News letter

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Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
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Frequency:
monthly

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Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:
AA00023227:00053

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text
LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD
Uj\JT-E)D s--rAT.E3

DEPA-TPj\/jENjjT OF A.G.iJCULTUJFE









BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER







VOLUME VIII /
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter41 no6






UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BUREAU OF EHTOMOLOGY AiD PLANT QUARA ITINE

NE WS LETT ER

FOR APRIL 1941

----------------- ----- ~~'------------- -- -- -- -- - - -- -

Vol. VIII, iNo. 6 (Not for publication) June 1, 1941
------------------~------------~---------~-------------

FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Contrbl by tree-injection tried on peach insects.-Tests of materials
claimed to be effective against the peach borer and other insects by injec-
tion into the trees were made at Starke, Fla., by Oliver I. Snapp, of the
Fort Valley, Ga., laboratory. The materials consist of oil of peach, 5 per-
cent; oil of rose geranium, 2 percent; oil of sassafras, 1 percent; oil of
citronella, 2 percent; and spirits of turpentine, 90 percent. The treat-
ment was made by boring a hole into the heartwood of the tree at the ground
line with a brace and bit, after which the hole was plugged with a cork
stopper and from l-i to 2 cc. of the formula injected into the hole with
a hypodermic syringe, the noodle of which was inserted through the cork.
The top of the cork and surrounding bark of the tree was then painted over
with ordinary blue paint. The originator of the treatment claimed that
the rising of the sap would take the materials throughout the tree, killing
all borers, scales, and-other insects. Each of the 40 borers removed from
these trees was alive 23 days after treatment, although the originator
claimed that the formula would kill peach borers in about 9 days. All of
the young scale on a peach tree used for the test were alive. Most of
the old scales had been parasitized. The treatment caused serious injury
to the cambium, bark, and heartwood of 4 of 14 trees examined for tree
injury. At the time of the examination, this injury was confined to the
area where the materials had been injected into the tree.

Removal of small darkling beetles from excelsior traps.-Use of the
chloropicrin separator for removing small darkling beetles, chiefly
Blapstinus rufipes Casey, from excelsior traps has proved successful, as
reported by Dwight F. Barnes and Charles K. Fishor, of the Fresno, Calif.,
laboratory. The separator was first described in ET 21, by Donohoc, et al.,
as an apparatus for separating nitidulids from infested host material.
About 13 drops of chloropicrin was used for each run. In 9 test runs with
exposures of 1 and 2 hours, 1,679 of the beetles, or 97.8 percent of the
1,717 present, were separated from the trap contents. The average separa-
tion in 2 tests with exposures of 2 hours each was 97.4 percent and in 7
trials of 1 hour each it was 98.1 percent. The results of the individual
tests are listed'below. The only difficulty experienced was with 1 sample,
not listed, which was water-soaked when placed in the separator. Separa-
tion of this lot was about 53 percent.


-1-.





-2-


Lot : -Exposuro : Adults removed
N : Material (oxcelsior) ours) or Per
No. :o:rs) ITumbor .Perccnt

1--- P ads : 2 : 588 96.5
2--- : From bag traps : 2 : 194 : 100.0
3--- : 209 : 99.5
4--- : : 1 : 121 : 97.6
5--- : 1 : 125 99.2
6--- : 1 : 73 : 96.1
7--- 1 : 96.7
: i" 1 153 :96.S
9 --- : : : 12g : 99.2
Total -- -- 1,679 --
Avorage -- : -- : -- :97.,

MEiICANi FRUIT FLY CONTROL

Conditions in the lower Rio Grannde Valloy.--Larval inf estations
wero found on 343 properties in April. This number of infestations is
somewhat below normal for this period of'-the year, and the number of
infestations found throughout the regulated area for the entire season
is slightly less than for the same period last year. The infestation
this season is approximately 25 percent of that of two seasons ago. At
no time during this year have trnps taken flies in such numbers as to
indicate that there was a very high fly population present in the groves.
Fruit shipments declined to only 1,618 cars for the month. The total
for the season, as of April 30, amounted to 26,216.S carlots, 362.1
cars below the figure for the same yeriod in 1939-40. More than the
normal amount of rainfall in every month since December 1940 has resulted
in many groves being flooded for considerable periods of time. Harvest-
ing of fruit in certain areas of the valley has been delayed materially,
and in some instances serious damage to the groves is feared because of
the excess water that could not be promptly drained.


JAPANESE BETLE CONTROL

Reduced dosage of lead arsenate for treating nursery plots--
In supplement No. 4 to Circular B.E.P.Q. 499, effective May 1, 194l,
administrative instructions to inspectors on the treatment of nursery
products, fruits, vegetables, and soil for the Japanese beetle were
modified to reduce the dosage of lead arsenate applied to nursery plots
containing growing plants and to coldframes, plunging beds, and heeling-
in areas from the previous rate of 1,500 pounds per acre.to 1,100 pounds
per acre (or 26 lbs. per 1,000 sq. ft.) for initial treatments. On
subsequent retreatments, sufficient lead arsenate must be applied to
restore a concentration of 1,100 pounds per acre, as determined by
chemical analyses, except that determination by chemical analyses of a
concentration of 1,000 pounds pet acre will be acceptable without retreat-
ment. This revised schedule was authorized by the Chief of the Bureau
after a restudy had been made by representatives of the Divisions of






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Fruit Insect Investigations, Control Investigations, and Japanese Beetle
Control of the early investigational data on which the original dosages
were based. It was found that the margin of safety originally prescribed
was in excess of present needs and that a reduction of approximately 25
percent would be warranted. Inasmuch.as an:alyses of representative soil
samples taken over an extensive area may vary as much as 100 pounds of
load arsenate per acre in indicating the content, a determination by
analysis of a 1,000 pound-pcr-acre content was considered acceptable with-
out further retreatmont. If the lead arsenate content is shown by
analysis to have fallen below 1,000 pounds per acre, it must be restored
to the full 1,100 pounds. This reduction in dosage is expected to result
in more extensive utilization by nurserymen of the lead arsenate treatment
of soil plots in which stock eligible for Japanese beetle certification
mayi be grown. The bulk of soil samples from treated plots now maintained
by nurserymen were obtained by inspectors during April, with only a few
scattered samples yet to be taken. Some 650 samples were collected during
the month. This is considerably less than in previous yo-rs.

Classified growers report good Easter trade.--Classified nurseries
and greenhouses from all parts of the Japanese beetle regulated area
reported very good Easter business, in most cases with complete sell-outs
of all blooming plants. Many dealers claimed that it was their best
year since 1929. Some shortages of plants for the Memorial Day trade
were predicted. Thirty carloads of nursery stock were certified in the
New York City area during the month and 29 of those, originating on Long
Island, were consigned mostly to the States of Michigan and Illinois.
Most of the stock in 9 carloads shipped by 1 nursery was dug from a lead
arsenate treated plot. Fumigated balled stock also made up a portion
of this establishmentts shipments. Tn addition to carload shipments there
were odd lots of shrubs and small trees, and numerous truckloads of stock,
all of which had to be certified. One Long Island nurseryman plans to
grow 20,000 certified azaleas in a cloth-screened house this summer. These
will be started in a certified greenhouse, and will be planted in a lead
arsenate treated area under cloth before the season of adult-beetle flight.
If this method proves successful for this grower, a larger number will'be
grown in this manner next year. Inspection of soil-free Japanese iris
roots that had been washed under water pressure disclosed that Japanese
beetle grubs were still lodged at the base of the roots. It was necessary
to break the clumps into small divisions before thorough inspection could
be made. During visits to New Jersey nurseries and greenhouses during the
month, inspectors heard such statemoets as:";Mail orders increased 100
percent over last year." An increase of 75 percent in express orders over
1940." "The best April in our history." "All azaleas sold and prices 20
to 40 percent higher--cantt buy them anywhere." "Had to run 7 days a week
for the past 2 weeks," "All stock from our lead-arsenate-treated plots
sold--must buy in certified stock to fill our orders." "Entire stock cleaned
out during April, the first time this has ever occurred." Certified ship-
ments from the central Pennsylvania district reached the highest peak since
1937.





-4-

Tourists increase shipments from-Mount VYrnon.--Certificates issued
to the Mount Vernon Ladies Association-for shipment of plant material from
the George Washington Estate indicate that the association is making more
shipments than ever before. This is attributed to the increase in number
of tourists and new workers in the Washington area. The Washington
Cathedral, in the District of Columbia, has required the services of an
inspector twice a week to inspect and certify herb plants sold there to
tourists. Inspections in the area surrounding the District were extremely
heavy during the first part of April. The larger shippers were the Govern-
ment establishments and the Maryland State Forest Nursery. Daily inspec-
tions were required at these places. Shipments ranging from 50 to 50,000
soil-free trees were certified. Inspection work in the District of
Columbia was heavy during the month, since department stores selling ever-
greens, trees, and shrubs are all unclassified and actual inspection must
be made of any stock to be shipped out of the regulated area by these
dealers.

Additional fumigation chambers approved.--Several methyl bromide fumi-
gation chambers were constructed during the month and approved after tests
were made by the treating section. A Maryland nursery built a chamber with
a 40C-cubic foot capacity. This readily accommodated a single treatment
of 1,785 plants with soil balls from 3 to 10 inches in diameter. A nursery
in northern Ohio completed a chamber 8 by 4 by 6 feet, having a capacity
of 192 cubic feet. It is constructed of 14-gauge metal, electrically welded
inside and out. It is very well constructed and has an excellent hinging
device on the door. A fumigation chamber used by the Bureau of Plant
Industry at Beltsville, Md., was also approved during the month. This box,
now fitted as an atmospheric chamber, was one of the old vacuum fumigation
chambers installed at the Plant Quarantine Inspection House at 12th Street
and Constitution Avenue, Washington, D. C., before the Inspection House
was razed and transferred to Hoboken, IT.J.

Advancing plant growth hastens spring shipping season.-The unusually
mild weather during the month started the nursery shipping season with a
rush. Many nurseries were a month ahead of their usual shipping schedule.
In the New York City area, record-breaking high temperatures after Easter
resulted in the most active shipping season ever experienced in that
district. In some instances, nursery employees worked night and day in an
attempt to get out orders before the stock became too advanced for shipment.
In spite of increased personnel and working hours, several nurseries were
forced to cancel orders because of advanced growth. In New Jersey the
warm weather in the middle of the month shortened the shipping season by
3 to 4 weeks. A large Pennsylvania nursery reported that it has been 33
years since they had experienced a spring as advanced as this yearls.

Spring soil treatments for Japanese beetle control,-Applications of
arsenate of lead to several isolated infestations in Indiana were com-
pleted during April. Treating in Indianapolis began on March 31 and was
finished April 22, with coverage of 70.95 acres. At New Castle, 4.5 acres
was treated from March 31 to April 3, inclusive. On April 4 and 5, 0.9
acre was treated in Richmond, after which 0.25 acre was treated in Warsaw
on April 8. The total area treated in the State during this period was
76.6 acres.





-5-
Retired gypsy moth district inspector passes away.-Irving B. NTewbegin,
senior scientific aid and district &gsy moth inspector at Lynnfield, Mass.,
until his retirement because of failing health on April 1, 1937, died on
April 19. Mr. 'iawbegin was born in 1873. He began work with the Federal
Bureau of Entomology in 1907 on the gpsy moth project. For 30 years he
was employed in connection with various phases of gypsy moth and brown-
tail moth control work. He also handled Japanese beetle inspection and
certification work while serving as district inspector in charge of the
Lynnfield district. He is survived by a son and a daughter, both of
Lynnfieold.

Advanced gypsy moth hatching season.--hnile in the performance of
their regular duties, district inspectors observed the hatching of gypsy
moth eggs at various points in the YTew Engl?.nd infested areas. The
hatching season was approximately 3 weeks earlier than in 1940; in fact,
reports indicate one of the earliest hatching seasons on record. Hatching
was first observed on April 20 in Massachusetts and on April 21 in New
Hampshire and Vermont. The first hatching noted in Maine was on April 26;
consequently, the regulation relating to the lining up and spraying of
nursery stock presented for inspection was made effective on April 23.
Brow;m-tail moth larvae wore first observed feeding at Poland, Maine, on
April 21. Webbing by tent caterpillar was first reported by the district
inspectors in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on April 17, in Connecticut
on April 21, in Vermont on April 26, and in Maine on April 27.

Temporary inspectors assist in gypsy moth inspection.--Twenty-one
temporary inspectors were employed on nursery inspection work in the New
England States during April. One of these, assigned to lumber inspection
early in the month, was later transferred to nursery work. Eight inspec-
tors were assigned to inspection worlk at a forest nursery in western Maine;
1 inspector was employed to handle work at nurseries in eastern and western
Massachusetts; and 11 inspectors assisted in inspection of stoc]k at
nurseries in Connecticut and Rhode Island.

Inspectors help fight forest fires.--Owing to lack of rain through-
out the New England States during April, there wore many serious forest
fires. At Fryoburg, Main, more than .1,000,000 board feet of lumber was
destroyed. The nursery inspectors stationed at Fryoburg wore on two
different occasions commandeered to fight forest fires.

Violation of intrastate Dutch elm disease quarantine reported to
State authori-ies. ..-During the early part of April, Dutch elm disease
crews discovered that beetle-infested elm wood had been removed from
wood piles which iel-y had prepared in Bethlehem To.:nship, Albany County,
a State quarantinedc area; and transported to Cohoes, N.Yo. a point out-
side the regulated zone, by an individual engaged in the sale of stovewood.
The point to which the elm wood was transported is approximately 15 miles
north of the present disease area. The elm material in the woodyard at
Cohoos was found to be heavily infested with Scolytus multistriatus Marsh.
and Hylurgopinus rufipos Eich' 'This wood had been cut into stovowood
lengths. Many piecos were beetle infested and from some of them beetles
had emergod. From information supplied by the owrncr of the yard, it is
belioved the beetles-had emerged before the wood was moved from Bethlohem





-6-

Township, All elm wood in the ownmers present supply was peeled and the
bark burned before any further emergence occurred. A lumber mill was also
located in the Albany area in which a good portion of elm slabs were found
to be beetle infested. This waste lumber, with a large part of the bark
remaining on it, had been purchased by the Cohoes dealer. The matter was
referred to W. H. R.ankin, of the New York Department of Agriculture and
Markets, who ordered an investigation.

Emergence of adult Hylurgopinus rufipes--Activity of hibernating
adult H. rufipes was noted in Connecticut in mid-April. Although no actual
entrance holes were found, adults were observed flying and crawling on the
outer bark. A change from lighter to darker shades was also noticed in
overwintering larvae. In Sullivan County, NT.Y., it was noted that this
species was active this year at a much earlier date than in the past.
On April 21, while removing a tree that had been tagged as potential beetle
material, the men noted in the rough bark numerous entrance holes con-
taining fresh frass. The females were well along in the construction of
their brood gallery, some channels an inch in length having boon constructed.

Clean-up necessary after logging operations.--In the wake of a logging
operation carried on in the black-dirt section of Warwick Township, Orange
County, N. Y., several acres of ground were left littered with large quanti-
ties of slash, intermingled with hundreds of elms ranging in diameter from
4 to 10 inches. Since all of the elm was potential beetle material, per-
mission was obtained to sort the elm from the other material in order that
it might be destroyed. This work was started early in the month. It was
soon found that it involved a more lengthy operation than was first
anticipated. Approximately 4 weeks of the sanitation crewls time will be
needed to complete the clean-up operations.

Fire hazard.--The fire hazard in woodland areas was very acute during
the month, owing to the continued dry weather. Field employees in various
sections of the work area were summoned by those in authority to assist
in extinguishing and preventing the spread of forest fires. A scout crew
working along Chadwick Lake, in Orange County, N.Y., was summoned by a
State Trooper to aid in extinguishing a small forest-and-grass fire in
the vicinity of the lake on April 8. This fire, apparently set by-the
property owner, threatened to cause considerable damage, but hasty
action by the scouts quickly extinguished the blaze.

District offices closed.--The Bridgeport, Conn., district office and
garage were discontinued because of constant loss of W. P. A. personnel,
a good part of which has been absorbed by the industries in the Bridgeport
area engaged in producing materials for National defense. The Morrisville,
Pa., district office and garage were also closed on April 30, as the
reduced W. P. A. force did not warrant the retention of the garage in this
district. The men formerly operating out of the Morrisville garage will
now work out of the Philadelphia field headquarters.

Trucker intercepted with contraband.--A truck hauling elm wood into
the town of Derby, Conn., was intercepted and the driver of the truck upon
request returned the load of elm wood to the Dutch elm disease infected
area, where it was burned at one of our burning sites. An investigation
of the matter revealed that the driver did not know the difference between
elm and other wood and that he was an unwitting violator.





-7-

Surface stripping for coal produces beetle material.-In the course
of elm-sanitation operations in the Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, Pa.,
area, it was found that surface stripping for coal at one location had
caused the breakage of numlerous limbs, as well as entire elm trees, and
had produced wood highly suitable for bark-beetle invasion. This wreckage
was cut and destroyed late in the month.

Owners overestimate their fuel requirements.--A spring check-up of
elm wood left for fuel under fuel agreements was completed during the
first week in April in Ulster and Albany Counties, N.Y. It was found
that only 49 piles were disposed of out of 131 piles left under agreement.


FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Termites and national defense.-R. C0. Brown r-d B. H. Wilford, of the
New Haven, Conn., laboratory, have visited defense housing projects of the
U. S. Housing Authority and Public Building Administration, and U. S.
Army cantonments and Naval and Air bases in iTew York and New England to
confer with officials relative to construction and maintenance of buildings
to prevent termite attack. In some instances an opportunity has been
afforded to discuss construction details while the projects were in the
blueprint stage and to make recommendations for proper termitc-proof con-
struction. In other cases, notably Army crntonments, whcre construction
has been completed, recoimendations have been made concerning the main-
tenance of the buildings to minimize termite attacks. It is believed that
these contacts have already resulted in considerable savings in initial
construction expense and have also reduced maintenance costs appreciably.

Large demonstration for control of white pine woevil.--S. F. Potts,
New Haven, reports that several hundred acres of white pine plantations
were treated with concentrated spray for control of the white pine weevil.
(Pissodes strobi Peck), in Connecticut and New York, in cooperation with
the Connecticut State forester and New York Conservation Department. These
areas were covered at the rate of about 3 acres per man-day, using
approximately 4 gallons of lead arsenate concentrate per acre, at a total
per acre cost of about $2. For most >f this work the equipment consisted
of an ordinary knapsack sprayer or fire pump to which was attached a
simple but special type of extension rod and a nozzle for finely atomizing
the spray in the form of a narrow, solid cone.

Conifers treated for control of Pales weevil.--According to Mr. Potts,
good control of Hylobius pales (bst.) was obtained by the application of
concentrated spray to conifers in plantations, beds, and heeled-in bundles.
The cost of treatment was about $1.50 per 1,000 trees in plantations and
about 25 cents per 1,000. trees in beds and bundles.

More parasites for LeConte pine sawfly outbreaks.-W. F. Sellers,
New Haven, reports that during April this laboratory supplied from 300,000
to 400.000 Microplectron fuscipennis Zett,, a gregarious chalcid parasite,
for release in the pine plantations of the Tennessee Valley Authority
that have been severely infested by the native Le0ontels sawfly in the
vicinity of Wilson Dam, Ala.. This introduced parasite of the European
spruce sawfly will attack practically all species of Diprion and Neodiprion






-g-

sawflies. LeConte's sawfly cocoons are readily attacked by M. fuscipennis
under laboratory conditions. This shipment is intended for release in newly
discovered infestations, but at the same time will supplement the 30 colo-
nies supplied by the New Haven laboratory last Yovember for release in the
same general area,

Disnersion of Hylurgopinus rufipes.--D, 0. Wolfenbarger, of the
Morristown, N. J., laboratory, has obtained data on the hibernating ac-
tivities of the native bark beetle (H. rufipes Eich.) near points of emer-
gence. Obsprvations were made at two diff-ront points in -two different
years. One locality, Allamuchy, N. J., was characterized by an unusual
qbund-nce of beetles. The other, at Lanesboro, Pa., had a normal beetle
density. Beetle density was estimated by the amount of beetle-infested
logs or trees at the source, and by the numbers of beetles in the trees
about the source. The d-ta indicate that H. rufipes enters nearby trees
for hibernation and, as the distance from the source increases, the number
of bestl-s decreases. This is shown in the tabulation below.

Beetles found ner
Distance from source square foot of bark
(feet) area (number)

Allemuchl-, N, J.:
0 23
6o 11
320 2
16b 1
Lanep-oro, Pa.:
2 16.5
30 1.9
66 0.7
71 0

In obtaining the above data the outer bark of green healthy elm
trees was carefull>, cut away in order to locate any hibernating beetles.
One or more square feet of bark area per tree, at diameter breast height,
was shaved and examined,


GYPSY MOTH ATD BROWI-TAIL HOTH CONTROL

Working conditions for gypsy moth work.-Working conditions during
April were unusually fine. The snow nelted rap-idlv under the warn sun early
in the month, but the stre-ms did not rise beyond normal flood stage in any
area where Federal gypsy mnth work is in progress. Countryr ronds improved
auick!l as the daily high tenoeratures and warm winds drew the frost.out of
the ground and dried the mud. By the middle of the month the drying-out
orocess had oroceeded so far that a serious fire hazard existed in the wood-
lands. Lack of rain caused this. hazard to continue until the end of the
nonth, and snoking or building fires in the w-oods was prohibited. During
the latter part of April the State authorities in Massachusetts and Connecti-
cut proclaimed the woods closed to th nnublic, and-it became inperntive to






-9-

immediately withdraw neerly all workers froi the woodlands in both States
and to confine gypsy moth work to open arons. Practically all streams in
the barrier zone area were at such a low stage by the end of April that
evidently there will be a serious water shortage by the time *.spraying work
starts, unless there is a substantial rainfall in the first half of May.

Early emergence of gypsy moth.--Hatching of gypsy moth egg clusters
was reported from several widely scattered localities on April 21 and 22,
indicating that a general hatch may be expected much earlier than for many
vecrs. General emergence of the eastern tent caterpillar had already
occurred throughout the area extending from northern Vermont to the Pocono
Mountains in eastern Pennsylvania.

Gypsy moth work in Vermont during April.---Many logTing operators
were engaged in cutting white birch in Vermont during the winter months
for shipment to wood-novelty manufacturers outside of the barrier zone.
Birch logs cut .fter the saD rises in the trees are not accented by the
manutacturErs, because an excess of sap causes the rapid discoloration of
the wood, therefore most of the lo0ing was terminated by the first of
April. Gypsy moth supervisory piersonnel, which had been detailed to the
inspection of the birch trees and logs ofter the suspension of W. P. A.
Cgpsy moth work in Vermont, was rele(ased for other assignments preDara-
tory to the o,)enini of the siraying season. Wooded areas where spraying
work is' lanned were examined to determine the accessibility and adequacy
of water su-olies for s)raying machin-'s, the coni-ition of existing fences,
and the possible necessity of erectin: ar-.itional temporary fences to pre-
vent livestock from grazinr in areas where arsenical spray may be applied.
Several 'members of the supervisory personnel were .etaile; to the reexamina-
tiony of areas founf to be infest(c' by regula,r scoutinr crows nuring the
winter months when the snow -was reep and covere1. low-situated e-g clusters.
Numerous ar.(itional eg clussters were foun a.n'n creosote, on rocks, 'ead--
wool, small bushes, and stum-ns.

Gypsv -othh .rork in Massachusetts.--The number of W. P. A. workers
engaged in y n psy moth work in Massachusetts has been sten'lily reduced as
men have resigned to accept employment in private industry, and consider-
able difficultyr is being experienced in maintaiinin a satisfactory work-
ing'force. Most of the crcws were undermanned at the end of April, des-
pite all efforts to obtain additional workers. Fourteen W. P. A. crews
were engaged in scouting for the gynsy moth in Massachusetts on the first
of A-ril. Every effort is being mad.e to reduce the high and e.xosed in-
festations in Cummington and Chester so as to eliminate, so far as possible,
the wind dispersion of small caterpillars into neighboring towns within
the barrier zone.

No heavy gypsy moth infestations in several Berkshire County
towns.--A small force of experienced supervisory gypsy moth emlloyees
cruised through large isolated tracts of woodland in Berkshire County,
Mass., to determine whether heavy infestations existed in areas that had
not been scouted for a year or more. Although several hundred acres were
examined, no serious infestations were located. The small number of scat-
tered eFg clusters foun. thus f.r are not sufficient to warrant extensive







-1.0-


spraying operations in these woodlots.

Lack of workers reduces volume of W. P. A. gypsy moth work in
Connecticut.--The scouting work for the current fiscal year will.not be com-
.pleted in the Connecticut barrier zone area as planned, primarily because
it has not been possible to maintain a full quota of men needed for the work
since early last fall. On the first of April only five crews were available
for gypsy moth scouting work and these crews were frequently undermanned
because of the resignations of the workers, particularly in the intermediate
and skilled grades, to enter private employment. Replacements faile' to
keeop ace writh the resignations during the month.

Sawdust mill operate:r in Connecticut.--A brush-disposal machine
has been in contimlous operation at gypsy moth infested sites in Cornwall
Township, Litchfield County, since early in April, and has reduced large
quantities of brush to small chips which were broadcast over the forest
flo-r. The machine disposes of apnroximately 10 cords of compactly piled
brush per ray. It was originally designed for the manufacture of sawdust
from mill waste in the woodworking industry, but was adapted by this ac-
tivity several years ago for the disposal of brush by reducing it to coarse
shavin:-s or chins. The crew operating this machine was permitted to con-
tinue work in the State forest, acting as State -Rents, nfter the other
crews Iiad. been withdrawn from the wools because of the fire hazard.

Gynsyr moth field, work reduced in Pennsylvania.--During April a
rimoerate nmount of field work was accomrlished in the Pennsylvania area,
where -nl- a skeleton frce has been working since early in March. It
was necessary to 4rastically curtail the force at that time, as the W. P. A.
funds allotted for the first 8 months of the current fiscal year had been
practic-lly exhausted. Some scouting, thinning, and ground work was done,
but practically no burnin. was permitted, as the fire hazard was so seri-
ous th-t it -as necessary for the State Denartment of Forests and Waters
to open the fire towers much earlier than usual. Numerous sprayer set-ups
at suitable sources of w-,ter sup'ly have yet to be prepared, wood roads
must be reopired and imior-oved in order that heavy spraying equipment may
be moved to suitable sites in or near woodland infestations, and long lines
of hose should be Inid in order to conserve time after spraying begins.

Permits for spra~ing in residential areas in Pennsylvania.--A total
of !pproximately 2,300 -ermits have been obtained for gypsy moth spraying
work at infested sites in residential areas in Kingston, Exeter, and Pitts-
ton in Luzerne County, and in Old Forge, Lackawanna, and Scranton in Lacka-
wanna County, Pa. Many of the infestations are small and confined to one
or two h-use lots but, because of overhanging shrubs, trees, and vines, per-
mits must also be obtained from all abutting -Dron-rties, in order to per-
form the sprayin7 work thoroughly. The preliminary pre-arations for resi-
dential soraying work also included making necessary arrangements with the
water company for the taking of water from their hydrants. This company
has been very cooperative since the beginning of gypsy moth work in the
residential sections of the rysy moth infested area in Pennsylvania.






-1.


Further reductions in C, C. C. gypsy moth work.--There was a seri-
ous reduction in the number of man-days macle available for C. C. C. gyFpsy
moth work east of the barrier zone under the supervision of this Bureau
in April. The largest number of man-days used .uring any week was 223, and
this was reduced to only 153 6-hour man-days for the week ended April 26. A
total of only 795 man-days was used on gypsy moth work during the entire
period. The reductions occurred in all three States where C. C. C. gypsy
moth work is performed under the supervision of this Bureau. One camp in
Vermont where most of the men had been available for gypsy moth work was
closed, and gypsy moth work was discontinued at another camp where a large
proportion of the personnel had been engaged in this work during the winter
months. Owing to the prosent low enrollment, to the recent loss of camps,
and to a possible further reduction toward the end of the fiscal year, olans
have been abandoned for manning the U. S. D. A. buildings at Fairlee, Vt,,
for gypsy moth work and it is understood that the buildings will soon be
salvaged. The volumecf C. C. C. gypsy moth work in Massachusetts was great-
ly reduced when the gypsy moth caEm. at Westfield was abandoned early in
April, and a further reduction was caused by the removal of the camp at
Chester. Two crews from this camp have performed gypsy noth work east of
the barrier zone for several years. The loss of work east of the barrier
zone from this camp will be offset to some extent ty the transferal of the
two gypsy moth foremen to camps within the barrier zone, where they will be
aiven small crews to carry on gypsy moth work in areas that can be reached
from the new camps. The same number of crews performed gypsy moth work in
Connecticut as during March, but the volume of work accomplished was reduced
because of the smaller enrollments Pnd the restricted areas where work could
be performed.

Gypsy moth work accomrlished by C. C. C. in Aril.--Scouting, creo-
sotinc, and selective thinning work was continued during April when men were
available, with special emohasis placed on scouting work to locate infesta-
tions where spraying will be most i!-ortant in June. The scouting work in
one town east of the b. rricr zone and bordering on the Connecticut River in
Connecticut showed a considerable increase in infestation. Scouting by the
C. C. C. in this town was requested by the State gypsy moth organization, as
numerous nurseries are locrter' in the town and the State authorities wished
to have the heaviest infestations existing in the neighborhood of the nur-
series located so that they could be .7iven consideration in arranging the
State sprayin' program for the approaching larv.l season. Sites for spray-
ing equipment at selected locations were cleared, and water holes and roads
were prerpred for the coming of the sprayers where such work was necessary.
Salvaged barbwire, loaned to the C. C. C. about a year ago to exide live-
stock from sprayed areas, was removed and returned to the Greenfield store-
house, together with three rolls of new wire supp:lied by a property owner
to replace Government-owned wire which h@ didl not wish to have removed from
the fence. The volume of all types of C. C. C. -ypsy moth work was greatly
reduced duringr April by the necessity of holding some of the crews at the
camps, or of confinin: their work to locations near the camps, so that they
would be immediately available for firefightine if necessary, as the eprly
warm and dry weather made the woods especially susceptible to forest fires
during 0ost of the month.





-12-


Gpsy moth less abund-nt in Massachusetts and Connecticut but
increased in Vermont.--C. C. C. gypsy noth scouting work juring the first
9 months of the current fiscal year showed a decided reduction of gypsy
moth infestation in the area between the Connecticut River and the barrier
zone in Massachusetts and Connecticut, as compared with the previous year.
Slightly over 263,000 ypssy moth e-: clusters were treated during the 9
months ended March 29, 1941, while more than 1,226,000 eg clusters were
treate1. urine the corresponding portion of the previous fiscal year.
Conditions were found to he auite different in Vermont, where heavy con-
centration of gypsy moth infestations have been found in the Connecticut
River Valley towns, and the indicrtions are that considerable areas in
that section will suffer severe defoliation lnter in the season.





*-13-

PIANT DISEASE CONTROL

Spokane staff develops public-speaking ability.--For the last 2
years some members of the blister rust control staff of the Spokane,
Wash., office have been meeting at luncheon once a week and devoting at-
tention to experience in public speaking. Recently five of the staff
members joined the Toastnastcrst Club of Spokane and subsequently they
have taken part in a local toastmasters1 speaking contest. The public-
speaking experience has had a beneficial effect on the public contacts of
the blister rust control staff and regional forest officers and others
have recently made particularly favorable comments concerning the ability
of the blister rust personnel to express themselves clearly and readily in
joint conferences.

Regular stringing versus prestringing in ribes eradication.--L. P.
Winslow, of the methods development unit, reports that in the sugar pine
region during the field season of 1940, a study of the relative merits of
regular stringing and prestringing of crew lanes for Ribes eradication was
planned and executed under the joint supervision of the operations and
methods groups. Data were obtained to determine the difference, if any,
between the laying of string for crew work lanes by the crews themselves
as they worked the strip (rsgular stringing), and the laying of string for
crew work lanes in advance of crew work (prestringing) by one or more men
especially assigned to this work. A checkerboard system was used for the
randomization of the samples. An analysis by several methods, including
a "variance" analysis of the data from 105 samples comprising 14,411 acres
indicates a very slight advantage for the regular stringing method. The
practical efficiency of the two methods of work was determined from the
final regular check maps and the differences were not significant. In gen-
eral, it can be assumed that an administrative choice of method of string-
ing can be made safely on the basis of such factors as brush density,
topography, season of year, type of labor, and amount of available super-
vision.

Phenological data.--In the Northeastern region the leafing out of
Ribes and other vegetation was at least 2 weeks ahead of normal. C. C.
Perry reports on April 28 that in Massachusetts the unprecedented heat
wave in April resulted in the further advance of Ribes foliage. Culti-
vated Ribes plantations in the vicinity of Boston were in quarter leaf.
Patches of skunk currants in Hubbardston, Mass., showed about half the
plants with leaves one-half size. In the same location, however, buds of
R. hirtellun were still tightly closed. In Buckland, Mass., on April 25,
R. hirtellum leaves were about three-quarter size. Fruiting cankers on
pine were found on that date in Buckland, with empty sacs which indicated
that aeciospores were liberated as early as April 20 in that particular
section. .The hot weather, accorpanied by a marked deficiency in moisture,
resulted in one of the worst fire seasons in recent tines. During the week
beginning April 14, fires occurred in the State on an acreage almost equal
to the entire fire-donaged area during the year 1940. W. 0. Frost of
Maine writes that the aeciol stage of blister rust was well advanced on
April 20 and will be disseminating spores much earlier than usual.


LIBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD





-14-

New blister rust infections in Virginia.--J. G. Luce, Jr., reports
the finding of 2 white pine infections in Bath County, Va. The infec-
tions were discovered by Agent Martin Q. Miller, in charge of control
work in that county. On one area 10 troes were examined, and 3 branch
cankers were found on 1 tree. On the second area 139 trees were examined
and 25 were found to be infected. Twenty-four branch cankers wore re-
ported and 1 stem canker. All trees examined were native growth.

Blister rust informational work.--During March and April, Mr. Luce
propared several blister rust news itons. These were puolished in local
newspapers. W. V. Zimnnr is still making good use of the Georgia blister
rust moving picture film. Recently Mr. Zimmor, with the aid of the assist-
ant State entomologist, took pictures of logging operations in Rabun
County, Ga. which he plans to add to his blister rust film strip.

Annual meeting of State blister rust leaders in southern Appala-
chians.-The annual blister rust conference of State leaders was held in
Ashoville, N. C., on April 17 and 18. Each State loader gave a short sun-
mary of the work in his State and at the close of the meeting propared a
brief work plan for the remainder of the calendar year. J. F. Martin
attended the meeting and discussed many points which :were of interest to
all. Two important points discussed were the necessity of using chemicals
in conjunction with hand eradication to prevent sprouting, particularly
in rocky situations, and the careful evaluation of white pine stands to
nake certain the pine is of sufficient present or potential value to war-
rant the expenditure of funds for control. L. I. Barrett, of the Southern
Forest Experiment Station, attended the second day of the meeting and dis-
cussed in general the i portance of white pine in the South. He called to
attention the rapid growth rate of white pine in the region, how well it
responds uncdr a carefu-l -anagenent plan and why, because of its high
value, this tree species should be protected and widely propagated.

Barberry' bushes found in Sand hill counties of western Nebraska.--
Since January 1, rust-spr-eading barberry bushes have been found on 10
properties in Cass, Cherry, J o, Josn McPhorson, Nemaha, Otoe, Thomas, and
Scotts Bluff Counties in Nebraska. The remains of a hedge approximately
150 feet long, ,which w1as planted in Tho-mas County in 1902, Twas recently
destroyed. Many of the bushes had died as a result of the drought in
1934 but those that remained have been fruiting heavily. Bushes found
recently in McPhcrson County were planted prior to 1906. It became
necessary to alter survey plans som:ewhhat in Nebraska this spring because
of the lack of non waiting assigznent in certain counties scheduled for
survey. According to lMrion E. Yount, in charge of control work, on
May 1 there were 3 eradicction units in the field, 1 working in Kirball
and Scotts Bluff Counties, another in Hooker, McPherson, Thomas, and
Cherry Counties, in west-central Nebraska, and a third in Cass, Otoo, and
Johnson Counties.

Berberis chinonsis found in Edgar County, Ill.--A barberry infesta-
tion of unusual interest was found in Edgar County, Ill., in the latter
part of March. Some 750 bushes and sprouting bushes were located in the
nidst of a dense stand of silver poplar, gooseberry, and buckbrush, where







farm buildings had stood some 70 years ago. Many of the bushes ranging
up to 12 and 14 feet in height were dead as a result of a brush fire that
swept this particular area about a year ago. Sprouts springing from the
old roots covered an area about 60 by 35 feet. According to Harold B.
Busdicker, assistant leader in Illinois, this location aroused considerable
interest among crew members because the bushes were Berberis chinensis
rather than the commonly found B. vulgaris.

Berberis vulgaris eradicated in West Virginia counties bordering
Ohio and Pennsylvania.--Federal Agency (eergency) funds remaining available
for expenditure in West Virginia during the current fiscal year have been
budgeted for work in Brooke and Marshall Counties, where about 40 men are
now employed. The project is under the immcdiate supervision of Stowe P.
McNeill, with torporary headquartcrs at Ioundsville. Both Drooke and ,Mar-
shall Counties, according to W I. Watson, leader in charge in West Vir-
ginia, are located in the B. vulgaris area of the State. To date no native
barberry bushes have been found in either county. Approximately 100 non
are now employed on a Bureau-sponsored project in the State W. P. A. pro-
gran in the 3. canadensis area of southeastern West Virginia.

Berberis vulgaris widely distributed in Augusta and Rockbridge Coun-
ties, Va.--Although no extensive infestations of 3. vulgaris have been found
in Augusta or Rockbridge Counties, more than 17,000 bushes and seedlings
have been destroyed since the survey of these counties was undertaken.
George W. Eade, State leader in charge, reports that practically all wild
bushes located have been found within a radius of 1 mile of planted bushes.
These counties are out of the area in which 3. canadensis thrives.

COTTON INSECT IN ESTIGATIONS

High boll weevil ouergerce.--The high survival and large numbers of
hibernating boll weevils found in the ground trash examinations this
spring wero reported in the May 1, 1941, Yews.Lotter. Reports from field
stations of the Division where hibernation cages were installed last fall
also indicate the highest survival in soveral years. Cages containing
Spanish ross, cornstalks, oats straw, broon sedge, or woods trash for shel-
ter were installed at Florence, S. C., McIntosh, Fla., Tallulah, La., and
Waco, Tex. Surviving weevils were removed from the cages as they became
active after Hay 1. The percentage of energence through May 9 at the dif-
ferent localities, in conparison with the previous 2 years, is shown in
the following table.


: .. Energence in--
Locality
Locality : 1939 : 1940 : 1941
:Percent : Percent : Percent
Florence, S. C----- 0.47 : 0.02 4.2
IMcIntosh, Fla------: --- 2.50 2.4
Tallulah, La-------: / .41 : 1 2.3
Waco, Tex---------: 2.14 : .09 5.5

-/ Total energence for season; 1939 records for College Station, Tex.





-16.

At Florence over 200 times as many weevils emerged during the
first 9 days of May 1941 as in 1940. At McIntosh the emergence was about
the same, but was heavy in both years. At Tallulah the percentage of sur-
vival is already 230 times, as great and at waco more than 60 timosas great
as for the whole season in 1940. Emergence will continue through May and
June and the indications are that weevil conditions may become serious.
The damage will depend largely on weather conditions during June and July.
Hot, dry weather may check their development while damp, cool weather will
favcr their increase.

Effect of calcium arsenate on cotton aphid multiplication.--Several
applications of calcium arsenate for boll weevil control often cause the
cotton leaf aphids to increase to injurious numbers. The reasons for this
increase are not fully understood. It was formerly thought that the de-
struction of the parasites and predators by the arsenical was the principal
factor, but more. recent work by E. Dunnmam- and J. C. Clark, of the Stone-
ville, Miss., laboratory, has indicated other factors were playing a part
in the accelerated multiplication of aphids. Apparently the calcium or
arsenic in the insecticide is absorbed by the leaves and roots, and one or
both of these elements in the cotton leaf fluids upon which the aphids feed
act as a stimulus to aphid reproduction. The hydrogen-ion content of the
soil and of the cell sap of plants was increased in plots dusted with cal-
cium arsenate. Associated with this increase of pH wore earlier maturity
and shedding of leaves. The prereproductive period of aphids was shortened
and the number of young born daily and the total number of young were in-
creased when aphids were reared on dusted plants. Caged aphids protected
from parasites and predators reproduced faster on cotton dusted with cal-
cium arsenate containing 13.9 percent wator-soluble arsenic pentoxide than
on plants dusted with calcium: arsenate containing 0.7 percent water-
soluble arsenic. Reproduction was also slightly higher on plants dusted
with hydrated lime then on the checks. In field tests at Tallulah, La.,
R. C. Gaines, M1. T. Young, and G. L. Smith found a significantly larger
number of aphids developed in plots of cotton dusted with calcium arsenate
containing 10.3 percent water-soluble arsenic pentoxide than in plots
dusted with calcium arsenate containing 0.5 percent water-soluble arsenic.
These facts indicated that the amount of water-soluble arsenic in the cal-
cium, arsenate was the most important factor but that the lime in the cal-
cium arsenate also contributed to the aphid increase. Tests were begun in
1939 and continued in 1940 to improve calcium arsn .te so as to reduce or
eliminate the build-up of aphids. Plants wore dusted and sprayed with a
number of substances with different degrees of pH to observe the reaction
on the plants and the aphids. Plants dusted with zinc arsenate (pH 6.40)
had fewer aphids and wcre in better condition at the end of the season
than plants dusted with calcium arsonate (pH 11.30), a conmercial mixture
of paris green reacted with calcium arsenate (pH 11.61), magnesium ar-
senate (pH 9.61), and: lead arsenate (pH 7.56). Thse results indicated
that among the materials that could be used for buffering purposes, zinc
salts would probaoly be the most suitable for use with calcium arsenate
for cotton insect control. Tests-are being continued with mixtures of
calcium arsenate and zinc salts and calcium arsenate with ferrous salts.
As a result of these investigations one of the lar ge insecticide companies
last year tested a calcium arsonate in which a zinc salt was included in
the process of manufacture. Their first season's results in field tests





-17-

were so satisfactory in holding dorwn the aphid population that the zinc-
safened calcium orsenate is being produced conmercially on a large scale
this year.

Abutilon berlandicri, a possible host plant of pink boll-ormr,.--Plants
of A. borlandicri rwre groe at Presidio, Tex., from seed obtained at
Brown-.sville, Tex. On Soptoeber 3, 1940, L. W .Noble ploced pink bcllyorn
egcs on the seoed pods of some of these plants and on Septembor 13 he found
two seconC-instar larvae in the pods. In another test pink bollwrorm moths
wcre released during the period fron October 2 to 16 in cages sot over
A. borlandieri plants. On iovt.bor 6 each of throe pods were found to be
infested with a second-instar larva. Robert F. hartin, of tho 3ureau of
Plant Inustry, verified the deternination of this nalvaccous plant. He
states that "this species is very closely related to, if not identical with,
two other species--A. pornolle Sneet and A. ligno su (Cav.) Don. If these
species are the saJ:e, A. ligno sun appears to toe he oldest." Althouh
those tests in cages at Presidio indicate the possibility that this plant
nihlt servo as a host of the pink bollworm, in all of the observations and
collections thus far utae in the lorwr Rio Gr:anc Valley no pink bollvorns
have been collected or reared from this plant.

Pink bollomr-- in lower Rio Grande Valley in April.--A. J Chapnmn,
et al., of the 3rownsville laboratory, report that although resting-stage
larvae of the pink bollvorm were found in open cotton bolls on the soil
surface in January, ebruary, and Mnarch, none :'ore found in the e:xaination
of 80 open bolls in April. The bolls were badly decoriosed arnd scarce be-
cause of the heavy rains during the wintor rontho. On Spter:beor 25, 1940,
about 70 cotton stalks bearing 300 open oand grecn bolls wore placod stand-
ing in a cage so that the bolls 'would be off the ground. On February 3,
1941, or 131 days after this cage was installed, an cxamination of 2 of
the bolls disclosed 1 pink bollworm.; on February 28, or 156 days after the
cage was installed, an eam.ination of G bolls disclosed 2 pink bollvornms
on March 31, or 187 days after installation, the examination of 3 bolls dis-
closed 2 pink bollvorns; and on April 29, or 216 days after installation,
the e:naination of 3 bolls disclosed 5 lazrve and 1 pupa of the pink boll-
worn. One pink bollwora moth was also found in this cage on April 28, or
215 days after installation. This high survival of pink bolror--.s on
standing cotton ealhasizes the irportance of cutting all cotton stalks in
the fall, even though all the bolls on the ground cannot be destroyoC. Be-
tween August 20 and Deceorber 10, 1940, open and: green cotton bolls and cot-
ton squares nore installed in 151 hibernation cages. During March and
April a total of only 7 pink boll.ormn oths ercU. d r This enerence tool
place in 7 different ca-es from resting larvae in open cotton bolls on the
soil surface, groen bolls on the soil surface, anld :reen bolls buried from
1 to 2 inches. The period between installation and ocner -ence rang ed fron
133 to 207 days. In the first case, open bolls were placed on the soil
surface in a caSe on October 28 and the adult moth appeared on March 10.
In the latter case, open bolls were placed on the soil surface on September
26 and the adult noth nade its appearance on April 21. Oin: to heavy rains,
all of the hibern tion caecs wore covered with water for a period of from
3 to 5 days from Decenber 22 to 27, 1940, and acain for 3 or 4 days beteooen
March 23 and 27, 1941. For this reason very little er.ergence of moths was
o:pected from these cages. KMany fruiting forms of 10 different species of
nalvaceous plants wero examined or c o:;ed for oeorg-nce of Coths dur in" Arril,
alv o-o.oc of otln clurit-- n- il




-18-

but no pink bollworns were found. In the Big BondO area of Texas and in
the Laguna district of MIexico many pirn bollwor'is survive the winter in
loose cocoons in the soil. A parently the pink bollwxorm differs in its
habits in the lower Rio Grr'.nde Valley, as the oxr..ination of soil from
heavily infested fields during the last 2 winters has failed to disclose
a sin;le pink bollworn free in the soil. All that have been found in or
on the soil of cottonfiolds .have "boon in boll, locks, or cottonseed.

PIEIK 3OLLTORM1I AD THURB-RIA YTCEVIL CONTROL

Plantin; of the 1941 cotton crop.--Planting and replanting of the
cotton crop was in progress in all of the regulatel areas in Texas, New
MIxico, and Arizona at the end of Arril, and dcifficulties are being on-
cocuntere in obtaining stands of cotton because of heavy rains follorwed by
cool wather unfavorable to seed gorninotion. The planting of the cotton
crop was corplCteod around the middle of April in the Coastal Be:-c district
of south Texas, with a good stand being obtained over the area as a
whole; however, during the last few days of April heavy rains throughout
tha't district destroyed a great deal of the young cotton. Cotton planting
be:e:i in the lower Rio Gran.de Valley of Texas on February 1, in accordcance
with State relations; however, abnornal rainfall curing Febru-"ry and iMrch
necessitated several extensions of the closing date for plantin, originally
set at March 15. .The deadline for planting was finally extended to April
20, and it was esti.-ated that approxi:nctely 9G percent of the crop had been
planted at the close of that date. Special permits were granted, upon re-
quest, for the plnting of the balance of the crop, and in the 10-day
period ended April 30, permits were issued to 35b farmers for the planting
of 5,247 acres which had been too wet for planting prior to April 20. In
some instances, however, additional rains interfered with planting after
permits wore issued, and at the close of April aTproxiaetely 99 percent of
the 230,000 acreage had. b-en planted3 In the e;.cican aquaratntined areas ad-
jacent to the lo-wer Rio Grando Valley of Texas, where similar reglations
prevail in regard to cotton planting, rainfall did not interfere with the
planting of the crop to such ca extent as on the Anerican side, and the
entire crop had been planted at the clos3 of April. Cotton planting ras be-
gun in the Prosidio-Ojinaga area of the Big Bond of Texas and Mexico on
April 20, in accordance with regultions in effect in that region, and by
the close of April moot of the acrroge had boon planted; however, rains
which occurred in that area around the latter part of the month will prob-
ably necessitate some replanting. The controlled planting date for the
lower Rio C-rande Valley and the Big eond, designed for the purpose of bring-
ing about a delay in the fruiting of the cotton crop, is considered one of
the most important factors in pink bollworm control in those particular
areas, as through this medium attack is made on the insect at the most vul-
nerable point in its lifeeyclo--spring enere-nce from overwintering larvae.
Koths emerging in the absence of a host on which to oviposit will die with-
in a short time without propagating the species.

Destruction of sprout cotton.--To successfully combat the pink boll-
worm, there must be a consi'drable period throughout the year during which
no food is available for build-cl- of infestation. Under the very favorable
clin..atic conditions in the lower Rio G-rande Valley cotton bears fruit
throughout the year if not destroyed; consequently, an effort is macde to kill





-19-

all stalks irmuediately after the crop is harvested. Groat difficulties are
met, however, in attempting to destroy cotton in this region, and sprout
plants develop throughout the year from roots left in the ground during
plowing operations, thus making it necessary to carry on an a .;ntonsive cam-
paign for the destruction of sprout cotton until the fruiting of the subse-
quent crop. During April, 875 man-l -vs wore erxpended in grubbing out sprouts
which gave evidence of producing blooms prior to the fruiting of the planted
crop. At the ond of April young squares were beginning to appear in a good
many of the- eorlier 1941 planted fields, but it is not believed that blooms
will become goneral until around the first of June. The Mexican Department
of Agriculture is carrying on a similar program in regard to the cestruc-
tion of sprout cotton in the lower Rio Grancde Valley of Mexico, an work in
that area was continued during April with satisfactory results. In the
Anlauac region of Mexico, opposite Laredo, Tex., funds have been made
available by the Mexican Government for the removal of sprout and volunteer
cotton from approximately 1,200 acres of abandoned cotton land as a pink
bollirorm control measure, and at the end. of April approximately 5,000 ares
of land had been cleaned. Plans are to complete the cleaning of all acreage
some time in May before the 1-41 crop begins fruiting. A survey of the
cotton acreage in the Coastal Bond district of south Teoas during April re-
sulted in the finding of some sprout cotton in Duval Ccunty, which it is be-
lieved will reach the fruiting stage in advance of the 1941 planted cotton.
The farmers involvre were contacted, and ha .e promised cooperation in the
removal of this cotton. Some abandoned fields of sprcut cotton were also
located in Duval anE_ Maverick Counties. The one field in Maverick Count-y
had been cleaned at the end of April, and it is of interest to note that
living pink bollworms were found hibornating in a few ciry bolls. It is
planned to use Bureau labor to destroy the sprout cotton in the ahanloned
fields in Duval County.

Wild-cotton eradli tion in Florica.--An effort 1has boon under -"-ay
for a number of years to oradlicate the pink bollworn fron southarn Floricda
through the destruction of the wild cotton plant which harbors the insect,
and thus prevent its sproea northwvard to cdomestic cotton plantings. Very
gratifying progress has boon arie in this undertaking. A great part of
this work has boon accouplishol through Work Progress Adninistration allot-
ments, and during the last two seasons a C. C. CC: p has been set up at
Cape Sable to ai in this work. For the month of April the quota of 102
7. P. A. workers was reduced~ to 94; however, the C. C. C. Cmp, consisting
of about 200 enrollees, was at full strength about half of the month.
7orking conditions were favorable during April throughout the entire dis-
trict. The third cleaning- of the season was co.plete, in the I CapeS Sable
area toward1 the close of April, and the work in that region was terminated
for the season. This is the first time the Cape Sable area has been
covered three times in one season, and this was possible on account of having
sufficient man power furnished by C. C. C. and W. 7 A. agencies. Almost
half a million fewer plants ,wore found" in the Cape-Sable area this season
than last, indicating a reduction in the number of ornt seed in the soil.
A third cleaning of the season is in pro'ress in the Bradenton-Fort Mycrs
subdistrict and the third cleaning for the Main K es area made good advanco-
eont during April. The houseboat crew of the ,Cap Sable subdistrict was
engaged in a second cleaning of the Ten Thouscndi Islands section during
April, and. the houseboa.t cre-:w of the Keys subdistrict was engange in clean-
ing colonies along the Dade County ainland. During April a total of 9,692





-20-

acres was covered, from iwhich were removed 3,588 mature plants, 44,456
seedlings, and 81 sprout plants. In addition to the acreage cleaned,
more than 11,000 acres was scouted and no plants were found thereon.

TRUCK CROP A~,TD GARDE'. ITNSCT INTVSTIGCATIOTS

Performance of narcissus bulbs treated for control of bulb fly dur-
ing the growing season.--Using bulbs from field plots of narcissus which
had received during the growing season of 1940 various insecticidal treat-
ments for the control of the narcissus bulb fly (Merodon ecuestris (F.)),
Ralph Schopp and Paul M. Eide, of the Sumner, Wash., loratory, found
that none of the treatments employed had a detrimental effect on the forc-
ing performance of the bilbs in the gr enhouse during the latter part of
the winter of 1940-41. The sample bulbs vore from four experiments, two
of which involved application of the lead arsenate-minoral oil emulsion
spray mixture known as "Dynamite", one employing the application of naph-
thalene flakes, and the fourth from the use of sevcral miscellaneous ma-
terials. The first of the experiments with the "D~rnamite" spray was to
tost the effectiveness of the ingredients by eliminating one at a time from
the complete formula, while the second was to determine the effectiveness
of each ingredient when used separately. The third experiment involved
sprinkling dry naphthalone flakes on the soil around the necks of the bulbs
at rate of 1/2, 1, 1-1/2, and 2 pounds per 100 foot of row. The experiment
employing miscellaneous materials included application" of spray mixtures con-
taining mineral oil emulsion, eyl acotate-mineral oil, carbon disulfide-
mineral oil, and dust mixtures of cube and sulfur and cube and bontonite.
Untreated plots were includc I in all of the oxperiments. To determine any
effect of the treatments upon the utility of the bulbs for forcing in the
greenhouse, data were obtained on the length of time reouired for flowering,
on the measurements of the flower stem and flower parts, end the general
condition of the flower. Twenty sample bulbs were taken from each treatment
in the field and used for the forcing tests. The bulbs were planted in
flats and buried outside on October 9, 1940, and transferred to the green-
house for forcing on Decc-.ber 30.

Performance of narcissus bulbs treated for control of bulb fly
after digging.--F. S. 3.anton, of the Babylon, N. Y. laboratory, found
that narcissus bulbs could be forced in the greenhouse following treatments
used to control the narcissus bulb fly in the bulbs after digging. -Dif-
ferent.lots of bulbs were subjected at intervals of 1 week for a period of
10 weeks after digging to each of the following treati.-.nts: (1) Calcium
cyanide at a dosage of 16 ounces to 100 cubic feet for 4 hours; (2) sodiumri
cyanide at a dosage of 7 ounces to 100 cubic feet for 4 hours; (3) vapor
heat at 1100 F. for 2 hours, exclusive of the 1-hour approach period; and
(4) hot water at 1100 F. for 1 ihour, exclusive of 1/2-hour approach period.
The period cduring which treatments were -made was August S to October 10.
,There was no lappaent injury to the flowers from any of the treatmntos but
there was sli;ght foliage injury on those given the hot-water treatnont at
thel 8th, 9th, and 10th vwoe'ks, and the number of flowers produced by those
receiving the hot-wator treatment was somehat reduced. At the time of
planting there was some damage apparent on the bulbs receiving the cyanide
treatments for the first, second, and third :eeks. This injury was evi-
denced by a charred appearance, which was followed by the fungi Rhizopus
and Penicillizu. Thlero was a yield of 171 flowers from the bulbs receiving





-21-

the calcium cyanide treatment, 169 froa the sodium cyanide treatment,
174 from the vapor heat, 140 from the hot vaater, and 167 from bulbs not
treated, the total nmuber of bulbs forced being 250 for each treatr.ment or
25 from- each ~eekly application of each treatment.

Control of cabbage caterpillars on cc.Imercial plantings.--The
tests conducted by W. J. Reid, Jr., of the Charleston, S. C., laboratory,
on fields of fall-gro .in: cabbage during the fall and winter of 1940
showed that effective control of cabbage caterpillars including the cab-
barge looper (Autographa brassicae (Riley)), the imported cabbage -orn
(Ascia rapae (L.)), the dianonrlback: oth (Plutella maculipennis (Curt.)),
oand Agrotinae, and their damage, was obtained under connercial conditions
by omploying the control program found to be most effective in experimonts
pr:viously carried out on small-plot plantings of cabace. The ccntrol
progra-. used consisted of making applications of insecticides to the
cabba:e at intervals of 10 days throughout the groc~ing period, the ones
prior to the tire heading began consisting of dust mixtures of cryolite or
arsonicals, v.ith thoso during; the heading; period being dust mixtures con-
taining rotenone, pyr-tinrur, or both of thse ingredients. The insecti-
cides used, the nuIbers of applications, and the percentages of cab ba s
damaged by caterpillars at hervest for each of the 10 cor.ercial plantings
included in this experiment are shozn in the following table.


: : NTuer of : Cabb age
S:applications of : A-ip-licatis :magecd
Farn :arsenicals or :after heading : by
To. :Planting : cryolite before: :cater-
: eading : iurber : Insecticide :pillars at
: : :: : : harvest
S: : :Percent
1----------: A :4 : :Derri-pyrethru: 1.5
: 3 4 3 :Derris :4.5
2----------- A 3 : :Derris-pyrethrun: 2.5
: : -/3 : 3 :Derris : 2.5
3---------: A : 4 3 :Derris-pyrethrum: 4.5
S-~ 3 4 3 :Derris : 3.5
4----------- A 4 : 3 Derris-pyrethrun: 7.2
: : 4 : 3 :errs : 9.0
: C 4 : 3 :Pyrethrun : 7.1
: D Untreated :Untreated: -- : 53.1

1/
Through error the first applicati-n consisted of a derris-dust
mixture containing 1 percent of rotencne.

These data shov that, except for one farm, adequate co.r-ercial con-
trol of the caterpillar damage T:as obtained by the use of an arsenical cr
cryolite cust during the preheading stage followred during the heading period
by applications of dorris or derris-pyrethrun adsts. On the one farn the
dusting schedule wvas not continued quite long enough for the control to be
entirely adequte, but even in this instance (Far-n No. 4) the net profit re-
sulting fro:. use of the insecticides ranged fron $69 to $73 per acre.





-22-


Corroborating the results obtained from previous eoperiments of a similar
nature the deris-pyrethrun dcust sihowedI a tendency to be slightly superior
to the derris dust in certain respects. The insecticides applied prior to
the tin. when hiea ing of the cboege beg an were the samre for any one farm
and consisted of cryolite a-d a diluent (1-2), or of alsonicals as pre-
ferred by the grower, while those after heading began were derris dust con-
taining 1 percent of rotonoe or derris-pyrethrLun dust containing 0.5 per-
cent of rotoonne r.and a .015-percent Pyr-ethrins I and II content, or a py-
rethrlu dust containing 0.3 percent of Pyrethrins I and II. There were
three- or four preheading applications at rates of 10 to 15 pounds per acre
per application w-ith three post-heacing applications at rates of 15 to 25
poundrs eOr acre per application. All dust applications were made by
traction dusters. Each planting of cabbage on Par.-s iTos. 1, 2, and 3 was
1 acre in size,. whereas those on Far;- ITo. 4 were 1/2 acre.

HeoMipt erous-insect da-.age to sugar beets grown for seed..--Field
i;olation-cage studies were conductled by O. A. Hills at Phoenix, Ariz., dur-
ing the 1940 ; ceson to determine the amount of da,-:age to sugar beets grown
for seedc attributa'ble tc feeding by various soecios of Lygus and of Chlo-
rochro.a sayi Stal. (Say stink Studies in 1939 shower that these
insects did not reduce the yield of seed, but rather were responsible for
a reducction in the percentage of viable seed produced. Germination tests
of the beet seed produced under caged conditions in 1940 vere completed
during January ancl sho- th-t individual a:lts of C. sayi dami aed an aver-
age of ever 200 seed b:lls :-during t-he dovlopm.ental perio 'f the seed,
w-hile the cdam age by in:ividuals of the seccies of Lus averaged 62 to 91
sced balls duriT the snae period, the total nuibor of see7 balls produced
per cage being about 400. These studie:s also sh.ed that L. elisus Van
Duzee was responsible for significantly less d:iage than L. heperuns Knight
or L. ratensis oblineg.tu-s (Say) and that the fmal.es and nr~-phs of all
species were responsible for more dage than were the les of the same
species. The data further indic'. to that Lygus foeeing renders the entire
see 1ball nonviable, wheras C. sni, in addition:to rndering a larger
nurber cf sees balls nonviale, mray also affect one or .ore seed of a seed
ball without rend'ring the entire nonviable.

Potatc p-oyllid :fils to overw:inter on reo cedar.--The results of
cage studies conducted by R. L. Wallis at the Scottsbluff, eTobr., labora-
tory last vinter corroborate f the o of similar studios which o carrie out
duri-n the winter of 1939-40, in that they showecd 't:at aults of the po-
tato pcyllid (Paritrioza cockerelli (Sulc)) did not overwinter on red codar
trees, although this tree had been previously reported as the natural over-
wintering carters of this post. In tlhe series of exceriments conducted
last :inter --o living psyllics were found at any examination. In similar
eori ..-ents the previous winter no live psyllids :rere found, after Decen-
ber 26, 1939; 7o-ever, 84-porcent ocrtality had occurred prior to that ~ate
during comparatively mild weather. In the winter of 1940-41 subzoro
weather occurred, oerly i: Ni er ily in oveer a again early in Decobor anC this
probably accounts for the early nortality last season. In these tests 100
.adults of the psyllid wore confine.d dring the latter part of October in
VIU c1 t, sn of the_8 ca-Les
each of the cages placed around branches on red coLar, one of the cages
being reoovod each week during the period Doceober 2, 1940, to March 24,
1941, to determine whether it contained living psyllids.





-23-

Inpregnatcd pyrethru- m custs effective against tobacco thrips.--Fron
an experinent carried out during 1940 on roplicated small pots at the
Windsor, Conn., laboratory, A. T. Iorrill, Jr., conclures that i:prognatced
pyrethrum dusts containing 0.5 percent of PyFrotrins I and TI, using ex-
hausted pyrothrun flowers as the carrier, shows considerable-promise
against the tobacco thrips (Frankiiniella fusca (Hinds)) when applied to
infested cigar-wrapper tobacco growing under shade. Evaluations of damage
by thrips on the cured leaves of tobacco from plants that had received 7
applications of this insecticide showed that an average of only 7 percent
of the potential yield of cigar wrappers was damaged, as compared to 59
percent of the wrappers of leaves taken from plants that received no in-
sectici.dal treatment. The percentage of wrappers damaged by the thrips
on plants receiving 7 similar applications of a cube-tobacco dust mixture
containing 1 percent of rotonone was 18, whereas for plants treated al-
ternately with this dust mixture and the pyrethrun dust, only 12 percent
of the wrappers was damaged by feeding of the tobacco thrips. Two spray
mixtures containing pyrethrun and rotenone wore less effective in reducing
damage by the thrips than the dusts. The dusts were applied by rotary
hand-operated dusters at an average rate of about 8.5 pounds per acre per
application and the sprays were applied by knapsack sprayers at an average
rate of 37 gallons per acre per application, the 7 applications of each
insecticide being made at semiweekly intervals beginning July 2. The 6
treatments wore replicated on 36 plots 1/40 acre in size arranged in a
Latin square, and the effectiveness of the treatments was doternined by
examining after curing and classifying as to the presence of thrips damage
to the leaves from 10 plants per plot.

I1TSECTS AMiCTIiTG MAN AED AIMALS

Mosquito survey at Savannah. air base.--t the request of the: Public
Health Service, G. H. Bradley, of the New Smyrna Beach, Fla., laboratory,
spent the period April 22 to 24, inclusive, in making a mosquito survey
and estimating the needs for a W . A. mosquito-control project in the
vicinity of the Savannah, Ga., air base.

Creosote spray for sandfly control.--In preliminary tests made by
J. B. Hull and S. E. Shields, of the St. Lucie, Fla., laboratory, 200
feet of ditch was sprayed with creosote oil at the rate of 1 gallon of
creosote to 100 feet of ditch. Only 1 ilarva was isolated from three 1-
quart samples 18 days later. From an untreated ditch 150 feet away al-
most 100 larvae were isolated from each sample.

Dog fly breeding places.--7. E. Dove and S. W. Sirmons, of the
Panama City, Fla., laboratory, report that a survey was made for breeding
places of dog flies in the dairies of Bay County, Fla. Of 14 dairies in-
spected, breeding was found. in 6.

FOREIGNT P LiN QJARANTTINES

Entonlogical ihterceptions of interest.--Two living and 28 dead
larvae of the Mediterranean fruitfly (Coratitis capitata (Wied.)), were
taken at Seattle on April 25 in apples in ship's refrigerator from Queens-
land. Living specimens of the endomychid Trochoideus nmericanus Buq. were
intercepted at Hoboken, N. J., on April 3 with Cattleya sp. in cargo from
Colombia. A living adult of the colydiid Sosylus cursorius Pasc. was taken





-24-

at New York on April 10 on a prinavera log frorn M:exico, and S. duplicatus
Pasc. was taken at Now York on April 11 .under the bark of a prinavera log
fron CGuateoala. A living specimen of the lygaoid Ozophora gracilipes (Stal)
was t:kon at Hoboken, Z. J., on April 4 on Cattleva sp. in cargo fron
Venezuela. One larva of the golochiid C-norinc schema lavernella (Chanb.)
was found at El Paso, To::., in husk tonato in baggage fron Mexico. A living
adult of the curculionid Pyropus sanphirinus Gyll. was intercepted at Now
York on March 24 on uustard greens in cargo from Cuba. Specinens of the
coccid Coroplastos ceriferus (And.) were intercopted at San Francisco on
March 7 on Camellia sasanqua in baggage from Japan. A living adult of the
lyctid Lyctoexylon japonum Reitt. was intercepted at Norfolk, Va., on
April b in bamboo dunnage in quarters fron Java. Specimens of the bruchid
Bruchus dentipes ochreasignatus Heydon were found at the Inspection House,
Washington, D. C., on April 22 in Vicia hybrida seeds in express from Iran.
Although the specimens were dead, H. S. Barber stated that they were the
first good specimens received here. A living adult of the cydnid Galgupha
schulzii (F.) was found at San Francisco on March 31 on Oncidiun splendiduam
in cargo fro. Guatemala. A living larva of the curculionid Metanasius sp.
was found at Presidio, Tex., on March 2 in a sugarcane stalk in baggage
from Mexico. A living adult of the lygacid Ozophora pallescens: (Dist.) was
intorceptod at How York on April 9 with string beans in stores fron Cuba.
Specimens of the bruchid Bruchus h~aatus Miller wore interce ted at the In-
spection House, Washington, D. C., on April S1 in unidentified seeds of a
forage plant in express frou Iran.

Pathological interceptions of interest.--Ccratostonella ips Runbold
was found on April 17 at Hoboken on a pine cleat in cargo from England.
C. uini (Schworz) Buis. was intercopted on April 3 at New York in olm wood
in a crate fron England. Corcosprora coffeicola Berk. & C. was intercepted
on March 4 at Hoboken on coffee leaves in baggage from Mexico. Cunninsiel-
la sanglginea (P-eck) Arth. was intercepted on IMarch 12 at Hoboken in Ma-
honia leaves from British Coltbfoia. DenrciLodochium lycopersici MI.arsh, a
little-lino';wn fungus described in Bolgiumn in 1901, was intercepted on to-
untoos from Mexico Aril 10, 1940, bad on February 15, 1941, at Brownsville.
-loeos-poriun lobboc Syd. was intercepted on Foebrary 24 at NTew Orleans on
Albizzia lobbock pods from Honduras. Hotorocdra narioni (Cornu) Goodey
ras intercepted on March 28 at Seattle on A~ l;one pulsatilla vernalis fron
Canada. Kellermania sp. and what appeared to be innaturc Asterina nexicana
E. & E. were interceptedl on March 19 at El Paso on naguey leaves in baggage
from Loxico. Phyllalchora maydie .1aubl. ;was fouind on March 24 at Wow York on
corn leaves in cargo from Guatenala. Pcridermiu.i sp., naterial too scanty
for a specific dotermination, was found on March 3 at El Paso on needles of
Picna sp. in baggage fronMexico. Pefon6spora offusa (Grov.) Ces., connon
on spinach from Mexico, vas found in March at Togales on Chenopodiun sp. in
baggge fror Mexico. P. pisi (Do Bcry) Syd,. was found on April 15 at New
York on poes in stores from Portugal. Urecoo guacae Mayer was intercepted on
Janu-ry 10 at Hoboken on Epiclendrun sp. entering under special permit from
Venoeuela. U. jucunaida Sac. Vas intercptecd at -oboken on February 21 on
Philo.endcron sp. in mail from Costa Rica. Uredo sp., none found reported on
Miiltonia, was intercopted on March 26 a.t Brownsville on Miltonia vexilans
fromn Mexico.





-25-


DOMESTIC PLATT WJArANTIIHES

Grasshopper development.--~Hatching of Melanoplus mexicanus Sauss.
was reported at the close of April as cormplete in two Arizona counties.
Two mixing stations were in operation in Yuma County, Ariz., and demands
for bait were increasing. Hatching of this species was also in progress
in northern Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and the vicin-
ity of Ames, Iowa. M. bivittatus Say, according to reports, was hatching
at Ames the latter part of April, and Aeoloplus turnbullii Thos. in Texas,
Oklahoma, and Kansas. A light and general grasshopper hatch was reported
from many counties in Utah. Infestations of moderate intensity in southern
California were oresent and baiting operations were expected to begin early
in May in San pernardin% and Korn Counties.

Mormon cricket migration s-topped.--A Mormon cricket band with a
front 6 miles wide was recently observed moving into cultivated areas at
Warm Springs, northwestern Oregon, within 150 yards of the town. The
application of sodium fluosilicate bait with power equipment in advance
of the crickets completely stopoed the migration. After feeding on the
bait they failed to advance more than 150 feet, a 98-percent kill was
effected, and no damage to crops resulted.

Other Mormon cricket control work.--The hatching of Mormon crickets
is almost comnplete in areas of low altitude throughout the infested region.
In areas of high altitude the hatch will continue for some time. Adult
crickets were observed at the close of April in Washington and Oregon. In
Nevada the hatch was somewhat retarded by storms early in the month. In
Utah heavy po-oulations of crickets which h.d not migrated from'the eg
beds were effectively dusted, resulting in an 85- to 95-percent kill, in
some sections 100 percent. Such early dusting of crickets while they
are still concentrated on the hatching grounds, is a most economical
type of control. In Oregon large-scale cooperative control operations
have been conducted in Wasco and Jefferson Counties, and on the Warm
Springs Indian R-servo.tion and land adjacent thereto. Power-dusting was
begun in ievade on Aprril 21, and extensive preparations are being made
for large-scale apolications of both sodium-arsenite dust and sodium-
fluosilicate bait. A considerable number of pick-up trucks, power bait-
spreaders, and bait nixers have been transferred to the areas in Nevada
and Oregon where extensive control o)erations are antici-ated. During
April a total of nore than 3,000 acres was dusted and nearly 20,000 acres
spread with cricket bait.

White-fringed beetles show early develop;ment.--Field emuloyees of
the white-fringed beetle control project, working in close cooperation
with the members of the Division of Cereal and Forage Insect Investiga-
tions, are making studies of the development of the beetles so that in-
formation may be available in each of the infested areas as to the time
-'hen beetle emergence may be expected. The time when control measures
are to be started'in each area is based largely on such.information. The
pupal stage was found at New Orleans on Aoril 22 and in the Florala, Ala.,
area on Anril 26, 10 days earlier than the first pupae were found at






-26-


Florala in any previous year. These findings indicate an early emergence,
which may be -ccounted for by unusually dry weather throughout the in-
fested area.

Control work on white-fringed beetle has begun.-Direct control
measures against the white-fringed beetle were begun at Mobile, Ala., on
April 30 and were going forward in the early part of May in all isolated
areas, where the most drastic type of suppressive measures are to be con-
tinued throughout the entire period of emergence to determine the possi-
bility of eradication. Materials and supplies needed to carry on the work
throughout the season have been ordered to the extent that available funds
will permit.

Beetle control at Army Center.--A recre-tional center to be used
by the Army rersonnel on holidays and week ends has been established with-
in the white-fringed beetle infested area at Gulfport, Miss. The site was
selected by the Army officer in command, in cooperation with the project
emnloy~ees, and the Army has cooperated in the establishment and mainten-
anceof adequate sanitation measures to prevent the beetles from being
carried to points outside the area.

White-fringed beetle administrative instructions modified.--Under
P revision of circular B. E. P. Q.--485 which became effective May 1, the
certification requirements of the white-fringed beetle quarantine were
waived for the current year as to certain articles shipped from designated
parts of the regulated area.. Such modification is justified, it is be-
lieved, because of the decrease in intensity of infestation in certain
parts of the area. No modification has been made in the restrictions
requiring certification of soil, whether moved independently of or attached
to nursery stock or other things.

New white-frineed. beetle infestation found by use of power sifter.--
During test runs made by the new power sifter recently developed by the
technical unit of the white-fringed beetle control project, a new infesta-
tion was discovered on a railroad right-of-way at Crichton, Ala., a suburb
of Mobile. The sifting machine has proved oracticable in detecting the
presence of larvae, ou'c-ae, and adults in any, soil extept the very heavy
types of clay or gumbo an' even in these soils there are indications of
a fair degree of efficiency.

W. P. A. project on sweetpotato weevil control in Mississipi.--
Labor has been assigned by the State 1. P. A. Administrator's Office in
Mississin-pi and clean-up operations -'re now under way in sweetpotato
fields, seedbeds, and storage banks in the areas immediately south of the
counties from which it is believed thr.t the weevils have been eradicated
as a result of cooperative Federal-State operations conducted since 1937.

The sweetpotato weevil a'nd wild host nlants.--In Thomasville,
Thomas CLo-uTtvy (a,, a.t.iticr.l infestati-ns of the sweetrotato weevil
have been found in native host plants. While it is not known whether the
weevil can perpetuate itself throughout the year on these wild plants,
field work is now being conducted, with the assistance of labor furnished





-27-


by the Works Progress Administration, to eliminate all such host plants
in the city and its environs. Further careful inspections are being made
in Georgia and in other affected States to determine the status of wild
host plants 'ith respect to such infestations. This inspection is carried
on jointly with members of the research unit and the State cooperators.

Clean-up work on infected citrus hedges in Navasota, Tex., com-
pleted.--On the discovery of citrus canker on Citrus trifoliata hedges
at Navasota, Grimes County, Tex., last January, a staff of trained in-
spectors was assigned to make a thorough inspection of the 75 hedges in
the town, and P. A. laborers were obtained for tree-removal work in the
area. The town of Navasota was completely inspected, as well as all of
Grimes County. Citrus canker was found on 355 trees on 6 properties in
Navasota. All the infected trees were promptly destroyed, as well as over
12,000 noninfected citrus trees on the infected properties. It seems like-
ly that with the exception of possibly 1 or 2 hedges all citrus trees will
be renoved with the force of 135 relief laborers. Inspection has also been
made of two contiguous counties without finding canker. A survey has been
completed of major towns of central and northeastern Texas covering the
route between Houston and Dallas. Numerous citrus hedges in this non-
commercial area were located, inspected, and recorded.

Transit-inspection station changes.--In April the transit-inspec-
tion stations at Philadelphia and Cincinnati were closed and the inspectors
at these cities were assigned to Dallas, Houston, and Pittsburgh. Transit
inspection at Birmingham has also been suspended.

Transit inspection in the Northeast.--The movement of nursery stock
in the Northeastern States reaches its highest point in April. This year
the peak occurred early in the second week and maintained its level through-
out the month. Srme 75,000 shipmnnts were inspected and over 6,000 way-
bills were exnmine. uring the 30-day period. Inspectors in this area
reported 225 shipments that were moving in violation of 1 or more of 4
different Federal plant quarantines. These were consigned to 36 States
and Canada. Sixty-two irregularities of various State regulations were
also reported to the pr-oer officials. Every inspector in this region
has commented on the tremendous number of Ribes shipments observed this
season. Buffalo, N. Y., is proving to be one of the most important points
for enforcing the white-pine blister rust quarantine, affording protection
to the white-pine growing States of the Northeast, and to the Lake States.
A carload of rose stock, consisting of 40,000 bushes, consigned to Canada
was re'rorted at New York because of the lack of Japanese beetle certifica-
tion. Canadian authorities were promptly advised of this movement and
they made an inspection of the stock at its destination. This is the
third carload of uncertified quarantined material that has been inter-
cepted at New York City during the present fiscal year.

CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS

Methyl bromide fumigatinn accelerates egg hatching.--Gypsy moth
eggs fumigated with sublethal dosages of methyl bromide in November hatched
from 18 to 33 days in advance of control eggs kept under like conditions in





-28-


an unheated laboratory room, in tests reoorted by Randall Latta, of this
Division, and C. H. Gaddis, of the Division of Ja-:anese Beetle Control.
However, in eggs kept in outdoor storage there was no ao;~)arent differ-
ence in the time of hatching. J. W. Bulger reports the same accelera-
tion in the hatchin: of e-es of the tent caterpillar at Hoboken, N. J.
In these tests made in February, some dosages were sublethal and hatching
occurred several days in advance of the controls when both were kept in a
laboratory room.,

INSECTICIDE INVESTIGATIONS

Insecticidal use of aminoacetanilid-s -patented.--On April 29, 1941,
Lloyd E. Smith was granted U. S. patent 2,239,832, which covers the insecti-
cidal use of ortho-, meta-, and para-aninoacctanilides. The -ara deriv-
ative has -iven nromisine results when tested against the following in-
sects: Southern army worm, melon worm, bean leaf roller, cabbage looper,
cross-striped Ca.ha ce worn, and imported cabbage worm. The p-aninoacetani-
lide, at a concentration of 8 pounds per 100 gallons of water, was tested
n~ainst not.to, efiplant, tomato, penper, and bean foliage, with no injury
noted 10 d6ys -after the av--licotion of the spray. This patent is assigned
to the Secretary of Agriculture.

Anabasine.--A' out 10 vyars ago the AmtorT Trading Coroorrtion of
New York City, Americ-an renresentntives of the Sovi :t Union, marketed in
this country an aqueous solution of anabasine sulfate containing 40 per-
cent anabasine. This ca-e into considerable use, especially in Connecti-
cut, for co-nbatin'- -ohids. As a contact snray against the bean aphid,
anabasine was shown to 'e four or five times as toxic as nicotine. Since
1936 anambasine has not ""een av'ilale on the American market, probably be-
cause the entire nroduction was consumed in Russia. Formerly obtained only
from the Asiatic weed Anabasis a~hylla, anabasine is now known to occur in
the tree tobacco INicotiana -:lauca, which .rowe in the Southwestern States.
Russian invstiators have produced hybrids of Nicotiana ,lauca x N, rustica
which contain as much as 7 percent of anaa'.sine. The commercial cultiva-
tion of the tree tobacco and its hybrids seems possible in the United States.
The latest information concerning anabasine is reviewed in the mimeographed
iublication E-537.

Physical behavior of some mixed organic insecticides.--In the con-
trol of the screwworm, it was observed that a number of organic insecti-
cides were effective when a-nlied as dust, but when such dusts were mixed
(in orcder to enhance their effectiveness), they were found to liquefy. A
number of binary systems of such organic insecticides have been investigated
by 0. A. Nelson. The systems examined were: Diphenylamine and nhenoxathiin,
diphenylamine ..and paranitrophenetole, diphenylamine and nitronaphthalene,
and diphenylamine and ribenzofuran. It was observed that at the optimum
concentration onranitrophenetole and nitronaphthalene each lowered the
melting point from 52.8 to a-bout 24 0C., phenoxathiin to 26.4 C., and
dibenzofuran tn 34.5 C. Other systems will be examined and the results
of the previous investigations will be published.





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The red-color test for rotenone.--J. W. Wood and L. D. Goodhue
have been making a study of the factors involved in the "red-color" test
for rotenone and deguelin. In this test an alcoholic alkali nitrite solu-
tion is added to an acetonic solution of a substance containing rotenone
or deguelin, followed 'by the addition of a dilute solution of sulfuric
acid. The heat of reaction is removed in a cooling bath. Since the test
is becoming popular and has been used without due regard for interfering
substanceswhich mi'ht be present, it was deemed advisable to investigate
some of these and to vary the conditions of the test. Approximately 70
organic compounds were tested for their effect, using the standard testing
procedure. The compounCs mesityl oxide, diacetone alcohol, methyl cello-
solve, butyl cellosolve, paraldehyde, methylal, and isatin ;gave appreciable
increases of color, while certain concentrations of ethyl acetoacetate,
ethyl butyl acetoacetate, ethyl-alpha-acetoxy propionate, ethyl lactate,
ethyl nalonate, acetyl acetone, and chloroform prevented the formation of
any red color. The effect of the other substances tested was less pro-
nounced. Dou lin- the concentration of the alkali used with the sodium
nitrite gave a color value almost double in terms of rotenone. Doubling
the amount of nitrite, however, decre-.sed the color value approximately one-
thire, whereas decreasing the amount of nitrite to a certain point increased
the color. Slight variations in the temnerature of the cooling bath had
little effect on the test, A detailed account of this investigation is
bein7 perepared for nublication.

BEE CULTURE

Pollen from aflfalf in Arizona.--While Geo. H. Vansell, Davis,
Calif.,has reported of his field studies in locations with miscellaneous
pollen sources that the number of honeybees observed collecting alfalfa
pollen was almost negligible, he also reported in the Journal of Economic
Entomology for Fe-bruary 1941 that honeybees worked rlfalfa blossoms freely
in the Imperial Valley, where other pollen sources were relatively scarce.
In reportin: later similar evidence from Arizona, he states: "A pollen
trap during the summer of 1940 at Chandler, Ariz., yielded a fairly large
aount (25 Ibs ) of pjllen. Beginning late in Anril and continuing to
A St the -ore .ominatin pollen was of a pale graying yellow color. Recent
microscopical examination indicates that this supply was from alfalfa. The
size and shape of the grains are indistinguishable from those taken from the
bees visiting alfalfa in Imperial Valley. It is noteworthy that Arizona
consistently produces a large quantity of alfalfa seed, A correlation may
exist between intense pollen activity and seed set."

IDENTTIFICATIONT AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS

Two.interesting records of Bruchidae.--A species of bruchid has
been taken recently in seeds of Piscidia from the Island of St. Thomas. It
agrees well with the description of Bruchus nodagricus F. and probably is
that species, which is now listed in the genus Pseudonschymerus (a synonym
of Caryedes). A-nnarently no definite recovery of P. podagricus has been
recorded since the species was described in 1801. The type was stated to
have come from "America meridionalis;" in all likelihood it had been sent to
Fabricius from St. Thomas. A new and very distinct snecies of Bruchus has





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been recoverc-d from seeds of species of Cicer, related to the chickpea.
This is the first record of Bruchus from any plant of that genus. It is
now known that all five 'enera of the leruminous tribe Vicieae found in
the Mediterranean re, ion are infested by one or more species of the genus
Bruchus.

Another European weevil in 1Torth America.-An example of how a non-
economic exotic species which, though common and widely distributed in North
America, may lonm escape detection, cuae to light recently when W. J. Brown,
of the Canadian Department of A.riculture, sent in two soecimens of the
European weevil Rhinoncus castor (F.) which had been collected in New Bruns-
wick. Examination of the United States NTtional Museum collection of Rhin-
oncus shows that castor has been nresent (confused with pyrrhoous Boh.) in
the nearctic fauna at least since 1895, and ap-oarently is now firmly estab-
lished, its general ran-e in the United States beinge from Maine to Virginia
and west to Wisc:nsin; in addition, a few soecimens are at hand from Washing-
ton and Ores-on, and frDm Vancouver, British Columbia, and Ontario, Canada.
Mr. Brown states, in litt., that this species is perhaps the most abundant
ceutorhynchid in southeastern Canada, where it is known from numerous points
in iN Tva Scoti,, F w Brunswick, Quebec, an,: Ontario. In urope castor is wide
ly distributed and is reported as feeding or breeding on Rumex, Polygonum,
Oenanthe, and Phellandrium; and there are doubtless other host records in
the literature. Rhinoncus castor, which was first described from Germany,
has an American "counterpart" or "ht-molorue" in the abundant and widesnread
native snecies, R. nyrrho,-u Boh. A similar corres;ondence exists between
the other two native American speciei of Rhinoncus and their European
relatives,--namely, lonm-lus Lec. (IT. jAerica) and eroendicularis (Roich.)
(Europe) forming nme n'air, and occidentalis Dietz (1. Amkerica) with oeri-
caroius (L.) (Europe) another nair. In American literature occidentalis
Dietz is usually 2lnced as a synonym of pericarpius (L.), but incorrectly
so, the relationshin between them being of the same homologous sort (though
aparently closer) as tkht between pyrrho-ous and castor. Although pyrrhopus
and castor now occur together over a wide area in NIrth America, no evidence
of merein4, which mi-'ht be exnected in two forms obviously so closely re-
lated, has been noted. The most useful distincrui shing characters for castor
are its blackish --round color, large elytral tubercles or asperities, and
feebler oronotal sulcus; in the usually reddish pyrrhoous the elytral
asperities are-coneiderab-ly smaller ant the nronotal sulcus deeper.

Cophes longiusculus (Boh.) in the United States,--Six specimens of
this Mexican weevil, labeled "Brownsville, Tex., Dec. 17, 1911," have been
received from H . Ross, of the Illinois Natural History Survey. So far
as known, this is the first report of the occurrence of C. longiusculus in
the United States. Another Mexican seei-.es of Coohes (C. 7ibbus Champ.)
was recorred from near Tucson and in the Santa Rita Mountains, Ariz., by
E. C. Van Dyke in 1930.

Ard.iti-.ns to the collection of Orthmotera--In the course of trips
primarily intended for the stud.y and collection of leafhoopers, P. W. Oman
has collecte. many small lots of Orthoptera. A small collection made in
1937 in the Baboquivari Mountains and-in the vicinity of Hereford, near
the Mexican borrer in Arizona, has recently been incorporated in the main






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collection of the Museum, an-d has been found to include several crass-
hoppers that represent valuable additions. One species, Perixerus glori-
osus Heb., was not in the collection before, and the following are deserv-
ing of mention because of the small number of specimens previously avail-
able for study: Acanthorus pineratus Scudc., Morsiella flaviventris (Bruner),
Conozoa carinata Rehn, Fhrynotettix tschivavensis (Hald.), Leorus robustus
Heb., Schistocerca albolineata (Thos.), Melanoolus thomosi Scudd., end M.
desultorius Renn. Melanopiluo thomasi is not unusual in favorable habitats,
but so few specimens have been received that good series of the noecies are
desirable. Melanoplus desultnrius is a short-winged species related to M.
aridus (Scudd.) and a mehmbr of a section of the genus Melanoplus that has
been somewhat confused in the oast.

Adult ticks abundant in Mar-land in A-)ril,--Although adults of the
American dog tick (Dermacenter variabilis (Say)) occasionally apperr in
Maryland in April, usually they are not abundant until late in May or in
June. On April 27 several active adult ticks were removed from clothing
after aout an h-urts collectin. in Mattowoman Swamp, in southern Maryland.
The almost continuous warm or hot werther in the latter part of April un-
doubtedly h-d caused the ticks to an-,enr, in numbers, earlier than usual.

The squirrel flea as a pest of man.--Several years ago, at Ames,
Iowa, a forestry student asked for the identification of a flea he had
found feeding on his arm. It was identified by Irvinm Fox as Orchopeas
wickhami (Baker), a common eastern flea whose normal hosts are various
squirrels, and which was not known to attack man, Recently another in-
stance has indicited this species as a 'ossible pest. Several specimens
were submitted for identification after causing annoyance in a house in
Lexinton, Ky. From these records it arDe-rrs that this flea is canable
of attacking man, and in this carncity is a potential vector of plnaue.


-ooOoo--




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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