News letter


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News letter
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Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
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Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

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Vol. VIII, No. 5 (Not for publication) May 1, 1941


Bureau Appropriations

The First Deficiency Act for the fiscal year 1941 was approved April
1. It includes two items which relate to the work carried on by the Bur-
eau, These are (1) $2,225,000 for the control of incipient and emergency
outbreaks of insect pests and plant diseases, which is $225,000 above the
Budget estimate but is not the full amount recommended by the Department;
and (2) $18,000 under the item Foreign Plant Quarantines, appropriated for
additional expenses in connection with the operation of the Inspection
House at Hoboken, N. J.

The bill to provide appropriations to the Department for the fiscal
year 1942 has passed the Senate and is now.being considered in conference.
As passed by the Senate the bill provides $5,407,917 for the Bureau ex-
clusive of the amount for white pine blister rust. The amount of the Sen-
ate bill is $105,985 above the Budget estimate. The increases above the
Budget estimate provided in the Senate bill are:

Dutch elm disease eradication -------------------------- 50,000
(This is $50,000 less than the amount avail-
able for the current fiscal year.)
Citrus canker ------------------------------------------ 13,485
Barberry eradication ---------------------------------- 42,500

The Senate bill provides the full amount of the Budget estimate for
the appropriation for white pine blister rust control and will increase
the amount appropriated to the Bureau by $100,000.

.Study of Agricultural Chemicals Plays Part in Defense Program

Commissioner Chester C. Davis, of the Agricultural Division of The
Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense, has made arrange-
ments with Secretary of Agriculture Claude R. Wickard under which the per-
sonnel of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine will be available
to the Agricultural Chemical Section of the National Defense Commission in

1 -


an advisory and consultative capacity. As a part of this a study is being
made of the changing situation with respect to chemicals used for insecti-
cides and fungicides, including technical and statistical information on
the chemicals used. R. C. Roark is devoting special attention to these
matters. Among the major questions under consideration are the type, quan-
tity, and distribution of insecticides and fungicides; location of manufac-
turing plants; seasonal fluctuations in business; manufacturing practices;
availability of raw materials; the price situation; and the possibility of
switching from one type of insecticide to another in case of shortages in
seasonal materials.


Peach mosaic vector research.--In cooperation with the-United States
Bureau of Plant Industry, Brownwood, Tex., and the California Citrus Ex-
periment Station, Riverside, Calif., investigations to determine the vec-
tor or vectors of peach mosaic virus were instituted in 1938. The results
of the first 3 years of test work conducted at San Bernardino, Calif., and
at the sublaboratory at Brownwood, Tex., have been summarized by L. D. *
Christenson, L, S. Jones, D. D. Jensen, and 0. H. Graham. To date, 2,703
tests, in which more than 177 different insect species were employed, have
been made. The 1938 and 1939 tests provided negative results only. Due to
a long incubation period of the virus in peach, the results of the 1940 tests
cannot be determined until foliage is well developed on test trees in 1941.
Included in the total number of tests are 33 with 3 species of Acarina, 126
with 6 species of Thysanoptera, 11 with species of Aleyrodidae, 887 with at
least 30 species of Aphiidro, 788 with more than 69 species of Cicadellidae,
55 writh 8 species of Fulgoridae, 32 with 4 species of Araoopidae, 1 with 1
species of Corcopidae, 17 with 4 species of Psyllidae, 87 with 6 species of
Mombracidae, 6 with miscellaneous Homoptera, 233 with 11 species of Miridac,
32 with 1 species of Pentatomidae, 68 with 1 species of Piosmidae, 21 with
3 species of Tingidae, 68 with 7 species of Coreidae, 23 with 1 species of
Anthocoridae, 94 with 7 species of Lygaeidae, 32 with 1 species of Pyrrho-
coridac, 7 with 2 species of Yeididae, 3 with 2 species of Cydnidae, 58 with
7 species of Coleoptera, rnd 21 with 3 species of Orthoptera. Approximately
15 tests have been made for each species employed. Although numerous in-
sects on-the peach mosaic survey list are still inadequately tested, most
of the outstanding suspects have been worked with extensively, the green
peach aphid (Myzus persicae (Sulz.)), for instance, being the subject of
191 careful and varied tests. In conducting the tests, the general method
of transfer of large test populations of the insect with brush or aspirator
from inoculum to healthy peach was supplemented by a free exchange type of
test in which test insects were allowed unhindered access to inoculum and
healthy poach tissue confined within a cage. Another method consisting of
direct transfer to healthy peach of insects found on peach mosaic infected
trees in orchards or reared on diseased-trees at the laboratory was used in
many instances. Allowances were made for an exceptionally long incubation
period of the virus in the insect. In replicate test series, different
sources of insects, types of inoculum and test tree tissues for feeding,
ages of inoculum and test trees, and lengths of feeding periods were used
whenever consistent with the ability of the test insect to stand the con-

ditions imposed. Tests were nade at all seasons of the year and test ac-
tivity was synchronized with the normal seasonal succession of insects in
peach orchards as much as possible. Severe strain peach mosaic of demon-
strated virulence was used as inoculun in most of the tests, A few in-
volved the use of milder strains and field strains of unclassified viru-
lence. Some of the mosaics in related stone fruits also served as inoculum,

Peach insect survey of western United States.--In March 1937 a mobile
entomological laboratory was assigned to the work of explorino the field of
peach mosaic vector possibilities as a prelude to a program of peach mosaic
vector tests. L. D. Christenson, L. S. Jones, D, D. Jensen, and 0. H.
Grrhan, ef the San Bernardino, Calif., laboratory and Brownwood, Tex., sub-
laboratory, summarized work accomplished by the survey unit thus far. More
than 26,000 records of insect occurrence in peach orchard environments are
now in survey files. Collections were made at m1ore than 90 selected sampl-
ing stations in Oklahoma, Colorado, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Cali-
fornia, Washington, and Oregon. The mobile surve" unit traveled 54,711
miles without serious mishap during the 4-year oeriod. Regular sampling
stations in peach mosaic infected orchard districts were visited generally
3 or more tines each year at different seasons, i.e., blossom stage, pre-
harvest foliage stage, post-harvest foliage stage, and dormant stage of the
trees. All orchard ecological strata were sampled, including the tree,
cover, soil. surface, and soil strata. In addition, associated trees,shrubs,
and other. stone fruits were given attention wherever they occurred within
the boundaries of a sampling station. Incidental to the peach mosaic in-
fected orchard surveys, work in relation to "X" disease of peach and choke-
cherry, "Muirl.s" disease of peach, mottle-leaf of sweet cherry, and pink-
fruit of sour cherry, was carried on. The Division of Insect Identifica-
tion .provided approx-imately 11,479 identifications during the 4-year period.
SIn addition to furnishing a basis for objective vector research on peach
mosaic and the other stone-fruit viruses mentioned, survey information has
added much to present knowledge .of the distribution of many species, pro-
vided the United States Na.tiojnal Museum with adequate series of :any in-
sects previously poorly represented in collectio-is, furnished specimens of
numerous species new to science, and, finally, increaseC. materially the
fund of information relative to peach insects in the desert and semiarid
areas of western United States.


Status of fruitfly and citrus fruit harvesting in lower Rio Grande
Valley.--Very heavy rains in January, February, and March materially delay-
ed the harvesting of citrus fruit in the Rio Gran:ie Valley of Texas this sea-
son. It is estimated that the harvesting period was nore than 30 days de-
layed on this one account alone, and as there has developed a rather light
infestation of the Mexican fruitfly in the area regulated under Quarantine
64, the harvesting season for grapefruit was extended from April 30 to May
31. The harvesting season for.oranges had been previously extended to that
date, Sterilization rooms have been installed in many of the packing houses,
and as the vapor-heat treatment has proved so satisfactory, and as the pro-
cess eliminates the possibility of spreading the infestation of the Mexi-
can fruitfly through the shipment of infested fruit, the lengthening of
the harvesting season no longer presents a serious insect hazard. At the
close of March only 186 larval infestations had been found throughout the

--4. -

entire season and during the month of March only 36 fruitflies were trapped
in the regulated area. At the close of March shipments of fresh fruit a-
mounted to 24,642.8 equivalent carlots. It is estimated that at that time
there remained approximately 5,000 carloads of fruit to be harvested. In
all probability less than 50 percent of this amount will be shipped as fresh
fruit and the remainder will be processed at the jtice plants.


Comparative susceptibility to bor'er injury of commercial and promis-
ing varieties of sugarcane.--During the past harvesting season, J. W. Ingram
and others of the Houma, La., laboratory, determined the borer infestation
in replicated Bureau of Plant Industry commercial variety test fields in
three locations in plant cane and in three locations in s-tubble cane. In-
festation counts were also made in a similar number of promising 'noncom-
mercial variety test fields. Of plant cane commercial varieties, C. P.
29/103 was much more heavily bored and Co. 290 significantly less bored
than any other varieties, Of stubble cane commercial varieties, C. P. 28/
11 and C. P. 29/116 wore'much more heavily bored and Co. 290 significantly
less bored than any other varieties.

Of the promising noncommercial plant cane varieties, C. P. 29/137,
C. P. 33/324, and C. P. 33/243 were the most hervily .bored and C, P. 34/
79 and C. P. 33/409 were the least bored. In stubble cane noncommercial
variety test fields, C. P. 33/224 and C. P. 33/243 were the most heavily
bored and C. P. 32/206 and C. P. 33/253 were the least bored.

Hawaiian mealybug parasite well established,--E. K. Bynum and L.. J.
Charpentier, of the Houma, La., laboratory, during a recent trip (Feb.-Mar.,
1941) to the sugar section of southern Florida found the Hawaiian sugarcane
mealybug prrasite, Pseudococcobius terryi, in good numbers in practically
every location whore examinations were made. During the fall of 1940, P.
terryi was found in about normal numbers in Louisiana and in Georgia, which
showed that the parasite survived the unusually cold winter of 1939-40.
This parasite was introduced from Hawaii in 1932.

Sugarcane treated with cold water and hot water to destroy borers and
moalybugs.--J. W. Ingr-m, E. K. Bynum, and others at the Houma, La., labo-
ratory, conducted preliminary experiments during the fall of 1940 to deter-
mine the effectiveness of cold water and hot water in killing borers.nnd
merlybugs in and on sugarcrne stalks. 'Allborers and mealybugs were killed
by soaking cane in water of ordinary temperature for 2 or 3 weeks. All,
mealybugs wore killed by soaking for 1 week, but some borers survived this

Neither borers nor mcalybugs survived treatment in water held at
520 C. (125.5 F.) for 20 minutes or 4g C. (1.50 F.) for 1 hour.



Defense activities affect producers of quarantined materials.--Diffi-
cultics are being experienced in obtaining sufficient labor at classified
establishments to carry on their spring digging and shipping activities.
Men still employed at the nurseries are reported as already demanding a
wage increase, with the managements contending that their businesses do
not warrant such increase. Three nurseries in Maryland report that they
have had difficulty in purchasing methyl bromide for use in their fumiga-
tion chambers, because of the extensive defense program.

New high in certificetion activities in Baltimore are,.--Shipments of
certified hydrangeas and dormant and rooted cuttings from the Baltimore aree
during March reached a new high for the past 10 years. At one establishment,
16,559 hydrangeas and 1,148 miscellaneous plants were fumigated with methyl
bromide. Due to considerable snow and freezing weather during the early part
of March, digging and shipping of nursery stock was far behind schedule. In
the latter part of the month, ideal weather conditions prevailed and the es-
tablishments operated to capacity. Orders on hand are reported as the best
in years. In the Glenn Dale section of Mar-land work for the most part con-
sisted of the inspection of materiel from the Govcrnnent nurseries, from
which small seedlings were shipped to all parts of the country for reforesta-
tion, experimental work, and soil conservation practices. A half million
seedlings and transplants were shipped by the Soil Conservation Service
Nursery alone. The Maryland State Forest Nursery also made numerous ship-
ments of large quantities of trees to points outside the regulated area in
Maryland. The Plant Introduction Garden of the Bureau of Plant Industry at
Glenn Dale sent out thousands of certified chestnut trees to all parts of
the country.

Rosy prospects in New Jersey.--New Jersey rose growers report orders
exceeding their supply. Two establishments from which large quantities of
roses ore certified produced a total of 340,000 roses. By the end of March
two-thirds of these had been shipped or were on order. Reports were that
the remainder would move with little difficulty. Azaleas moved rapidly.
The majority of the growers sold out well before Easter. The nursery ship-
ping season in the State was delayed this year, as happened in 1940. Frost
in the ground prevented digging. The nurseries, however, were able to ship
perennials and small shrubs, trees, and roses. Treatment of stock with
paradichlorobeezene and methyl bromide increased considerably over last
year. Grownrs report a material saving in time through the use of fumiga-
tion, since much of the laborious and expensive operation of freeing roots
from soil i.s eliminated. Methyl bromide as a general greenhouse :fumigant
is also being used satisfactorily by some growers.

Machine -acking of inspected perennials.--A machine for packing snall
perennials, intended for the chain-store trade, was installed by a grower
in the New York City area. An estimated 100,000 plants will be shipped
from this establishment in the near future. A large portion of these will
require inspection and certification. There wrs a slight increase in in-
spection and certification work in the New York City area during March,


Reports from inspectors working out of this office indicate that nurseries
have orders on hand for large quantities of nursery stock to be moved as
soon as digging conditions permit. In the Long Island area, growers anti-
cipate the movement of sono 20 carloods of material to points outside the
Japanese beetle reemulated area. An unclassified nurseryman on Long Island
advised an inspector that he had found an adult Japanese beetle in his green-
house on February 25.

Acceptance of methyl bromide fumigation varies.--A report from the dis-
trict inspector at Middletown, Con-., indicates that the proprietor of a
large nursery in that section does not plan to use his methyl bromide fumi-
gation chamber this season since he is dissatisfied. with the results thus
far obtained. This news has been passed along to other nurserymen in the
vicinity and it is doubtful whether the other growers will utilize this
chamber as they hpve previously done, On the other hand, 120,895 plants
were fumigrted with methyl bromide during March thoughout the entire area.
A nursery at Mentor, Ohio, has started construction of a chamber. Two nur-
series in the Baltimore, Md., area plan to construct chambers after Easter,
and a nursery at Bound Brook, N. J., will enlarge its chamber after the Easter
rush. A nursery at Pittsville, Md., has just placed in operation a new 400-
cubic foot chamber, A fumigation chamber at a large central New Jersey es-
tablishment was in almost continuous use during the last week in March.

Growers' comments on methyl bromide fumigation compiled and publish-
ed.--A list of plants that have been fumigated with methyl bromide by grow-
ers in the Japanese beetle regulated area has been c6mpiled from records
furnished by the growers. The list includes 2,024 plant species. One or
more reports were received covering injury to 195 varieties, of 9.6 per-
cent of the total. This list is now -vailable to interested growers and
to investigators working with this fumigant.

Beetle warning issued to Marylanders,--Georgc S. Langford, of the
Moryland State Horticultural Department, has issued a statement advising
Marryland residents, especially those in the heavily infested sections,
tha't 1941 will be a banner year for the Japanese beetle. For those in
the cities, who intend to have grrdens, he advises using plants that are
immune or are least susceptible to attack by the beetle.

Portable fumigation chambers demonstrated at Virginia nursery.--
Representatives of the treating section of the Division visited a large
nursery in the Norfolk, Va., area twice during March with their portable
methyl bronide fumigation chanbers for the purpose of carrying on experi-
mental trotments on various kinds of plonts and nursery st6ok. On one of
these visits 3,000 small azaleas were fumigated for certification.

Hundreds of gypsy moth egg clusters renoved from inspected materi-
als.--Two carloads of lumber inspected by gypsy moth inspectors during the
month yielded 14 egg clusters'each during the course of piece-by-piece
inspection. The first of these was inspected at Concord, N. H., for ship-
ment to Camden, N. J., and the second was loaded at Derry, N. H., for move-
ment to Caraquet, New Brunswick, Canada. Infestations totaling 515 egg


masses were found'in 42 shipments of forest products inspected during the
month prior to movement to nonreu.lated territory in Connecticut, Hew Jersey,
New York, Vermont, and Canada. During the latter part of the month ship-
ments of luiber were somewhat curtailed because thawing of the roads made
many of the lumber yards inaccessible to trucks, State laws limiting the
load limits during the thawing season also restricted the trans-ortation of

Additional inspectors employed.--Two tempsorary inspectors were employed
on lumber inspection in the Concord, N. H., district during the month. On
March 1 it was necessary to employ another temporary inspector on nursery
inspection work at Nevwport, R. I. Two extra inspectors wore employed for
nursery and greenhouse inspection work in Delaware. They were first assign-
ed to one of the larger classified nurseries in the State to gain experience.
Personnel working in the Salisbury, Md., area was increased by the addition
of six inspectors during March.

Beetle-infested material collected for cultring.--During the past 6'
weeks, 30 nen have been collecting elm material infested with Hylurgopinus
rufipes Eich. and Scolytus nultistriatus Marsh. for the Bloonfield culture
laboratory. In the laboratory the material is caged in individual cans and
held at temperatures favorable for beetle emergence. These beetles are then
cultured for the presence of the Dutch elm disease fungus. The scouting was
all done outside of the known riseesed area, Routes and sections where elms
are known to be common or bark beetles prevalent were selected for special
attention. In order to make the survey more representative, there were
also included routes where the above conditions were less common, but where
there was considerable travel from the major area. It is estimated that
4,000 niles of roanwnys, railroads, and streams were surveyed. The area
can be roughly bounded by a line drawn froi. Boston to Pittsfield, to Glens
Falls, -to Schenoctady, to Syrrcuse, to Ithaca, to Harrisburg, and to Balti-
more. Excluding the major work area, this area comprises about 40,000
square miles. Thus the coverage of only 10 linear nilns in a 100-square
mile area shows how superficial the survey really was. Furthermore only
about 800 man-days were devoted to the scouting at a rate of 50 square miles
per man-day. Only 400 sets of specimens were collected at the rate of 1
specimen per 100 square miles or 1 snecimen per 2 man-days. S. multistri-
atus was reported as found in most of the area except between Springfield
and Boston and in the section north and east of Binghamton. The results
of the laborntory cultures will not be known for several weeks. The cul-
turing of this material must await completion of culturing of similar mate-
rial collected from detached areas earlier in the winter.

Elm material collected for spraying epoerinents.--Experiments are be-
ing carried on in cooperation with the Morristown, N. J., research labora-
tory of the Division of Forest Insect Investigations in spraying elm logs
end wood piles with an orthodichlorobenzene-fuel oil mixture for the purpose
of testing under actual field conditions the recommendations of the research
laboratory for the killing, of bark beetles in elm bark and for repelling
insects from the wood so sprayed. It is planned to test out these sprays
at certain centralized locations in New Jersey and New York, and also pos-
sibly on a few large properties. In Connecticut, it is planned to carry

g. -

on the experiments at such locations as the State clears for the work. From
regular cutting operations, crews are hauling in "run of the mill" elm mate-
rial instead of burning it on location. The wood piles are being accumulated
at a number of the county office yards, at burning pits, and selected field
locations where the material will be reasonably safe fron theft and other
dangers minimized. Members of the laboratory staff are demonstrating to
district supervisors the correct procedure in applying the spray material
to logs and wood piles. The entire project may involve the spraying of
approximately 10,000 pieces at the centralization points. About 1,500 gal1
olns of spray have been made up and distributed to the field. Regular knap-
sack fire fighter sprayers are used to aplyr the spray. Federal and State
research men will check on the work and collect what data are to be had. It
is anticipated that the work will be completed by Nay 15 next.

Daily broadcast of fire-hazard conditions in Connecticut.--The Connecti-
cut State Forest Fire Warden has inaugurated a daily radio broadcast emanat-
ing from his office at 7:30 a. m. to indicate whether the day is considered
a high, medium, or low fire-hazard day. Burning of elm material removed by
eradication or sanitation workers is )ernitted with certain restrictions on
the low-hazard days. Unlimited burning is cprmitted only on rainy days.
The Connecticut Dutch Elm Disease State Leader has advised all district su-
pervisors that arrangements must be made to secure the fire-hazard report
each morning, and govern the burning of eln material accordingly. In every
case, all of the wood that can be hauled must be burned at dumps where un-
limited burning is permitted by the fire warden of that district.

Woodpockor work in Montgomery County, Pa.--vidence of recent woodpecker
work has been reported fron various sections of Montgomery County. This has
apparently occurred during the past 3 or 4 weeks. As a result, a consider-
able amount of infested, material is now being discovered that was missed dur-
ing the regular scouting for beetle material in December and January. All
sections involved will be rescoutod in April. This situation affords addi-
tional evidence that the months of March and April are favorable for an
effective beetle material survey.

Pennsylvania lumbermen cooperate.--A number of lumbermen engaged in
the cutting of shoring and blocking material for a large steel corporation
in Pennsylvania have been contacted and have expressed their willingness to
cooperate with the Dutch elm disease eradication project by discontinuing
the cutting of elms. They have agreed to permit periodic inspections of
their operations at any time.

Scolytus multistriatus found in Orange County, IT. Y.--Scattered evi-
dence of S. nultistriatus has been observed in the Weversink Valley at a
point northeast of Port Jervis. Beetles are very scarce in this vicinity
and apmnarently have attacked only choice material, such as hangers result-
ing from storn damae,



Effectiveness of overwintering adult Hylurgopinus rufipes Eich. as
transmitters of Ceratostomella ulmi to normal elms,--R. T. Webber, Morris-
town, N. J., has presented additional data on the effectiveness of H. ruf-
ipes in the transmission of the Dutch elm disease fungus to normal elms.
In an experiment started in 1939, 11 normal elms were infested with over-
wintering adults of H. rufipes artificially contaminated with C. ulmi, Six
of the trees became infected. Of these only 1 developed external symptoms
and vascular discoloration throughout; in 5 the infection was localized.
The absence of infection in 5 trees and the localized infection in the
other 5 is believed due to the fact that most of the xylem contacts were
made early in the season prior'to the formation of the now vascular sys-
tem, According to information obtained from the Division of Forest Path-
ology, such contacts are likely to prove ineffective.

Field studies on distribution of crotch injuries in elm made by
Scolytus multistriatus Marsh.--In the late summer of 1941, D. O. Wolfen-
barger and the late T. H. Jones, of the Morristown, N. J., laboratory,
conducted experiments to determine the relative abundance of elm twig
crotch injuries in the vicinity of (1) logs where Scolytus multistri-
atus were emerging, and (2) where trap trees attracted them for breeding.
Brief summaries of the results are given in tables 1 and 2.

Table 1.--Injuries near emergence locations

Liberty Corners : Bedminster
Distance from Crotches : Crotches
emergence logs,feet Coh Crotches
S:Exarined : Injured : Examined : Injured
Number :Percent : Numb er : Percent
0-50 ----------- 6,595 : 7.Q : 4,162 16.6
50.1-100 ------------: 6,374 : 1.2 : 4,536 1.8
100.1-150 --------- 9,348 : .3 : Not counted

Total number beetles :
emerged at each point : 3,185 : 10,024 --

Table 2.--Injuries near trap trees

Total No. : Distance from trap trees, foot
Results : of galler- : 0-50 50.1-100
at ies:in trap : Crotches Crotches
points : treos* :Examined : Injured Examined : Injured
:: Number : Percent : Number : Percent
A------: 978 13,263 : .3 12,791 : .02
B------: 343 : 7,911 .3 :ot counted
C------: 409 : 6,734 : .02 Not counted
D -----: 723 : 5,576 : .02 : Not counted
These figures also denote approximately the number of female beetles
attracted to the points, but there is no known method of determining
the number of male beetles.

10 -

The points A, B, C, and D were placed at 278 feet E., 310 feet W.,
640 feet S.E., and 744 feet N.W., respectively, of the Bedminster dis-
persion point given in table 1, These observations showed that (1)
there were many injuries near beetle dispersion points, and (2) few in-
juries near points of convergence (trap tree location points) in compari-
son with trees farther away. The numbers of beetles dispersing from points
of origin and those converging to points of attraction varied, but no con-
clusions were drawn from the few points under observation. Statistical
computations showed that there are likely to be as many injuries in one
direction of the compass as in any other.

Analysis of square-foot duff samples taken at European spruce sawfly
(Gilpinia polytoma Htg.) study plots during 1939 and 1940.--P. Z. Dowden,
of the New Haven, Conn., 1:boratory, reports as follows on an analysis of
cocoons in duff samples from permanent spruce sawfly plots: "During the
last two seasons square-foot duff samples have been taken at nine study
plots throughout New England in order to determine the number of hibernat-
ing European spruce sawfly cocoons present and thus make some estimate of
the sawfly population within each plot. The following table presents the
results of an analysis of these square-foot samples:

:: Total : Cocoon classification
Time : :cocoons: : :Killed by
Locality : of :Samples: recov-: :predators,
: sampling : taken : ered :Living:Emerged:disease, etc.
:Number :iumber :Number:l1rumber : Number
T 12 R 16 :Spring 1939: 100 : 1,206: 87 : 279 : 840
Maine--------- :Spring 1940: 100 1,030: 88 : 24g : 694
T 11 R 15 :Spring 1939: 0 : 97: 6 : 6 : 45
Maine----------:Fall 1940:. 5 : 102: 7 : 7 : 58
Tshp. 30 :Spring 1939: .100 : 667: 2 : 363 : 242
Maine----------:Spring 1940: 100 : 880: 197 : 378 : 305
Dublin, :Spring 1939: 100 : 121225:,471 : 871 : 2,783
IT. H.---------:Spring 1940: 100 14,231: 410 : 8,148 : 5673
Marlboro, :Sring 1939: 100 : 14,027: 197 :10,312 : 3,518
Vt ------------ :Spring 190: 100 : 18,650: 22 :13,089 : 5,539
Woodford, :Spring 1939: 50 : 183: 1 : 123 : 59
Vt.------------:Fall 1940: 50 : 185: 2 : 118 : 65
*Pharsalia, : Sring 1939: 50 : 119: 16 73 : 30
N. Y.----------:Fall 1940: 50 : 155: 17 : 100 : 38
*Westfield, :Spring 1939: 50 135: 16 54 65
Mass.----------:Fall 1940 50 315: 46 : 114 ; 155
*Crange, :-,ring 1939: 50 : 307: : 199 : 108
Conn,---------- :Fall 1940: 50 : 396: 3 : 267 : 126


At most of the plots there has been a very light infestation, during
the two seasons in which thbse observations were made. The Dublin, N. H,,
plot is a notable exception, for it was severely infested in 1939. The
Marlboro, Vt., plot was severely defoliated in 1938, one year before duff

-11 -

samples were taken. The spring samples were collected before the living,
hibernating cocoons produced ndults. The count of living cocoons was,
therefore, an indication of the severity of the infestation anticipated
for that year. The count of emerged cocoons is of interest when counts
are made over successive years, for emerged cocoons will remain in good
condition in the duff for several years after adult sawflies have issued,
Yearly counts thus give a rather clear picture of the history of an in-

Relation of mild winter tempera.tures to iplnt and insect develop-
ment.--H. J. Rust, of the Forest Insect Laboratory at Coeur d'Alcne,Idaho,
reports that following the mild winter of 1940-41 in the Inland Empire
region, plant and insect life is far in advance of normal seasonal develop-
mont. Records of plant and insect development have been maintained at this
nlboratory during the past 10 years. During this period the earliest plant
development recorded was in 1934; however, on March 3, 1941, a number of
plants were from 10 to 15 days of that season. Bark beetle develop-
ment shows the same advanced condition, with new attacks of Ips orcgoni
being recorded on March 21. It is expected. that during the spring season
cooler temperatures will produce conditions comparable to the 1934 season,


March storms cause comparatively little lost time on gypsy moth
work,--Conditions were generally satisfactory for gypsy moth work during
the first week in March, Severe storms on March g and 11 resulted in an
accumulation of new snow ranging from 1 to 2 feet in depth throughout the
western New England, eastern New York, and northeastern Pennsylvania areas
where gypsy moth work is conducted. The workers were obliged to resort
again to the use of snowshoes and working conditions in dense woodlands
were so unsatisfactory, due to a thick coating of wet snow adhering to the
tree growth, that scouting work was tompeRrily transferred to more open
country. However, the snow settled quickly, and many workers were able
to discontinue using snowshoes by the end of the week. Large accumula-
tions of brush and other waste wood resulting from selective thinning
work at infested locations were burned during this period. Winds of gale
force blew steadily during the first 3 days of the week ending March 22,
and the penetrating cold forced the discontinuance of work by several
gypsy moth crews. Drifting snow hampered travel on rural roads in many
localities, and the use of snowshoes again becane necessary in some sec-

Gypsy moth work curtailed in Verront.--The accomplishnents of the
greatly reduced force of workers renaiining was relatively small during
March. General scouting was necessarily suspended, and attention was
concentrated a.lmost entirely on the examination of wood lots where white
birch was being cut by local operators, or where cutting operations were
about to begin. These wood lots are widely scattered over the area, and
many are located at a considerable distance from. traveled highways. Prac-
tically all of the birch logs cut are transported by truck to a woodwork-
ing mill in Berlin, Rensselacr County, N. Y., where they are nanufactured
into bobbins, dowels, handles, and various sorts of wood novelties. In

12 -

addition to the work in birch lots, the workers also examineO a large amount
of pulpwood cut in Rutland County for shipment to Corinth, Saratoga County,
N. Y.; and small lots of hardwood logs from several localities in Rutland
County were also examined before they were transported to a woodworking mill
in Granville, Washington County, IT. Y. In both cases the lo:'s already cut
were carefully exanined, and the wood lots where cutting operations were
still in progress were scouted. Infornation was also secured relative to
the origin and proposed movement of saw logs and cordwood in the barribr-
zone arna, which will be valuable in preventing the spread of gypsy moth
infestation. Considerable preliminary information was obtained by the super-
visory personnel engaged in reexamining infested woodlands concerning the
ownership, property boundaries, and other details, preparatory to securing
written pernits for the spraying of gypsy moth infested areas. A large pro-
portion of the infested properties are co:binations of woodland and pasture,
and they ere frequently poorly fenced. In such cases an agreement is reach-
ed with the property owners so thrt the temporary fences erected to exclude
livestock from the areas that rre to be sprayed nay be satisfactorily locat-

Gypsy moth work in Massachusetts progresses satisfactorily.--Although
a moderate curtailment of the ,ypsy moth force in Massachusetts became
necessary early in March, all field work progressed satisfactorily during
the nonth. The volume of the work accomplished was, of course, less than
the amount planned for the full force of employees. Fifteen crows of inter-
mediate W. P. A. workers wore detailed to scouting work; 6 crews of labor-
ers to thinning work at infested locations; and 1 crew of laborers con-
tinued the ground work in an infested area, creosoting egg clusters above
the snow line and burning brush and other trash woed,. Many of the scouts
were detailed to eamnine birch lots. It was also necessary to scout a num-
ber of other lots where considerable volunes of white pine, hemlock, maple,
and other species of trees were being cut. While much of this wood was con-
sumed locally, there was sufficient movement of the products to warrant a
close examination of the logs or wood lots. Many of the scattered egg
clusters found in the Massachusetts area were broken by various agencies.
Ice falling from encrusted tree trunks and brnnches carries eggs and parts
of eig clusters to the ground, birds picking at the clusters dislodge eggs,
and the whipping about of branches in high winds often breaks the clusters
an( scatters the eggs. As the individual eggs and parts of egg clusters
cannot be found when nixed with the dead leaves and debris on the forest
floor, spraying with lead arsenate is necessary if the insect is to be
eliminated from areas where broken egg clusters are present,

Several snall gypsy moth infestations found in Connecticut--NTo reduc-
tion of the W P A. gypsy moth force in Connecticut is likely to be nec-
essary, as the number of workers carried on the pay-roll during the pres-
ent fiscal year has averaged less than 60 percent of the quota set up for
that State, and ample funds are available for the continuation of the work
through next June. Durinin the 8-nonth period extending from July 1, 1940
to March 1, 1941, the W. P. A. gypsy moth personnel dropped steadily in
numbers despite all efforts to obtain replacenents. The force diminished
from a peok of 120 workers at the start of the fiscal year to a total of

13 -

only 70 employees on March 15. It is doubtful if the force can be main-
tained even at this low level, with the continuous expansion of manufac-
turing industries providing increased opportunities for private employ-
ment and the prospective increase in all types of construction work with
the approach of mild weather requiring additional labor. Six crews were
engaged in gypsy moth scouting work in the townships of Cornwall, Litch-
field, Salisbury, and Warren, in Litchfield County during March, Several
additional infestations were located in the barrier-zone area of Connecti-
cut, but the colonies were generally small, with the egg clusters scatter-
ed singly through the woodland, A small force of experienced workers
scouted heavily wooded areas on high elevations, where work of this type
had not been conducted for 3 or more years. Although a large percentage
of the growth consisted of several varieties of oaks and other plsnts
favored as food by the gypsy moth, only a small number of egg clusters
were found and creosoted. An effort will be made to complete the scout-
ing of all the large woodland blocks in which crews are now working be-
fore the first of May, so that the extent of infestations warranting
spraying work can be definitely cstablished and final arrangements com-
pleted before the beginning of the spraying. season, which usually starts
about June 1, In preparation for spraying and banding work during the
approaching larval season, 3 ground crews and 2 thinning crews continued
intensive treatment work at important infestations in Litchfield and New,
Haven Counties. Work at many of the infestations located the
winter has been completed, and the stands of tree growth are in excellent
condition for spraying,

Quarantine inspection work not curtailed in Pennsylvania. --Although
gypsy moth scouting work was continued on a greatly reduced scale by the
small number of workers available in Pennsylvania after the temporary
reduction in nersonnel late in February, the quarantine inspection work
suffered no curtnilment during March. As gypsy moth work in Pennsyl-
vania is directed toward the extermination of the insect, it is of vital
importance' that the spread to uninfested territory, or to areas where
persistent exterminative treatment has eliminated the pest, be prevented.
The continuous movement, both within the quarantined area and from points
within the quarantined area to other destinations, of mine timbers, rough
lumber, scrap metal, surface stone, and other materials that are liable
to carry infestation necessitates the maintenance of an adequate inspec-
tion service at all tines. Scouting work was conducted in the township
of Plains, Luzerne County; Kidder, in Carbon County; and Clifton and
Madison, in Lackawanna County during March. A gypsy moth infestation
covering a considerable acreage on the upper slopes of a heavily wooded
ridge was found in Madison. Intensive work is in progress at this in-
festation, and it will be continued for the remainder of the fiscal year
if it is necessary in order to accomplish the extermination of the colony.
Due to the reduction in field activity, many regular employees ordinarily
detailed to the general supervision of W. P. A. crews were available for
special assignments during March. Several of thl se employees were assign-
ed to secure permits for spraying work in residential areas. This nec-
essary work must be started well in advance of the beginning of actual
spraying wnrk because of the time required to obtain the large number of
permits that must be secured in or'er to spray a comparatively small area.

14 -

C, C. C, gypsyr moth work drastically reduced.--A severe reduction in
the number of 6-hour man-days used by the C. C. C. on gypsy noth work east
of the barrier zone under the supervision of this Bureau, fron a high of
1,562 man-days to only 84 nan-days during the last week of the period,
occurred during March, and drastic further reductions are in prospoct.
The current losses of time were caused by the necessity of training new
enrollees in gypsy moth work, including the use of sharp-edged tools;
training the men in fire-fighting technique; and the inpossibility of
filling and naintaining the camp quotas, even though the quotas have been
gradually reduced from 207 to about 140 men per canp. Many men who would
normally be available for C. C, C. work have entered the Arny or NTavy, and
many others have been absorbed by the National Defense Progran. Notice has
been received that approxinptely 15 cai\rs in this Corps Area are soon to be
discontinued, amongr then being several where crews have been available for
gypsy noth work. About 75 percent of the enrollees in one of the Vermont
carmps which is to be abandoned have been engaged in gypsy noth work; and
the entire personnel of a similar canp in Massachusetts has been detailed
to gypsy moth work continuously, with the e:xception of a 16-month period
following the hurric)ane of September 1938. While appro::imately 6,000
6-hour nan-days were used on C. C. C. gypsy noth work curingf February,
the abandonment of the camns will result in a reduction of about 70 per-
cent, leaving approximately 400 nan-days per week available for gypsy
noth work. It will also be necessary to reduce the overhead and super-
visory mersonnel, and a considerable number of trained nen ,rith long ex-
perience in gypsy noth work will be lost. During the latter part of March,
crews in the arcas affected by the prospective abandonment have concen-
trated on finishing work already in progress. This included the burning
of accunulations of brush fron thinning operations and creosoting as many
egg clusters as possible at infestations near camping and lunching areas,
and at another site used by a truckin, concern, in order to reduce the in-
festations in localities fron which the insects are most likely to be car-
ried on vehicles, At the end of March gypsy moth foremen and crews were
still working from 3 canps in the northern part of Connecticut, 2 camps in
Massachusetts, and 1 in Vermont.

Sprayers loaned for C. C. C. gypsy moth work.-Arrangements have been
made for the loan of three high-powered spraying units by the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine to the C. C. C. for gypsy moth spraying
work during the approaching larval season. One of the sprayers will be
used in iMassachusetts and two in Connecticut. The State Gypsy Moth Organi-
zation in Connecticut will loan another sprayer for use in that State, and
will assist in supervising the work. The C. C. C, will supply the lead
arsenate, fish oil, and labor. All of this equipment cannot be used to
fullest capacity, as sufficient labor to operate the sprayers on a double-
shift basis will not be available at several of the canis.

15 -


C. C. C. workers used on winter canker reoval project.--A winter
project for C. C, C. workers located nerr a heavily infected stand of
reproduction in the Scott Creek drainage on the Coeur d'Alene ITational
Forest is canker and infected tree elimination. This work, outlined
by the Forest Service, is the first step in an attcmpt to salva.e on
excellent white pine area fron which about 60,000 board feet of white
pine per acre was removed nearly 25 years ago. -xcellent reproduction
from 5 to 20 feet in height now covers most of the area but infection,
started about 1927, has made deep inroads. The present work is being con-
pleted in three stops. First axemen, working in strips, remove all trees
with trunk cankers. Following this a pruning saw crew eliminates all
branches up to breast height. The final step is the renoval of all other
crnkercd branches by a crew equipped with long-handled saws, The first
Ribes eradication will be done early this spring following the pruning
work. A second pruning: job will be necessary in about 2 -years, at which
time any latent infection, now invisible, and any oldc cankers that were
missed will be eliminated. It is e:-pected that as a result of pruning
anc1 Ribes eradication some of the present crop will be saved and the tree-
less openings will be filled by a new crop.

Over 10,000,000 Ribes eradicated in iortheostern States duringe 1940.--
During 1940, a total of 701,838 acres was cleared of 10,971,271 wild Ribes
and 12,348 cultivated bushes in the Northeastern Statos. This work gave
protection to 253,O02 acres of pine from blister rust and provided 139,239
man-days of enployment. About 80 percent of the total acreage was worked
by W. P. A. and C. C. C, labor. Local cooper-tors expended over $31,000
on Ribes eradication.

Early aecial production in the Inland Empire.--In the course of in-
fected tree prunin. and slashing in the Scott Creel drainage on the Cneur
d'Alene National Forest, the first protruding aecial sacs were observed
on March 16. On the following day ilore advanced protrusions with rup-
tured membranes and freed neciospores were noted. This is not unexect-
ed since a mild winter with unusually warm woether since early in Febru-
ary has stinulated all plant life to early activity. This condition plus
the accompanying situation of rbundant moisture throughout the region
suggest the probability of heavy Ribcs infection this year.

Safety prevention conference.--On March 27th a joint conference was
held by the Forest Service and the Blister Rust Control Office at Spokane,
Wash., to consider accident prevention. Constructive steps have been out-
lined under which it is hoped that the number anc freocnency of accidents
in blister rust control camps can be reduced.

Blister rust lamage to large, second-growth white pine,--A detailed
study of a series of quarter-acre )pine plots, comprising 14.5 acres of
the old Cross Clearing Camp Site at Harrietstown, F.. Y., in the vicinity
of Tupper Lake, has yielded some interesting informrtion concerning blis-
ter rust damage to merchantable-size pine growing in mixture (46 percent

white pine, 37 percent other conifers, and 17 percent hardwoods). The
principal source of blister rust infection was appa(rently skunk currants.
The 1,037 white pines examined averaged 14.6 inches d. b. h. and 72 feet
in height. In 1940 the percentage of infection was 61, that is, 629 pines
had blister rust or had been killed by the disease. Less than 2 percent
of the total trees had branch cankers only. A total of 161 pines had died
from the rust, 339 had live stem cankers, and 112 had dead tops due to
girdling by the disease. Of the total volume of the stand (305,757 bd.
ft,), 175,311 bd. ft., or more than 57 percent of the 1940 volume, is a
potential loss within the noet decade, exclusive of growth loss due to in-
fection. It is fortunate that further infection has been reduced to a
minimum b- removal of the beds of skunk currants.

Blister rust display.--C. C. Perry, in charge of blister rust control
work in Massachusetts, reports that a blister rust display was arranged
by District Lender R. E. Wheeler in connection with the annual Recrea-
tion Conference held at the Massachusetts State College at Amherst on
March 14. n lively interest was evidenced by those viewing the display.
Special interest wrs noted on the part of students who, by coincidence,
had just been studying the blister rust fungus in their biology course.
On the following day Mr. Perry attended the Forestry Section of the
conference. One of the attending foresters, in speaking on the topic
"Forest Prospects in Massachusetts," predicted that in spite of the hurri-
cane, white pine will continue to be the one species union which the fut-
ure of forestry in New England will depend. He based his predictions
on the demonstrated ability of white pine to succeed itself. History
records four hurricanes in New England, each of which destroyed many mat-
ure pines, but the species has always reestablished itself with increased

Nursery inspection work in 1940.--In 1940, 63 nurseries applied
for permits to ship barberry bushes into States protected by Quarantine
No. 3,. During the course of the inspectior, which was made to deter-
mine whether or not these nurseries were eligible for permits, 60S bar-
berry bushes were destroyed. According to L. Mi. Ames, this figure may
be compared with 13,214 bushes destroyed in 1939 rnd 23,750 in 1938, in-
dicrting that nurseries interested in interstate shipment of barberry
bushes are gradually eliminating other than rust-immune species. A
survey of nursery catalogs on file in the Department of Agriculture Libr-
ary indicates thrt there are fewer than 100 nurseries in the United States
thet in 1939-40 were advertising for sale species of barberry susceptible
to attack by the stem rust fungus. The demand for such species is gradu-
ally diminishing and it is expected that they will soon be eliminated from
interstate trade,

Control work progresses rapidly in western Minnesota counties,--
In briefly summarizing progress that was made in brrberry eradication
in Minnesota in 1940, L. W. Melander states that 1,741 barberry bushes

17 -

were found and destroyed during the year as a result of initial survey
in Scott, Le Seuer, McLeod, Meeker, Kandiyohi, Swift, Chippewa, Big Stone,
aid Pope'Counties. -Of these, 969 (of which 187 were fruiting bushes)
were located on new properties. Of 792 bushes found on 123 properties
previously reported, only 100 were fruiting. Much of the work done in
Minnesota in 1940 was in western prairie counties. Some resurvey, or
subseouent survey, was conducted in Olmsted, Fillmore, Goodhue, and
Winona Counties.

Farm o-erators and local governments support barberry eradication.--
Aid furnished by local agencies contributed in an important way toward
the success of the field program in several States during the past year.
Trucking and storage facilities valued at $4,653 wore furnished by 01m-
sted, Winona, Dakota, Meeker, Kandiyohi, Swift, Pope, and Chippewa Coun-
ties in Minnesota. Property owners in Pennsylvania contributed labor,
hauling, and storage, valued at $8,429, and county aid in Iowa exeeded
$5,000 for the year.

Extensive program approved for Pennsylvania for next 12 months.--
Two State W, P. A. projects in barberry eredication have been approved
recently for operation in Penns-lvania. These will provide for the em-
ployment of anproximrtelv 300 men for a period of 12 months. Henry P.
Antoine, barberry eradication supervisor in Pennsylvania, contected more
than 100 farm operators in the Columbia Cross Roads and Wetona areas of
Bradford County, where an extensive infestation of barberry bushes was
brought under control in 1937 and 1938. The object was to obtain the
cooperation of property owners in making a resurvey of this area. Mr.
Antoine found in talking with farmers that yields and quality of grain
in this area had been greatly improved since bushes were brought under
control and thet, generally speaking, property owners were anxious to
cooperate in any way to prevent reinfestation,


18 -

Influence of date of planting cotton on pink bollworm population.--
A test to secure information on the influence of the date of planting
cotton on the pink bollworm population was continued in 1940 at the
Presidio, Tex., laboratory by A. J. Chapman, 0. T. Robertson, and W. L.
Lowry. A large screen-covered cage, divided into three sections of
about one-fourth acre each,- was used to prevent interference from out-
side infestations. Cotton was planted in the different sections on
March 23, April 20, and May 15, respectively, representing early,
medium, and late planting dates. When the test was commenced in 1939
the pink bollworm infestation was started by plowing under infested
cotton bolls and allowing the moths to emerge naturally. An extremely
heavy infestation developed in cotton planted on all dates. After the
crop was harvested the stalks were cut and the crop debris collected by
hand and burned. This clean-up was probably more thorough than is
practicable under field conditions. Examinations in March of 1940 showed
an average of 0.65 pink bollworm larva per square yard was present in
the soil of the section planted on March 28, 1.05 larvee in the section
planted April 20, and 4.60 larvae in the section planted May 5. Despite
the larvae hibernating in the soil, no infest-.tion developed in any of
the blooms during the first 3 weeks of blooming in 1940, indicating
that the fall clean-up was more effective as a control moaqure, or that
the larvae hibernating in the soil were of less importance in maintain-
i'ng the infestation than previously thought. Since it appeared that
no survival had occurred, 75 pairs of pink bollworm moths were liberated
in each section of the cage. Releases wore made 21 days after the
first blooms appeared on the cotton planted on each date, or on June 26,
July 11, and July 25, in the respective sections. Records were made
of the seasonal pink bollworm populations and after harvest the stalks
were cut with machetes and burned as soon after picking was completed
as would be practicable under field conditions, or on October 1 for
the March 28 planting, October 27 for the April 20 planting, and
December 3 for the May 15 planting, Tho bolls and crop debris that
shattered to the ground were not collected by hand. Examinations of
the surface trash and of the coil were made after the clean-up to
determine the numbers of hibernating larvae remaining from each date
of planting. The data on yields and overwintering populations are
shown in the following table.

Yield of : Dte of :Overbintcring pink bollworm population
Date :seed cotton last : per squ-re yard*
planted per cre : picking : In surface : In soil Total
:__ ________ _: tra:sh :
: P o0nds
Mar. 28-: 1,31 : Sept.26 : 4.45 1.50 : 5.95
Apr. 20- 1,773 : 26 : 31.23 5.67 36.90
ay 15--: 1,783 : Nov. 20 : 36.69 8.19 44.80
w Surface trash collected Doccrmber -6, soil snaples Docember 10-11.
The results show that the lrter the cotton was planted and the
later the stalks were cut and burned the higher the overwintoring popu-
lation. The different sections of the cage will again be planted on the
sane dates in 1941 to detcrnine the infestations that develop naturally
fron the overwintering larvae ronaining in the surface trash rand soil.

19 -
Ground trash examinations for hibernating boll weevils.--
The examination of ground trash from woods near cottonfields for hiber-
nating boll weevils that was started in 1935 seems to give more
reliable data on weevil survival than the examinations of Spanish
moss previously used. The surface trash consisting of leaves, twigs,
and other forest debris with about 1 inch of the top soil is care-
fully collected from known areas and passed through specially designed
shaker machinery to remove a large part of the coarse and fine material.
The remainder, consisting mostly of particles approximating the size
of boll weevils, is then examined by hand or placed in screen trays
in a warm room so that the live weevils will become active and more
easily collected. Many other insects are also present and a list
of those found in the e-amninations in South Carolina during the
winters of 1937-38 and 1939-39 was recently published in Circular
E-528 by C. F. Rainwater.

During the fall of 1940, 104 samples of 2 scuare yards each
examined at Tallulah, La., contained 31 live and 7 dead weevils
(bl.6 percent alive), or 721 weevils per acre. In March of 1941, 100
samples from the same locations yielded 30 live weevils, iTl.cating
that very little mortality had occurred during the winter of 194C-41.
An additional 100 samples from near other fields were examined in
the spring of 1941 and 46 live weevils and 18 dead weevils were found.
The 200 samples examined in the spring of 1941 contained. an average
of 920 weevils per acre, which is a much larger number than has been
found in previous spring examinations. The percentage alive was 80.9
percent, or practically the sane as found last fall. Heavy rainfall
occurred in November 1940 prior to collecting the ground trash and
left the ground very unfavorable for t:king the samples, but rainfall
was below normal during the winter and the March samples were collected
under more favorable conditions. The weevil population was heavy in
all fields around Tallulah, La., in the fall of 1940 but a severe
freeze on November 14 and 15 caught many weevils still in the fields.
Many dead weevils were found in the fields but others probably dropped
to the ground for protection and moved into the woods-trash shelter
after the fall examinations were made.

Examinations were also made of 200 squiare yards of woods trash
at Florence, S. C., this spring. A total of 81 live weevils, or an
average of 1,960 per acre, were found. A comparison of the number of
live weevils per acre found in the spring woods-trash examinations for
the past 4 years at both localities is shown in the table below.

: Live weevils per acre
Spring of-- Tallulah, La. : Florence, S.C.

193 -------: 186 96 1,476
1939-------: 226 4 71 : 3,582
1940------: 190 4 69 76
1941-------: 920 0 1,960
t2 t~i

20 -
Very little damage was caused to cotton in the vicinity of
Florence last year following the severe winter of 1939-40, but the
weevil population increased greatly late in the season and survived
the winter in fairly large numbers as shown by the trash examinations.

Correction in survey of hemiptorous insect damage to cotton
in Arizona.-In the News Letter (Vol. VIIl, No. 4, for Feb. 1941) the
figures given in the table on page 21 for percentage of bolls punctured
in short staple cotton in Arizona for 1940 represent the 7-year average
for the counties. The correct figures for 1940 are 70.7 percent
punctured bolls for Yuma County, 41.1 percent for Maricopa, 26.7 per-
cent for Graham, 30.7 percent for Pinal, 10.3 percent for Santa Cruz,
and 12.6 percent for Pima. The State average for 1940 of 33.4 percent
punctured bolls, as given in the table, is correct.


Wild-cotton eradication.--A number of years ago it was found that
wild cotton, whichwas growing in great abundance in southern Florida,
was heavily infested with the pink bollworm, from which this dangerous
cotton insect was making its way northward to domestic cotton plantings.
Consequently, a project was inaugurated designed to eradicate this
pest through the destruction of this wild cotton plant upon which it
depends for sustenance. Conditions for wild cotton eradication work
throughout most of the present season have been unfavorable owing to
an unusual amount of rain, resulting in bad roads and a very trouble-
some mosquito situation. However, there was less rainfall during
March, and consequently, working conditions were greatly improved.
Approximately 2,200 more acres were covered during March incident to
the destruction of wild-cotton plants than during February, but approxi-
mately 48,000 less plants were found during March than during the
previous month. In the Bradonton-Fort Myers subdistrict, the crews
in Collier, Lee, and Charlotte Counties were working toward the com-
pletion of the second cleaning for the season, whereas the crews in
Manatee, Hillsborough, and Pinellas Counties completed the second
cleaning with perhaps the exception of a few locr.tions reached by
boat, and devoted considerable time to clearing the wild-cotton
colonies of other vegetation to permit the penetration of air and sun-
light and thus hasten germination of dormant wild cottonseed. In the
Cape Sable area the second cleaning of the season was brought to a
conclusion with the exception of one or two small areas, and, in addi-
tion, 700 acres was covered toward a third cleaning of the season.
Approximately 3 plants per acre were found during this third cleaning.
The houseboat crew attached to the Cape Sable area completed the
cleaning of Dade County mainland colonies and then gave attention to
the keys in Florida Bay. The second cleaning of Key Largo was com-
pleted during the month. This brought to a close a second cleaning
of all the Main Keys group. Approximately 4 plants per acre were found
on Key Largo during March. The houseboat crew attached to the Keys
subdistrict completed the first cleaning of the season, together with
a considerable amount of scouting work. This crew then began the second
cleaning of the season by first giving attention to the Dade County
mainland in the vicinity of Madeira Bay. In the Marathon-Key West section,

21 -

Boca Grande Island was completed for the second time. During this
second cleaning, 15,000 seedlings, but only 4 mature plants, were
found. During March a total of 7,S61 acres was covered, from which
were removed 877 plants with mature bolls, 41,341 seedling plants,
and 36 sprout plants.

Planting of the 1941 cotton crop in the lower Rio Grande
Valley.--As a control measure for the suppression of the pink boll-
worm in the lower Rio Grande Valley of south Texas, State regula-
tions were inaugurated for the 1941 cotton crop designed to retard
cotton planting in that region so that the majority of overwintering
pink bollworms would emerge in the spring prior to the fruiting of
the crop. The date for planting was fixed between February 1 and
March 15; however, excessive rainfall during both February and
March resulted in only about 50 percent of the crop being planted
at the end of March, and it was estimated that at least half of
that must be replanted. Consequently, in order to enable Valley
growers to complete the planting of the crop, the State Department
of Agriculture extended the planting period to April 20.

Destruction of sprout and volunteer cotton.-Because of the
mild climate and all-year growing season in the lower Rio Grande
Valley of south Texas, the cotton plant affords continuous sustenance
for the pink bollworm. Consequently, to successfully combat this
destructive cotton insect in that region it is necessary to deprive
it of material on which to propagate during the normal noncotton-
growing period. The first phase of the progr1a to accomplish this
condition is the destruction of all cotton stalks as soon as the
crop is picked out. However, portions of the roots are invariably
left in the ground following plowing operations, which sprout through-
out the year and furnish food for the build-up of infestation. There-
fore, in order to maintain a host-free period, it is necessary to
carry on an intensive campaign for the destruction of such plants
from early fall until the fruiting of the subsequent crop. Field
activities in connection with the removal of sprout plants were very
limited during March owing to unfavorable weather conditions. Fields
were too wet to enter during the greater part of the month, and the
grubbing of sprouts was restricted to sandy, well-drained fields.
However, abnormally cold nights retarded the sprout-cotton growth,
and very little grubbing was necessary to maintain the host-free


Reaction of snotherweed to curly-top virus.-The results from
incomplete tests using the beet leafhopper (Eutettix tenellus (Bak.))
as a vector, being conducted at the Twin Falls, Idaho, laboratory, by
H. C. Hallock, in cooperation with A. M. Murphy, of the Bureau of
Plant Industry, indicate that snotherweed (Bassia hyssopifolia (Pall.)
Kuntze) does not act as a reservoir of the curly-top virus, confirm-
ing the results previously obtained by H. H. P. Severin in California.
The acreage occupied by this weed is increasing in waste areas and
adjoining irrigated sections in southern Idaho and field studies have

22 -
shown that under certain conditions it is a favorable sumner breeding
host of the beet loafhopper. In conducting these tests gravid leaf-
hoppers that were viruliferous wore confined On the smotherwoed for
a period of 7 days. One week later other lea;fhoppers known to be non-
viruliferous were confined on these plants for a period of 4 weeks,
after which they were transferred to sugar beet seedlings of a variety
susceptible to curly-top and observations were nade to determine
whether the beets developed curly-top. Sinilar records were obtained
by confining leafhopper nynphs on beet seedlings which had developed
on the snotherweed plants fron eggs deposited by the viruliferous
adults which had previously been confined on the weed. In these
tests, conducted under suitable conditions in the greenhouse, smother-
weed was not susceptible to curly-top and the virus was not recovered
fron inoculated plants. This plant is grown readily under greenhouse
conditions and will nake an excellent host for rearing nonviruliferous
beet leafhoppers.

Fumigation of tobacco at reduced pressures with hydrocyanic-
acid gaso-- In funiSgtion experiments recently completed by R. W.
Brubaker and W. D. Roed, of the Riclhond, Va., field laboratory, it
has been shown that dosages of hydrocyanic-acid gas as low as 1 pound
per 1,000 cubic feet produced a high nortality anong the larvae of
the cigarette beetle (Lasioderna serricorne (F.)) under conditions of
reduced pressures and an e:-posure period of 3 hours. The average
mortalities obtained rnong larvae placed at varying depths in bales
of imported tobacco from exposure to dosages ranging from 1 to 4
pounds of hydrocyanic acid per 1,000 cubic foot of space were as
follows: 4 pounds--100 percent mortality; 3 pounds--99.g percent;
2 pounds--99.7 percent; 1 pound--97.2 percent. By means of test
spikes 25 well-grown larvae of the cigarette beetle confined in
perforated gelatin capsules were placed in each bale of tobacco at
depths of 1;, 3'-, 5-, ancd 9d inches.. The bales were placed in a
small vacuum fumigation chanber and the pressure reduced to about
29 inches on a standard mercury gauge before introduction of the
funigant. After 3 hoursl exposure the bales were removed from the
chamber but the test insects were not renoved fron the bales until
72 hours following treatment, after which daily observations for 7
days were made to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In
these tests there wore 6 replicates of each treatment, each repli-
cate embodying the funigation of 2 bales of tobacco containing a
total of 250 beetle larvae. The temperature of the tobacco was about
700F. for all tests and the moisture content of the tobacco around
13 percent.

Antinony compounds other than tartar emetic effective against
gladiolus thrips.--Additional tests conducted by G. V. Johnson, of the
Beltsville, Md., field laboratory in 1940, have shown that'calcium
antimony tartrate (powder) and antinony lactate (liquid) show pronising
indications as substitutes for the tartar emetic in the spray formula
reconnondodagainst the gladiolus thrips (Taeniothrips simplex
Morison). The results of tests conducted on replicated field plots
of gladiolus indicate that a spray nixture consisting of 2.2 pounds
of calcium antinony tartrate and 4 pounds of brown sugar to 100 gallons

23 -
of water was as effective against the gladiolus thrips as a spray
mixture containing 2 pounds of tartar emetic and 4 pounds of brown
sugar. However, when white sugar was substituted in the formula,
the efficiency of the spray was reduced. Calcium antimony tartrate
is slowly soluble in cold water and was unsatisfactory in this
respect as compared to tartar emetic. In another test using only
a single large plot of gladiolus 93.5 percent of the flowers pro-
duced were uninjured by thrips following treatment with a spray
mixture consisting of 8 pounds of antimony lactate and 4 pounds of
brown sugar to 100 gallons of water, while gladiolus, treated with an
equivalent tartar emotic-brown sugar spray, produced 92.3 percent un-
injured flowers.


Mosquito surveys at Camp Stewart, Ga. and Camp Davis, iC."--
At the roquest of the Office of C. C. C. Activities of the Forest
Service, G. H. Bradley, of the New Smyrna Beach, Fla., laboratory,
inspected the area for mosquito breeding in the vicinity of Camp
Stewart, Ga. and Camp Davis, N.C., March 27-April 1 in company with
Marion Lamb of the Forest Service. The surveys were made for the
purpose of determining the need and preparing estimates and a working
plan for a C. C. C. Camp near each Arcy Cantonment. The following
species of mosquitoes were token at the tine of survey: Aedes vexans,
Culex restuans, Anopheles crucians, and A. punctipennis.

Tests to determin. distance of flight of stable flies.--
Colored flies were released by W. E. Dove and S. W. Simmons, of the
Pa-ina City, Fla., laboratory, at six separate localities varying
from 20 to 40 miles from coastal bays and paralleling the shoreline
of northwest Florida for about 100 miles. Two marked flies were
recovered on February 6 and 13, respectively, a distance of about 52
niles from the point of release. These individuals had been "colored"
on January 3, or before, which was 33 and 40 days, respectively, prior
to their recovery.

Synthetic resins as an adhesive base in combination with
tickicides in the control of the Gulf coast tick.--E. B. Blelkslee,
of the Panama City laboratory, reports that of 100 new mixtures
tested, only 11 were capable of killing 90 percent of the ticks in
4g hours. Of these, 7 were in fair condition after 15 days exposure
on the ears of animals, and 1 was in very good condition. Applications
were without injury to the skin of the animals.

Office of Menard, Tex., laboratory burns.--Early on the evening
of March 19 the office of the Menard, Tex., laboratory was completely
destroyed by fire of an undetermined origin. The loss was complete
and included valuable experimental data, several microscopes, and all
office records and equipment.

Cube-sulphur dust as a control of cattle grubs.- For the con-
trol of cattle grubs in small herds of cattle, E. W. Laake, R. W. Wells,
and W. G. Bruce report that a mixture of equal parts of cube powder
and wettable sulphur applied as a dust has given excellent results.
They state that the treatment is simple, rapid, efficient, and inexpensive.

Cattle grub control dcnonstration.--E. W. Lanke reports
that in cooperation with the Extension Entomologist of the Texas
A. & M. College and local county agents, demonstrations were given
on cattle grub control by the personnel of the Dallas laboratory in
Anderson and Cherokee Counties in eastern Texas. As a result of
these demonstrations there followed a grcat deal of cattle grub
control activity in Anderson County.

W ttable sulphur a desirable substitute for soap in cubc-
sulphur wash for cattle grubs.--It has been shown by R. Wells,
E. W. Lanko, and W. G. Bruce, of the Dallas, Tex., laboratory, that
6 ounces of wettable sulphur is a desirable substitute for the 2
ounces of soap per gallon of cube wash for cattle grubs, and that
soft water is not essential when the sulphur is substituted.
Results obtained with the sulphur-cube wash were better than those
obtained with the soapy cube wash. The need for hot water to dis-
solve the soap is eliminated and the cost is not increased.

Breeding areas of Aedes vexans and A. lateralis.-- E. F.
Knipling and C. M. Gjullin, of the Portland, Oreg., laboratory,
report that preliminary soil sampling of the flood-water mosquito
breeding areas showed a concentration of approximately 45 percent
of the eggs around obstructions in one place and about 80 percent
in another. The area covered by obstructions in each case repre-
sented about 5 percent of the total area sampled. The obstructions
cited were fallen logs, dense brushy areas, and stumps.


Another smu .rler thwarted.--On February 12, A. H. Malcolm,
of the customs service at 'Miami, Fla., who has a reputation for
detecting would-be smugglers, got two anall mango plants from the
sleeves of a ladyls sweater when the owner returned from Cuba. The
plants were infested with Chrysomnhalus dictosoermri (Morg.),
Howardia biclavis (Co:nst.), and Loucaspis indica Marl.

Entomological interceptions of interest.--Three living adults
of the bruchid Bruchus sp., probably ,gttalis Rey., were intercepted
at New York on November 22, 1940, in vetch seeds in cargo from
Portugal. A living adult of the curculionid Colecerus marmoratus
Horn was found at 3rownsville, Tox., on March 7, 1941, with lettuce
in baggage from Mexico. A living larva of the pink bollworm
(Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.)) was taken at New Orleans on
February 13, 19i, in cottonseed in mail fron Brazil. Nine living
larvae of the Asiatic rice borer (Chilo simplex Btl.) were intercepted
at Corpus Christi, Tex., on March 14,1941, in rice straw in cargo
from Japan. A living adult of the pentatonid Mormideo collaris Dall.
was found at Laredo, Tox., on March 17, 1941, with an orchid plant
in bagagge from Mexico. Living specimens of the bruchid Bruchus
ranicornis Er. were intercepted at the Inspection House at Washington,
D. C., on March 17, 1941, in Vigna sinensis seeds in express from
Brazil. Four living larvae of the trypetid Anastrepha nombitpraeoptans
Sein were takden at Newport News, Va., on February 5, 1941, in mango in

25 -
stores from Haiti. Living specimens of the bostrichid Dinoderus brevis
(Horn) were intercepted at Now Orleans on February 21, 1941, in banboo
strips used as dunnage from India. A living adult of the coreid
Leptoglossus chilensis (Spinola) was taken at New York on March 18, 1941,
with excelsior packing for grapes in cargo from Chile. Specinens of the
coccid Aonidiella eugeniae (Henpel) and. the whitefly Aleuroplatus sp.,
apparently an undescribed species closest to graphicus Bondar, were
intercepted at the Inspection House, Washington, D. C., on January
17, 1940, on leaves of Eugenia cauliflora in freight from Brazil.
A living adult of the nabid ITabis punctipennis Blanch, was taken at
Norfolk, Va., on February 21, 1941, with cabbage in stores from Chile.
Specimens of the coccid Aspidiotus degeneratus Leon. were intercepted
at Seattle, Wash., on January 9, 1941, on camellia leaves in cargo
from Japan. Living workers and nyaphs of the ternite Coptotermes sp.
wore found at Portland, Oreg., on January 25, 1941, in taro in cargo
from China. T. E. Snyder states that this termite is very destructive
and is not found in the United States. A living adult of the cucujid
Laemotmetus rhizo lphgoides (Walk.) was intercepted at Norfolk, Va.,
on March 21, 1941, in bamboo dunnage from the Dutch East Indies.
Living specimens of the Argentine ant (Iridomyrnex hunilis Hayr.)
were collected in the field in Hawaii on January 14, on hibiscus
bloons. M. R. Smith, who made this determination, states that this
is the first record of the Argentine ant becoming established in

Pathological interceptions of interest.--Aphelenchoids sp.,
near A. limberi Steiner, Aphelenchus avenae Bastian, Hexatylus sp.
near H. latus Thorne, and Paraphelenchus pseudoparientinus Mic.
vero found January 1 at N o York in leaves and stens of dried sage
(Salvia officinalis) in a shipment of 40 bags fron Spain. Bacterium
citri (Hasse) Doidge was found on oranges fron China January"21 at
San Pedro cand on sour lines fron Java March 28 at Boston. Claviceps
paspali (Schw.) Stevens and Hall was found at Iew York March 12 in
paspalum seed fron Canal Zone. Colletotrichun orchidearun All. was
intercepted at San Francisco January 17 on Phalaenopsis grandiflora
from the Philippines. Coniothyrium sp. with spores larger than in
species described on orchids was found at San Francisco January 15 on
Epidendrun aurantiacun fron Guatenala, Helico:na olivaceun (Karsten)
Linder, an interesting and unusual saprophyte, was found on Paeonia
noutan from Japan December 4, 1940, at Hoboken. The fungus causing
a leaf spot on canellia leaves fron Mexico intercepted at Hoboken
August 12, 1940, has been determined as Hendersonia camelliae Pass.,
although the spores are rather long. Linosporn sp., as well as other
fungi, was found on an avocado from Mexico intercepted February 2 at
Brownsville. Phyllosticta sp. unlike species reported on orchids
was intercepted January 15 at Hoboken on a Cattleoy (?) sp. leaf fron
Brazil. Phytophthora sp. was found on an eggplant fruit fron Cuba
March 19 at New York. Rhabdospora sp. and Robillarda sp., no species
of either genus reported on peony, were found on Paeonia moutan from
Japan December 27, 1940, at San Francisco. Sporonoma phacidioides Desm.
was found on alfalfa leaves in nail from Mexico January 28 at Hoboken.
Thielaviopsis paradoxa (DeSeyn) v. Hoehn. was found on Pandanus sp.
seed fron Colonbia March 20 at New York. Ustilago nuda (Jens.) Kell.
& Swi was found on barley fron Mexico March 1 at El Paso. Spotted wilt
virus was found on a tomato in cargo shipment fron Cuba March 24 at

-.-26 -


Mormon crickets hatch early and control operations begin.--Mormon
crickets began hatching'in the Oregon counties of Wasco and Jefferson
early in February and by March 15 it was estimated that 250,000 acres,
p9st of which is on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, was infested with
first to.third instars. Control operations were begun in March with bait-
ing and dusting materials provided by the Bureau and applied by the Agency.
By March 15, field observers found the hatch was approximately 85 percent
complete in the above counties and in progress in two other counties in
Oregon, two in Washington, and three in Nevada. Last year the first hatch
was reported on March 8 as compared with'February 8 this year. In Washing-
ton, cricket hatching was first observed this year in.Franklin County on
March 3. By March 29 hatching was 90 percent.coplete in that county and
well advanced in Klickitat County. In Utah, don March 12, hatching was ob-
served in Tooele County and first instars were found.the same week in Juab
and Utah Counties. In Nevada, a.25-percent cricket hatch was reported in
the Copper Canyon area of Lander County on March 14, and on the sane date
ny~phs.were seen in Pershing and Humboldt Counties. .By the close of the
week of March 22, a 50-percent hatch had occurred near Wells, Elko County.
Control materials have been moved into the infested areas and active con-
trol operations were expected to begin April 1. In Idaho, crickets were
hatching on the south-facing slopes in Washington County by March 20.

Grs sshopper development.--Examination of egg pods in the South Dakota
counties of Spink, Beadle, and Tripp at the close of March showed that egg
development ranged from the coagulation stage to the early segmentation
stage. In western Kansas counties, examinations indicated that the eggs
had overwintered in good condition and some had reached the eye-spot

Plans for grasshopper control.--Grasshopper bait materials were
transferred during March from areas where there are surplus materials, or
where control is not contemplated, into areas having a deficiency of ma-
terials. Supervisors in 1key positions were returned to duty status and be-
gan to organize tlhe work for the 1941 control seaspon. The operations on
grasshopper and Mormon cricket control this year are provided for under
memoranda of understanding entered into between the Bureau and the States,
wherein the responsibilities of each are agreed to. Meotings h ne been
held with officials of the various States and memoranda of understanding
comnleted with 22 infested States.

Bureau assists in cutworm control.--3Bcause of reoorts of serious
outbreaks of cutv;orms in Kansas, Colorado, Noraska, and Utah, Federal
assistance has been authorized in counties where outbreaks are such as to
warrant assistance and where control is beyond the means of local communi-
ties. The release of grasshopper bait materials to farmers for combating
the cutworms has been authorized. The outbreak in Kansas is reported by
plant post-control officials to cover 30 or 40'counties in the western
part of the State. The Colorado and Nebraska infestations are contiguous
to the outbreak in northwestern Kansas. In Utahhcavy infestations are
reported in two centrally located counties. :.State leaders in the grass-
hopper control program in these States are investigating this outbreak to

27 -

determine if the species of cutworms in these areas can be combated with
grasshopper bait.

White-fringed beetle control program.--At a conference held at
Gulfport, Miss., on IMarch 12 by thie Federal and State agencies concerned
with the white-fringed beetle control program, the results of the survey
and control activities since the initiation of the project were given full
discussion and consideration, and a program of work for 1941 was submitted
to the cooperating agencies and approved. It is proposed under this pro-
gram to determine more accurately the effect of suppressive measures on se-
lected areas of infestation by applying one or a combination of such prac-
tices throughout the entire period of beetle emergence. On other areas
from which there exists appreciable deanger of artificial or natural spread
of infestation, suppressive measures will be conducted only during the
period of peak emergence or for such additional time as is necessary to re-
duce risk of spread to a minimum. Such a modified program will, it is be-
lieved, effectively control artificial as well as natural spread of the
pest; will provide commercial control to infested agricultu-al areas; and
will give further opportunity to determine the effectiveness of suppressive
measures on isolated areas of infestation, which will be conducted through-
out the entire period of beetle emergence.

Treatment methods for white-fringed beetle further modifiedl.--The
requirements for treating nursery stock< and potting soil for shipment from
the white-fringed beetle area have been modified by recent revisions of
circulars B. E. P. Q. 48s, 489, and 503. The releases on methyl bromide
make available treatments for movement of stock which previously has been
restricted to shipment within the regulated areas.

Legume weevil resurvey.--A resur-vey for the legume weevil, Hy~ora
brunnoipennis Boh., was completed early in April. The survey was confined
principally to areas in Arizona which were found infested last year, to
determine the spread and the present status of the infestation. A few
spot surveys were also made in several areas in California where infesta-
tions.were not found last year but where it was thought that the weevils
might have since becor.e established. No new areas of infestation were
found. However, considerable spread was noted in the Yuma area, and con-
siderable increase in the intensity of the infestation attributed princi-
pally to climatic conditions which were apparently particularly favorable
to the development of the weevil this year. At the University of Arizona
Experimental Date Garden at Tempo, Ariz., where infestations of the weevil
were located last year, eradication measures were conducted in cooperation
with the State. Despite some delay caused by unseasonable weather it is
felt that the measures were applied in sufficient time to forestall an in-
crease in the infestation and it is hoped that eradication may have been
accomplished. A number of methods were tried including the use of herbi-
cides, flame-throwers, mowers, and the disking of the soil. Duo to the
wet condition of the soil following heavy rains, it was found necessary to
use a combination of these methods. A surve-r of the agricultural areas in
Mexico adjacent to the Yuma infestation was made in cooperation w-ith in-
spectors of the Mexican Government. No infestation was found.

Sweetpotato weevil control conference at C-Glfport.--The sweetpotato
weevil has apparently been eradicated from 13 counties in Alabama, Mississippi,

28 -
Georgia, and Texas since the cooperative project was begun in 1937, accord-
ing to a statement by the project leader, T. R. Stephens, at a conference
of Federal and State officials and others held at Gulfport, Miss., on
March 13. Initial and systematic surveys have been conducted, he stated,
in 184 counties of 6 States. B. M. Gaddis outlined the primary objectives
of the project and gave a resume of the various operations of the several
States. Avery S. Hoyt, J. C. Holton, and J. H. Lloyd attended this con-
ference, as well as the one relating to the white-fringed beetle work, and
participated in the discussion.

1941 work programs proposed. Expansion in Mississippi.--Following
the above conference, programs for sweetpotato weevil control work in each
State were developed and it was agreed that the activities in each State
would be carried on along the same general plan as heretofore, except in
Mississippi. In that State it seems probable that eradication is being
approached in the commercial-producing areas, and it was considered advis-
able to extend the eradication measures to the Gulf coast counties.

Peach mosaic work programs for 1941.--Work programs for peach mosaic
operations this year in the various infected States are being prepared in
conferences with the respective pest-control officials. In the mosaic-
infected States where grower cooperation has been satisfactory, it is
planned to make careful and cormrplete inspections of nurseries, budwood
sources, and their environs; to inspect previously infected and adjacent
properties; and to make every effort to rerove diseased trees as discovered.

Nursery inspection for peach mosaic under way in Texas.--Early in
April Federal-State inspection of the extensive peach nurseries in Texas
was begun with a view to completing the work by May 15 as provided in the
uniform quarantines pertainin; to the peach mosaic. The large number of
nursories involved requires that the work be undertaken early in the season
and thct as many Federal and State inspe ctors as possible be assigned to
that phase of the activity. Prior to beginning nursory work, inspectors
were congregated for a preliminary "brush up" on peach mosaic symptoms in
relatively concentrated conciorciol pech orchards in San Saba County. Sev-
eral hundred mosaic infectoe trees were found durin the first few days,
giving our personnel an opportunity to review their contact with this
disease before beginning the nursery inspection. This phase of peach
mosaic inspection and the control is conducted under a work program and
memorandum of agreement between the cooperating Federal and State agencies
in which the undertakings and responsibilities of each party are clearly
defined, and which provide for intimate understending and cooperation of
the Fodera:l arnd State Departments of Agriculture. In other St-.tes, the
nursery inspection work is of less volume and rill be undertaken as the
season advances, followed with delimiting surveys and diseased-tree removal.

Blossor inspection in California for peach mosaic.--The blossom in-
specticn of trees of the large-flowered variety for peach mosaic disease
was begun late in March in infected areas in California. In the Yucaipa
district a high percentage of trees was found infected in some orchards
while in other areas only scattered trees w-re found diseased. Peach
mosaic disease research workers have approved this method of inspection in
lorge-flowered varieties, in which symptom expression in leaves is not pro-

29 -
Minnesota establishes terminal inspection.--The State of Minnesota
has established terminal inspection facilities at St. Paul for the
inspection of the following plants: All wild and cultivated tre-es, shrubs,
and woody vines; perennial roots, such as peonies and iris; small-fruit
plants, such as strawberries and raspberries; herbaceous perennials, such
as hollyhocks and other hardy floering plants; cuttings, buds., grafts,
and scions for or capable of propagation. Provision has also been made
under the terminal inspection procedure for the enforcement of the Minne-
sota quarantines relating to the alfalfa weevil and certain diseases of
raspberry plants. The postal regulation giving notice of this action is
dated March 7, 1941.

Airplanes being purchased.---ids have been accepted for the pur-
chase of two airplanes to replace the two White Standard biplanes that
were burned in the Monroeville, Ala., fire last year. Bait hoppers are
now being installed in the new planes and it is expected that they will
be ready in April for use on Mormon cricket control activities in Nevada,
and later, on white-fringed beetle and grasshopper control in the event
the need develops for use of such planes in distributing either bait or
dust by this means.

Mr. Sheals heard at Central Plant Board ieeting.--R. A. Sheals at-
tended the joint meeting of the Central Plant Board on Miarch 25 at Colum-
bia, Mo., and presented a paper on the activities of the white-fringed
beetle project.

Mr. Roberts assigned to Washin.gton.--. A. Roberts, Assistant Project
Leader on Mormon cricket control, was temporarily assigned to the Washing-
ton office of the Division of Domestic Plant Quarantines beginning April 1.

Interesting interception.s.--A miniature hotframe containing 10 pounds
of soil from the Japanese be-tle area was reported in March by a Now York
inspector. This is the second interception of its kind in New York, each
from a different source. Corn borer larvae in a shipment consigned from
a point in China to a pet shop at a point in Missouri were recently found
by the transit inspector at St. Louis on his regular tour of duty. The
shipment was called to the attention of the port inspector at Chicago. An
express. shipment of uncertified cottonseed from the pink bollvorm area,
which was intercepted at Dallas in March, is believed to be the first ship-
ment of cottonseed in quantity moving in violation of Quarantine Yo. 52,
that has been found by a transit inspector.


Fumigation schedules for nursery stock for Japanese beetle larvae.--
In cooperation with the Japanese Beetle Control Division and the Division
of Fruit Insect Investigations, H. C. Donohoe, of the hWite Horse, N. J.,
laboratory, has completed experimental work on two more fumigation schedules
for nursery stock for Japanese beetle larvae. This makes a total of seven
treatments with methyl bromide at temperatures var3ying from 500 to 700 F.
now available. In six of these treatments, ranging from 500 to 63o, inclu-
sive, the dosage of 21 pounds of methyl bromide is maintained constant, and
the time and temperature varied from 21 to 41 hours in half-hourly incre-
ments. At 700, a dosage of 2 pounds is used. Work is under way at the White
Horse laboratory on treatments at lower temperatures end with varying dosages.

30 -
The application of methyl bromide in the greenhouse and the effect
of relative humidity on officiency.--Further studies by H. H. Richardson
and A. H. Casanges, of the Beltsville, Lid., laboratory, have again shown
that the fast spray and slow pan methods of vaporization of methyl bro-
mide are of about equal efficiency in greenhouse fumigations under wet
conditions. Vaporization by spraying required 1 to 3 minutes while pan
vaporization was adjusted to 90 to 110 minutes. Under fairly dry condi-
tions, the results slightly favored the fast spray method. From a practi-
cal standpoint, the spray method seems preferable. For vault fumigation
previous work indicated a fast type of vaporization to be more effective
than a slow vaporization in 6-hour exposures. High and low relative
humidity v;ere again shown to have little effect on efficiency against the
common red spider or Mexican mealybug, but higher efficiency was obtained
at high humidity against the confused flour beetle.


The Argentine ant in Hawaii.--In January of this year a number of
specimens of the Argentine ant, Iridonyrmcx humilis Mayr, were collected
at Honolulu, Hawaii, by W. C. Goolsby and J. D. Gomez in the soil of a
vegetable garden from an infestation reported as heavy. G. F. Callaghan
collected a second series on Hibiscus blossoms. This is the first time
that the species has been recorded from Hawaii. It is likely that the
clinate of the Islands is such that the ant will establish itself and be-
come a serious pest. Although specimens have been taken several times
from airships plying between the United States and the Pacific Islands,
the species is not known to occur on any of the latter.

A species of Tetrastichus parasitic on thrips.--B. D. Burks, of the
Illinois Natur-al History Survey, tc.porarily engaged by the Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine to revise the Nearctic species of the chal-
cidoid genus Tetrastichus, has concluded that Tetrastichus tatei Dozier
(Jour. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, 21, 1937, p. 129) described from Puerto
Rico as a parasite of G-ynaikothrips uzeli Zimm., is identical with Tetra-
stichus 7htripcphonus Waterston (Bul. Ent. Res. 13, 1923, p. 453) recorded
from Liothrips urichi Karny on ClidComia in Trinidad, British Uest Indies.
The record by Mason (Ent. News 33, 1922, p. 199) of Totrastichus n.'sp.
from Cryptothrips laureli Eason in Florida is also referable to T. thripo-
phonus. It seems probable that the species is quite widely distributed.
Tetrastichus thripophonus was introduced into Fiji with Liothrips urichi
when the latter was introduced there in an attempt to control Clidemia.

An earwig new to the United States found in New Jersey.--Three speci-
mens of the oarwig Marava wallacei (Dohrn) w~re recently submitted for
identification. The material is said to have been collected in a wholesale
bakery at Dumont, N. J. Dumont is located in extreme northeastern New Jer-
sey, the Hudson River, north of New York City. The finding of this
earwig is of interest because it is a widely distributed species of the
Australian Region, frequontly intercepted in quarantine but not lnown to
be established in the United States. It inhabits I.ew Guinea and various
other islanes, as well as the mainland of Australia, and when intercepted
is usually associated with logs. Interception has often occurred at
Middle Atlantic ports, and this fact suggests that the specimens taken at
Dumont may have been introduced in this way. Marava wallacci belongs to

31 -

the family Labiidae and resembles Prolatbia arachidis (Yersin), differing
from the latter especially in that the coloration i. much darker and in
that wallacei freauently is long{-wined, with conspicuous orange spots
near the ends of the wings.

Food plant records for two hemipterous insects.--Food plant records
for two hemipterous insects from hawaii may prove of interest as they are
apparently new recorCs, or at least have not received special notice as
potential economic pests. The specimens (four of each species) were sub-
mitted to the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and determined by
H. G. Barber as Orius persequens (White), an anthocorid taken on green corn
at Waimea, Oahu, T. H., on February 25, 1931, sand Teleonenia scrupulosa
Stal (= T. lantanae Dist.), collected on potato leaves at Waipahu, Oahu,
February 15, 19T1.

A new aleyrodid record for the United States.--L. L. English, of
the Agricultural hE.periment Station, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, sub-
mitted for identification several specimens of an aleyrodid collected on
Azalea indica at Spring Hill, Ala. The species has been identified by
Louise M. Russell as Pealius rhododendri Takahashi, described in 1935 on
Bhododendron sp. from Osaka, Japan. Apparently this is the first record
of its occurrence in North Anerica. Pealius rhododendri is found only oc-
casionally, and up to the present at least has not developed dense, in-
jurious populations as is true in the case of Aleyrodes azaleae 3. & M.

Food habits of some Ieotropical Japygidae.--To most entomologists the
food habits of the apterygotan insects of the family Japygidac are com-
pletely unknown. In fact it has been established only recently that these
insects are predacoous. They use the powerful pincers on the end of the
abdomen to hold the prey while parts of the same, or possibly the complete
body, are broken up with the mandibles and maxillae and swallowed after
but little mastication. Inside the alimentary canals of five japygids from
the Neotropical Region the following arthropods, or their parts, were found:
The head of an adult fungus gnat, Hycctophilidae, determined by A. Stone;
partial remains of a bootle larva of the family Staphylinidae and part of
the body of a beetle larva, probably of the family Carabidae, both deter-
mined by W. H. Anderson; the thorax of an adult beetle; some of the legs
and other parts of a beetle mite, superfamily Oribatoidea, and partial re-
mains of a predaceous mite of the fanily Parasitidae; the last tarsal seg-
ment of an insect leg bearing two equal claws andl a pulvillus together with
other miscellaneous parts. Further studies of the food habits of the japy-
gids are planned.

Xylaplothrips subterraneus Cwfd. in Oregon.--Specimens tcken at
Toronto, Canada, on lily bulbs from Oregon, sent in by J. 1:cDunnough, in-
cluded two specimens of Xylaplothrips subterranous Cwfd. The latter was
originally described from England on lily bulbs. This is the first record
of this species in North America.



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