News letter


Material Information

News letter
Alternate title:
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
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Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text
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Vol. VIII, No. 4 (Not for publication) April 1, 1941


Bureau Appropriations

The bill to provide approoriations for the Department for the
fiscal year 1942 passed the House and is now being given consideration
by the Senate. As it passed the House, the bill provides $5,19g,493
for the Bureau, exclusive of white-pine blister rust funds. The
$5,19g,493 is $103,439 below the budget estimates. The budget estimates
for the fiscal year 1942 provided the following increases and decreases
in amounts of the appropriations for the current fiscal year:


Mexican fruitfly control ----------------- $ 7,500
Barberry eradication ---------------------- 20,000
Insecticide investigations ---------------- 5,000
Foreign plant quarantines------------------ 20,000


Citrus canker eradication ----------------- 8 13,485
Dutch elm disease eradication ------------- 100,000

The bill, as it passed the House, provides for reductions below
the budget estimates for the following:

Mexican fruitfly control ------------------- $ 7,500
European corn-borer control ---------------- 17,939
Barberry eradication ----------------------- 20,000
Bee culture -------------------------------- 33,000
Insecticide and fungicide investigations --- 5,000
Foreign plant quarantines ------------------ 20,000


The white-pine blister rust estimates have been handled differently
this year, because of a change in the authorizing legislation intended to
enable the appropriating powers to have all estimates for blister rust
work before them at one time. The blister rust estimates, therefore, as
submitted by the Bureau of the Budget amounted to $1,409,000, which in-
cluded an increase of $100,000 for the Bureau, an increase of $50,000 for
the Forest Service, and an item of $215,000 for the Interior Department.
As the bill passed the House, these items were reduced to 81,159,000,
the Bureau increase and the Forest Service increase being eliminated and
the rmount of the estimate for the Interior De.oartment being decreased to


Raisin moth larvae survive long cold storagc.--Charles K. Fisher,
of the Fr:.sno, Calif., laboratory, re;orts that a few full-grown larvae
of Enhestia fig lilelta Greg., collected December 12, 1938, were still
in the larval stage 2 years later, after storage for most of that period
at about lO F. F ur hundred larvae had been stored in paper cans
wnich were partly filled with raisins and provided with rolls of corru-
gated. -ooer for punation quarters. They were exr, sed to outdoor temnTera-
tures from December 12, 1939, to April 10, 1939, when they were placed
in a mechanical refrigerator. Seven were; alive on December 4, 1940.
After incubation at about &80, 3 adults emerged in January 1941.

Temperatures above 600 F. bring nlum curculio out of hibernation.--
Investigations under field conditions have shown that a mean-temperature
above 600 F. for se-veral successive days is required to cause the plum
curculio to an.oer on o-each trees in numbers from hibernation. Now
Oliver I. Snaon, of the Fort Valloy, Ga., laborr tiry, reports that inves-
tigations under greenhouse conditi-ns confirm those under field condi-
tions. On February 13, 19-1,'a c.age containin 400 plum curculio adults
hibernating in 3ermuia grass a!r1 oak leaves was removed from an orchard
and placed in a greenhouse, with the thermostat set at b60. Observa-
tions showed that nfter this c .e was pl:ace- in the greenhouse the tem-
perature was n'-er below 60O in the night and ranged from 60C to 80O in
the daytime. No curculios apnpered from hibernation on the first, sec-
ond, third, and fourth days after the cage was pl.ced in the greenhouse,
but on the fifth day ther began to appear on the screen abwve the hiber-
nating material. Therefore, 5 successise days with a mean temperature
rbove 60' was reauired to bring adult plum curculios out of hibernation
under controlled-ternoernture conditions.


Fruitflh status in the lwer Rio Grnnde Valley.--The first larvae
of the usual spring infestation of the Mexi ca fruitfly were found at
Weslaco, Tex., on February 12. ?v the close of the month larvae had been
found in graoefruit on 16 other properties. With one exception, none of
these infestations were widesoread throughout the groves. No forecast
can be made as to the probable amount of infestation which might take
place this s-ason, Tran recoveries, however, indicate that no more than


the normal amount of infestation is to be expected, as less than the
usual number of flies is being taken. Sterilization rooms are in readi-
ness to take care of any amount of fruit which might need to be treated
before being shipped, and it is not believed that any out-of-the-ordinary
difficulties will arise which will prevent the successful shipping of
fruit and termination of the harvesting season as set forth in the regu-
lations. Growing conditions were excellent for citrus during February.
Heavy rains over the entire regulated area in January caused citrus trees
to bloom profusely and all indications point to a heavy set of fruit.


Chinch bugs extract more substances from susceptible than from re-
sistsnt sorghums.--R. G. Dahms and Larry Bewick, Lawton, Okla., report
that preliminary tests conducted during August 1940, in which over 2,000
chinch bugs were used, showed that chinch bugs feeding for g hours on
Dwarf Yellow milo (susceptible) gained on an average of 0.00012861 gram,
whereas those feeding on Atlas Sorgo (resistant) lost 0.00001715 gram
per bug.

Chinch bug ovinosition increased when feeding on sorghum plants
growin: in solutions containing high nitrogen or low phosphorus.--Accord-
ing to R. G. Dahms, Lawton, second-generation chinch bugs laid 50 eggs
per female more on Finney milo plants growing in nutrient gravel cultures
containing a high amount of nitrogen than when the solution contained a
low amount; however, the plant growth was apparently normal in both cases.
On the other hand, plants growing in solutions containing a low amount of
phosphorus laid a few more eggs than those feeding on plants growing in
high phosphorus solutions. In these experiments the longevity of females
was lower when the number of eggs per female-day was high than when it
was low.

Concentrated sprays effective against Pantomorus peregrinus BE.C_, H. C.
Young, Florala, Ala., reports that S. F. Potts found calcium arsenate
and cryolite more effective against P, peregrinus at Gulfport, Miss., dur-
ing 1940 when applied in the form of a concentrated spray than when ap-
plied as a dust or dilute spray. From 3 to 10 gallons of the concentrated
spray containing 3 to 15 pounds of insecticide was applied per acre. The
concentrate contained water as a carrier and 0.1 pound of dissolved casein
or 0.2 pound of raw linseed oil, or 0.1 pound of dissolved casein and 0.1
pound of raw linseed oil per pound of insecticide as an adhesive. Cotton
and peanut folin'e treated with this concentrated spray produced good mor-
talit, of the beetle after exoosure for 2 weeks to natural weather con-
ditions, in which 3 to 5 inches of rain fell, For the cPged females,
tests giving satisfactory control caused a reduction of 90 to 98 percent
in feeding and 93- to 98-percent reduction in viable eggs, This degree
of control reduced the number of egs Ter mass to -bout one-third of the

European corn borer migrants from corn debris.--W. A. Baker, Toledo,
Ohio, reports that E, W. Beck and K. D. Arbuthnot encountered an unusual
survival in and around P. piery in eastern Massachusetts. Green corn-
stalks had been fed to hogs in the pigcery, examination of which disclosed


no measurable corn debris. Crevices between fence boards and posts were
filled with a weblike material such as lepidopterous larvae produce.
Many corn borer larvae, and even a gre.:ter number of pupal cases, were
present. Although the stalks of this year's crop had been destroyed by
feeding or trampling of the ho&'s, some of the larvae had escaped and
found suitable hibernation quarters. The presence of pupal cases indi-
cated that many larvae had passed the winter of 1939-40 successfully in
this situation or were individuals of the first generation. The latter
seems unlikely because very little early corn was grown by the owner
this year. It was ascertained that corn from a 1939 field, which averaged
about 17 borers per stalk, was fed to the hogs in this same piggery. Al-
most every crevice, crack, and nail hole along the fence and buildings
formin2 a part of the enclosure showed evidence of borers. One pupal
case was found under a shingle near the lower edge of the roof.

Influence of nutrition on successive generations of corn borer.--
G. T. Bottear, moledo, re-ports on the differential effect of nutrition on
the rearing and development of successive generati-ns of the corn borer
in the lborntory, as indicated by infestin.i a few different kinds of
green plant tissue with newl, hatched larvne, rearing the surviving ones
to maturity, and confining the progeny of each successive generation to
the s tme type of food. When larvae of each generation were 15 dars old
they were weighed to determine any differences in size between genera-
tions which may ha-,e resulted from any of the various nutritive sub-
stances under test and also to determine the relative effect, if any, of
the different nutriment on succ-ssive generations of the insect. Rela-
tively low average weight and -ercentnge pupation of the F generation
reared on sweet corn kernels preserved by the ouick-freezing method were
attributed to the too advanced stage of maturity of the corn when frozen.
In other tests, corn kernels preserved by freezing have compared favorably
with Preen beans and peas as a source of nutrition for the borer. The
subnormal ph-siological condition of the Fl-gien,-ration borers nourished
on corn kernels preserved by freezing may have been the cause of the very
low aversae weight and percentage survival of the F2 generation reared on
this food. This generation failed to reproduce, which is considered as
further evidence of a possible cumulative adverse nutritive influence in
this instance. Failure of any test larvae to survive up to 35 days when
reared on green cornstalks which had been quick-frozen was attributed to
the physical condition of the corn tissue. Although the freezing process
does not change the chemical cormosition of green plant tissue, it
runtures the cellular structure, causing a rather quick collanse of the
tissue after thawing, which ap-arently is conducive to excessive mold
growth and general decom-oosition. In various other tests corn borer lar-
vae were repred on frozen corn tissue but the st.lks, being more mature
than those employed in these tests, were less succulent and consequently
less affected by freezing. Furthermore, in previous tests with quick-
frozen tissue, new material was sunp-lied the larvae every 24 to 48 hours,
whereas in the tests under discussion, the 5-day feeding interval, suc-
cessful for most fresh green-pl-nt tissues, was relied upon for all ma-
terials, whether frozen or fresh. Weights of larv.e reared on green beans
or neas through the F4 ge-neration indica-ted no appreciable influence of
laboratory repring on larvae up to at least the fifth generation.

Resistance of field corn to Euronean corn borer.--L. H, Patch and
R. T, Everly, Toledo, reoort: "Six commercial double-cross hybrids were


used as 1 set of standards against which the borer populations in the
other hybrids were compared. Each plant was infected by hand with 4
egg masses in addition to a light natural infestation of less than 1
egg mass. As a result the commercial hybrids averaged 6.41 borers per
plant. The 6 most resistant experimental hybrids were R4 X Wis. C.C5, R4
X Kan. G-30, R4 x Mich. 285, R4 X L317, (R4 X Hy) X L317, and (L317 X Hy)
X R4. With the excention of inbred Hy, the inbreds involved in these
crosses had shown marked borer resistance in past tests. The 6 hybrids
averaged 2.94 borers per plant, or 54.1 percent less than the number of
borers in the 6 commercial hybrids. The relative maturity of the strains
was considered in making this comparison. A group of 6 New Jersey hybrids,
tested for the first time and including 2 commercial double crosses,
averaged 8.09 borers per plant, or 26.2 percent more than the standard hy-
brids. The New Jersey hybrids were the most susceptible to the borer of
any tested. One group of single-cross hybrids involved l inbreds crossed
on borer-resistant inbred Ill. R4. These inbreds were used because of
their promise of containing some resistance to the borer in previous tests.
Another group of 14 single crosses involved the sa-e inbreds crossed on
partially borer-resistant inbred Ill. Hy and a third group involved the
same inbreds crossed on borer-susceptible inbred 11. A. The three groups
averaged 3.86, 5.56, and 6.85 borers per plant, respectively,' indicating
that the borer resistance of inbred R4, the partial borer resistance of
inbred Hy, and the borer susceptibility of inbred A were transmitted to
the single crosses. The 14 inbreds were also tested as inbreds. The com-
bined correlation coefficient between the borer populations in the inbreds
and their crosses on inbreds R4, Hy, and A is +0.7206. The very high
significance of this value indicates again that the factors for borer re-
sistance in the single crosses waer- inherited from the inbreds in this ex-
periment and that inbreds may be used to test the borer resistance of un-
known material, at least in a preliminary test."

Inheritance of field-corn resistance to European corn borer.--Messrs.
Patch and Everly are studying the inheritance of field-corn resistance to
the European corn borer by observations on the borer resistance and sus-
ceptibility of segregates out of a single cross of 2 resistant inbreds, R4
and L317. In 1939 the kernels from 1 ear of (R4 X L317) F2 were planted
and each plant was selfed, obtaining 142 ears. In 1940, half the seed from
each ear was planted and the F3 plants were given the usual test.for their
resistance to borer survival by infesting the plants by hand with a given
number of egg masses and counting the borers maturing. In other words,
the segregation of the F2 plants of R4 X L317 was studied on the basis of
the performance of their progenies. Each line was planted on May 22 in 1
2-hill plot in each of 4 blocks or replications. The plants were infested
from July 13 to July 2LL and 6 egg masses per plant, averaging 124.8 eggs
per plant. The lines silked from August 5 to August 13. When the plants
were infested on the mid-date July 18, the segregates averaged 51.4 inches
in height to the tips of the leaves extended upward, the infestations being
made before the tassels became a factor in borer survival. An average of
6.54 borers per plant survived in all the plants dissected the last week
of August. Statistical analysis showed highly significant variation among
the borer populations in the individual lines. Since the lines differed
significantly among themselves in number of borers surviving, the especially
borer-resistant and borer-susceptible lines were determined. On the basis


of odds of 39 to 1 against a mean varrying negatively from the mean of all
lines silking on the same date to the extent of 1.966 or more times the
standard error of estimate due to chance alone, only 3.6 lines on the
average would be expected to vary to that extent. Actually 17 lines were
found to contain that low level of borers. Seven of these lines averaged
4.3 borers per plant, as compared with 8.7 borers in 9 lines that were
found to contain significantly more than the expected number of borers.

Rel;-tion of field corn planting dates to yields under corn borer
conditions at Toledo.--Messrs. Patch and Everly have also been investigat-
inr the combined effects of field corn infestations by first- and second-
generation European corn borer larvae in relation to planting dates, as
reflected in final yields of bushels per acre of 15.5 percent moisture
content. In the 1940 program, plantings of the single cross hybrid A X
TR were made on May 3, 13, 23, and on June 1 and 11. As the ears of all
except the June 11 plantings were beyond the milk stage on Sentember 10,
when the second-generation borers were one-quarter grown, it is believed
that the second-generation borers reduced the yield of the earlier plant-
ings very little if at all. Experiments conducted during 4 years showed
that the amount of reduction in yield caused by first-generation borers to
corn normally yielding 85 bushels per acre is considerably more per borer in
the early June plantings than in the early May plantings. For corn
normally yielding; more than 85 bushels per acre the reduction in yield was
found to be somewhat greater. These greater reductions in yields per
borer due to later planting and higher levels of yiel, together with the
differential effects of weather and the differences in the number of ma-
ture borers between the plantings due to differences in the number of egg
masses laid and the rate of borer survival, had their combined effect on
the yields made by the plantings. In 1940 the May, 3, May 13, May 23,
June 1, and June 11 plantings gave yields of 99.3, 103.6, 104.4, and 87.6
bushels per acre, respectively, of 15.5 percent moisture content. The
standard error of the yield of the first and last plantings with six rep-
lications is 1.37 bushels, and of the intermediate plantings with 10
replications is t 1.07 bushels. Since May7 1 to 23 may be considered a
normal time for planting corn in the locality under study, there was
nothing gained this year by delaying corn Dlantings to escape damage by
the corn borer. In 1939, when a late summer drought occurred, the May 13
planting gave the maximum yield, even though it was infested with 2.0
and 3.5 more first-genration borers per plant than the May 23 and June 2
plantings. In 1939 and 1940, t;erefore, plantings made at the normal time
resulted in maximum yields under the conditions of weather and corn borer
infesta.tions for the locality studied.

Relation of survrial of Euronean corn borer larvae to level of egg
populations.--Messrs. Patch an- Everly have also established a relation-
ship of lower survivals of European corn bnrer larvae with increasing num-
bers of corn borer eg~ masses per olant. As an average of plantings made
on May 8, Ma- 17, May 25, and June 3, the number of borers resulting from
the different levels of egg infestation ranged from 4.50 per plant in the
1.5 egg-mass or 31 eggs-per-plant level to 6.63 per plant in the 12 egg-
mass or 250 eggs-per-plant level. Placing twice as many eggs on the plants
(3 versus 1.5 masses) resulted in no increase in the borer population, 4
times as many egos (6 versus 1,5 masses) resulted in a 21.8 percent increase


in the borer population, and g times as many eggs (12 versus 1.5 masses)
resulted in a 47.4 percent increase. A surprisingly small increase in
the number of borers resulted, considering the number.of eggs placed on
the plants. The increase was no greater on the May 8 and May 17 plant-
ings, although these plantings were more mature and in a better condition
to maintain a higher level of borers. There were no differences in the
date of silking between tlh plots infested with different levels of egg

Damage to sweet corn by second-generation corn borer larvae and by
corn earworm in relation to time of planting.--In a series of -lantings
of sweet corn mode by Morris Schlosberg near Toledo, progressively higher
rates of damaged ears were found in the later plantings. For plantings
made on May 23, June 8, June 15, June 25, and July 5, the percentages of
injured ears were found to be 22, 38, 43, 60, and 74, respectively.
Under the single- and two-generatima strain conditions of the European
corn borer in the vicinity, infestation of the plantings by the corn
borer was mainly from ovioosition by the second-ceneration moths, pro-
gressively higher levels of larval populations appearing in the later
plantings. The increased rates of damaged ears in the later planti ngs
were associated w.ith this factor, plus an increasing rate of infestation
by the corn earworm as the season advanced. In relation to the plantings
given above, of the total numbers of corn borer larvae in the plants,
31.7, 35.7, 47.0, 57.8, and 64.3 percent, respectively, were in the ears
(including nubbins). The increased numbers of corn borer larvae in the
ears in the later plpntings were associated, in part, with their higher
levels of larval populations in the plants and, in part, with the presence
of the ears at the time of infestation, a condition conducive to their
invasion. When infestation of the plants occurred prior to the appear-
ance of the silks, a larger proportion of the larvae tended to invade and
remain in the stems, and was reflected in the production of fewer and
smaller ears, owing to direct injury of the plant.


Municipally soonsored Jaoanese beetle control.--George H. Hollister,
superintendent of parks of Hartford, Conn., has submitted the following
report concerning damage by Japanxese beetles in the city parks: "Japanese
beetle grubs did considerable damage to the lawn areas in four of our
parks during the season 1940, namely, Keney Park and Keney Park golf
course in the south end, Colt Park in the. east side, and Pope Park in the
southwestern part of the city. We found as many as 50 grubs per square
foot in a number of different areas and the damage was quite severe, as
we were able to pick the turf uu as you would a rug. We tre-ted approxi-
mately 135 acres with lead arsenate late in Augst and early in September,
sprpyine it on an,. washing it in with a sprayer. The cost of applying the
lead and washing it in averaged about tL2 an acre. This year we are
planning to treat more of our lawn areas. We hope to be able to do this
work before rolling in the spring, when the surface of the ground is
porous, and rely on early snring rains to take the poison down where the
grubs are when they are feeding."


Adult beetles collected.--On February 24 and 25, inspectors from
the Philadelphia district office collected 537 adult Japanese beetles in
greenhouses. These were delivered to the Jn-anese beetle research labora-
tory at Moorestown, N. J., for use in exmerimental work. Although 400
specimens were collected at one establishment under favorable weather con-
ditions, the adults were comparatively scarce. At another'rose grower's
establishment at Kennett Square, only 7 beetles were found in a large
range of greenhouses. Manr of the growers contacted reported fewer bee-
tles than in the past. A number of these unclassified establishments
sterilize their soil before planting, thereby destroying the larvae. The
greatest number of adults was taken from the foliage of Better Times, a
red rose. Foliage feeding on this variety was noticeable and light infes-
tation on the blooms was also noted.

Plant-shipoing establishments canvassed in newly regulated areas.--
Surveys of nurseries, greenhouses, .nd plant-growing establishments in the
sections of Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia
added to thc Jananese beetle regulated area under the revision of the regu-
lations effective February 12, 1941, were in progress at the end of the

Inspection activities in Pennsvlvania.--Classified growers of nursery
and ornamental stock in the Pittsburgh area are anticipating for 1941 the
bigeest sales season since 1929. Notwithstandine the severe weather during
February, there wr~' a marked increase in the movement of quarantined prod-
ucts to points outside the regulated area. The m-terial consis ted mostly
of greenhouse stock, although a few shioments of nursery stock were certi-
fied. Growers in the'central Pennsylvania district report a scarcity of
Easter-bulb stock, with no hyacinths and only a, few tulios. Some growers
are trying to push cinerarias and calceolarias to replace them. One large
grower has one-third more Easter lilies and 25 oercent more azaleas than

Certification of srorts exhibit materials.-_Twenty-five inspections
were made of materials movinr from the Boston Snortsmants Show, held from
February 1 to 9, to the 1Tew York Sportsman's Show, starting on February 15.
Those in charge of the various State exhibits were well informed of the
plant quar,-tine regulations and came to the show this year with the ma-
terials properly certified or with nroof that the products originated out-
side the regulated areas. The insDections ranged from a single piece to a
carload lot. Both Japanese beetle and gypsy moth certifications were in-
volved. Most of the materials collected in New Hampshire and Maine were
insnected and certified under the gypsy moth regulations by the local dis-
trict insnectors at the collection points and were recertified to New York
on the basis 6f the initial examination. All materials insnected were found
free from the gypsy noth.

Reduced sup-ly of stored lumber.--District ins-jectors in New England
report that, with the exce-tion of hurricane lumber, there is very little
local, yard-dried lumber left from the cutting and sawing of last spring
and summer. The hurricane lumber is being inspected and shipped at the
rate of approximately 10 million.board feet per month. The district inspec-
tor at Greenfield, Mass., reports that the mills now operating are shipping


their green lumber about as fast as they manufacture it. Most of the
green lumber is being used locally, although some is being shipped to
points outside the gypsy moth re.gulated area. Piece-by-piece inspection
is required of the lumber to be certified, as the saw logs in this area
average very small, with the result that the so-called sauare-edge lum-
ber, as well as the round-edge, is likely to contain more or less bark
which may harbor egg clusters.

Nursery stock moving from New England.--Although 1 foot of frost
was encountered in digging the trees, a nursery near Boston presented for
insnection and certification on Februry 12, a carload of nursery stock
for shipment to Michigan. The shipment consisted of 183 specimen hemlock
trees from 5 to 10 feet in height. Two gypsy moth egg clusters were re-
moved from this'shipment. This consignment was well in advance of the
regular spring shipping season. A nurseryman in the Portland, Maine, dis-
trict on February 10, with the temperature 100 below zero, requested in-
spection and certification of 1,100 young evergreens and evergreen seed-
lings, for shipment to the States of Washington and Colorado. Shipments
of nursery stock inspected last fall and stored over winter were quite
heavy during February. Nurseries that handle this tyoe of stock are lo-
cated in central Connecticut and western Massachusetts. These firms re-
port an increase in shipments, as compnred with 1940. During February
district inspectors in the New England area scouted all greenhouses certi-
fied under the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations. These were found
free from infestation.

State gypsy moth nursery scouting.--Under the direction of Connecti-
cut State inspectors, employees at one of the large nurseries in the
Middletown, Conn., district treated 20 gypsy moth egg clusters in a block
of hemlock trees on the premises. The State scout crew did not finish
the inspection of the'nursery during February, as some of the evergreens
are brittle and may be broken off while frozen. A heavy gypsy moth infes-
tation was found by another State scouting crew in Rocky Hill, bordering
the Connecticut River.

Demands for New England minerals increase.--Calls for certain
minerals used in the Nitional Defense program hf've resulted in renewed
interest in feldspar, mica, beryl, and other minerals found in sections
of New England. Many old abandoned mines are being investigated and their
products sampled. Inasmuch as these mineral products come under the gypsy
moth quarantine regulations, the district inspectors have been called upon
to inspect and certify the sample shipments.

European corn borer certification work.--Interception by State in-
spectors in Oregon of several shinments of chrysanthemum and aster that
had not been inspected and certified with Federal European corn borer cer-
tificates led the shippers in Holland, Mich., to request such inspection
and certification of their chrysanthemums, asters, and dahlias. This es-
tablishment was visited several years ago and at that time our inspectors
were told that they did not ship to any of the nine States that require
Federal corn borer certification. The corn borer inspector stationed at
Detroit, Mich., reports that one of his larger shipners will start moving


stock about March 1. This inspector also reports that dahlia growers
are still busr shipping clumps and roots under Federal certification.
Forty shipments were inspected and certified from that area during Febru-

Cooperation in Dutch eirl disease control received from Connecticut
State Park officials.--A. V. Parker, Superintendent of Connecticut State
Parks, recentl- issued the following notice to park superintendents and
caretakers working under his supervision: "To park superintendents and
caretakers at units of the State Park system listed on reverse: You are
hereby authorized to allow men working for the United States Department
of Agriculture, or for the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station,
to remove dead trees that are causing the spread of disease, beetles, etc.;
also to allow them to cut away parts of living trees, if their operations
in so doing will not seriously injure the trees for park purposes. Keep
in mind that the men on this work have'but one object in mind, which is
to check, or eradicate, the trouble the. are fighting and we do not want
to stand in their way. We, on the other hand, hrave State parks to con-
sider and care for and the tree s are a very important feature in our work.
We should, therefore, be very sure that it is vitally necessary to cut,
trim, or prune, before doing so ourselves, or allowing others to do so."
This is another advance in the Division's efforts to obtain full coopera-
tion from the various agencies throughout the State, particularly those
with widespread holdings and operations, such as the State Parks, State
forests, State hichways, utility comnanies, and contractors.

Experimental burning of elm woodniles in Ohio.--With the consent
of the local fire warden, exoeriments were corducted in February to find
a satisfactory method of covering inco~mletely consumed burning piles at
the end of the day's work. The pTrocedure tried involved chunking all un-
burned logs into as compact a pile as possible. The entire pile is then
covered with a layer of soil at least a foot thick. The soil forms a
protective covering to prevent the fir3 from escaping during the night,
and, at the same time allows the remainder of the unburned material to be
consumed by the following day. In nearly every instance, the piles were
comoletelv burned by thp next morning, except perhaps for a few ends. The
soil in most locatio's contains sufficient clay so that it is baked by the
heat and forms a dome over the logs. The following morning the soil is
leveled out and any remaining log ends are burned. The trials have indi-
cated that this met'od of safeguarding fires at night is superior to com-
pletely extinguishin4 them at the end of the day, a procedure that re-
quires considerable labor to rekindle them.

Difficult removal of elm in Ohio.--Difficulties were encountered
by elm-sanitation workers in the removal of a 45-inch elm which had to be
taken out of Buck's Lake at Garden, Athens County, Ohio. This is an ar-
tificial lake constructed for recreational and fish-propagation purposes.
Raising of the water level caused the tree to decline, rendering it po-
tential beetle material. The men were obliged to use boats to reach the
tree and fell it, as the water at the trunk reached a depth of 10 feet.
It wns -ossible to fell the tree so that all of the crown and half of the
trunk fell on the bank. The lower half of the trunk had to be sawed into
sections in the water and Dulled onto the bank by block and tackle. A 60


incline added to the task of pulling out the logs. Two crews supplied
the pulling power.

Beetle wood collected for rearin- and culturing.--Several units
were assigned early in February to collect beetle-infested elm wood from
districts around the margin of the major disease area. This wood was
brought into the headquarters at Bloomfield, caged in a constant-tempera-
ture, lighted insectary, and the emerging bark beetles were cultured by
a special technique to determine whether they bore Ceratostomella ulmi.
Collections will continue in a general area within 25 miles of the known
limits of the disease area and along selected highways, railroads, and
streams where concentrations of elms may be found. Collections will be
made at 2-mile intervals when this is possible.

Storm-damage survey in Bethlehem, Pa., district.--A survey of the
damage caused by the ice storm of January 16 and 17 last in the Bethlehem
district has disclosed that only a small number of elms was damaged in
the northern and central portion of the district, with the damage confined
mostly to small branches and twigs. Damage is slightly higher in the
southern areas of Montgomery and Bucks Counties, althou-h broken material
in these counties is mostly small branches under 2 inches in diameter.
Trees other than elms were hardest hit. Ap-roximately 15 elms have been
tarfed for removal because of storm-broken branches.

Beetle-infested area in Connecticut sanitized.--Elm-sanitation
onerations were copleted early in Februar,~ in the heavily infested bee-
tle area at a beaver swamp in New Milford Township, Litchfield County,
Conn. A total of 722 boetle-infested elms and 22 elms that contained-wood
liable to be attacked by bark beetles were removed. The trees subject to
attack were. within tihe flooded area, but had not been weakened enough to
harbor beetles.

Clear-cutting operations in New Jersey.--Clear-cuttin2 work to
rid a small beaver swamp of elms near Lake Hartung, Jefferson Township,
Morris County, was completed in February. Most of the l-s in the flooded
area were dend, with most of them heavily infested with Scolytus multi-
striatus Marsh. and Hylurg~pinus rufines Eich. Clear cutting was also
completed in the Basking Ricge section of Somerset County, N. J,

Hog-girdled elms to be removed.--A'nroximately 250 elms that had
been girdled by ho.:s were located in Wayne Township, Marion County, Ind.,
a section of the Indianapolis work area. Mo-st of these were red elms and
were still too green for bark-beetle attack. Permission has been obtained
for removal of the trees, although the wood is to be left for the owner to
use before this year's beetle emergence.

Lumbering operations increase bark-beetle nopulation.--Bark-beetle-
infested material in the Albany County, N. Y., area will run high, owing
to lumbering operations carried on in that section. A considerable amount
of elm slash was left on the ground. This has become heavily beetle in-



Larch sawfly and hemlock looper in northern Rocky Mountains.--J. C,
Evenden, of the forest-insect laboratorv at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, reports
that the larch sawfly, which was reported fro-i the Flathead National
Forest in 1937, is now known to occur to the south and west for more than
100 miles. Althoueh there are spot infestations of this insect through-
out the Kootenai, Cabinet, and Coeur d'Alene National Forests, no serious
damanfge has occurred. Mr. Evenden also re-oorts that the severe epidemic
of the hemlock looper which occurred throughout the alpine fir stands of
Idaho and Montana in 1937 has been reduced through natural agencies to a
point where it is no longer in evidence. During the short period of its
existence a large nercentae of the defoliated trees were killed; however,
as this tree species is of little economic importance, the fire hazard.
which this destruction created is of the greatest consideration.

California -ine scal,' causes damage to oonderosa pine.--Durin" the
spring of i0 a severe infe-str.tion of the California oine scale (Nuculas-
pis californica (Colsman)) was found by H. L. Mci~enzie on mwture ponde-
rosa Tines on Ti-mb.r Mountain, Modoc County, Calif. This needle-infest-
ing scale apoarently causing serious defoliation resulting in stunted
needle tufts and a rather thinned anearance of the crowns of the trees.
Whether the injury noted was entirely due to the needle scale or to infes-
tations of Matsucoccus spp., also observed on stems of the nines, has not
as yet been determined. For the last two seasons infestations of this
same insect have been causing. serious injury to pines on summer home
tracts on the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. One area
is localized near Crestline, co-vering roughly about 700 acres between
Lake Gregory and Camn Seeley. In some parts of the Crestline area the
scale has become so bad on trees, which form the only cover for certain
summ-er homes, that these pinrs ere suffering very severely. Some trees
have become badly stunted. as a result of reoeated defoliations and such
trees appear to be more suscetible to attacks of flathead borers and
secondary cambium-minin- insects.

Matsucoccus-' scale found on mature nonderosa pines in California.--
Studizs to determine the nature of the distribution of Matsucoccus spp.
Dooulations on low- and high-risk ponderosa pine trees in northeastern Cali-
fornia, and also to ascertain the distribution and numbers of scales in
relation to areas of tree crowns shcwing conspicuous deterioration and
flagSing, were initiated by H. L. McKenzie in 1940, A sketch of each tree,
made in the field while the tree was -'tanding, was included on a form
sheet, and ary unusual crown features, such as dead areas, flaging, or
an old top-kill were indicated. After felling, the points from which the
sammle branches were taken were indicated on the tree sketch. From the
limited data accumulated (8 trees to date) the following generalized state-
ments may be made: (1) All trees examined, whether low- or high-risk
types, carried infestations of M.atsucoccus spo. scale in varying intensi-
ties; (2) heavier populations of scale are most likely to be found on
trees exhibiting twig-flaeaing; and (3) high-risk trees show greater popu-
lations of scale than do the low-risk tyoes.

Matsucoccus bisetosus Morrison; M. californicus Morrison, and
M. sp. (probably secretus Morrison).


Relation of Scolvtus multistriatus to latent infections of Dutch
elm disease.--Daring thl poriod 193l8-L'0, W. D. Buchanan, of this Bureau,
and S. J. Smucker, of the Bureav of Pl'n.t Ir.dustry, Morristown, N. J.,
conducted an experiment with S. multistriatus Marsh, and its relation to
revival of latent infections o' Ceratostomell> ulmi in elm. In the
spring of the y."* nursery trees were inoculated with C. ulmi. Some of
these were su'.jec ted to feeding attack by disease-free S. multistriatus
in the following spring; others in the next spring. It was found that
the feeding of the insect in diseased tissue of the crotches and trunks
of the trees di i not result in revival of external symntoms of the
disease. The 1ieetles very rarely picked un C. ulmi in feeding on the
diseased tissues of trees containing latent infection. Further evidence
of this fact inpeared when logs of recently felled disease-free trees
were exoosed to attack by these beetles. Numerous galleries were formed
but in no case was C. ulmi recovered from them.

Toxi c and repellent snorvs for elm bark beetles.--R. R. Whitten,
Morristown has prepared a manuscriot on toxic and repellent sprays for
the control of elm bark beetles. It is based on exoeriments that he has
conducted A total of 19 different spray mixtures w-re tested for their
repellency or toxicity to the two principal elm bark beetles, S. multi-
striatus and Hylurgopinus rufipes Eich. The cost per gallon of these
sprays r inged from 12 to 55 cents. Bark-moisture nercentages (expressed
in terms of dry weight) from 30 to 139 wer, found not to affect the re-
sults of these sprays. Air temperatures above 500 F. were found best for
optimum results. The a.e of the bark-beetle brood h-d no significant ef-
fect on the toxic effect of the sprays. Based on emergence per 100 mil-
limeters of egg galleries, reductions over checks for these mixtures
ranged from 68.4 to 100 percent. Based on the number of egg galleries
per log, 9 of the 19 mixtures gave reductions over checks ranging from 75
to 100 percent. Certain of these repellent treatments were exyiosed to
weather from 7 to 52 weeks and to Tark-beetle attack from L to 20 weeks.
Repellent sprays applied early in Ma-y were found effective for the entire
active season. Certain of these mixtures applied to tightly ranked, 1-
cord, elm-wood piles under field conditions gave good repellency and kill.
From 2.45 to 3 gallons of spray, costing from 49 to 78 cents, was found
necessary to tre-t wood piles having between 60)1 and 775 square feet of
bark surface.


Weather aids ,ysy moth control work.--Climatic conditions, while
distinctly unfavorable at times, were generally better than usual during
February, and satisfactory progress was made in 7osy moth work during
the month. The snow in western Massachusetts and Vermont has not been
deeper than 30 inches at any time this winter, and has averaged 18 to 24
inches during most of the period, This condition is rather unusual, as
the depth of snow in mid-Februar- is more likely to range from 4 to 5
feet in the wooded and mountainous areas. All tvyes of gvosy moth work
have been aided materially by the relatively small depth of snow.

Thinning and cutting crews make good progress.--Crews engaed in
thinning work at ?y-osy moth infested locations confined their cuttinr to


the removal of the larger worthless trees during the neriods when the
snow was deep, as they could be felled and cut into sizes suitable for
burning much more easily than the snow-covered small growth.

Scattered infestations found in Vermont.--Gypsy moth scouting work
was completed during the first pert of February in Castleton Township,
Rutland County, Vt., and the crews began work in Benson and Fair Haven
Townships, also in Rutlnad County. Occasional scattered egg clusters were
found and creosoted, but no serious infestation has yet been discovered.
Two small colonies were found in an extensive tract of woodland at a
relatively high elevation in Benson. While a moderate amount of opk,
which is particularly favored as food by the iyrsy moth, is scattered
throuch the wood lot, the small number of egg clusters found to date in-
dicates that the infestation can be readily eradicated. Additional gypsy
moth infestati-n was also recently located in Bristol Township, Addison
County, where a limited amount of scouting last year resulted in the dis-
covprv of several small infested areas that were thoroughly sprayed later
in the season.

Birch lots scouted in Benninrton County, Vt.--Gypsy moth scouting
work was te-noorarily discontinued in Manchester Tmwnship, 3enning:ton Coun-
ty, n1te in January, and the crew was transferred to an area in the ad-
joining t-wn of Dorset, where the cutting of paper birch trees had been
started. The trees wer- cut into L-foot lengths anr the logs were trucked
to a wood-workin mnill in Berlin, Rensselaer County, N. Y., and converted
into bobbins, dowel st^ck, ard wood noelties. Several gypsy moth egg
clusters were discovered scattered throurh the wood lot ond were creosoted
in orr-er to nrev-ent the spread of infestatior to uninfested areas. Birch
logs cut in W'ooford Township, in the southern part of Bennin:ton County,
were also shi-oed to the same mill, anr a small number of egg- clusters
were found and destroyed in the timber lot where the los orizinate'. The
scoutin- of both these wo1od lots ans comnleted early in February.

Hurricane d.maed timber lots difficult to scout.--G-ysy moth
scoutinc crews working in Eden T-wnshii, Lam'ille County, and in Lowell,
Orleans County, Vt., c-ntinued to encounter hurricane-danaged timber lots.
In such ar as the large growth haw1, been uprooted, and the falling trees
had smashed down all small growth in their path. Dense thickets of under-
brush have grown un through the toTs of the winfn.lls during the 21 years
that have elased since the hurricane, making an almost impenetrable
thicket which is extrmely difficult to examine for gyosy moth egg clus-

Control work eliminates c-Yosy moth infestations on edge of barrier
zone.--Scouting work was completed during the first -oart of February in an
extensive area in Cummington Township in Hamnpshire County, Mass., which
was heavily infestnd by the gypsy moth last year. The infested woodland
in this town, which b-rders the eastern edge of the barrier zone, was
thoroughly s-or.aed last June as a nrotection to the barrier zone. The ef-
fectiveness of the sTr.ying is evident, as the scoutin.? work revealed no
new eynsy moth infestation in the tr ated area.

Scattered small logging onerations increase gypsy moth scouting
work,--More small logging jobs are being conducted this winter than for


several years throughout Berkshire County, Mass. The lots from which
logs are to be hauled to other localities for sawin. and manufacture are
carefully scouted for the gypsy moth, nnl all eg: clusters are creosoted.
Several scoutin- crews are now engaged in the examination of these
scattered woodlots in order to nrevent the snred.l of ;re sy moth infesta-
tion through this channel.

Scouting work comnileted at two eypsy moth infestations in Connecti-
cut.--Gypsy moth scouting work at an infestation in Roxbury, Litchfield
County, Conn., and at an adjoining infestation in Southbury, New Haven
County, was completed early in February. Work i't these colonies had pro-
gressed slowly because an insufficient number of workers were available to
conduct the work in the most efficient manner in southwestern Connecticut.

Destruction of dead chestnut trees improves scouting conditions.--
Large quantities of dead chestnut trees were cut and burned by gypsy moth
thinning crews at some of the infested sites in Cornwall Township, in the
north-central section of Litchfield County, Conn. It was difficult to lo-
cate all of the egg clusters on these dead trees, which had become so
weathered thnt the coloration was similar to that of the gysy moth egg
clusters. As there was no safe way of reaching and creosoting the egg
clusters denosited high up on the doe.d trees, it was necessary to chop the
trees down and destroy them. The removal of these trees will permanently
improve future scoutin7 conditions in this section.

Unusual gysy moth infestation found in Pennsylvania.--A large num-
ber of new gynsy moth eg^ clusters was discovered on a single white oak
tree in a woodland area in Jenkins Township, Luzprne County, Pa., which
.was carefully scouted, last year, Conditions were somewhat unusual in that
the infestation was confined almost entirely to one tree, and a close ex-
amination failed to disclose any old eig clusters. The origin of the in-
festation was puzzling until it wrs le-rned that surface stone, gathered
from stone walls in that vicinity, had beon assembled under this tree pre-
paratory to use on a road-building project. It is believed that one or
more infested stones wer,- responsible for the establishment of the infes-
tation on the oak tree.

Gposy moth egr clusters found on surface stone and mine timbers.--
The movement of surface stone for use in road building in Pennsylvania in-
creased somewhat as the snow disannenred nnd permitted the resumption of
road work. All stone originatin, within the auarantined area is carefully
examined for gy-sy moth infestation before permission is given for its
removal, in order to prevent the spread of infestation. During one week
in February, five gypsy moth egg clusters were found and destroyed on four
different shipments of surface stone originating in Pittston Township,
Luzerne County. During the same week, four new egg clusters were found on
mine timbers cut in Bear Creek Township, also in Luzerne County.

W. P. A. gypsy moth employees transferred to National Defense work
in Pennsylvania.--All W. P. A. gypsy moth field workers in the Pennsylvania
area were interviewed by W. P. A. employment officials during February,
Group interviews were held at desianated points, either at the beginning
or at the end of the day, so that a minimum amount of time would be lost to


gyosy moth work. Employees whose work histories indicated some experi-
ence or orofession that might be of value to lTational Defense work are
being ranidly transferred to activities connected with that program.

Motor vehicles transferred to gyrosy roth work.--A fleet of nmotor-
trucks, consisting of 20 pick-up type machines and 5 l1-ton trucks, was
recently received at Wilkes-Barre, Pa. The machines were transferred to
the .evpsy moth project from the Grasshopmer and Mormon Cricket Control at
Denver, Colo. The trucks were urgently needed on the gypsy. moth work to
replace sonme of the worn-out eauipment.

C. C. C. 7gysy moth work during February.--The enrollment of the
C. C, C. in February in this area has been below normal and, although the
ouota has been reduced from 206 to 167 5nrollees per camp, very few camps
have been filled to the reducad auota. The situation hos been helped some-
what by permittiner enrollment 8 times-a year instead of h, but thre is
still a deficiency in the numbers of enrollees. Some camps have as few as
65 or 70 enrollees available for work. The allotment for gypsy moth work
has run fairly ev n and has ranged from 1,459 6-hour man-days during the
fi-'st week of the month to 1,5-7 for the. week ended March 1. The plan of
work for February called for considerable scouting, and this was done on
suitable days. On extremely cold and windv dcays, on stormy days, and on
days of poor visibility, the men were used on thinning and burning work,
so that no time is lost to vpsvey moth work unless the conditions are very
severe. Durin- th- thinnin, work the slash is piled and burned in a strip
at least 100 feet wide along th roadsides, but the deoris is scattered
on the ground to deteriorate inside of this roadside strip, when possible,
in order to reduce the cost of oeration. Numerous large spreading oaks
were removrd during the month, some by chopping and others by girdling.
Such work reduces the -orcent-e of favored gypsy moth food plants at a
low cost, especially when the trees are girdled. Many old apple trees
were also removed from abandoned pastures, rlthou.h an occasional tree was
left for the :-ncouragem ni t of wildlife. A few hollow loss were also left
in areas of general 4 -s:r moth infestation to aid in wildlife management.

Close coo-noration by C. C. C. with State and town gyosy moth of-
ficials and State foresters.--The C. C. C. cooopertes in many ways with
other a-encies concerned with -,visy moth work in order to promote the ef-
ficiency of the work as a whole and to nrevent duplication of work by dif-
ferent organiz-tions. C. C. C. e~msy moth forem-en in Massachusetts dis-
cuss and plan their work with the local moth superintendents. In Vermont,
cooperation with the State entomologist has resulted in efficient work
done around lunchin- and cmping snots and at the storage place of a large
fleet of trucks used in the ex.ress business, where severe g'osy moth in-
festations are present. ,The two organizations hnve worked together at
some of those locations in creosotin- egg clusters and in thinning work.
Close cooperation is maintained with foresters in the areas where the
C. C. C. is enea.ed. in g s:r moth work. In some States the actual mark-
ing of trees to be removed is dane by foresters or by gypsy .,moth foremen
who have been trained by the foresters. In one case in.February the as-
sistnnt State forester of Vermont was requested to attend a conference
with a property owner and gronsy moth foremen, in order that the best pro-
gram could be determined for the trea:tment of woodland property containing


a considerable gyVsy moth infestntion. 'The woodl-nd was examined and sug-
gestions made for treatment which coibined good, for:-stry practices as sug-
gested by the forrster and for rypsy moth cutting. In some cases pure
cutting was recommended by both a .:cncies and the forester was able to sug-
gest the most desirable species to be planted, based on soil and other
conditions, Occasional conferences of this kind have resulted in imorov-
ing gypsy moth forestry practices, especially in relation to developing
stands of tinber more resistant to the insect.

Favorable food llants removed at dangerous location.--An area of
some 35 or 4n acres located on a high eleva.tion in Vermont received gypsy
moth chopning work in February. The growth in much of this arepa consisted
of a very heavy stand of ilder which contained scattered gyosvy moth infes-
tations. The conritions were serious because of the danTrer of the build-
up and s)read of the insect from this location. The danger was removed by
cutting out the favored food plants and leaving those less frvored by the
gypsy moth. A similar area tretetd in this wa'y 3 years a-7o now shows the
develonment -f n stand which is much more resistant to the gyosy noth.

C. C. C. i7ypsv moth training lerads to permnent employment.--It was
learned durin~ the month thrt one of the New En l.lnd Sta'es which has a
nosition open for a g~-osv moth foreman has confined the at licants to
C. C. C. enrollees who have been trained on gy-roy noth work. This speaks
well for the training given to th- enrolle-s on tiis work, and should en-
courage them to nroduce good work while in the C. C. C. Many enrollees
who have been trained to climb trees with spurs and rops on g.ypsy moth
work have obtained wiell-paid employment with tree and telephone concerns,
and many others have been given employment because of the training and ex-
perience the'r have had in other tyn)es of C. C. C. gypsy moth work.


Fe-rly 2,000 souare miles surv-y--d in Missouri in 1940.--According
to George M. Frondsen, in charnr of barberry er-dication in Missouri, 338
barberry bushes were destroyed on 32 nroperties is a result of an intensive
survey of 1,980 square miles. In commenting on accomplishments of the
last year, Mr. Frandsen noints -ut that anopr'ximately 90 percent of the
area covered is now believed to be entirely free of barberries and will
require no further attention. The remaining 10 nercent, or approximately
190 square miles, will need at least one more intensive survey. The coun-
ties in which bushPs were destroyed during the year were Callowav, Carr11o,
Chariton, Franklin, Jackson, Linn, Macon, Ray, St. Louis, St. Louis City,
and Sullivan.

Accommlishments in Iowa.--D. R. Sheoherd summanrizes progress made
in barberry eradication in Iowa during 19h0, as follows: "The survey in
Iowa in 1940 was completed in areas comprising 3,627 square miles in 36
counties. Of the territory covered 2,817 square miles was initial survey,
1432 square miles initial semi-intensive survey, and 377 square miles sub-
sequent intensive survey. In addition to this, some limited areas, prin-
cipally the site of all former bushes, were reinspected in Dickinson, Ply-
mouth, Sioux, and Wnodbury Counties. In the area covered in 1940, 4,967
barberries were destroyed on 189 new and 179 resur'-ev properties. Although


barberries were found on a large number of new prooerties, it was no-
ticeable that the area where we made the initial survey was definitely
marginal and practically devoid of ar-aFs of escapes. The territory
covered consisted of those counties or narts of counties where the bar-
berry was never widely used for hedge or ornamental plantings and where
it was expected that onl., scattered small plantings and single bushes
would be found. Considerin, the resurvey work as a whole, for 1940, bar-
berries were found on 179 of the 990 old properties, or 18 percent of
the old. prop-rties inspected. This figure is consistent with the re-
sults of reinsoection work dune during the last 5 years. The 377 square
miles of subsequent survey completed in 1940 were in areas where a heavy
infestation was found 5, 6, or 7 years before. The results in Winneshiek
County probably indicate fairly well the conditions that we might expect
to find in comparable areas of heavy inf-stations where the initial in-
tensive survey has been completed since 1933. Listed below is a compari-
son of the. results of the initial survey made in 1933-35 with the subse-
quent survey in the same aria in 1940.

: :Pronprties
Survey Year : having : 1arberries : Salt used
: bushes : destroyed :
: Number : Number : Pounds

Initial-----:1933-34-35: 126 : 10,328 : 58,260
: : 1/
Subseouent--: 1940 : 1 848 : 2,502

26 were new nrorerties in 190O.

The number of -Dro'e'-tieq with bushes, esnecially the new proper-
ties, seems lrae, unless one is familinr with the survey. Of the new
properties found in the area ecvered, 3 were obviously missed on the
initial survey. The bushes on the other 23 properties were bushes either
too small to be found through the initial survey or which were not there
at the time of thoe initial survey. It was noticeable that the new proper-
ties were oractically all found within a short distance of old properties
where bushes wcr- nre iously destroyed. That the bushes were small is- ob-
vious from the fact that only? an average of 27 pounds of salt was used
on each oronerty this year, as compa-red.with 462 pounds per property on
the initial survey.

Summ.rv of 1940 work in the sugar pine region.--The Ribes-eradica-
tion progr.ram in the sugar nine region during 1940 w.s largely devoted to
reeradication work on ar'as from which the initial Ribes removal had been
done from 3 to 6 years before. Of 156,728 acres covered during 1940, the
work on 106,232 acres w-s reeradication, and that on 50,h96 acres was
initial. Wild Ribes totaling 18,702,711 bushes were destroyed with the
expenditure of 1 2,279 man-days of labor. On the basis of present acreage


outlined for control treatment, complete control has now been established
on a-oDroximately 18 percent of the control area in the region, and the
job of initial eradication is 30 percent completed. During the season
40 camrns were in operation, of which 16 were E. R. A., 16 C. C. C., 1
N. Y. A., and 7 Forest Service regular-fund camps. The distribution of
personnel in these cameos at the meak of the field season wps as follows:
E. R. A. 1,290 men, C. C. C. 1,320, N. Y. A. 10, and Forest Service regu-
lar camos 230. An interesting observation on the W. P. A. men employed
is that of 1,711 men assigned to the project during the season, 857, or
50 percent, stayed less than 1 month. This ra-id turnover in W. P. A.
labor makes adequate supervision r real necessity to assure effective
work. Although most of the work was done by standard hand-erddication
practice, some problem areas were treated by snecial methods. Decapita-
tion of Ribes and oil treatment of exnosed crowns was used on 160 acres
supporting rock-bound bushes in Lassen Volcanic National Park. In
Yosemite National Park large Ribes nevadense bushes were destroyed by
blastin with dynamite of 20-percent strength. Mechanical eradication
was confined to the Sierra National Forest where a tractor, equipped
with a bulldozer Ribes rake, was used to strip lanes through dense brush
fields to facilitate the erqdicntion of thl Ribes by C. C. C. crews.
Some especially heavy 7Ribes concentrations were eradicated by the use of
a graP-one plow nowered from a drum winch on the tractor. In addition to
eradication work, pine surveys were conducted on 100,258 acres of forest
land to determine the sugar -oine and Ribes n'ooulations in areas about
which little information had hitherto been available. The acquisition
of this information will enable control unit boundaries to be fixed more

Saratoga County, N. Y., aids blister rust control program.--Sara-
toga County, N. Y., which contains a large amount of white pine, has
appropriated $5,000 for blister rust control work during 1941 and also
provided District Leader Barber with excellent office space and a part-
time clerk in the new County Buildin' at Saratoga S-rings. This county
expended over $7,h00 on control work in 1940.

Possibility of rust resistance in white nine to be studied.--Ray
R. Hirt, of the State College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y., has begun a
study of white pines to see if there are strains resistant to blister
rust. He will test white nines propagated from cuttings taken from in-
dividual trees located in heavily diseased areas that show no visible
evidence of blister rust infection. Cooieration has been sought from
agencies concerned with pronagation of white nines from cuttings and
Professor Hirt is assured of numerous sources of possibly infected ma-
terial in the Northeastern States.


Micronized insecticides for cotton insects.--Exeriments to de-
termine the relation of narticle size to toxicity of several insecticides
were conducted last season. The materials were micr-nized or finely
ground through the cooperation of the Micronizer Processing Comnany,
Moorestown, N. J. The mean surface diameter of narticles was measured with
an air permeation apparatus by the Division of Insecticide Investigations.


The fine materials, such as calcium arsonate and barium fluosilicate,
were but little affected by micr-iizin:-. The c-lcium arsenate averaged
about 1.5 microns before and after micronizing and the barium fluosili-
cate was reduced from 3.0 to 1.5 microns surface mean diameter by the
grinding. Paris green was reduced from 11.5 microns to 0.5 micron and
derris was also much reduced. Micronized sulfur was a commercial product
and not especially prepared for us., It had a surface mean diameter of
particles of about 5 microns. Two percent of tri-calcium phosphate was
added to the calcium arsenate as a conditioner and to prevent packing,
and a small quantity of sand was used with the derris as an abrasive to
assist in grinding. The original and micronized calcium arsenates con-
taining low, intermediate, and high water-soluble arsenic by the Geneva
method were used in cage tests at Tallulah arainst the boll weevil. The
three original calcium arsenates (not micronized) seemed to have somewhat
better dusting qualities and gave significantly higher weevil mortalities
than the micronized materials. Also the calcium arsenates with the higher
water-solu-.'e arsenic caused higher weevil mortalities. In plot tests at
Tallulah wiinh a cplcium arsennte intermediate in wnter-soluble arsenic,
there were no significant differences in infestations and yields between
the oriniinal rnd micronized sam7eles. Mixtures of micronized calcium ar-
senate and rercular derris, micronized calcium arsenpt: and micronized
derris, a.nd rePul!r calcium nrsenr-te and re7ulnr derris were tested for
boll weevil and anhid control at State College, Miss., on 1/20-a)cre plots.
There wre? no significant differences in boll weevil or aphid infestations
between the( treptrm-nt s, but all the- mixtures containing derris held the
aphid infestation lower thrn in the checks and prevented the henvy build-up
thnt occurred in thli plots tree ted with calcium arsenate. However, in
case tests against the boll weevil at Tallulah the mixtures containing mi-
cronized materi-als did not give as high weevil mortalities as did the un-
micronized mixture. In plot tests at W,.co and Port L.vyaca, Tex., a 1:2
mixture of calcium arsen:te r nd micronized sulfur -ve better flea hooper
control than did n simil-r mixture of calcium arsenate nnd ground sulfur.
Micronized sulfur used -lone h.s given about as good flea hopper control
as twice the nound .s ner acre of 325-mesh dustine sulfur, but it costs
about twice as much ns th, regular ground dusting sulfur. It h s the ad-
vrntage of stickini to the -lannt better nnd can be dusted under more ad-
verse conditions or used a-s a snray when the plants are dry and may have
a ol)ce in flea hooper control. Micronized barium and sodium fluosilicates
wer.- much inferior to th- original m.aterials nginst the boll weevil in cage
tests at Tallulah. Both of the micronized matnria-ls hrd very poor dusting
qualities, which probably accounts for the reduced weevil mortalities, Mi-
cronized harium fluosili,.te used as a dust and sDrry also gave less control
of the bollworm than did the unmicronized dust in plot tests at Waco, Tex.
However, in te-ts at Prsidio, micronized cryolite caused greater reduction
in the number of pink bollworm lrvae per boll than did cryolites with regu-
1cr and coarse onrticle sizes. A paris green with three sizes of particles
was tested for control of the boll weevil and tarnished plant bug in cages
at Tallulah. The nprticle sizes werp (1) tno original ma:terinl (coarse),
(2) ground in a hammer mill with a surface mean di!ameter of 11.5 microns,
and (3) micronized with a surface mean diameter of 0.5 micron. Micronizing
also apparently increased the water-soluble As20 from 0.8 percent in the
sapple ground in the hammer mill to 4.5 percent in the micronized sample.
When mixed with lime and tested against the boll weevil none of the samples


were very effective and there wps little difference between them. When
mixed with sulfur end tested against adults of the tarnished plant bug,
the net mortalities averaged 64 percent for the regular particle sizes,
76 percent for the sarole ground in a hnmmer mill, and 82 percent for
the micronized sample. The net nortalities of the tarnished plant bug
nymohs were 4h, 51, and 50 percent, resnectively. In plot tests at Mesa,
Ariz., for control of Lyvus ssop., Chlorochroa, and other insects a 1:12
mixture of micronized Daris green and clay 7ave an increase in cotton
vield of 16 percent, as compared to -an incrase of 9 percent for a mix-
ture of the re,-ular paris freen and clay. Thus the effectiveness of
paris green and sulfur was considerably increased by micronizing, but
there was little or no increase in the effectiveness of the other insecti-
cides tested.

Surrey of hemipterous insect d.amage to cotton in Arizona.--The
annual survey wa.s begun at the end of Sentember and concluded in November
by T. P. Cassidy and associ-tes, Tucson, Ariz. A minimum of 500 bolls per
field were examined for punctures from each of 97 representative fields
selected from the main cotton areas of the St:ate. Included in the examina-
tions were 35,000 bolls from 70 fields of short-staule cotton and 27,000
bolls from 27 fields of lonF-sta~le cotton, or a total of 62,000 bolls for
both tynes. The results in coma-rison with previous years are shown in
the table.

: Percentage of bolls punctured
County : Short-stnale : Long-staple__
: 1938 : 1939 :19i : 1938 1939 : 190
Yuma---------: 61.0 : 2.0 :56.1 --
Maricopa-----: 44.7 : 40.6 : 37.7 30.9 23.8 26.9
Graham------- 19.0 : 18.9 21.1 4.9 4.2 5.0
Pinal-------- 17.8 : 188 20.3 5.6 5.1 18.1
Santa Cruz--- 12.7 4.7 11.1 2.5 1.9
Pima--------- 77 4.3 8.1 : 1.0 : 1.3 : 2.9
avere 31.5 : 28.2 :33.4 : 14.6 : 8.7 : 14.7

Surveys have been md-e during the lst 7 yCars, snd Yuma County
has always shown the most extensive damage with th, other counties con-
sistently maintainin- their relative )ositions in regard to hemioterous-
insect lamage. Long-staple cotton has also always been much. less damaged
than short-stanle. The avera.;e damage for the State in both kinds of
cotton was hea-ier in 1940 than in any other year since the surveys have
been made. While making these examinations, records were also kept of the
bolls damaged by bollworms. The average for the Stote was 0.73 percent
of the short-staple balls and 0.34 percent of the long-staple bolls
damaged. These percentares do not include th? total damag.e caused by
hemipterous insects and bollworms, ns many souares are also destroyed.



Planting of the 19141 cotter crop in the lower Rio Grande Val-
ley.--While clim.tic conditions are such that cotton can be lanted from
late in January until Irte in s-ring, for the -resent season State regu-
lations were pormulafzteP'.e establishing the -olntine ierio-. for the lower
part of the Rio Grann.e valley between February 1 and March 15, in an ef-
fort to retard s-oring fruiting. However, on account of hard rains
throughout that entire region during the latter oart of January, and gen-
eral rains over the area during the greater part of February, only a
co-mar-natively small rercenta-e of the cotton acrea-ge had been planted at
the end of February. With the excessive amount of moisture in the ground
and the cool nrevailin7 temperatures, it is believed that a c nsiderable
amount of the cott)nseed planted will probably decay. The date for the
beginning of cotton planting in the lower valley of Mexico was also fixed
at February 1 by officials of the Mexican Department of Agriculture, and
it was estimated at the close of the month that, desnite very unfavorable
conditions, ar.Trorximately 50 oercent of the crop had been oplante It
is estimated th t, because of the unusual .mount of rainfall, there will
be a considerable increase in the acreage olatntei to cotton in the Mexi-
can areas adjacent to the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas this season.

Destruction of snrout and volunteer cotton.--In the lower Rio
Gr-nde Valley cotton st lks are destr-oyed ercn sersor immediately after
the harvesting of the crop, as a pink bollworm contr;l -ieasure. However,
on account of the subtronical climate, sprout cotton continues to de-
veloo throughout the year from roots left in the ground after plowing,
making it necessary to carry on an intensive campaign for the destruction
of such plants during, the off-cotton growing season in order to deprive
the nink bollworm of nropagating material. Owing to adverse cotton-
Frowing conditions for the last 6 weeks or more, cotton sprouts made very
little growth. During Februar inspectors continued to scout the areas
where roa.ns were nassable to locate fields where grubbing would have to
be done, as soon -is the ground dries u) sufficiently, to prevent the
fruiting of volunteer cotton -orior to the fruiting of the planted crop.
Farming oerati-ns incident to the planting of the new crop, will de-
strnv most of the cotton stubble left in the fielrcs.

Wild-cotton eradication.--In 1932 a nrogFam was begun to eradi-
cate the nink bollw rm fro,- southern Floriia through the destruction of
the wil'-cotton nlant, which serves as a host to that dangerous cotton
insect. For the -,resent season wild-cotton eradication work is being
carried on with aRnroximately 200 C, C. C. enrollees and 102 W, P, A.
workers, and a few laborers emoloyed by the Bureau. The Bureau laborers
have headquarters on houseboats, from which they work areas inaccessible
by land. Conditions were not favorable in Februar~, owing to rains, bad
rods, and mosquitoes, but there was a slight im-rovenent over the pre-
vious month, ,an good -roaress was mm-de in all areas. In the Cavoe Sable
area m're acres were covered in February, than in January. The first
cleaning of the season was comoleted, with the exception of 2 small areas
which could not be reached because of wet roads. A second cleaning of
this area for the nresent season was begun about the middle of the month,
and it was found th t the area being worked for the second time could be


covered rapidly, as fewer plants were encountered and work trails had
been cleaned out during the first clean-up of the season. Good progress
was made in the second recleening over the entire Bradenton-Fort Myers
subdistrict, which includes the counties of Pinellas, Hillsborough,
Manatee, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, and Collier. In the Main Keys sub-
district, the Matecumbes and Long Key were completed, and second clean-
ines for the season were in progress in all other parts of that subdis-
trict. The number of seedlings found was considerably less than during
the first cleaning, and few mature plants were encountered. This area
was also covered rapidly, as work trails are excellent. In the Marathon-
Ke-, West section a second cleaning for the season was continued. The
houseboat crew attached to the Cape Sable subdistrict scouted considerable
area in the Whitewater Bay section and also in the Seven Palm Lake area.
In addition, wild-cotton colonies on the islands in Florida Bay and on
the Dade County mainland were cleaned. The houseboat crew attached to
the Keys subdistrict spent the entire month scouting Biscayne Bay Keys.
Several wild-cotton colonies, aggregating 7 acres, were found. During
February a total of approxim~tely 5,608 acres was covered, resulting in
the finding of 6,316 plants with mature bolls, 89,812 seedling plants,
and 195 sprout plants.


Rates of application of rotenone-bearing dusts against pea weevil.--
During the summer of 1940, F. G. Hinman and W. E. Peay, of the Moscow,
Idaho, laboratory, conducted toxicity tests on replicated small plots of
pens in ench of several fields to determine the effectiveness of several
rotenone-bearing dusts when applied at several rates against Bruchus pi-
sorum (L.). In 5 fields, embodying a total of 35 replicates for each in-
secticidal dust mixture, 1 dust containing 2 percent of rotenone aoplied
at the rate of 11 pounds per acre resulted in 98.0-percent reduction in
the numbers of living weevils in 21 hours, whereas a dust mixture contain-
ing 1 percent of rotenone resulted in 96.9 percent and 96.2 percent re-
duction for the spme interval following application when applied at 20
and 10 pounds per acre, respectively. The first 2 of these treatments
were also tested in 3 additional fields making a total of 8 fields alto-
gether and comprising a total of 65 replicates for each treatment. An
analysis of the data from the application of the 2 percent dust at 11
pounds per acre showed that this treatment resulted in an average of
97.1-percent reduction, as compared to an average of 96 percent for the
1-oercent dust at the 20-pound rate. The latter percentages are signifi-
cantly different. Should similar differences obtain another season, the
growers may realize a considerable saving in treating their peas by re-
ducing the rate of application and increasing the rotenone content of the
dust mixture used. In 6 of the fields inferior results were obtained with
a dust containing 0.5 percent rotenone and 1 percent of dinitro-o-cyclo-
hexylphenol, which had given very promising results against this insect
in small-scale tests conducted in the laboratory. The plots of peas used
in these tests were located on the borders of peafields and had been
planted ePrlier than the remainder of the fields, in order to trap the
weevils as they emerged from hibernation and moved into the fields. Each
plot was 20 feet wide and about 218 feet long, comprising aoproximately
1/10 acre. All applications were made with a power duster mounted on a


2-wheeled trailer pulled through the nlots by a truck and equipned with
a trailing a-ron. The weevil ponulation was determined before applica-
tion and at 24 hours after, by cou.ti n,-; th. number of adult weevils col-
lected in 50 sweeps of -. standard insect not in eacn plot, 25 sweeps being
made at random in 2 parts of eaci plot. The diluent used in all dust
mixtures was diatomaceous earth The source of the rotenone for the mix-
tures used in some fields- was derris root powder, in others it was cube
root powder.

Arsenical residue.s on cauliflower,--Field studies by C. E. Smith
and P. K. Harrison, of the Baton Rouge, La., laboratory, indicnte that
arsenicals should not be applied to cauliflower after leaves have developed
that will be present on the marketed product. None of the leaves that had
been dusted was present on the marketed portion of plants to which the last
application of arsenical h.d been made 29 days prior to harvest, on Novem-
ber 12. The number of such leaves nnd the residue analyses of cauliflower
treated at different times with a dust mixture of calcium arsenate and
p-ris green (10 pounds to 1 pound) were as follows:

:Days b-tween:Raifall:As203 per :Average dust leaves
Number of : last dust :during :pound of : alnearing on
anrli- : -on]ication: this :cauliflower: marketed -roduct
cations :rnd harvest :interval:at harvest :
Num ber Inches Grins : Number
9------- 8 : 9 : 0.1335 25
---------- 19 : 7.2 : .536 18
7----- 29 7.12 : .0037 0
None------ -- .0009

Sinlec plots nf cruliflower 10C5 fe t long and 5 r)ws wide were em-
ployed in this study. The apol.icti'ius of insecticide were made with
rotary hand-onerated dusters, beginnine on August 12 at 5 pounds per acre
and repeated at intervals of anproximately 10 da-'s. Mist of the applica-
tions were mode at the r!te of about 10 pounds nor acre, but the final ap-
plication on 2 of the plots was at 30 pounds and 20 pounds per acre, re-
snectively. Harvest extended over the period November 12 to December. 11,
but the above analyses were based on 10 plant taken from each plot at the
beginning of harvest on November 12. W. P. Denson, of the Louisiana Agri-
cultural Exneriment Station, made all of the analyses, using the opposite
quarters of each samole nilant as prepared fnr market, including both curd
Ond l, aves. The number of dusted. leaves was determined by counting those
present after the slant had been prepared for market, This count was made
possible by notchin- the smallest leaf nresent on each plant at the final

Diluents for natural cryolite in controlling tomato fruitworm,--
J. Wilcox and R. E. Camnbell, of th- Alhamnorn, Calif., laboratory, report
that a smaller percentage of tomato fruits were damaged by Heliothis armi-
gera (Hbn.) on alants treated with a dust mixture of natural cryolite con-
taining 70 percent Na3AlF diluted with talc and with soapstone than on


plants treated with natural crrolite of the same strength diluted with
sterilized tobacco dust or with walnut-shell flour. Following are the
results obtained from using various cliluents in one series of experi-

Diluent used Average percentage of
fruits damaged

Soapstone----- ----------------------------- 1.6
Talc and mineral oil (19-1)-------------------- 1.8
Talc------------------------------------------- 2.2
Talc and soybeen flour (9-1)------------------- 2.2
Talc and basic co-per amnmoniun silicate (4-1)-- 2.4
Diatomaceous earth------------------------------ 3.0
Corn flour------ ------------------------------ .4
Talc and basic copoer chloride (6-1)----------- 3.5
Walnut-shell flour----------------------------- 4.5
Sterilized tobacco dust----------------------- 5.4

In renlicated undusted plots in another ex)eriment in the same
field 17.5 percent of the fruits were damaged. An analysis of these data
showed that the differences between the averages for the.first four treat-
ments and those for the last three were siEnificant. The treatments were
replicated in three randomized blocks, each olot being 30 by 60 feet.
Three anplications of the cdust mixture were made at intervals of 2 weeks,
using rotary hand-ooerated dusters, beginning when the first fruits set.
The rate of anolication was 20, 30, and 4o0 pounds -er acre for the three
annlications, res;:ectively. The percentage of injured fruits was deter-
mined at nicking by examining ll of the tomatoes on five plants taken at
random in each plot.

Tobacco field as breeding ground of tobacco flea beetle.--Clemence
Levin and associates, of the Oxford, IT. C., laboratory, determined the
seasonal emergence of adults of Epitrix parvula (F.) from larvae develop-
ing in the soil around tobacco plarnts in a field of tobacco grown for flue-
curing during the summer of 1940. The results of the study showed the
importance of the tobacrc field as a breeding ground of the beetle and in-
dica.ted the possible value of cultural measures for the control of this
pest. Tobacco transplanted to the field on May 17 soon became infested
with overwintering beetles, there being from 2 to 4 per plant during the
period May 22 to June 18. On June 11, before anoreciable numbers of bee-
tles of the newly emerged generation could have reached the field from
the tobacco-plant beds, a series of field plants which had been infested
by overwintering beetles was caged and treated with an insecticide. Bee-
tles began to emerge from the soil in these cages on June 19 and by July 1
an average of 10 per cage had been removed. By Jul, 22 an average of 21
per plant had emerged. Another series of plants protected from beetles
prior to the time that newly emerging beetles reached the field from
plant beds were exposed to infestation during the period June 11 to 27 to
obtain an indication of the importance of oviposition by the new-genera-
tion beetles coming from the plant beds. On the latter date the plants
were caged again and all infesting beetles killed. Beetles began to emerge
from these cages on July 10 and by July 23 an average of 23 beetles per


plant had emerged. A large proportion of these are thought to have de-
veloped from eggs laid by the ner-gn.-ration beetles that emerged in to-
bacco-plant beds and moved to the field. The beetle emergence from field
plants caged at intervals throughout the growing season was also deter-
mined. These studies showed th.2t the peak of beotle emergence occurred
during July and August. It was also found thrt large numbers of beetles
emerged continuously for several weeks after the last leaves of tobacco
had been harvested, indicating the possible value of cultural operations
immediately following harvest to prevent further emergence of beetles in
the field. For these studies 10 cages w--re used in each series and each
cage covered an area of 1 square foot, being centered over and enclosing
a tobacco plant trimmed so as to occupy the available space.

Wireworm.infestation first ye:r following a-lf alfa.--Field studies
conducted by F. H, Shirck, of the Parma., Idaho, laboratorr, showed that
the infestation of wireworms, principally Limonius californicus Mann., may
not increacse during the first year on land returned to other crops follow-
ing the gro:th .of alfalfa for several years for reducing the infestation
of wireworms. In some fields the numbers remained fairly stationary,
whereas in others a further decrease in population was observed. The data
obtained from 26 old fields of alfalfa showed an average population of 1.6
wireworms per square foot of soil surface when the fields were plowed up
and only 1.9 wireworms per square foot following the first crop. The
first-yea.r crops following the plowing under of the old alfalfa included
in this study comprised su ar be ts, potatoes, wheat, oats, and corn.
Similar counts made in 37 other old alfalfa fields showed an average in-
festation of 1.6 wireworms -per suare foot when the fields were plowed up.

Host nr~ference of sweetootato wovil,--K. L. Cockerham and 0. T.
Deen, of the Sunset, La., l-b'r- tory, r~eprt that in field-plot tests
greater numberr of Cals frmiicarius (L.) developed in the vines and
crowns of swcet-otnto plants (Ipomoea b'tatats) th;n in those of five wild-
host sp'cies of the Eenus ITnor'-o.. Th;- following tabulati n shows the
numbers of swcetpototo weevils found ,t the close of the season in the
vines and crowns of each of the six species of olants included in this

Host plant Average number of C, formicarius
per plant

Swee tpo tato--------------------- ---- T
I. au,)oclit----------------------- 8
I. trichocr a--------------------- 6
I. hederace r----------------------- 9
I. pandurata----------------------- 2
I. barbigera----------------------- 12

An average of 57 additional sneci:mens of the weevil per plant
were trken from the roots of these sweetpotatoes.

The experimental plants were grown in plots containing four plants
each, there being six plots of each host arranged in a Latin square. The


plants were transplanted to the plots in June and the plots were located
in an area heavily infested with weevils, Examination of all plants to
determine infestation by the sweetpotato weevil was made in October,


Necessity of a low oxygen concentration for hatching of Aedes
mosquito eggs.--E. F. Knipling -nd C. M. Gjullin, of the Portland, Oreg,,
laboratory, report that additional information has been obtained which
indicates that, although other stimuli may exist which may influence
the hatchine of Aedes eggs, the reduction of dissolved oxygen is of it-
self capable of causine as rapid and as high a percentage of hatch as
may be obtained by the best methods now known,

Beet molasses as a dispersing agent for phenothiazin.e--Mr. Knipling
also reports that beet molasses may be useful as a wetting agent for
dispersing phenothiazine in water. When used in the same manner as is
Turkey Red oil or other wetting agents, at the rate of 5 parts molasses
to 1 part phenothiazine, a fair suspension of the phenothiazine was ob-

Winter emergence of stable flies.--W. E. Dove and S, W. Simmons,
of the Panama City, Fla., laboratory, report that recovery cages placed
over infested peanut litter on December 14, have shown a continuous emer-
gence of "dog flies," especially on warmer days. At the present time
(March 7) some of these cages contain numbers of larvae that have not yet

Screwworm control program,--A press release on the general status
of the screwworm for the United States was prepared by D. C. Parman,
W. L. Barrett, Jr., H. M, Brundrett, and E. C. Cushing, of the Uvalde
and Menard, Tex., laboratories. On the basis of data supplied to the
Texas Extension Service, that organization made a radio broadcast on
February 18 from College Station giving information to Texas ranchmen on
the present status of screwworms in the St.te and advised procedures to
avoid odtbreaks of the fly during the coming season. The Ranch Manage-
ment Screwworm Prevention Program of the Bureau was pres-nted to ento-
mologists by E. C. Cushing at a joint meeting of the Texas Entomological
Society and the Cotton States Branch at Waco, Tex., on February 8,


"Gladiolus smut" not a smut.--Considerable numbers of gladiolus
corms in large shipments from Netherlands inspected in March 1940 were
found to be infected with a fungus similar to one found in a shipment
in 1939 and determined then by J, A. Stevenson, mycologist of the Bureau -of
Plant Industry and D. P. Limber as Papulospora sp. When the large
volume of material arrived in 1940 Mr. Limber took some of it to Mr.
Stevenson and called attention to the similarity of the fungus with one
found on gladiolus corms in Pennsylvania, as pictured in Phytopathology
(28:599, August 1938) and tentatively determined as Urocystis gladioli
(Requien) Smith. They agreed that the fungus on imported corms was
probably the same as the one in Pennsylvania and known as Urocystisgladi-
oli. Upon learning that U. gladioli had been found on these corms


N. Rex Hunt requested specimens for use in obtaining illustrations to
accompany a short write-up of the gladiolus smut ready for reproduction
as'one of a series of plant-disease pepers being prepared for the infor-
mation of inspectors. Microsconic e.a.ination confirmed Mr. Hunt's im-
mediate impression that a species of Papulspor-a was present. No Uro-
cvstis was found. The importance of the :oroblem from the Quarantine and'
treatment points of view was such that it was believed desirable to have
the whole matter taken up with snecialists. After some discussion be-
tween H. S. Dean and W. A. McCubbin, as well as Stevenson and Limber,
Mr. Hunt out the case into Mr. Stevenson's hands. The latter sent materi-
al and cultures to Geor.-e L. Zundel, soecialist in smuts, at Pennsylvania
State College and to J. W. Hotson, specialist in bulbil-producing fungi,
at the University of Washington. Dr. Zundel in turn had cultures of the
fungus found in Pennsylvania sent to Dr. Hotson by the pathologist who
had studied it. A letter from Dr. Zundel to Mr. Stevenson dated March 20,
1940, indicated that the funfus sent him from the imported gladiolus corms
was not a Urocy stis. A letter dated May 17, 1940, from Dr. Hotson to
Mr, Stevenson starLed that the fungus found on imp'orted gladiolus corms at
the Inspection House was Papulospora copronhila (Zukal) Hotson, but that
the found on -ladiolus corms in Pennpyllvnia, also a Papulospora,
was a differ-nt species w ich he might describe as new. We had not ex-
pected to issue tiis information in the News Letter until the results of
more complete studies were published by Dr. Hotson and by the Pennsyl-
vania patholo:ri sts. However, a note in Science (93:111, Januprv 31, 19)1)
calls attention to the fact thnt the Pennsylvania fungus. seems to be a
Panulos-ora. It thorefore seems desir-,ble to note the findings incidental
to the work of this Division without further delay. The specialists seem
to doubt th:.t a true smut has be.:n involved at any time in the studies and
reports of Urocystis glidoli in this. country.

Entomological interceptions of interest.--Two living larvae of the
trypetid Annstrepha seroentin.. Wied.) were taken at El Paso, Tex. on
Februa-ry 13 in saoote i!. ba aggage from Iexico. Twenty living larvae of the
trypetid Anastienhp mombinDraeeoptns Sein were intercepted at New York on
January 30 in Spoadias dilcis in baggage from Puerto Rico. Larva of the
pink bollworm (Pectinoohora gossoyiella (Saund.)) was taken at Miami,
Fla., on January 1, in cottonseed in express on a:n airplane from Brazil.
The coccid Ceroplastos rubens Mask. was found at Seattle, Wash., on
January 17 on the stem of a camellia in cargo from Japan. A living adult
of the pentatomid Mecistorhinus melanoleucus (Westw.) was taken at Mobile,
Ala., on February 13 on banana in cargo from British Honduras. A pupa of
the Mediterranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) was intercepted at
New York on February 13 on a tangerine in baggage from Portugal. Living
specimens of the aleyrodid Pealius hibisci (Kot.) were intercepted at
San Francisco, Calif., on February 8 on Hibiscus sp. in baggage from
Hawaii. Three snecimens of the bruchid Bruchidius lividimanus (Gyll.)
were found at the InsDection House, Washington, D. C., on February 11 in
the seed of Genista sp, (7) in mail from Portugal. One living adult of
the chrysomelid Chelymorpha comata Boh. was intercepted at New York on
February 10 on mustard greens in cargo from Cuba. Living adults of the
curculionid Dy]rntopechus aureopilosus (Fairm.) were found in parcel-post
inspection t Honolulu, Hawaii, on Januarv 10, in the seed of Mucuna gi-
gantca. A living specimen of the mirid Fulvius Quadristillatus (Stal -was


found at San Francisco, Calif., on January 8 on an orchid in cargo from
Brazil. Two living adults of the lvgacid Scolo; ostethus decoratus (Hahn)
were intercepted at Hoboken, N. J., on February 14 in moss used as pack-
ing for miscellaneous shrubs in c.rgo from England. Three living adults
of the bruchid Bruchidius versicolor (Boh,) were- taken in mail at San Fran-
cisco, Calif., on February 11 in seeds of Podalyria argentea from the
Union of South Africa. A living adult of the lygaeid Orthaea scutellatus
(Dall.) was intercepted at New York on February 3 on white greens in cargo
from Cuba. Specimens of the citrus blackf!l (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)
were found at Baltimore, Md., on Februnry 4 on an orange leaf in cargo from
the Bahamas. One living specimen of the pentatomid Schnefferella incisa
H. S., was found at San Francisco, Calif., on January 8 on an orchid in
cargo from Brazil.

Pathological intercentions of interest.--A Mexican tomato inter-
cented at Brownsville on Februnry 12.and sent in for determination of the
fungus found on a spot on the fruit was found to be infested with nema-
todos, ipoarently Anhelenchoides iprietinus (Bastion) Steiner, and the
fungus no longer prominent on the spot. Asterina delitescens Ell. & Mart.
was intercepted at El Paso on February 17 on Persea borbonia leaves from
Mexico. B.cterium citri (Hasse) Doidge was intercepted on February 5 at
Seattle on Chinese oranges in baggage. Bacterium punctilans Bryan is
being found more often on Mexican tomatoes this yeor, Nogales lone re-
porting 59 interceotions in February following 99 such interceptions in
January. Ceratostomella ulmi (Schwarz) Buisman was found at the Bloom-
field laboratory in elm wood taken at New York on Januarv 17 from crates
from England. Cerebella andropogonis Ces. and Fusprium heterosoorum Nels.
were intercepted on January 31 at New York on nsnoalum seed from Australia.
Phyllosticta erythroxrli Graz. was intercepted on January 29 at New York
on Erythroxylon coca leaves fro- Peru. At the same oort radishes from
Portugal were found to be infested with Pratylenchus sp. (near P. pra-
tensis (de Man) Filipjev) and _Tlenchus sp. (near T. filiformis Butschli),
on February 8. Puccinia olvyoni-amphibii.) persicariae (Str.) Arth. was
found on Polygonum sp. used as part of the packing in a mail parcel from
Canada intercepted on February 4 at Buffalo. A Rhabd.spora found infect-
ing Ephedra vulgrris in a shipment from China, inspected at New York on
May 10, 1940,has just been determined Ps R. kirghis rum (Thun.) Sacc. A
peculiar form of citrus scab found at New York on February 26 on a lemon
from Australia has been determined by Anna E. Jenkins as probably Sphace-
loma fawcettii var. scabiosa (McAlp. & Tryon) Jenkins.


Citrus cankler found at Corpus Christi and Navasota, Tex.--Citrus
canker was discovered at Corpus Christi about January 31 by a Texas State
inspector in the reglar course of nursery inspection. On being notified
of this discovery, Federal and State inspectors immediately investigated
the case and learned that the 43 infected Citrus trifoliata trees had been
transported last fall fron Navasota, in Grimes County, Tex., by a nursery-
stock peddler, and further that he had brought in a second lot of such
trees from the same source and planted them in a hedge on another property
in Corpus Christi. Citrus canker was found on these trees also and the
entire hedge was then destroyed, along with all the As orle



first-named property. An increased force of inspectors then inspected
every nursery, heel yard, and establishment in- Corpus Christi and
is now conducting a pro6erty-by-pD ozterty inspection of the entire city.
To date no other cases of canker have-been found in Corpus Christi. In
the town of Navasota, intensive insoection was begun at once and citrus
canker was found not only on the property from which the infected trees
at Corpus Christi originr ted but also cn 5 other properties, principally
on hedges of Citrus trifoliata, It appears that trees of this species
have been used in Navasota as hedges for fencing or for ornamental pur-
poses for the last 25 or 30 years, and there are approximately 75 such
hedges in the town. There are few other citrus trees, however, and the
owners are giving splendid cooperation in permitting the destruction of
these hedges, and crews of V. P. A. laborers are at work taking them out.
County .aents, both colored and rhite, are assisting in obtaining the con-
sent of owners to the removal of these trees, and county and city officials
are also cooperating. Every precaution is being token to prevent the de-
velopment of any seedlings or of recurring infections of canker, Before
any laborers were allowed on tLe infected properties, the trees and sur-
rounding so-l were disinfected and gone over with a flame-thrower, and the
soil to a de-pth of 1 inch was re-noved around the trees and buried in pits
8 feet deep, together with all fruit and seed th:-t could be found. All
seedlings were dug and burned and the lnrge trees were pulled with a
truck, ond the areos where the: stood were nlowed under. After these
operations were comoleted the ground was again sprnaed with disinfectant.
Corpus Christi is the southernmo-t point at which canker has been found
since the work was placed on an intensive and expanded basis in 1935. At
no time in these inspection and oradication activities of the last 7 years
has citrus c-nker been found in either of these 2 counties, Nueces in the
south or Grimes in the north.

Clean-up of citrus trees at Alta Loma, Tex.--Following the finding
on Dece'mber 4, of a tree infected with citrus c-.nkar, a program of clean-
un and inspection of the town of Alto Loma, Tex., was conducted, because
of the l:arge growth of underbrush whicn could easily, conceal wild-citrus
growth. Nenrly 200 dooryard or escaped citrus tres scattered over vacant
lots were destroyed. On the property where the recent infection occurred,
nn intensified search resulted in finding 17 additional very small citrus
tre s, includire 1 ornge seedling growing under the residence. Citrus
canker at Alta Lomn has not been found, in current activities, to extend
beyond the single tree found infectTd in December.

First highw.-- ost office in United States established.--As part of
the Railway Mail Service, q highway post office, the first in this country,
was established on Februnry 6, operating between Washington, D. C., and
Harrisonburg, Va. This highway post office, serving 23 post offices on the
route and handling all classes of mail, including parcel post, constitutes
another outlet for the interstate transportation of articles, restricted
under the Japanese beetle and other quarantines, from a regulated area to
points outside.

Inspector believes soil in cnrs picked up by electro-magnet loader.--
From the transit inspector at Birmingham, comes the following interesting
comment: "Carlot shipments of scrap metal from the white-fringed beetle area


continue to be a source of npparent violations. Although most of the
cars carrying scrap metal do not have soil in the bottom, sore do. The
presence of soil in the m-,v be due, in part, to the fact that much
of the scrnp metal is loaded by means of electro-mag:nets. During load-
ing operations quantities of soil mny be attracted to the electro-megnets,
owing to the large armount of iron rust present in the top soil. At a
local junk yard, in 1 year's time so much iron rust accruulated in the
soil under a pile of scrap that after the scrao was removed the top soil
was loaded into railroad cars by means of an electro-magnet and sold to
local steel companies."

More shipning by air express.--From the Boston trnsit inspector
comes the report of an increase in February of 200 percent in plant
shipping by air exoress, as comrared with February of last year. Cut
flowers, mininture potted plb-nts, and pussy willow cuttings were so
shipped throughout the month, particularly at the valentine season.

Larvae of Lqspeyresin species intercepted at Sprinfield. Mass.--
Larvae from spruce cones taken from a shipment intercepted at Spring-
field, Mass., on December 6, as a violartion of the gypsy moth auarantine,
were recentl; identified as Lspeyresia youngana, and also the pine-shoot
moth and the codling moth.

Peach mosaic conference at Denver.--On Februryv 10, 11, and 12, a
conference of Federal and State workers on neach mosaic disease was held
at Denver to discuss the various phases of the control and research ac-
tivities, particularly as they relate to conditions in Colorado. Repre-
sentatives of the Bure.u of Entomol r and Plant Quarrntine, the Bureau
of Plant Industry, the Color-do and Utah State Departments of Agriculture,
and the Colorado State College were prr sent. The discussion revolved
around a review of control and rese-rch accomplishments, with a view to
determining future procedure in both these activities. It was pointed
out tht a phenomenDn not yet known to be peach mosaic occurs in Colorado,
and the consensus of opinion at thi: mnting favored marking such trees
for future observati-n, with provision that such marked trees would be
removed by the cooperating peach mosaic control agencies only at the re-
quest of the grower, but that all definitel, mosaic infected trees would
be removed when discovered. The group recommended that research activi-
ties continue along the presently organized outlines, with minor sug-
gestions for additional work with regard to symptomology, methods of trans-
mission, methods of diagnosis, and possible methods of treatment.

Inspector's identification of peach mosaic upheld.--Infection found
on a peach nursery tree in Bryan County, Okla., last fall, was identified
by the inspector as peach mosaic. Some auestion as to the determination
of the disease arose and the tree was later transferred to the laboratory
of the Bureau of Plant Industry at Brownwood, Tex., and representatives
of that Bureau now confirm the diagnosis as positive peach mosaic infec-

Mormon crickets hatch in February.--Mormon crickets were reported
hatching early in February on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation in Oregon.


Later reports indicated some hatchinr in Baker County, Oreg. Arrange-
ments have been mde with the cooperating State agencies to make careful
continued observations throughout ar=as of early hatch to determine the
need and appropriate time for tii: initiation of control activities. Equip-
ment, materials, and personnel are in readiness for any eventuality that
may arise from the early hatcl,

Legume weevil survey planned.--On January 13 the Secretary approved
an allocation of funds for further work on the legume weevil Hypera brun-
neipennis Boh. and plains hve been made for the reexamination of part of
the ar-as surveyed last year in order to determine the present status of
the infestations and to cooperate with the 6tate of Arizona in an effort
to eradicate the weevils in the vicinity of Tempe. The infestation at
Tempe is light and isolated, but it is located in an important legume-
growing region,

Par]- toria scale surveyr comnleted.--The survey, which was begun
early in ecember, in cooperation with the Missouri State Department of
Agriculture, to determine the area infested with 2Prlatoria chinensis Marl.
in St. Louis and vicinity, was terminated at th-i close of Janunry. Infes-
tations w re found on 8'0 properties in approxinately 109 city blocks
within the immediate vicinity of the Missouri Botanical Garden, and Tower
Grove and Forest Parks. Heaviest infestations were found within, and im-
mediately adjicent to, the Missouri Botanical Garden, decreasing in in-
tensity to little or no infestation within a distance of several blocks
to less than a mile in all directions. A number of inspections were also
mPde in scattered areas throughout the city. Only one small infestation
was found outside the above-mentioned localities. A survey of East St.
Louis was also mnde, in cooperation with insnectors of the Illinois State
Department of Agriculture, but no infest-tions of the scale were found,

Treatment method for white-frinred beetle larvae modified.--The
method of treatment of b1illed nursqry: -tock by methyl bromide solution
for white-fringed beetle larvya was modified by a revision of circular
B. E. P. Q. 503 diteod Februapr. 28. As a result of further experiments
by the Division of Control Investigations, it has been found that the pre-
scribed treatment is effective on soil bills up to 8 inches in diameter
in areas oth-r than in New Orleans 2nd vicinity. In these areas the con-
sistency of the soil is such that the treotment can be used effectively
only on soil balls havin a diameter of not more than 7 inches.


Action of o-dichlorobenzene and naphthalene mixture as aoplied by
new method.--W. N. Sullivan and E. R. McGovran, of this Division, and
L . Goodhue, of the Division of Insecticide Investigations, have col-
laborated in this study and published their results in the February 1941
issue of the Jo'urnal Of Economic Entomology. A now method was described
for applying a mixtur- of naphthalene and orthodichlorobenzene, which con-
sisted in rapidly volatilizing a solution of naphthalene in orthodichloro-
benzene by spraing it on a surface he:\ted to 3750 C. An effective dosage
was obtained in about 8 minutes and very little crystallization of the
na.Phthalene followed. Eighty cubic centimeters of this solution was used


in ) 236-cubic foot chamber in which flies and cockroaches were exposed
for 24 hours. The mortality of the flies was 100 percent after 1 day,
but more time was required. to kill the cockroaches, the ny.nmphs being more
resistant than the adults. Over 95 percont were dead -fter 3 days and
over 99 oercent after 10 days. The use of these matorials applied by this
method offers promise for the control of household insects. Since this
paper was submitted for nublication further work on this subject has shown
how to greatlv increase the effectiveness of aerosols applied in this
manner. These results will be published soon.


Removal of lead and arsenic spray residues on oploes.--At the meet-
ing of the Western Coopertive Spray Project in Seattle, Wash., on Febru-
ary 13 and 14, C. C. Cassil, of tnis Division, and Edwin Smith and A. L.
Ryall, of the Bureau of Plant Industry, presented the results of coopera-
tive experiments on the removal of lead and arsenic spray residues from
ap-ples. The dat!a presented in this report indicate that only fruit sprayed
with relatively light spiray schedules con be cleaned by washing once in
cold acid. The use of so:ewhat heavier spray schedules requires the appli-
cation 'f some hen't in single or dual washes for satisfactory cleaning.
Fruit with heavy spray schedules can be cleaned to meet the new tolerances
only by the application of relatively severe dual-process washes at tem-
peratures which approach or are beyond the dan 'or point of fruit injury.

Improved method for deterrining arse nic.--C. C. Ca1ssil, in the
February 1941. issue of the Journal of the Associatio:n of Official Agri-
cultural Chemists (v. 24, No. 1: 196-202), described a procedure for the
rapid determin:ation of arsenic. This method is an extension of the micro
method described by Cassil ani Wichmann in MIy 1931 (ibid., v. 22, No. 2:
436-1-45). The range of the raoid volumetric method for determining ar-
senic, previously considered as 5-500 micrograms, ha-s been extended to 10
milligrams of As20. It is nossible to complete a determination in less
than 10 minutes after the necessary savmle. ,reparatin. This method in-
volves an arsine evolution, absorption in mercuric chloride-gum arabic
solution, and an iodine titration. Results presented show that the accu-
racy of the method is 99.26 percent, with a standard deviation of 1.14


Nosema disease nn important cause of winter loss.--C. L. Farrar,
Mqdison, Wis., reports the presence of Nosema apis in 16.5 percent of 97
colonies examined and adds: "Diagnosis was made by examining the ventri-
culi of 6 to 12 bees from the top of the cluster anA it is probable that
other colonies contained a lishter degree of infection. Colonies showing
infection of 50 to 100 nercent of the bees in the samrle were weak and
showed strong evidence of dysentery. There was no reltionship between
Nosema infection : nd distention of the hind gut. Twenty-seven and 36 per-
cent, respectively, of bees picked up from snow in the 2 yards were found
infected. Caged samples of 800 to 1,000 bees inoculated with 5 ventriculi
from diseased bees added to sugar sirup showed 100-percent infection within
5 days (based on small .samples) and practically all the bees died within 2


weeks. Uninoculrted duplicates shlwed a very light infection and these
approached complete infecti:n 2 weeks after the inoculated. cages. The
perk in the mortality curves occurred ep rriiately 2 weeks later in the
check cages. Thirty crolniie used in the ,;roenhouse for exerimental
feeOding of pollen and -pollen sup0lem.-ts all showed ITrsem-, The experi-
mental colonies were starte_ with 4 pounds of beees (ap.i'oximately 14,000)
and they reared up to 9,300 bees under the most favorable food conditions,
They probably had not more than 3,000 to 6,000 bees at the close of the
tests. Brood-rearing cdecreased ra vidly as the infection built up and
,ractically censed after 6 to S weeks. The queens all continued laying
thre.u-:hout the 90-'^ay test eri.od. ITosena is arnoarentl; more serious
under the close c-nfinem-nt of colonies in the greenhouse than in normal
colonies wintered out of doors. Diagnosis of bees heavily infected with
N-osemi spores can be mende by n ting the colnr of the ventriculus, but a
m'icroscolic examination of a smear is necessary for light infections. A
heavily infested vettriculus shows a milky-white color which becomes more
evi ent in a water smear."


Injur:y to buildin r by ce tain cossonine weevils.--Weevil specimens
received from J. S, Housr, of the Ohio A.ricultural Ex eriment Station,
with the Pst'teent th-t they were rear-d from a do-r in a basement at
Sterlinr, Ohio, h--e been determined as Stenoscelis brevis (3oh.), a com-
mon species of the Cossoninae .,hich, however, is almost olways taken out
of doors. Its occu rrence indoors is, therefore, of some interest, par-
ticularly as the wervil to h'-e done considerable damasge to this
dwelline. The cosoonine w'hich is most often implic.ted in injury to tim-
bers in builcin7s is Hex-rthrum ulkei Horn, though Tomolips cuercicola
"(Boh.) has been collected under conditions indicating th-t it also may oc-
casionally damage woodwork or timbers indoors. The introduced cossonine,
Pselactus sp-adix (Hbst.), h's been renorted at lerst once from damp wood
in a basement art 3rewst,-, Mas-., rnd thi. species has been found also in
pilings of wharves ,t Chr.rlestov'n and East Boston, Mass.

Distribution note on the we vil Ceutorhynchus sericans Lec.--Among
a small collection of veevils from W4hite Herth, I1i., sent for determina-
tion by J. C. Dirks, was a single female of COutorhynchus sericans Lee.
This little-known species was described in 187b from Calaveras, Calif.
It is represented in the National Museum collection by a single specimen
from California, a few others from Idaho, Montan,, Colorado, New Mexico,
.nd Arizona, and a single male from Marietta, Ohio. Both the Ohio and
Illinois s-ecimens are larger and perhaps a triflo stouter than any of
those from farther west (this reversing the condition observed in certain
other s-ecies of weevils, in which the western form is larger), but so far
as found they do not differ an-recinbly in other respects, and there seems
no doubt as to the specific identity of all of them.

High p-rasitization of a leafhonper b, a pipunculid.--Samples of
Alconeura macra Griffith (CicadIllidae), submitted for identification in
connection with investigations of the ohonv peach disease in Tennessee,
were found to show an unusually hi gh percentage of parasitization by an
undetermined species of Pipunculidae (Di-tera). Of the 97 specimens,


representin 10 samples submitted for identification, 2Z specimens, or
apnroximrately 24 percent of the tot-l, either contined parasites or
showed unmistakable evidence ?f h'v. n: been. onrsitized.

Observation on hibern-tirn of nort:her house -osaouito.--A s~mole
consisting of a large nuuber of mosquitoes, determined by Alan Stone as
Culex gioiens L., was recently received fro,' J. S. Houser, of the Ohio
Agricultural Experiment Stotion. Dr. iHouser explained tht the specimens
had been taken in the b- ement of an unoccu-ied f.rm d,.ellin7 in February.
The walls of the basement were of sctne anc the floor .' s of earth. Ice
had formed in depressions in the floor and frost cryst:al occurred in
abundance on the overheaC joists. The hib ratine nosquitoes were found
in enormous r:nbers resting on these joists.

Unusual parasitic Hvmenoptera in a collection from Virginia.--Ichneu-
monidae and Braconikae taken at Mountain Lake, Vo. (el1evtion 4,000 ft.),
and referred for identification by- L. J. Milne, of Randolph-M .con Woman's
College, contained numerous forms which are of interest because they have
been seldom collected. Incluced were 2 rare species of the braconid genus
Meteorus, a l:.nI: s-ries of an undescribed leafh p-er pFrasite belonging
to Chelorynus (famiily Dryinidae), several .ncomm-n species of the ichneu-
monid genus F"rabates, and rbout 100 specirens of E;boophanes n'sutus (Cress.)
(family Ichneumioniae) and 22 of a, s-ecies of the relaeted genus Neliopiathus,
both of which are in collections.



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