditches and at distances of 10, 20, 40, and 75 feet from ditches. In no location was there a significant difference between the mangrove end pickloweed areas.





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Persistence of single infestation of American dog tick.--C. N. Smith, of the Vineyard Haven, Mass., lJoratory, reports that during April, May, and June no larvae, 1 nymph,,and 466 adults appeared in a plot in which various factors were controlled. Hosts of adults were excluded and mice provided on which seed ticks and nyrphs could feed at will. The plot was prepared and infested with eggs in 1939. The peak of adult activity was in mid-April, adults declining in numbers steadily until only 22 were found on June 13, 1941.

FOREIGN PLA1TT QUARANTINES

Entomological interceptions of interest.--A living adult of the lygaeid 4 gr eucus vicinalis Dist. was taken at Laredo on June 4 with pineapples in cargo from Mexico. Two living la vac of the Mexican frlitfly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) were intercepted at Del Rio, Tex., on April 14 in grapefruit in baggage, rand another at Houston, Tex., on June 6 in as orange in quarters, both fruits being from Mexico. A living larva of ti e trypotid Anastropha morbinpraooptans Sein was found at Mobile, Ala., on J: 3 2 in mango in stores from Cuba. One living adult of the elaterid Di astorius cribratus Lec. was intercepted at Laredo on May 22 with pineapples in cargo from Mexico. Living larvae, pupae, and adults of the otitid tuxosta stigmatias Loew were found at Brownsville* on June 3 in green corn in baggage from Mexico. Specinens of the coccid Formosaspis nigra (Tkah.) were takcn at the Inspection Houce, Washington, D. C., on January 29 on the leaf of Schizostachym dumotorum in c argo from China. A'living larva and pupa of the golochiid Gnorimoscihema plaesiosema (Turner) were found at New York on June 4 in potato in stores from Peru. The coccid Kuwanoaspis vermiformis (Takalh.) was taken at the Inspection House, Washington, D. C., on January 30 on Phyllostachys sp. in express from China. The coccid LepiC!osaphes okitsuensis iKuw. was intercepted at the Inspection House, Washington, D. C., on Fcbruary 21, 1940, on Shortia uniflora graicdiflora in mail front Japn. Livin- larvae of the curculionid Palacopus costicollis KMarsh. were intercepted at New Ycr'k on Ma y 21 in yam and sweotpotato in baggage, from Janaica. Five livin, and one dead larvac of the pink bollworm (Pectincphora gonsypiella (Saund.)) were found at Laredo on IMay 13 in seed cotton in a box car coming from-., Mexico. Living larvae identified as probably Rhigopsidius tucu~ianus Haller, the Argentine potato weevil, were taken at Seattle on May'27 in potatoes in stores from Peru. Living specimens of the mango weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae (F.)) were intercepted at San Francisco on May 27 in mango seed in ba.gage from Hawaii.

Pathological interceptions of interest.--As*ochyta pisi Lib. was
found on May 22 at New York on Vicia faba pods from Portugal. Ascochyta sp., unlike anything reported on Broneliaceae, was intercepted at Hoboken on February 21 on a bromeliad in mail from Costa Rica. Ascochyta sp. was intercepted on April 2-- at Laredo on leaves of Epidendrum: sp. aid Lycaste sp. in baggage from Mexico. Asterina delitescens Ell. & Martin was intercepted on March 28 at El Paso on red bay leaves in bfgage from Mexico. Cercospora angreci Ferrill & Roun. was intercepted on May 23 at Brownsville on Laelia sp. in airplane baggage from 1Mexico. The same fun:,us has been determined on a C-mbidium sp. leaf from India (apparently first report from India), intercepted in a mail shipment on December 23, 1937, at Washington.





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Another belated report is Colletotrichum orchidearum Allesch, intercepted on Vanda sp. (apparently first report on Vanda) in mail from the Philippines on September 26, 1940, at Hoboken. An undetermined species of Phomopsis resembling a stage of Diaporthe eres Nit. was intercepted on M~ay at Seattle on a mag-nolia plant from-Fingland. Dialodia paraphysaria Sacc. was intercepted on special-permit orchid plants from Guatemala on May 2 and from Venezuela on M!ay 17 at San Juan. Diplodina sp. was intercepted on May 13 at Seattle on Ephedra vulgaris from China. Hemileia oncidii Griffon & laub. was intercepted at Hobokon on April 22 on Epidendrum sp. and on May 26 on Oncidium sp., both being special-permit mail shipments from Costa Rica. Heterodera marioni (Cornu) Goodey was intercepted on May 26 at Miami in carrots from Bahamas. Kuehnoola malvicola (Speg.) Ar th, was found on April 17 at Roma, Tex., on a plant of Hibiscus cardio;hyllus from Mexico, intended for propagation. Lep tosphaeria eustoma (Fr.) Sacc. was found on April 13 at New York on banana leaves in stores from Cuba. Macro-homa oncidii P. Henn. was intercepted on April 2 at San Francisco on Cypripedium haynaldianum in mail from the Philippines. Microthyrium sp. (no previous reports found on Orchidacae) was intercepted on March 26 at Brownsville on Evidondrum sp. front Mexico. Mycogone sp. (no species reported on orchids) was found on August 22, 1940,at Hoboken, on Cattloya sp. from BrazilePstelozzia sp. (no species found reported on the host genus) was intercepted on February 24 at San Francisco on Marica coerulea grandiflora from Costa Rice. Phona bnkeriana Sacc. was interccpted at Ncw Orloans on Augast 11, 1940,on Vina sinensis pods from Dutch Guiana. Phyllosticta laeliae Keissl. was intercepted on August 12, 1940, at Seattle on Cattlera sp. from Costa Rica. Phyllosticta sp. (the same undescribed species previously intercepted on orchids from West Indies, Central America, and Japan) was intercepted at Seattle on April 12 on Dendrobium phalaenopsis from the Philippines. Pratylenchus pratensis (de Man) Fil. was intercepted on May 21 and Rotylenchus bradys (Steiner & Le Hew) Fil, on June 4 at New York in yams from Jamaica. Selonophoma sp., unlike anything found described on orchids, was intercepted on September 25, 1940, on Laclia sp. from Brazil, and a similar fungus on April 1, 19)41, at Hoboken on Oncidium sp. from Guatemala. Septobasidium prunophilum Couch was found on April 30 at San Francisco on Prunus sp. twigs in stores from Japan. Treodo oncidii P. Honn. was intercepted on April 23 at Hoboken on Oncidiur sp. from Guatcnala. Uredo sp. was intercepted on May 15 at Hoboken on 3Ratomannia sp. in mail from Costa Rica.

DOMESTIC PLANT QUAP WTINES

The grasshopper situation.--The grasshopper infestation throughout the Great Plains States is in general much lighter than in 1940. Rains during June delayed grasshopper development and at the same time produced lush marginal vegetation, which in many instances held grasshoppers out of crops. The principal infestations occur in the following areas: (I) In Minnesota a heavy infestation of the two-striped grasshopper (Molanoplus bivittatus Say) exists in the Red River Valley. Widespread baiting operations are in progress in 3 northwestern counties, but have been delayed somewhat by unfavorable weather and extensive farm operations. Over 3,600 tons of wet bait have been spread in Kittson, Marshall, and Polk Counties. (2) In central South Dakota the sane species is reported as developing increased local migrations into smanl-grain fields with crop





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injury severe in places. Sufficient bait materials are on hand to meet irmmediato needs in this area but there is a lack of farmer interest in the spreading of bait. (3) In Kansas an infestation of the lesser nigratory grasshopper '(L. mexicanus Sauss.), estimated to cover approximately 500,000 acres, recently developed in the southwestern counties, resulting in flights in a north and northwesterly direction into Colorado, Nebraslka, and possibly Wyoming, thirounghout the latter part of June. Those flights were made, however, before damage to small grains occurred. Farmers displayed little interest in baiting in this wheat-growing section, apparently hoping that harvesting would be well under way before dclaage could be serious. A study to determine the direction, extent of the migrations, and the resultant changes in population at the orgin and termination points of the flights is being made by control supervisors and survey inspectors, in coop.ertion with workers from the g-rasshopper-resoarch office at Bozeman, Mont. (4) In Arizona a severe infestation of n. mexicanus developed early in June in the Sulphur Springs Valley, covering appro: -tely 1,000,000 acres of range and losert land in Cochise --d Grahn Cou :;les. Sirall crop areas adjoin the infestations. Populaticns in those fields rano as high as 50 per square yard and flights occurred on June 12 and 13, extending northeasttarc into the r.rgin of Gila Valley. A careful survey will be made of those migrations and others which nay occur. It Swas deemed inadvisable by the local ra1inchers a.nd fairm.cr to att pt. control measures on a lar:Ce scale against this infestation because of the wide distribution over rango land. It is bcliev. that cdaage to the rane will not be excessive, exceTt in very localized aras. Sufficient bait Tterials have been sent to -oeet the ncdis of the farmers in protecting cultivated areas, and bait spreacders andC mixers have been cmade available to the local agencies. (5) In Texas, baiting cdecreased in the south and eastcontral arcas, whore the differential grasshopper (Mel7aoplus diffcrentialis Thos.) reached the acult stage. This infestation, which was particulrly threatening a month age, now sees to be well under control.

ArmSyorm infostations subsiding.--The outbrcok of armory (Cirphis unipuncta Hai.) in the Oklahoma ctd Texas Panhandles, as reported in the July i, 1941, issue of the News Letter, had subsided by the early part of June, and most of the worns had entered the pupal stage. Farmers in the areas where arnyorn; infestations first developed reported, that baiting was instrucntal in saving a good portion of the small grain from dostruction.

The Mornon cricket situation. --!ormon crickets are reaching maturity throughout the infestedl States and in most places ovipositior. is in progress. Bcands of younger crickets, :hoovevr, continue filtering dovn. from high altitudes. Egg deposition of the Coulee cricket, Peranabrus scabricollie Thos., was practically complete by the end of Juno. The intensive
control operations in Oregon where bait was being spread by aircraft has been brought to a close, with the exception of 2 heavy migrations north of the Warm Spri:gs Indian Reservation, where baiting is still in progress Kills of Mormon crickets with sodiuza fluosilicate bait by airplane stripbaiting ranged front 95 to 100 percent during periods of favorable weathr, and from 50 to 75 percent on d:ays unfavorable for cricket feeding. Owing to a lighter infestation of Coulee crickets, strip-baiting of this species resulted in kills averaging only about 80 percent. In Nevacla general activity of the Mormon cricket ciuring June was loss thl.n eectocd, ovwing to






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cool weather and continued rains. During the last week in the month, however, cricket migrations increased in intensity. In Idaho cooperation in large-scale control measures by volunteer sources has continued to afford excellent crop protection. In Jefferson o nd Madison Counties, Ida'ho, an average of 50 volunteer workers donated their services each clay during the week ended June 21, and also furnished trucks and teams for hauling and spreading bait to fight heavy bands of crickets along an 8mile front. Forty-five tons of sodium fluosilicate bait (dry weight) were spread. Excellent control was obtained, dead crickets being observed to
the extent of 70 to 80 per square yard. Moderate to heavy localized migrations of crickets also occurred in Yellowstone and Big Horn Counties,
Mont., in Juab and Tooele Counties, Utah, and in Hot Springs, Sheridan, and Washakie Counties, Wyo. Crop damage was prevented or held to a minimum in all these areas. Mormon cricket migrations in south-central South Dakota were halted early in June, after which the crickets scattered, and little crop damage occurred.

White-fringed beetles emerge.--Adult white-fringed beetles were observed during June at various points in the infested States and by July 10 emergence was observed in all the infested areas. Except in Noew Orleans, where a large percentage of the insects have now reached the adult stage, peak emergence is expected between the O1th and 20th of July.

White-fringed beetle control under way.--In accordance with the provisions of the program of work which called for the application of control measures, such operations are being conducted cooperatively with the States, and will be continued through the period of peak emergence of the beetles in the areas as a whole in places where the infestations are of such a nature as to present an appreciable hazard of artificial or natural spread. Such work is also being continued in the 5 areas of isolated infestations on which an attempt is being made to determine the effectiveness of different methods as to each type of area, with eradication as an objective. At Bolton, Miss., which is one of the areas where eradication is being attcmpted, 28 recently emerged beetles were found, of which 26 were dead, indicating the effectiveness of control measures. Later, some 60 beetles, most of which w ead, were dead, were found in the same yard.

Chinch bug infestations light.--Bocause of the prospects of heavy chinch bug infestations in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, andl Oklahoma, as indicated by the survey conducted by the Bureau in the fall of 1940 and by reports from State officials during the winter, the Secretary, on June 9, allotted for chinch bug control funds from the appropriation for the control of emergency and incipient outbreaks of insect pests and plant diseases. State officials kept the Bureau informed as to developments of infestations throughout June and inspectors wer assigned by the Bureau as requested to assist them in estimating needs for creosote, and in supervising its distribution. Heavy rains occurring at frequent intervals throughout the infested areas during June and the early part of July, reduced the populations of chinch bvu nymphs and produced a heavy growth of vegetation, which in many instances kept the insects in small-grain fields after harvest and thereby reduced migrations into corn. Fungus disease, occasioned by the darpness, elso contributed to the further destruction of those pests. Consequently,






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the need of constructing creosote barriers to protect cornfields was minimized and requests for creosote came from only a few counties in the entire chinch bug area. By July 10 a total of 270,850 gallons had been purchased and delivered, as compared with nearly 2,150,000 gallons used by July 10 of last year. The situation, as reported in the early part of July by State loaders and field scouts, indicated that little, if any, more creosote would be needed. The most severe throat to corn this spring existed in Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, but even in these States the infestations were very spotted. and generally light, in comparison with last years infestations.

Phony poach inspection.--In the phony-diseased area nursery
environs inspections were made the first order of business in June. Over 22,000 properties were inspected in 12 States and it is probable that, with a very fve exceptions, all the 388 nurseries, the surrounding zones of which woro inspected, will meet certification requirements.

Peach mosaic inspection.--During Juno, orchard inspection for the peach mosa.,c disease was continued in Arizona, California, Colorado, Now Mexico, Te.as, and Utclh. In California the number of trees found infected represented a reduction of 25 percent over last year. In Colorado the finding of 7,147 mosaic trees in Mesa County represents an increase of 2,065 over the 1940 season.

Fifteen States assist in peach-tree inspection.--In the 18 States in which inspecton was conducted for both the phony peach and peach mosaic diseases, State cooperation was represented by 67 field supervisory employees and 1 office worker. Of these, the State of California assigned 16, Colorado 13, Alabama 9, Texas 5, Utah 5, Tennessee 4, Mississippi 3, Arkansas 2, Georgia 2,: Illinois 2, Louisiana 2, North Carolina 2, Kentucky 1, Missouri 1, ond South Carolina 1.

Citrus canker oradication.--A close rocheck in June of the 6
properties at Navasota nd 2 properties at Corpus Christi, Tex., whore citrus canker wav discovered early this year, resulted in finding no indications of the disease at this time. Orange trees which had been sold from the infected nursery at Corpus Christi to local residents were also inspected, with negative results. The 6 Navasota properties were searched for seedlings developing since the hedges were eradicated, with the result that young seedlings were found on 3 of the properties--nearly 20,000 on 1 property--while the other 3 properties remained apparently free from them. Inspection was also conducted in June in the Texas counties of Milam, Colorado, Fort Beond, and Harris, and tree-removal work in Grimes, Galveston, and Brazoria Counties. The force employed in Texas was comprised of 21 Federal inspectors, 1 State man, and 128 W. P. A. laborers.

CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS

The use of fatty acids in insecticidal aerosols.--W. N. Sullivan
and J. H. Falos, of this Division, with L. D. Goodhue, of the Division of Insecticide Investigations,have shown that some relatively nonvolatile compounds, when applied in smoke or fog form, show promise as fumigants






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against insects. This developmerst makes possible the use of safe and inexpensive insecticides formerly considered impractical because of difficulties in producing effective concentrations at room temperatures. In
practice a solution of the insecticidal material was sprayed on a heated surface. On coming in contact with the hot surface, the solvent was evaporated with explosive violence, and any dissolved material that does not vaporize readily was reduced mechanically to colloidal dimensions. That is, the insecticide was dispersed as an aerosol consisting of a suspension of the solid or liquid particles in air. By this method of volatilizing it was possible to keep the insecticide dispersed in an enclosed space for a long time. The rate of evaporation was also greatly increased and the maximum vapor concentration was quickly obtained because of the tremendous surface of those small particles. The potency was further increased by the direct contact action of these small particles. The apparatus used in this work consisted of a small nasal typoe atomizer mounted 4 inches above the center of an electric hot plato held at 3750 C. A small electric compressor was used to maintain the air pressure that operated the atonizer. To stabilize and increase the toxicity of those insecticidal acrosols, fatty acis (lauric or cleic) were added to the spray solution. It was shown with biological tests against the housefly that these materials increased the effectiveness of ort'hodichlorobonzone. The relative effectiveness against houseflies of those tests, in 30-minute exposure periods, are given in the following table. Orthodic'ilorobenzene was used at the rate of 0.28 cc. per cubic foot and the fatty acid at 0.071 gra:m per cubic foot.


: Mortality after
Material tested Insects tested:y after : 2 days
S utb or Percent

Orthodichlorobonzeon-----------------. 609 2
Orthodic]hlorobenzene plus olic acid-: 440 : 55 Orthodichlorobonzone plus lauric acid: 471 60 Lauric acid--------------------------: 215 1
Olcic acid --------------------------: 220 : 1


Although lauric and oloic acids arc substantially inert when used
alone, under the conditions of those tests they act as adjuvants when combined with orthodiclalorobonzene and greatly increase the effectiveness of the aerosol. Certain fatty-acid derivatives, such as salts, esters, and the like, also gave increased insecticidal action. The results were corroborated by room tests against the roach and the bedbug, where 100-percent mortality was obtained by using 1.5 pounds of orthodichlorobenzene containing 5 percent of lauric acid per 1,000 cubic feet. This method of producing an aerocolloidal dispersion by spraying liquid toxins on a heated surface might be of use to bacteriologists, who have found bactericidal aerosols effective in decontJainating rooms. A note on this subject has been accepted for publication in Science.




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INSECTICIDE INVESTIGATIONS

Use of aerosols discussed at Dirham nmeting.--L. D. Goohcuc presented a paper on the application of the aerosol to funigation before the meeting of the American Association of Economic Entomologists at Durham, N. H., on June 25 and 26, 1941. This was a discussion of the work carried on in cooperation Vwith W. N. Sulliv an nd J. H. Fales, of the Division of Control Investigations. Since the use of aerosols for the control of insects is not generally familiar to entomologists, an explanation of their properties was given. It was shown that solid insecticides could be separated into particles snall enough to stay suspended in air for as long as 24 hours, thus making possible the use as fumigants of nonvolatile conporunds that could not be used in any other way. A small laboratory testing chamber was described in which insecticides in solution are sprayed on a hot surface to produce the aerosol. Approximately 200 organic compounds have boon tested in aerosol form-. against the housefly in this apDaratus. Some of the most toxic compounds were rotenone, prethrum, 3-cloroaconaphthone, 3-c 1irodibenzofuran, xanthone, phthalonitrile, cnd pentachlorophenol. Consii ablee interest in this nC iothocld was shown. The proceedings of the syanposium are to be published in book form.

Composition of a commercial geraniol used in Japanese beetle baits.-About 25,000 pounds of commercial geraniol are used annually in baits for the Japanese beetle. The approximate percentage composition of the commercial geraniol studied-by Howard A. Jones and H. L. Haller, of the Division of Insecticide Investigations (see News Ed. of Amer. Chem. Soc. Jour. v. 19, No. 12, pp. 693-685, June 25, 1941) was as follows: Terpenes, 4; aldehyde, 1; citronellol, 17; nerol, or geraniol not combining with calcium chloride, 7; citronellyl acetate, 2; geraniol, 34; geranyl acetate, S; geranyl butyrate, 0.2; ougenol, 1; gamma-cadinene, g; elemol, 10; gamma-cadinol and other sesqaiterpene alcohols (by difference), 7; bieugenol, 0.2; zinc salt,
0.2. The material appears to be a fraction of citronella oil comprising the major portion of the distillate remaining after the removal of most of the citronellal, with a small proportion of torpenes added back.

3BE CULTURE

Self-fertilization is being accomplished in the honeybee.--Otto
Mackensen, Baton Rouge, La., reports: "Qieeonbees have been successfully mated with their sons. The consequence of such matings is the same as self-fertilization, since a quecn's sons are produced from unfertilized haploid eggs. To accomplish such matings it is necessary to force virgin queens to begin laying by preventing mating flights, and then to inseminato them with sperm from their sons as soon as these have become sexually mature. The queens are caged for 3 days before insemination to retard egg production so that the oviducts will be oepty and ready to receive semen. In most cases at least a few worker progeny are produced. This technique is expected to be useful whenever severe inbreeding is desirable."

Live-bee demonstrations prove interesting to individuals inexperienced with boees.--The Division's sublaboratory maintained at the Fruit and Truck Branch Experiment Station of the University of Arkansas, at Hope, Ark., is frequently visited by agricultural groups who come to the station







to attend meetings of various kinds. S McGregor, in charge of the sublaboratory, describes his method of handling such groups as follows: "Giving a live boo demonstration has proved more interesting than a monologue on bees and bee behavior to groups visiting the University of Arkansas Fruit and Truck Branch Experinent Station. A screen cage has been built to fit over the bed of a pick-up truck and when the tie copies to give the demonstration a colony of bees is picked up in the apiary and set
into the truck, which is then driven directly into the amphitheater in which the crowd is assembled. Before entering the cage, a short talk is given on proper preparation, during which time the veil and gloves are done and the smoker is lighted. When giving the demonstration, frames of honey, brood, and bees are held up where they can be seen plainly by the audience. Some hunor can be added such as finding a mosquito in the cage, getting too hot and having to remove gloves, veil, and finally shirt; or showing how a stw arm may be brought home in your hat so that if you meet the over you merely put your haOt on and !alk by unsuspected. This immediately brings a dare from someone in the audience to see this done and after telling him ihow crazy he is for really taking you seriously, you absent-mindedly put the hat on your ovn head, much to the delight of the audience. This type of talk is of special interest to those persons who have never before seen inside a modern bee hive."

INSECT IDENTIFICAT ION

Bruchus hamatus Miller intercepted.--Adults of B. hamatus Miller
were found recently in a shipment of seeds from LeningFad. The seeds are very similar to those of Lathyrus vernus Bernhardi and probably belong to this or a closely related species. The latter plant, collected in Turkey by 7Westovor and Wellman in 1937, was found heavily infested by Bruchus hamatus. No previous host-plant record has been found. Although the recent shipment of seeds was sent from Leningrad, it is probable that it originated from farther south in Europe, as the known distribution of the bruchid is confined to islands of the Adriatic Sea, Greece, Syria, and Turkey. Lathyrus vcrnus is an ornamental, erect, perennial pea with flowers 3/4 inch long. It is but little iovm in America.

An interesting ant submitted from Africa.--Recently there have been submitted for determination some ants which are important coffee pests at Dembia, Africa. They were sent by R. L. Steyaert, Division de Phytopathologic, Bambesa, Belgian Congo. Concerning one of the forms, a species of Macronischoides, apparently africanum (Mayr), Mir. Steyaort writes as follows: "Two or three bites (of this species) are sufficient to induce high fevers andcl extree pain and stiffness in the limbs. It is also usual to have swellings of the glands under the arpits." M. R. Snith states that it is probable thltt the sting rather than the bite is responsible for the pain and fever.

Calomycterus setarius Roelofs in Illinois.--First reported from
Ycrth Anerica at Yonkers, N. Y., in 1930, this Japanese weevil has since been found' in Connecticut, Massacusetts, Pennsylvania, and Maryland; ,rand in a collection sent for identification by the Illinois Natural History Survey are two specimens of C. setarius labeled "Arlington Hts., Ill., Aug. 26, 1940, V. A. Sturn."




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Urania fulgens (Bcv.) collected in Texas.--A single specimen of
the dy-flying mnoth Urania fuleons (Bdv.) collected at San Antonio, Tex., April 7, 1941, was sent in recently by De Montgomery. Two specimens wore taken on April 17, 1941, at Austin, Tax., -by C. D. Orchard. These are the first records of this spociest being found in the United States. Specimens were nuerous at both localities during April -nd were frequently seen feeding on wild garlic (Allium sp.). There are nu...nerous published records of Urania fulgens (Bdv.) migrating toward the north- from: southern Mexico and Central America and it is not surprising that some specimens should reach Texas.

Anuraphis apiifolia Thee. intercepted fror Portugal.--Specimens of Anuraphis apiifolia Theeo. were taken at New York on a shipment of celery from Portugal. This is the first time the species has been intercepted in this country and its first Inown record from Portugal. Previously it has been recorded from Egoypt and Miorocco.

Psylla spartii (Guer.) in Washington.--Specimens of a psyllid collected from Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius Link) at Vashon Heights, Vashon IslanCd, Wash., on May 1, 1940, by W. W. Baker, of the Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect Investigations, have been identified as the European Psylla sprtii (Guer.). Although a few specimens of the species were collected at Fort Lewis, Wash., in 1935, by R. H. Beo-ier -and P. W. Onan, the specimens submitted by Mr. Baker constitute the first adequate sample of the species from an Anerican- source and made possible its deternination. Psylla spoatii has been reported as abundant on broom in contral Europe and England.

New distribution records for two Scaribaeidae.--Anomala orientalis
Waterhouse has been collected in the District of Columb:ia by E. A. Chapin, of the National Museunm. This is the first record of this species in the District. So far it has not been recorded from Maryland. Beetles reared from a considerable number of larvae collected early in April at Pittsville, Md., have been identified as Hoplia equina Lec. This is the first record of the occurrence of this species south of Massac-uestts. The lcarvae were at the roots of a hedgerow consisting of snal Liquidarbar shrubs growing on the banks of a drainage ditch.


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

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