News letter


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News letter
Alternate title:
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
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Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

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Vol. VIII, No. 3 (Not for publication) March 1, 1941


T, H. Jones Dies

Thomas Henry Jones, senior entomologist of the Division of Forest
Insect Investigations, died suddenly in Morristown, N. J., on Saturday
mornine, February 22. Mr. Jones was the son of Robert P. Jones and
Bertha A. ('iepke) Jones. He was born at Pawtucket, R. I,, on September
25, 1885, attended the Easton, Mass., public schools, and graduated from
the Massachusetts State College in 19r8 with the degree of Bachelor of
Science. In 1929 he married Katherine H. Alyward.

He was appointed to the Bureau of Entomology on May 26, 1909, with
the Division of Truck Crops and Stored Products Insect Investigations.
In 1911 he resigned from the Bureau to accept a position with the Puerto
Rico Sugar Planters' Association and 3uring the next 4 years he pub-
lished seven important papers, as follows: "2xperiment with Fumigant at
a High Temperature," "Some Notes on Laphygma frugiperda S. & A. in Porto
Rico," "Some Notes on Life History .nd H:bits of Lauron vicosa Drury,"
"Additional Notes on Porto Rican Sugarcane Insects," "Aphides or Plant
Lice Attacking Sugarcane in Porto Rico," "The Sugarcane Moth Stalk Borer,"
"The Sugarcane Weevil Root Borer," "Report of Porti Rican Board of Com-
missioners of Agriculture for 1914," "Eggplant Tortoise Beetle," "Sweet-
potato Leaf Folder," "Notes on Anasa andresii Guer., an Enemy of Cucurbits,"
and "A List of Coccidae of Porto Rico."

In 1914 he was reappointed to the Division of Truck Crop Insect In-
vestigations and assigned to work in Louisiana. In 1920 he again resigned
from the Bureau, this time to accept the position of entomologist for the
Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station at Baton Rouge. After L years
in this capacity he returned to the Bureau in January 1924 to carry on in-
vestigational work on introduced parasites of the gypsy moth at Melrose
Highlands, Mass. He continued in this capacity until 1935, when he was
assigned to research work'on the beetle vectors of Dutch elm disease. At
the time of his death he was assistant to the ~ntomolo-ist in charge of
the research laboratory'carrying on these investigations.

Mr. Jones is survived by his wife, his mother, and a brother.




Memorandum No. 3. Illustrations

Illustrations, as used in Department of Agriculture publications,
are distinctly functional; they must justify their presence by serving a
useful purpose, although some of them are also decorative. Therefore, in
selecting illustrations for use in a new bulletin or other publication
the first point to decide is whether the photograph, drawing, map, or
chart will help to convey the message to the reader.

Most of our illustrations are printed from either line etchings or
halftone plates. A few, such as the covers for Farmers' Bulletins and
Leaflets, may involve a combination of both kinds,

Line etchings reproduce the illustrations very much as they are.
They are used for printing drawings, maps, and charts, which consist of
black lines on white bacikgrounds. The etching is usually made on zinc,
but if a drawing contains very fine lines that must be brought out clearly
the etching may be made on copper.

Halftone plates are used for printing reproductions of photographs,
wash drawings, and other pictures that contain broad monotone areas and
gradations (or halftones) between white and black. The process involves
the use of a screen, which breaks up the continuous surfaces into small
dots on the plate. The screen is a plate of fine glass which has very
fine lines across it in two directions. The fineness of the screen may
range from 60 lines per inch for rather coarse work to 200 or more lines
per inch for superfine work. Halftone plates are generally made on copper.

As the halftone reproduction of a photograph is generally a little
less clear than the original, crre shoul( be taken to select the best
print available. A con'trasty print is b:tter than a hazy one and, as a
iule, a print on glossy paper is preferable to one on matte paper. If
the print is not particularly good, it is advisa-ble to submit the nega-
tive also, or to make sure that it will bo available, if needed. Some-
times an expert can make an acceptable print from a Oweak negative by us-
ing special prper and technique.

Prints should not be mounted by pasting. They may be submitted
loose, in which case each print should be identified by marking it on the
back with a pencil, very lightly, so that the m~rks will not show through.
The use of paper clips should be avoided, since they are likely to da.iage
the prints. Perhaps the best way to submit a print is to attach it to a
sheet of paper by inserting its corners into diagonal slits cut in the
paper. If some part of a print is to be omitted, it need hot be trimmed
off; the part to be left out may be indicated by a notation on the paper.
A copy of the legend should appear below the print.

When photographs for reproduction in a.publication are being taken,
especially in the case of in1oor views of pieces of apparatus, the tech-
nique of a portrait photographer can well be followed. A number of poses


of the model or apparatus should be photographed with varied lighting
and from different angles and with different exposure periods. Time of
exposure is such a constant factor with the modern portrait photographer
that he does not need to experiment, but with the entomologist working
only occasionally with the csamra and using different light sources and
frequently taking pictures in which detail in dark cavities is of impor-
tance, a number of different timings are of great value in obtaiining a
good picture out of several trials. Proper lighting is of special irmpor-
tance with glassware. In any case, if after a number of pictures have
been taken a really fine one has not been obtained, it is better to take
some more rather than submit a poor photograph.

When a writer or artist is preparing a drawing of an insect or some
other object for publication, he should take into consideration the size
of the space that will be available for the illustration. The printing
space in our bulletins is 4-3/g inches wide and 7-1/2 inches high. As
some of this space must be used for the legend below the figure, the maxi-
mum of space for the cut is likely to about 4-3/S by 6-1/2 inches, or
about 7-1/2 by 3-3/4 inches, if the cut is placed lengthwise on the page.
If the drawing is to be rather large, the lines in the drawing must be
made heavy enough so that they will be clear when the reduction is made.
Drawing ink must be used, since common inks do not reproduce well. Letter-
ing should be indicated lightly with a pencil, to be inked in later by
draftsmen who specialize in this line of work.

Although the printer insists on having the original drawing for
making a cut, there is a distinct advantage in having it photographed.
The prints not only serve as records of the drawings, but they can be sent
with the manuscript to reviewers; thus excessive handling of the originals
may be avoided.

The consideration of size and necessary reduction is especially im-
portant in connection with maps and charts, because there is often a
tendency to make them rather large. In many cases charts measuring 24
inches or more across could be made just as well, or perhaps better, half
as large. The main difficulty about a very large chart is the danger
that a'ter the chart has been reduced to fit the space available some of
the lines may be too faint or too close together. Charts and maps need
not be submitted as finished products. They may be submitted as pencil or
ink sketches, from which the draftsmen in the Office of Information can
make the finished drawings.

Sometimes a number of closely related drawings or photographs may be
presented more effectively by combining then in one figure. When a figure
in a Depart:wert p:uLicption consists of two or more separate prints or
drawings, ih e parts a::-e desigrnaied by italic capitals ('loping capital let-
ters), whereas in a print or drawing are designated by italic
small letters (lowrL-case script). As a rule, the parrs of a composite
figure should be submitted unmounted and without the letters. They should,
of course, be marked to identify them. They may be accompanied by a
sketch showing the desired arrangement.


When an author has a considerable nuiber of small prints or draw-
ings that should be combined into composite figures or plates, he can
often save hinself and others much labor and trouble by consulting one of
the editors about grouping, arrangog.'ent, and reduction, before he submits
the material for publication.

If a drawing or print should be neither reduced nor enlarged, it
should be narked to show that it is to be reprouuced exactly the sa:e. size
as the original.

The legend of a text figure should be included in the Uanuscript,
as a separate item, following the paragraph which contains the first in-
portant reference to it. Occasionally vwo find the legend inserted in the
paragraph according to the rule for footnotes. Ho';over, there is no need
or excuse for applying the footnote rule to legends, since the position
of the figure in the publication cannot be doterninod until the page proof
is being made up, and in many cases it is not possible to place the figure
on the sa.e page with the reference. The leognd should be double spaced,
like other copy.

Sheets of paper on which the drawings or photographs for the illus-
trations of a anuscript are mounted, or to which they are attached, should
not be nturfored as folios of the nanuscript and all should be placed to-
gether at the end of the nanuscript.

In case a figure is to be printed from. a cut used in printing some
other publication of the Department, the picture may be cut out of the
older publication and pasted on a sheet of paper. This should contain
the legend, and also a notation showing t:-e old figure number and the pub-
lication fron which it is to be lifted. The sheet can then be inserted in
its proper place in the manuscript. In the case of a figure in some old
publication that should not be cut, the figure may be identified by means
of a photographic print of the original, or even a print of the figure as

In our publications the term "plate" is applied to an illustration
that is printed separetely and inserted in the.publication afterward.
Usually the plate is a halftone, of rather fine screen, printed on calen-
dered (or coated) book paper. The legend for a plate should accompany the
photograph, but it should not be inserted in the manuscript, since the
plate legend is not set in type until after the engraver's proof of the
plate has been approved.


Local differences in fig spoilage.--Poroz Simmons, of the Presno,
Calif., laboratory, reports that figs of the Adriatic variety, which do
not require caprification, are subject to infestotion by the dried fruit
beetle (Carpophilus honiptorus (L.)); to souring,, which appears to be pre-
dominantly the result of inoculation by insects, chiefly the dried frui.t
beetle; and to other defects, usually of lesser importance. During the
harvest of 1940 two adjacent blocks in a large planting near Fresno showed


marked differences in spoilage and, as both blocks appeared to be equally
exposed to invasion by the dried-fruit beetle, a survey was made from
August 30 to November 4 inan attempt to explain the conditions. The
work was done by Dwight F. Barnes and George H. Kaloostian. Traps baited
with fermenting dried peaches took 30 beetles per trap per day in block A
and 167 per trap per day (51 times as many) in block B. Samoles of fallen
figs from block B, examined during harvest, contained 7 times as many figs
infested by larvae and adults of nitidulid beetles and 32 times as many
sour figs as did samples from block A. General observations have indicated
that fig trees which are supplied with abundant soil moisture produce long
annual growth of branches, heavy dark-green foliage, and succulent fruit
which is likely to become infested and sour in years when dried fruit bee-
tles are plentiful. In contrast with the fruit on less favored trees, the
figs on such trees appear to mature more slowly and therefore remain for a
longer period in a condition favorable for infestation and souring. Ex-
amples of these contrasting conditions were found in block A, where the
trees were in average condition, and in block B, where most of the trees
were more thrifty and where the spoilage was,greater.


No larval infestations found in January.--Adult Mexican fruitflies
(Anastrepha ludens Loew) were traoped on 102 premises in the regulated area
in January. At this sreson of the year it is not unusual for fruitflies to
be taken throughout the area, even though no larval infestations are known
to exist. Many hours of intansive grove inspection in each of the several
districts of this area failed to uncover any infested fruit in the groves.
For the second consecutive month excessive rainfall occurred over most of
the area. On January 27 rainfall ranging from 4 to 9 inches was recorded
in the lower valley. Frosts occurred on two mornings and severely damaged
tender vegetables but did no material harm to citrus, More fruit-was
certified for shipment'from the regulated area in January than in any other
month this season. Shipments for the month-amounted to 5,268.4 equivalent
carlots and for th' season have reached the all-time high for this date of
17,330.0 equivalent carlots.


Baits for Mormon cricket.--J. R. Parker, Bozeman, Mont., reports
that during the season of 1940 this Division cooperated with the Division
of Domestic Plant Quarantines in conducting tests of the folloving Mormon
cricket baits in Idaho, Nevada, and Oregon: (1) Straight bran bait, as
compared with a mixture of 1 volume of millrun bran and 3 volumes of saw-
dust; (2) baits containing water versus baits in which oil was substituted
for water; (3) strip baiting, against complete bait coverage. According
to Frank T. Cowan, Bozeman, straight bran bait gave better results than
did a mixture of millrun and sawdust, particularly during early season bait-
ing when conditions were not at the optimum for cricket feeding. An oil
bait consisting of 100 pounds of standard bran, 4 pounds of sodium fluosili-
cate, and 2 gallons of low-grade motor oil having a viscosity of S.A.E. 20
proved equally effective in preliminary plot and field tests as a similar
bait in which 15 gallons of water was included instead of the oil. The
motor oil cost 60 cents per gallon, making it too expensive for practical use.


In later tests 1 gallon of industrial lubricating oil costing 15 cents per
gallon was used with equally good results. A total of approximately 800
acres vae treated with the industrial oil bait, with resulting kills of
85 to 95 percent. Oil baits were spread satisfactorily by using power me-
chanical bait spreaders and airplanes. Oil baits have several important
advantages ovrer wet baits. They can be mixed in advance at central mixing
stations and can be held in stdrage without deterioration until needed.
Mixing can also be done at points where water is not available, an impor-
tant consideration in many western localities. Mixed oil bait can be trans-
ported at about half the cost of water bait and spreadi~n machines and air-
planes can onerate for a longer period without refilling,- Strin baiting
of light and medium infestations was found as effective and more economical
than comnlete bait coverage. In light infestations of 3 or less crickets
per square yard a 30-foot strip was baited and a 90-foot strip between
strips was left unbaited, In medium infestations, of 4 to 10 crickets per
square yard, a 30-foot strin was baited and 30 feet between strips was left
unbaited. Complete coverage was found desirable for infestations of 10 or
more crickets ner square yard.

Grpsshop-oer outbreaks and development of control methods in last
100 years.--Mr. Parker also states that during the conference on grasshopper
and Mormon cricket control held-at Denver, Colo., on November 7 and 8, he
reviewed the history of gras hopper outbreaks and the development of con-
trol methods during the 100-yenr period 1841 to 1940, In the Great Plains,
the Rocky Mountain, and Plateau reions peaks of abundance have occurred
at approximately ln-yerr intervals for the area as a whole, and with less
regularity in individul States. The most severe outbreak periods were
from 1862-77, 1910-25, and 1930-40. Each of th se periods include 2 fairly
well defined neaks, with only a slight decline between them. In other
words, 2 of the more usual 10-vear cycles merged to form 1 long, extended
outbreak, States in which the greatest numbers of outbreaks occurred were:
Montpna 50, 25 severe, 25 less severe; Minnesota 50, 18 severe, 32 less
severe; Nebraska 4L, 21 severe, 27 less severe; ColorPdo 47, 21 severe, 26
less severe; Forth D.kota, 42, 18 severe, 2U less severe; South Dakota 41,
24 severe, 17 loss sever:; Utah hl, 13 severe, 28 less severe; Kansas 40,
26 severe, lt less severe. .The freauency, duration, and distribution of
outbreaks is relaxted to annunl r-infal.l. Outbreaks accurred more frequently
and lIsted lonioer durin r years when precinitation was below normal and out-
breaks were m:ost cinmon in zones wher 'the normal annual rainfall was 10-30
inches. Adjacent regions having a normal precipitation grea'ter than 30
inches 'ex-'erienced outbreaks during drought neriods when precipitation
dronned below 30 inches for several years in succession. Imrortant de-
velonments in 7rsshionoer control took nlace during each of the 3 major
outbreak oeriods, Its first recog:nition as a National problem was in 1877,
when Congress 'created the United States Entomological Commission to study
the Rocky Mountain locust. Control measures developed at that time con-
sisted mainly of plowing to destroy eggs and the use of hopoer-dozers and
catching ma'chines against nymphs and adults. During the outbreaks from
1910 to 1925, recognition by State governments of the need for county
governmental action in grasshop-er control was made in a number of States
which passed laws authorizing county authorities to create pest districts
and to ap-oronriate money for the control of grasshoppers and other insects.
Although poisoned-bran bait was used in California in 1885, it was not used


successfully on a large scale until 1913, when Kansas entomologists organ-
ized farmers in many counties and prevented serious crop losses through
extensive baiting. Later in the same period, volunteer county and com-
munity organizations were developed in Montana for the application of bait
purchased with county funds and operated very successfully for several
years. During this period, amyl acetate was substituted for the more ex-
pensive r'itrus fruits used in the Kansas bait formula without loss of ef-
fectiveness, and the importance of scattering bait when air temperatures
were favorable for grasshopper feeding was discovered. Important advances
made during the outbreak period which began in 1930, and is still in prog-
ress include: Recognition by Congress of the need of Federal appropriations
in controlling regional grasshopper outbreaks; cooperation of State and
Federal agencies in conducting control campaigns; more intensive educational
and organization drives prior to actual control operations; development of
survey methods to predict where 'outbreaks will occur and to estimate the
cost of control; further reduction in the cost.of bait without loss of ef-
ficiency; and the greatly increased use of mechanized devices for more
rapid and effective mixing and spreadine of bait. Even though great ad-
vances have been made in grasshopoer control during the last 100 years,
there has been no marked decrease in the frequency and duration of outbreaks.
The millions of dollars spent for control have yielded extremely high re-
turns in crops saved, but in most instances have not terminated any out-
break. The opinion is exoressed that present conditions are more favorable
for' rasshopner increase than in the early development of western agricul-
ture, and 'that outbreaks may be expected whenever climatic conditions are
favorable. The high return on the money and effort invested in this work
indicate the unquestionable desirability of continuing gr.sshonper control
from a crop-protection standpoint. Althouih .the complete prevention of out-
breaks seems hopeless, it is believed that -serious effort should be con-
tinued to prevent mass movements of migratory species. The great advance-
ments made in control during the present outbreak encourage the belief that
both of these objectives can be more comnletely obtained in the future.

Most white grubs in Wisconsin are below plowing level for long
periods.--T. R. Chamberlin and.Lee Seaton, Madison, Wis., submit a table
in which the percentages were obtained by summarizing data as to the depths
at which white grubs were found during the oeriod 1935 to 1940, inclusive.
Grubs considered here were all those taken in diggings 20 inches deep, or
more. The percentagesof grubs in sod and above the 10-inch level from 1935-
40 in southern'Wisconsin were as follows:

Month Grubs in sod Grubs above 10-inch
: level
Percent Percent'
March---------- 0 0
A-ril----------- 4.4 19.0
May-------------: 43.3 : 61.6
June------------ 59.9 : 7.6
July----------- 92.9 :97.6
August-------- 92.2 97.6
September------: 76.6 g:9.4
October---------. 13.0 : 27.7
November-------: .4 11.7
December-------- 1.7 : 5.1


These facts are of value iq estimating the possible effects of plow-
ine at various times of the year. It may be noted that the maximum pro-
portion of grubs, about 92.5 percent, were located in the sod in July and
August and that the maximum proportions wer~- above the 16-inch level in
June, July, Autust, and September. The actual proportion within reach of
the plow is intermediate between the two oercentages given for each month,
as plowin.r is usually about 6 inches deep. As the data indicn.te, all the
zrubs that ascended to the sod did not reach it until July and there was
some descent from the sod in September, although the descending grubs did
not get below the 10-inch level in considerable numbers until October. It
is known, however, that there is a difference in the time nnd. rate at which
grubs begin descent in different years "nd in different fields the same
year, so that sometimes many grubs are out of reach of the plow by mid-
September. Assuming that all grubs above plow level were killed by plow-
ing, about 90 percent would be killed in July and August, with somewhat
less in June and Seotember. Control of grubs, however, does not depend
solely on the grubs being within reach of the plow. It h's been observed
that when the soil is moist and cool, as is frequently the case in the
spring and fall, grubs not crushed by the plow easily burrow into the moist
soil and escape, but when the soil is hot and dry many uncrushed grubs die
befora or shortly after digging in.

Introduced porasite of bruchids recovered in year of release,--L. P.
Rockwood, Forest Grove, Oreg., reportsthat Triaspis thoracicus Curtis, a
EuroTean hymenopterous parasite of various species of bruchids, which was
imported from France and multiplied by breeding in the Division of Foreign
Parasite Introduction, was released in considerable numbers in Oregon in
the period May 29 to June 5. Approximately 3,600 females were released on
plots of neas at Forest Grove. Samples of peas from these plots, taken in
July and August, showed parasitization of the pea weevil by this species to
be as high as 4 -ercent in some cas-s. Adults of T. thoracicus emerged
from this material from July 16 to October 16, but most of these emerged in
July and August. Weevil larvae usually were killed early in stage 4, hence
the cavity caused by tih feeding of the bruchid was much smaller in peas
from which Triaspis emerged than was the case when the parasitization had
been by Bruchobius mayri (Masi), which kills the bruchid in a later stage,
Whether or not T. thoracicus can survive the winter remains to be deter-

Tests of nozzle position-in row-crop equioment.--C. H. Batchelder,
New Haven, Conn., s-ys th'it in reviewing the data and analysis from experi-
ments conducted during the sep-son of 1940 to determine the most effective
nozzle arran-ements for duster and sprayer booms, several items of interest
were found. These ey-eriments were designed to determine (1) whether gen-
eral residue coverage on the plant was necessary, and (2) what restricted
partq of the pl-nt mnv be t'reatd with an expectancy of maximum borer re-
duction. Row-crop dusting 'and spray eauipment is fitted with a boom which
serves to hold nozzles in 'osition for trenting row-planted crops continu-
ously and on the assumption that the nozzle discherge will deoosit residues
at the desired points on a ':mjority of the plants. When general coverage
is desired, this is accomplished by-simply directing the nozzle discharge
downward in the direction of the row-planted drop, r-sulting in general en-
veloping of the plants in a spray or dust fog, For the purpose of restrict-
ing insecticide deposit to the locality of the ear-shoot of corn, it is


necessary to lower the nozzle to a point lateral to and just above the
ear shoot. 'In this position the nozzle discharge is directed slightly
downward at the -ar shoot end in the same plane that the shoot is pro-
jected from its stalk. This is necessary in order to avoid the "umbrel-
la effect" of overhanging leaf blades, and the resulting deposit is laid
in a "bend" along each side of the row. These two methods of nozzle ad-
justment were compared during the season of 1940 with both duster and
sprayer equipment, the experiments being in repetition of similer tests
conducted during 1939. The experiments of 1939 nnd 1940 differed es-
sentially in that climatic effects on plant growth in 1940 resulted in so
retarding development that only one, lateral, or ear-shoot application was
made, as compared with two in 1939. Whorl .pDlications were directed
straight downward in both retho'ds of treatment. Two standards of con-rri-
son were employed in these tests, i.e., (1) no tre-tment and (2) hand-
directed, single nozzles. The' most effective "adjustment of nozzles on the
boom of mechanically operated row-crop sprayers and dusters has b-en a
subject of special inquiry during the last 3 years. Information of this
kind is necessary to complete recommendations for large-scale insecticide
applic.itions, and no comparative tests had previously been made. Moreover,
some confusion has prevailed as to which location on the corn plant leads
to greatest effectiveness of insecticidal residues. On the theory tha.t
migrating first-instar larvae are impeded mechanic11ay by surface residues,
some investigators have attempted "general" of the plants and for
thie reason have adjusted nozzles to discharge from above the plants. On
the other hand, there op7oeenred to be some logic in the assumption that
only the points of borer entrance into the plant require protection. If
such is the case, only "spot" applications are necessary. The results of
these tests confirmed those obtained during the siilar exoeri-ents of 1939
in that nozzle arrangements providing lateral discharge a.t the ear shoots
gave significantly better protection of the ~ars than when nozzles were ad-
justed for overhead discharge and general coverrge. In tests of spray-
nozzle adjustment the use of two nozzles per row, placed laterally, were
found to nrovide as much protection as when a third nozzle was addced in an
overhead position, and both of these nozzle arrange:-ents were found to be
superior to an arrangement of three nozzles all placed above the plant
(overhead nosition). Nozzle arrangements supplyine lateral discharge 'were
found to be as effecti-e as hand-directed. applications. Tests of duster-
nozzle arrangements were similar to those described above, except thet two
nozzles were used ner row instead of three. The lIteral position of the
nozzles during ear-shoot applications was also fcxnd suoerior to -n over-
head arraneiuteent. Further details in connection with thse experiments
have 'been assembled for a special report.

Relati e resistance to establishment of Euroerpn corn borer larvae
in sweet corn.--Morris Schlosberg, Toledo,, Ohio, says thr t in sumv-.rizing
the results obtained in fro-im to 6 yders of testing (1935-39), at Toledo,
Ohio, using composite sanmpls of seed, the Bant-.n inbred strains Miclhi-an
1828, Minnesota 26-7h,' Iowa 45, -an Iowa 9 showed respective larval popula-
tions which were 41.0, 36.2, 26.9, and 41).4 percent lower then the aver:ages
expected for their conditions of test; whereas the inbred strains Purdue
14, Purdue 39, and Purdue'51 showed respective larval populrtions which were
0.5, 3.6, and 13.8 percent above their exnected levels of population. This
established the former group as relatively resistant to the survival of the


larvae, and the latter group as of approximately average effect. Hybrid
combinations of the strains mentioned abore were tested in 1940, Compar-
ing the performance of the rel-tivel- resistant inbred strains Michigan
1828, Minnesota 26-34, Iowa 45, and Iowa 9, when commonly crossed on the
inbred strains Purdue 14, Purdue 39, and Purdue 51, the 4 respective
groups of single-crosses showed average larval populations, which were
31.2, 35.0, 33.8, and 22.5 percent below the group averege for the 3 pos-
sible hybrid combinations of the common inbred parents Purdue 14, 39, and
51, giving evidence that the relative resistance inherent in the inbred
lines considered was transmitted to the hybrid strains'containing them. Com-
pqring the group performance when the relatively resistant inbred strains
Minnesota 26-34, Iowa 45, and Iowa 9, respectively, were crossed on the
average nerforming inbred strains Purdue 14, 39, and 51, and the relatively
resistant inbred strain Michigan 1828, the group containing Michigan 1828
as a common parent showed 11.8, 28.6, and 15.1 percent fewer borers than
the resnective groups containing Purdue 14, 39, and 51 as common parents,
showing th.t the inclusion of 2 relatively resistant inbred parents in the
cormosition of the hybrid tended further to increase its resistance to the
survival of th( l-rv.'e. Summaorizing these results, on an average bnsis,
the hybrid combinations containing 2 relatively resistant inbred parents
in their pedigree showed the lower levels of larval populations; those con-
tnininr- a relatively resistant inbred parent and an inbred parent of average
performance in their composition showed intermediate levels of larval popu-
lations; whereas, those composed of 2 inbred parents of average performance
showed the higher levels of larval population, clearly indicating the
presence of the resistance trait in certain of the inbred lines, the ca-
pability of its transmission into hybrid combinations, and the accumulative
character of its effect. As the results are only for a single reason, the
relative degree of effect in hy1brid combination are more qualitative than
quantitative in their indication.

Fielc! status of oarasites of summer gener-tion of European corn
borer in southeastern Massachusetts and central Connecticut.--C. A. Clark
and S. W. Carter, Moor-stown, N. J., state that a corn-borer parasite sur-
vey was conducted at two biolo:ic71-control-study localities (Taunton,
Mass., and East Hartford, Conn.) during the sunmer of 1940. The exotic
parasites recovered in the southeastern Massachusetts survey were Inareo-
lata punctoria Roman, Lvydella grisescens R. D., Chelonus annulipes Wesm.,
and Macrocentrus gifuensis Ashm. The first 3 species were also recovered
from central Connecticut. A total of 83h borers from southeastern Massa-
chusetts were observed for parasitization. Of this number, 222, or 26.3
percent, were oarasitized by the nolyembryonic Macrocentrus gifuensis, 66,
or 7,8 nercent, by Lydella grisescens, 44, or 5.2 percent, by Inareolata
punctoria, and 5, or 0.6 percent, by Chelonus annulipes. Of the total num-
ber of borers in the collections, 337, or 4o percent, were parasitized by
the introduced parasites named above, The total parasitization of the
borers in the same locality on the sumner generation of 1939 was 26.1 per-
cent. In -central Connecticut the survey covered 63,6 square miles, and
35.6 percent of the borers observed wire natasitized; By far the most im-
oortant parasite was Inareolata punctoria which accounted for 93.6 percent
of the parasitization recorded for this locality. L. grisescens has spread
westward and was found -rincipally on the west side of the Connecticut River
an. in a narrow strip on the east side of the river opposite the City of-
Hartford. Parasitization of the borer by this tachinid remains low, One


specimen of C. annulines was recovered from central Connecticut. This
species was released here in the spring of 1939.

Domestic collection of corn borer parasite material.-C. A. Clark,
Moorestown, N. J., reports that during Noveiber 1940, N. J. Nerney col-
lected overwintering corn borer larvae in southeastern Massachusetts from
which to rear parasites. Collections were made in the area in which the
four exotic parasites, M. gifuensis, L. grisescens, I. punctoria, and C.
annulipes are well established. It is exnected that large numbers of the
first parasite listed above and smaller numbers of the other 3 parasites
will become available in 1941 as a result of these collections, Approxi-
mately 18,000 overwintering corn borer larvae were collected, shipTed to
the Moorestown, N. J., corn borer laboratory, and placed in cold storage
at 350 F. Similar collections of parasite material are in progress in
central Connecticut, where I. punctoria is particularly abundant. The
tachinid L. grisescens will also be obtained from this source,

Dawson fly-resistance factors isolated,--According to W. B. Noble,
Sacramento, Calif., tests made at the Sacramento laboratory during 1940
indicate the successful isolation and differentiation of the two factors
for fly resistance that occur in Dawson wheat.


Results of fumigation tests reported to grower.--Reports from the
Division of Control Investigations indicate that apDroximately two-thirds
of the varieties of perennial plants fumigated with methyl bromide at
Mentor, Ohio, and transported to the Bureau's field laboratory at Sanford,
Fla., for growing on have survived in such numbers as to indicate that
their fumigation under commercial conditions is practicable. A conference
was held by Randall Lntta, of the Division of Control Investia.tions, a-nd
V. A. Johnson, of the Division's tre:ting section, with the grower who
furnished the material. The grower seemed very optimistic about the re-
sults, even though they were not as good as he had thought from his per-
sonal observations while on a visit to Florida. Six plants of each
variety were tested and the observations based solely on the number of
plants that grew. All 6 plants of 437 varieties survived, or 47.9 percent
of the total varieties tested. Four or 5 plants of an additional 179
varieties, or 19.6 percent, grew. These 2 groups, comprising 67.5 percent
of the varieties tested, may be considered tolernt to the methyl bromide
fumigation. A third group, in which only 1 to 3 plants survived, involved
159 varieties, or 17.L percent. There was complete mortality among 137
varieties, or 15.1 percent. Thus, results were unsatisfactory with 296
varieties, or 32.5 percent. After checking over the individual varieties
in the last 2 groups, the grower expressed the opinion that the majority
of these suffered injury from causes other than methyl bromide. Additional
tests with the plants in the last 2 groups will be made on the grower's
premises about the first of April and the plants set out there for observa-
tion. It is anticipated that, many of these- will be found tolerant to the
fumigant when tested under more normal conditions,

Growers cooperate in use of fumigation chambers.--A fumigation cham-
ber owned by a South Jersey nurseryman was moved during the month into a
greenhouse of another establishment, whera? azaleas had been heeled in for


the winter. A suitable temnerature was maintained in this location for
the fumigation of azaleas owned by 1 firm and spirea roots for the other,
Fifteen hundred Azalea indica were fumigated in this box during the month.
The.superintendent of an estate on Long Island also utilized this method
for obtaining certification of cineraria plants in bloom to be shipped to
the estate owners wintering in Florida. A large h-drangea grower in the
Mprvland area treated 9,078 hydrangeas with methyl bromide for shipment
to points outside the regulated area and also fumigated 8,350 miscellaneous
nursery and greenhouse -lants for 2 other growers, .both of whom report no
bad effects from the treatment. These 2 growers expect to build their own
fumigation chambers before spring. A farmer at Girdletree, Md., offered
for inspection 7,200 listrus roots and 1,430 hard gip roots. After close
examin-tion it was found th-t both tynes of roots were filled with cavi-
ties, thus making inspection impossible from the standpoint of labor rnd
time involved. These roots were fumigated with methyl bromide by a nearby
strawberry plant shipper. The fumigation charge was much less than the
cost of hand cleaning and inspection. These roots were shipped to Florida
for pllnting on a fnrm operated by the owner of the roots.

Plrnt shipments during January,--A total of 503,991 plants was
shipped from the Delownre area during th. month, a slight increase over
the preceding month. This wa, due to the movement of roses from 1 large
establishm.nt. Another establishment also shipned during the month,
mostly boysenberry plants. This firm exm-cts to start shipping canna
roots in Fobrurry. Of this total, 10,350 pl-'nts were fumigated with methyl
bromide. On the Eastern Sore of MI.ry-land and Virgini- piactically all
nurserymen dug stock for when weather permitted. The stock was
graded, clerned, and inspected orior to pl~cing in certified storage rooms.
A erower in the Phila'delnhia area shippnne pansy plants that werf, dug in
the fall before the ground froze. After most of the soil was removed, the
plants wr0 placed in trenches similnr to those used in storin. celery.
With heavy p.per and soil they wer., protected from ice Pnd snow. Now they
can be readily lifted for immediate shipment. This appears to be a satis-
factory method since the plnnts show little injury,

Substitutes for iDtch bulbs.--Nursery ;-nd greenhouse inspectors re-
port that. .zaleas are movinr exceptionally well. Growers of this plant
report as high as 66 oprcent increase in srles, owing to the fact that no
bulbs can be imnorted from European countries. A recently classified es-
tablishment in South Jersey, after tre'tin-i the floor of their greenhouse
with naphthalene and fu'nii-'ating their potting soil, started 50,000 pe-
tuni-s from seed. Anproximvtely 25,n00 of these were potted in 2 1/4-inch
mots for the Easter trade outside of the Jana.nese beetle regulated area.
This firm expects to start shipping in February. A In.rge-scale grower in
the Philedelphia Prea is growing more lilies and hvdrangeas, as well as
azaleas, to make un for the siortpge of foreign tulips and hyacinths.

Demonstration of fumination chramber.--The Divisioh's portable methyl
bromide futmigation chamber was taken to large cstablishment at New Bruns-
wick, N. J., for testine roses and P. few varieties of 'perennials-, Roses-
fumigated w-re mostly of the New Dawn variety. These were fumigated and
put back in storage to be lnnte' out this spring for observation. If the
test is successful a further check run will be made this spring. Heretofore


these roses have been made eligible for certification by washing the
soil from the roots. This has caused some injury. If the fumigated
roses show no ill effects, this firm will construct a gas chamber and
fumigate all plants for which they desire certification.

Lumber sales corooration purchases hurricane lumber.--Word was
recently received at the Waltham, Mass., gypsy moth headquarters that a
lumber sales corporation, with headquarters in Boston, has purchased from
the Government all of the softwood hurricane lumber in New England. The
quantity involved is approximately 425,000,000 board feet. The company
has set up seven assembling points for the milling and shipping of lumber,
five of which are located in central and southern New Hampshire, one in
southern Maine, and one in central Massachusetts. In addition to the
above, there are two assembling points for the loading of rough lumber in
central New Hamnshire. Lumber is being hauled to these points from a
radius of 60 to 100 miles. This corporation has not had an opportunity
to arrange a storage point in the States of Connecticut and Rhode Island
where there are 17,000,000 feet of hurricane lumber. No accurlte figures
are available as to the total amount of this lumber that will require
actual piece-by-niece inspection, as this will depend'on the type of mill-
ing, length of storae, and exposure to gyosy moth infestation. It is
probable that at least 40 nercent of the lumber will require such inspec-
tion. Shi-ment of the lumber from the storage points is to be spread over
a period of 2 years,

*Hurricane lumber inspected.--One temporary inspector was employed
during January for the pur-oose of assisting with lumber inspection at Con-
cord, N. H., where a lumber comp'any has purchased approxirmtely 4,000,000
board feet of hurricane lumber from the Government. This concern ships
about four carlopds, or 80,000 board f;et, per day. As this lumber was
cut more than2. years ago and was exposed to gyosy moth infestation during
the egg-laying season of 1940, each individual board must be examined
prior to loading on the cars. The increased demand for luber in the
present emergency is shown by a comparison-of shipments made in 1940 and
1941. In Janun.ry 1940, 5,083,625 board feet were inspected and certified
for shipment from the gyosy moth regulated areas. In January of this
year, 9,559,875 board fcet, or an increase of nearly 100 percent, were
inspected and certified.

Bark-beetle distribution in eastern Pennsylvania.--Bark-beetle popu-
lation appears to be heavy along the Delaware River lowlands in Pike County,
but in other nortions of the county thus far covered it is reoorted as
light. In Monroe County Scolytus multistriatus Marsh. seems to be rare
in the highlond, ith a light infestation of Hylurgopinus rufines Eich. oc-
curring at noints a~nroximately 5 miles west of the Delaware River in the
mountainous section The portion of Northamnton County which lies in the
outer disease zone has a hepvy beetle population. Beetles are compara-
tively scarce in Lehigh County, as a large nortion of the county is con-
sidered elm-free. Bucks County has a heavy beetle population in the areas
along the Delaware River as far south as Morrisville, where it begins to
lighten considerably. Beetles are nlentiful in Montgomery County along
the creeks in the northwestern part of the county, with medium infestation
throughout the remainder of the county. A light infestation has been


reported from- the Roxborough section along the Schuylkill River, in Phila-
delphia County.- Medium infestations were found in thr approximate center
of the work area in Chester County, with light infestations in the re-
mainder of the county. In Delaware County infestation is medium in two
areas in the center of the county and one area in the southern oart. In
the -ortion of Berks County covered to date, a medium beetle population
was found in four areas along the Schuylkill River below Reading. Two
adjoining areas which lie along the Montgomery'County line showed a very
heavy infestation, owing to a number of fallen trees and.hangers caused
by a local storm which struck this area last summer. An elm eradicated
in the southwestern part of Hanover Township, Luzerne County, was found
to contain calleries from which H. rufipes had emerged. Signs of this
beetle are very rare in this vicinity, and none has been found alive.

Elm girdling handicaps operations in Ohio,--Deliberate girdling
of elms in the Athens, Ohio, detached Dutch elh disease area continues
to hamper sanitation. activities in that section. It is estimated that
aoproximrtely 75 nercent of the work performed in the Athens area is due
to girdling by farmer-s, who know tht project workers will be obliged to
reiove girdled treps. Ten of the 16 infected elms discovered in Athens
County-during 1940 were girdled. Each of 3 confirmed tre s discovered
in Lodi Township of this county last December had been girdled by the
property owners after the beetle-material scouts h.d completed tagging
trees in the -.rea. In each instance the disease proved to be a 1940 in-
fection. One tree was heavily infested with Scolytus multistriatus,
with most of the beetles already emerged. No beetles of.either species
were found in t1- other two elms, as the. were still too green for suc-
cessful entrance,

Survepr ice-stern dama -e in Few Jersey and Pennsylvania.--A survey
conducted throuchout the New Jersey and. ennsylvnnii work areas, to de-
termine the extent of damage coused by the ice storm of Ja1nuary 16 and 17,
showed very little breakage in elms. The dahaoge observed was.confined
lar~:ely to 1- to s-inch branches. In New Jersey an' roximately 75 percent
of the broken elm material was on the ground. Thi's conrition will reduce
climbine considerably during sanitation operations, In Union County,
N. J., storm damage is general, making it nece'ssary to rescout the entire
county for potential beetle material.

Beetle-material scouting completed along Susquehanna.--Scouting
for beetle-infested or potential beetle material along both sides of the
Susquehanna River from the Town of Falls to the City of Berwick was com-
pleted in the Wilkes-Barre, Pa., detached area. This scouting has af-
forded an accurate check on beetle conditions along the river for a dis-
tance of apnroximately 30 miles below the city of Wilkes-Barre, and about
20 miles above the city. The number of elms found to be infested along
the river was small, but -a large amount of ootntial beetle material was

Precautionary 'measures in Binghamton, N. Y., area.--An effort is
being made to complete the removal of all elm material containing infes-
tations of elm bark beetles, or likely to become so infested, along the
banks of the major streams and rivers in the Binghamton area before these


streams reach the flood stage in the spring. The purpose of this is to
eliminate the possibility of this material being carried down stream and
bark beetles from the infected zone emerging in noninfected areas.


Chemical-injection experiments with living elms.--R. R. Whitten,
Morristown, T. J., has summarized experiments conducted during the last
5 years on the internol application of chemical solutions to living elm
tre -s. The principal purpose of the tests was to develop an efficient
and economical means of killing woodland elms without subsequent attack
by bark beetles, An effective nethod of application has been develored
and good results have been obtained with sodium arsenite, cupric chloride,
cupric nitrate, ammonium bifluoride, and cupric sulfate. It was possible
to get the allotted dosage into a tree during every month of the year,
nrovided the solution did not freeze. However, only in those months in
which elms are in foliage was it possible to obtain rood distribution of
the solution through the tree. During the dormant season some of the so-
lutions moved into the stump and roots but did not rise more than 15 feet
above the point of applic tion. In the first 2 weeks of the foliar season
the movement was very rapid but for the most part upward. Such rapid up-
ward movement often led to poor trentment of the stump and roots, and
when certain chemicals were used sprouting occurred below the point of
treatment. During the latter part of the foliar season the solutions
moved u-ward and downward satisfactorily. The distribution of the chemi-
cal within the tree was determined in the case of trees into which cupric
sulf-te and sodium arsonite solutions were injected. This was accomplished
by analyses of increment core samples, leaves, and small twigs. The out-
standing r-sults of these analyses were as follows: (1) There was no cor-
relation between concentration of chemical and bark-beetle attack; (2)
from 80 to 90 percent of the chemical was found in the outer 1 inch of a
radial increment core; (3) during the first month after tre-tment an
averrge of 38 Dercent of the chemical was in the bark and 1 year after
treatment this average had increased to 57 percent; and (4) a considerable
portion -o' .the chemical was lost in the falling foliage. In the case of
trees treated with the heavier dosages of sodium arsenite solution there
was enough of the chemical in the falling leaves to kill the succulent
undergrowth. .Sodium arsenite was the most effective chemical used in the
experiments. The minimum effective dosage of the commercial concentrate
containing 6 pounds of arsenic trioxide and 2 pounds of sodium hydroxide
was found to be 0.06 cc. per square foot-of bark area. One half this
dosage readily killed elm trees and reduced the subsequent bark-bertle de-
velopment from 90 to 95,percent over-corresoonding checks. When applied
in dosages of from 0.03 to 0.06 cc. per square foot of bark area the
sodium arsenite concentrate did not apnper to be repellent to bark-beetle
adults, as did the other-effective chemicals used; however, it was toxic
to the bark-beetle brood.. The most objectionable nuality of sodium ar-
senite is its high toxicity to man and animals.

Penetrating sprays in whitebark nine.--The nossibility of using pene-
trating sprays as a means of controlling the mountain pine beetle in white-
bark pine is reported by A. L. Gibson, of the forest insect laboratory at
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. Although the effectiveness of these sprnys against


the same insect in lodgepole oine has been demonstrated, it was not until
last season that similar control was obtained from experiments conducted
in whitebark pine. The results came as somewhat of a surprise, as the
supposedly more resistant bark and the much cooler environment of white-
bark pine were expected to present a more difficult control problem. How-
ever, experiments with two formulae, conducted on Mt. Washburn, in Yellow-
stone National Park, indicate satisfactory control even against brood in
trees recently attacked, where bark bark that is still green or moist offers
high resistance to -enntration by the spray.


Satisfactory progress of gypsy moth work during January.--Gypsy moth
work progressed without interruption because of weather conditions during
the first half of January, with two exceptions. Most of the crews working
in Vermont and Massachusetts preferred to work on January 7 because of the
extremely low temperatures, and some crews in Connecticut and Pennsylvania
also suspended work on that date. Again, about the middle of the month,
subzero temneratures accompanied by high winds caused much discomfort to
the workers and the discontinuance of work i-n some sections. This was fol-
lowed auickly by moderating temperntures and a driving snow and sleet storm
that coated trees and roads with ice. The storm was not sufficiently in-
tense to interfere seriously with thinning and brush-disposal work in the
Vermont and Massachusetts sections of the barrier zone, but scouting was im-
mediately discontinued when the ice coating prevented the thorough examina-
tion of trees and shrubs for egg clusters, and in Connecticut was so severe
thpt all field work was temporarily discontinued, Another severe storm near
the end of the month resulted ii a fall of dry snow rng-ing in depth from
6 or 8 inches in northern Vermont to 14 inches in western Massachusetts and
Connecticut. This storm did not seriously hamper gypsy moth work, as it
started on Friday after most of the crews had comnleted their work schedule
for the week.

National Defense nrogram draws many gypsy moth workers.--It is becom-
ing increasingly difficult to obtain a sufficient number of W. P. A.
workers to accomplish the gynsy moth work planned for the present fiscal
year in many localities. The labor situation is especially serious in Con-
necticut, where increased activity in the manufacturing centers recuires
increasing numbers of men; and also in Pennsylvania, where W. P-. A. employ-
ment officials are continually transferring men to training projects con-
nected with the National Defense program.

Results of gypsy moth scouting work in Vermont.--Addison County: A
special crew of agents working on sumner-residence properties bordering Lake
Dunmore, in Salisbury Township, destroyed several egg clusters while en-
gaged in the disposal of brush accumulated at the center of a small gypsy
moth infestation discovered eprlier in the season.- Much of the growth
around the shores of the, particularly in the infested area, includes
a substantial percentage of trees favorable for gypsy moth development.
Oaks and poplors, esnecially favored by the.insect, are abundant and com-
prise some of the best shade trees surrounding the cottages. Several scat-
tered egg clusters were also found and creosoted in Bristol Township.


Bennington County: The crew. scuting in Manchester Township continued to
find and creosote egg clusters scattered through the- woodland on the
northerly slope of Equinox Mountain.- A few egg clusters were also found
in the northern section of Shaftsbury, bordering the Arlington Town line
and only a few miles southwest :f the infested area in Manchester. Several
scattered ege clusters were also creosoted in Pownal Township, in the south-
west corner of the county. Franklin County: Scoutine-was begun in Mont-
gomery Township early in December, but no indications of gypsy moth infes-
tation have been found. Lamoille County: No additional infestations have
been found recently in Eden Township. Orleans County: No new infestations
have recently been found in Lowell Township. Rutland County: Numerous
widely scattered egg clusters were recently located in Brandon Township,
one of the northernmost towns in Rutland County. Most of the egg clusters
were found in the vicinity of small infestations discovered last year along
the eastern border of the township. The control work at the Brandon infes-
tation last year was confined to the creosoting of egg: clusters and the
crushing of larvae and pupae found under burlap bands, as the necessity of
spraying more important infestations with the limited equipment available
prohibited the spraying of the Brandon colonies. Most of the new infesta-
tions are located, as were the older colonies, on the precipitous-and rocky
slopes of a mountain ridge extending from the'northern part of Rutland Coun-
ty north across the entire eastern side of Addison County and into Chitten-
den County.

Gypsy moth infestations reduced by unfavorable weather.--Scouting
crews working in the Massachusetts section of the barrier zone continued
to find numerous scattered gypnsy moth egg clusters, althoug;h in some lo-
calities the number of new ege clusters apneared to be substantially de-
creased from numbers found last year, No.evidence of new eg- clusters
could be found in several areas where old hatched egg clusters were in evi-
dence, which indicates that the larval mortnlity was unusually high during
the long period of unseasonably cold and wet weather late last spring and
early in the summer. With few exceptions the new egg clusters found to
date occur singly, and in many instances are widely separated. A large num-
ber of broken egg clusters was found as a result of' an ice storm during the
week ended December 21, and which was particularly severe throughout Berk-
shire County, Mass., and in the mountainous arep.s of northwestern Connecti-
cut. Additional work will be necessary to eliminate the infestations where
the broken egg clusters occur, as the severed portions .nd individual eggs
fall to the ground and cannot be found in the forest debris.

Woodlots scouted in advance of logging operations.--White birch is
being cut on a timber lot consisting of several hundred acres in Lanesboro
Township, Berkshire County, Mass., and also from a lot of equal size in
Florida Township, also in Berkshire County. The timber is transported to
wood-working mills in Bennington, Vt., and Berlin, N, Y. Gyssy moth scout-
ing is done in both lots well in advance of the cutting operations, which
will be conducted throughout the winter,, so that all egg clusters may be
destroyed by creosote before the logs are hPuled to the mills, thereby
*eliminating the possibility of spreading gypsy moth infestation to unin-
fested localities. Several eg~ clusters have already b:en found scattered
through the woodlots,


Gvpsy moth work in progress in Pennsylvania,--By the middle of Janu-
ary gypsy moth scouting work in the Pennsylvania area was being conducted
in 14 townships, 7 of which are located in Lnckawanna County, 4 in Luzerne
County, 2 in Monroe County, and 1 in Carbon County. Gypsy moth infestations
have been found in each of the towns, many of them consisting of only a few
scattered e; clusters. Thinning work at infested locations was being done
by 26 crews of laborers who succeeded in disposing of large ouantities of
brush and other useless wood that had been gathered and piled for burning
des-oite considerable unf.ivorable weather, Gypsy moth scouting and thinning
work was also done by 14 National Youth Administration crews and by 1 crew
provided by the Department of Public Assistance.

Satisfactory work done by gypsy moth scouts,--Two experienced regular
gypsy moth employees were recently detailed to reexamine some of.the wood-
land-previously scouted by W. P, A. workers in the Pennsylvania area, as a
check on the efficiency of the crews. It was found that most of the in-
tensive scouting work was satisfactory.

C. C. C. gopsy moth work during January.--A total of 6,320 6-hour
man-days was used by the C. C, C. on gypsy moth work east of the barrier
zone under the supervision of.this Bureau in January. Only-542 man-days
were used during the week ended.January 4, while 1,631 man-days were used
during the week ended January 25. A new enrollment period began on January
1, and the recent enrollees go through an orientation course to acquaint
them with camp routine and also must be given special training in gypsy moth
work before being released for actual service. The amount of work-accom-
plished is necessarily reduced during these training periods and increases
as the new men are turned over for field work. A holiday, snowstorms, icy
road conditions, an epidemic of colds, and unfilled auotas at some of the
camps also contributed to the small amount of work done during the first
part of January. The work consisted of scouting, selective thinning of
favored food plants, and brush disposal. The brush is usually burned along
the roadsides, but is often scattered and left to deteriorate in other sec-
tions in order to reduce the cost of operations, No new heavy gypsy moth
infestations were found during January,

Quarterly report and plans for future work distributed.--Copies of the
report of C. C. C. gyosy moth work for the second quarter of the current
fiscal year were distributed in January. The datp. were given in the News
Letter (v.VIII, No. 2, p. l4. Feb. 1, 1941). The data are arranged by towns
and camps, a report for each State is delivered to the State and Federal
officials concerned, and sections pertaining to the various camps are sent
to the cpmp superintendents and foremen. The latter sections are further
broken down into colony records, which are of especial interest to the fore-
men. The maintainance of the detailed statistics necessary to provide these
reports by colonies has proved useful in reducing the time consumed in
thinning, assembling, and burning work fron 20.8 mann-days per acre for the
last half of the fiscal year. 1937 to 16.0 man-days per acre during the first
half of the fiscal year 1941. Unusually high costs at any location is
shown by the records, and corrective measuires can be taken. Plans for C. C. C,
gypsy moth work for the 17th and 18th periods, which begin on April 1, 1941,
and end on Mprch 31, 1942, were also distributed to the camp superintendents
and State officials concerned. These olans are of assistance to the superin-
tendents in planning the work for the entire camp, and the figures are often


used without alteration. The amount of time nrovided for in the nresent
set of plans will undoubtedly have to be revised, as information was re-
cently received that the camp quotas are to be reduced from 206 to 167 en-
rollees per camp, and all .activities will be reduced proportionally.

G-rosy moth scouting to be done from camp in northern Vermont.--Arrange-
ments have been made to obtain C. C. C. enrollee labor to do gy'ssy moth
scouting work from a camp in northern Vermont. The men will be used to de-
termine the extent and density of gypsy moth infestation in the vicinity of
the eamp, which is located north of the area where poresent gynsy moth work
is conducted, and across the Connecticut River in New Homoshire. Super-
vision will be nrovided by the transferral of exoerienced men from another
Vermont cam-o where gypsy moth work is done, and the scouting program will
be so arranged that it will not interfere with construction work now in
progress at the camp.

Gvrsy moth control measures applied by private property owner.--Added
evidence of the cordial relationships existing between property owners !nd
C. C. C. gyrsy moth workers was renorted by a ~gpsy moth foreman in a Ver-
mont camp. The foreman examined a recently purchased tract of 150 acres of
timberland with the new owner and recommended the measures best suited to
control the gy-osy moth in the stand. Since that time the owner has employed
several laborers to thin out the growth favorable for gysy moth development,
and he plans to follow this work with the planting of tree species resistant
to gyrosy moth. This will directl- benefit both the nroperty owner and the
gypsy moth work as a whole, and deronstrates the practicability of coonera-
tive work.


Barberr- bush's found on 30 iroperti.:s in Nebr.aka; in 1941.--When
field work ,was suspended in Nebrasna about DeceM'a r 15 because of severe
temoeratures and considerable snow, areas co:mprisin7 1I4,325 square miles
had been covered with an intensive survey during 1940. Twenty-two new
prope-rties w're found infested with barberry bushes and seedlings and es-
caped obs:--s were found on S of the 203 old properties reinspected. The
following table shows the trend of survey and eradiction in Nebraska dur-
ing the 5-year -eriod 1936-40.

:: Time used : Area Average
Year : Labor : Area per :Properties rsur ve< d er:bushes per
:_ usd : svrveyed :so uare mile: fon : er by eo rltv_
; Hi'. :Souare miles: Hours : i'mber :Sa-:e miles: Nu-iber
1936----: 47,971 7,930 : 18.659 : 129 : 6147 5.11
1937----: 62,90: 7,639 : .24 72 : 106.o 6.8-
19---: 50, 33: 6,379 : 7,390 : 29 : 220 ?0 : 2.65
1937---- 47 1: 13,705 : 3.496 : 9 : j 2
0- :. 56l. Il 1l, 325 : 3.900 : o30 : 477.50 0

Progreas in barberry eradication in Ill ..i ~ i'.--i'ela ac ti ft
for 1940 were confined to three arers that will be discussed separately. The
methods of survey consisted of the same -ractices that h .d UBRO for



several years on intensive survey. Local workers were organized into
crews of six to eight men each, under the direction of a foreman. Two or
more such crews were used in a county under the direction of one super-
visor. One assistant State leader took charce of three or more county
groups. All scouting was of the intensive type. One group of counties in
eastern Illinois was given the initial intensive survey. These included
Champaign, Macon, Doughls, Moultrie; Coles, Edgar, and Shelby, where a
farmstead and city survey-had been made in 1925. One group in western
Illinois, including Pike, Brown, Hancock, and McDonough Counties, was
given an intensive survey. These differ from the eastern counties in
that the- contain a large ?mount of timbered land. Sever:l infested areas
known to exist in these counties had been reinsnected once since the first
fzrmstead survey in 1924-26. Because of the topography and the size of
the timbered areas, progress there was much slo-er than in counties com-
prisint the first groun, A third group in north-central -Illinois, repre-
senting a region in which rather extensive areas of infestation h-ve
existed and in which no work had been do.e for 5 to 7 years, demanded
further attention. An intensive survey was conducted in the portions of
the counties in which barberries had been numerous in the past. These
counties are La Salle, Marshall, Putham, and Rock Island. They had had an
original farmstead survey in 1923-24 and a reinspection of escaped areas
in 1927-28. The results of the intensive survey are indicated in the fol-
lowing tables.


T'oble 1.--Sma-w^r- of surver activities for calendar yerr 1940, by properties

: er- :Sru're mil es in--: New pronerties : Old. pronrties
Counti s :cert c: Initi1: Sub- P er '- :: hrvi nu
in of county: urve:y :seqlnt :Iunber:P1 nted: Escepes or: ruiting: J.mb- -* .rirries, :Seed-: Fruiti.g
Illinois :co0-'red: : survey :fbound : bushes" seedlins: b.shes :ispected: 1 kinds :lin s: bushes
GROUP : : : :
Eastern: : : : : : :: :
Chiapn - 36 : 380 : 0 : 3 : .3 66.7 67 : 35 17.1 2.8 :. 11.4
Coles------: 0 : 209 : 0 6 : 100.0 0 .. : 0 : 2.5, : 0 : 0
Dou s---- : 100 : 417 : 0 4 0 : 1 : 100.0 : 41 : 0 : 0 :
Edrr-------: 72 : 4h 0 : : 75.0 : 25.0 .0 : 0 2. : 0 : 1.1
Macon----- -- 196: : 0 : : 0: : : 13 .: 7.7 : 0 7.7
Moultrie-- : 100 :' 13 : 0 :1 : :0 : 10. : 0 : 2 :. 4., 0 : 0
Shelb---- 1 : 4 : 0 :- :-- -- : : 0 : -
Subtotal- -- :1,993 : : 19 7: 3.6 : 3.5 : T7. 2o3 4: 2.)1
GEOUP II: : : :
We stern: : : : : : :
Brown-------: 4 : 14 0 1 :00 : 0 0 0 :0 0
Hancoc-----: 7 598 : 0 :20 '10 .0 : 50 : 50 18.0 0 : 2.0
McDonourh----: 4 : 24 : 0 : 0 : 0 : :
Pike--------: 7 : 5g : 0 : 5 :60 : K.O : 60 : 12 : 7. : 0 : 25.0
Subtol ---: -- : 77_ 0- : 26 : 23 76.9 50 : 2 : 20.9 : 0 : 6.4
GEOUP III: : : : : : : :
iorth-centr: : : : :
Salle------: 5 : 0 56 : 15 : 20.0 : 0o : 40.0 : 9 : 53.6 10.1 : 24.6
Marshll---: 39 : 0 : 156 : 11 : 0 : 100- : 6. : 107 : 15.9 : 0.9 : 5.6
Putna -----: 62 : 07 : : 12.5 : 87.5 : 7.5 : 47 : 25.5 : 4.3: 14.9
Rock Islnd--: 6 : 0 : 26 : 2 : 0 100- 0 : 47 :: 27.7 : 0 : 6.4
Subtotrl---- -- : 0 : 45 : : 11.1 : *g.g 7.1 : 270 :: 20.2 : 3.7 : 12.2
Total---- --- 2,766 : : l : 29.6 : 716 : 43.2 : 575 : 17.q :: 1.9 : 7.5


Table 2.--Sunmmar of surve-y activities for calendar year 1940, by bushes found

SBushes found on new properties : Bushes found on old properties :: Total
: Percentges of-- : Percentg-es of-- :barberry:
Counties :Brbereres:Planted:Escapes :Fruit-: 3,&r- : : : bushes : Salt
in :. ll kinds :bushes : and : ing :berries, :Plented:Escaped:Seed-:Fruiting: de- :: used
Illinois : : :seedlings:.bushes: 1 kinds: bushes:bushes :lings: bushes :stroyed :
: Tumber u: : : : umber : : : Number Pounds
Eastern: : *: :
Champaig----: S : 12. : 7.5 25.0 : 20 : 5.0 :10. : 75.0 : 2 : 45
Coles -----10 100.0 : 0 : 40.0 : '0 :100.0 : : 0 11 : 0
Douglas-----: 11 : 5 : 54.6 :45.4: 0 : 0 :0 : 0 : : 1 : 40
Edgar--------: 5 : 60.O : 4.0 : 20.0 2 :.0 50 0 50. 50.0 7 45
Macon-----: 1 : 0 :100.0 :0 : 2 :100.0 :0 : 0 : 50.0 3 : 2
.Moultrje-----: I : 0 : 100.0 0 : 1 :100.0 : 0 :0 0 2 : -
Shelby.----- 0 : : : : 0 -: : : : : 0
Subtotal-- 36 : 52.7 : 47.2 :.33.3 : 26 : o0.7 : 15.3 :3. 65.3 : 62 : 150
GROUP II: : : : : : :
Western: : : : : :
Brown-------: 1 100.0 : 0 0 : 0 0 0 :0 : 0 1 : 0
Hancok----:: 3 : 12.1 : 87. : 30.3 : 95 : 14.7 : 53 :0 : 1.0 : 12 : 1,170
1HcDon h---: 0 : -- 0 : : : -- : 0 : --
Pike----- : 14 : 21.4 : 7g.6 : 21.4 : 49 0 :100.0 : :10.2 : 63 : 45
Subtot.l---: : 16.6 : 3 : 27.0 : 1 : 9.7 : 90.2 : :.1 : ~ :1,605
North-centrl: : : : :
LaSale- : 21 : 14.3 5.7 : 2.6 : 977 : 0.2 : 85. :14. :7.3 99 : 1,950
Marsh11---: 25 : 0 : 100.. : 16.0 : 11 : 2.8 : 91.7 : 55 :15.5 : 206 : 1,415
Putn---- : 12 : .3 : 91.7 : 33.3 : 99 : 1.0 : 91.9 7.1 :20.2 : 111 : 1,120
Rock I lalnd-: 2 : 0 10.0 : 000.0 : 0 : 00.0 : 0 113 55 : 370
SSubttal---: 60 4.4 : 9.3 : 23.3 : 1.310 0.61 87.6 .11.7 9.5 .1.370 : 455
Total-----: lh4 21.5 : 7.5 :27.0 : 1,4go : 2.9 : .6 :10.5 :10.0 :1,624 : 6,610


Accomplishments in blister rust control work in 1940.--The follow-
ing table shows by regions the appDroximate results of blister rust control
work during the calendar year 19L0. The data for "acreage worked" include
the areas initially cleared of Ribes, as well as those that were reworked.

: Area : Ribes : Labor : Ribes
: worked : pulled : : per acre
: Acres : Number :Man-days: Yumber
Tortheastern--------- 1/706,021 10,930,g21: 39,840: 2/15.
Southern Appalachian- --653,421: 3,072,604: 2,152: 32.0
North Central-------: 324,419: 15,947,553: 67,860: 49.0
Western ,white pine---: 115,608: 20,210,854: 144,090: 176.0
Sugar ine-----------: 171, 5?: 18,455,641: 158,984: 107,0
Total------: 1,971,21: 6,17,473: 53S,926 34.8

Includes large areas found to be Ribes-free.

2/ D
-/ ushes found iDer acre on Ribes-bearing areas only,

During the active season, fron May to Tovember, satisf-!ctory progress
was made on this nroject. in the western white -oine region, Mr. Swanson
reports that for th- Inland Emnire, exclusive of work on iTational Parks,
34,747 acres were worked initially and 80,865 acres were reworked, making a
total of 115,608 acr-s worked during 1940. This reoresents an increase of
12,226 acres over the 1Q30 accomolishmrnts.

Indiana foresters cooperate wi th A. A. A. in blister rust control.--
Oscar J, Dowd, in charge of blister rust control work in Ohio and Indiana,
attended a conference on whit- pine blister rust control in connection with
the Indiana A. A. A. forestry program on February 7 at Indianaoolis. Indi-
ana foreters and representatives of the A. A. A. orogram in Indiana at-
tended the conference. White nine is hihlly regarded as a reforestation
tree in Indiana and discussi an. and questions from committeemen living in
various parts of the S't-te brought out the fact that 70 percent of all
trees used for reforestation in Indiana are conifers. C-nifers are pre-
ferred because experience has shown th-at the-; will grow on eroded planting
sites where hardwood plantings fail. It w as Paul Yost, associate
forester of the DivisiOn of Conservti-on, that 6n percent of the conifers
planted in the State are white pine. T. E. Shaw, extension forester of
Purdue University, stressed the rapid growth rate of white nine, the fact
that it is native in parts of the State, and that farmers want to plant it
f-ar windbrepks and forest plantings. Wild Ribes are rare but not entirely
absen't south of Indianapolis and are fairly abundant in northern Indiana,
excent in dry upland oak woods.

Open weather in Janu*-ry aids Ribes eradication.--Because of the open
weather in Januaryr, it was nossible to continue Ribas eradication in 3&eorgia,.
North Carolina, Tennessae, Virginia, and West Virginia. A total of 75,147
acres was worked during the month. This includes 5,000 nc.res of crew or
scout wor'k and 70,l 7 acres of "blockout," or areas found to be fe of Ribe.s
A total of 1g18,99 Ribes, both wild and cultivated, were eradic-ted with an


expenditure of 12,405 man-hours of labor. In January 1940 only 11,041
acres was worked and 58,375 Ribes eradicated.


The pink bollworm situation in the Big Bend.--The seasonl infesta-
tion -nd popul-tion of pink bollworms .entering hibern2tion in the Big Bend
of Texas during the 1940-41 season has continued:very low. At the last
green-boll exhainations made in the vicinity of Presidio during the latter
part of October in 18 identical fields for which *comparable records are
available for 1939, -n average of 44 percent of the bolls were found to be
infested, as compared with 67 percent in 1939. However, more bolls per
plant were present at thattime than last season and the worm population
per acre was estimated to be 30,657 in 1940, or practically the same as
the 29,133 found in 1939. In the upper end ot the valley above the mouth
of the Conchos River there was a still greater reduction in population of
green bolls, with an averrge of 15,086 worms per acre this season, as com-
pared with 29,363 in 1939 in 7 identical fields. The importance of these
reductions is shown by comparison with populations of 150,000 to 200,000
larvae per acre during the heavy infestations of 1935-37. The freeze that
occurred during the middle of Nov~>mer 1940 killed approximately 95 percent
of the worms in the succulent bolls and still further reduced the number of
worms entering'hibernation. The fields were cleaned by the Division of
Pink Bollworm and Thurberia Weevil Control this fall, as part 4f the 2-year
plan, by cutting and burning the -stalks in all fields and hand-collecting
the shattered bolls and squares in some of the more heavily infested fields,
Examin-itions were made after the clean-up in representative fields by mem-
bars of the Presidio, Tex., l-borrtory, to determine the overwintering pink
bollworn population remaining in the soil and in the surf-ce debris. A
comparison of the overwintering worm population remaining after the clean-
up in different environments in 27 representative fields of the Presidio
Valley .in 1940 with that of 1939 is shown in the following table.

S:Average larvae per square yard in--: Larvae
:Surface trash: Soil : Tottal : per acre
: Number :Nun`aer: Number : Number
1939-------: o.h6 : 2.69 : 3.1 : 15,246
19o -------: .33 1 : 2,16 : 10,454

In exmining the surface trash this year a reord was kept of the num-
ber of larva found in bolls and locks of cotton and in the sauares, blooms,
and loaf trash. A-kiroximately lb oercent of the larvae above ground were
found in the bolls and locks of cotton and 84 Dercent in the squares, blooms,
and leaf trash. Exam-vinations made in 17 identical fields to determine the
number of worms remaining in the bolls an. locks of cotton before and after
the field were cleaned showed that aporoximavtely 75 percent of the over-
wintering surface population hal been destroyed in the clean-up. The clean-
up did :iot reduce the number of larvae hibernating in the soil, but growers
were ,ncoura:ed to plow, irrigate, and plant winter crops on the most heavily
infested fields. Investigations have shown that these cultural practices


greatly increase the winter mortality, and a very light carry-over into
next season is exmected. f-,ctors.: re believed to be responsible
for the extremely favorable situ-tion in the Sig Ben.'. A very heavy, infes-
tation had built up in 1937 an1', a.s the fields were not cleaned that fall,
over 300,000 larvae per acre were estimated as going into hibernation. The
expected heavv carry-over did not develop in 193>, as a considera'le acreage
of cotton was flooded by overflows of the Rio Grande during July and Septen-
ber, killing a lanre number of worns and permitting the crop to oe picked
earlyr ,nd the fields cleaned early that fall. As a result, the larval popu-
lation remaining in the fields was estimated at 10,112 per acre. In 1939
delaed plantin, as a part of the 2-year plan was carried out for the first
tine, However, w thholding of 12te irrigations, a dry fall, and defcliation
by cotton leaf worns caused an early maturity of the crop, and the number
of hibernting. larvae remaining in the fields after the cleon-un was esti-
mated at 15,246 per acre. The infestation developed slowly in 1940, owing
to the light carry-over and to a heavy rain and hail at the critical time
of swring moth emnrgence in May. The planting of ciuick-maturinc varieties,
a dr-r season, and defoliation !y laaf worms again caused nn early maturity
of the crop, and after the clean-up the larval population remaining in the
fields was about the same as the low point reached in 1938.

A new host plant of the rink bollworn,--Two pink boliworm noths
emerged in November and December 1940 from flower buds and green seed cap-
sules of the wild mallow (Pseudabtutilon lozani R. E. Fries) which were col-
lected and caged in Novenber 1940 by C. A. Richmlnnd and Ivan Shiller. The
first moth emerg ed on N~ovenber 19 from 50 flower buds and 75 seed. capsules
collected in the vicinity of infested cottonfields at Ran on Novenber 1, and the second emerged from 1,500 flower udls and seed cap-
sules'collected att Monte Christo, Hid-l]o County, and La Paloma and Ranger-
ville, Cameron County, Tex., between November 1 and 6. The noths found in
the cases were identified by Ignacio Moreno, of the Brownsville, Tex., lab-
oratory, and verified by J. F. Gates Clarke, of the Division of Insect Iden-
tification. It is thought that these are the first records of Tink boll-
worm bre ding in P. lozani under natural conditions. Under artificial con-
c'itions at the Presidio, Tex., laboratory the pink bollworm has been found
to feed on the seed capsules of P. lozani. In 1 test L. W. Noble placed
nink bollworm eC~r's on 25 seed ood:s and later recovered 1 nature fourth-
instar larva and 4 immature larvae. In another test he released h5 pairs
of moths in a field cage that had been placed over a P. lozani plant. On
Noven er 4, 1940, 489 seed capsules were collected in this cage and in each
of 3 pods there was found 1 third-instar larva of the pink bollworm. The
plants on which these tests were conducted were grown fro- seed fron the
lower Rio Grande Valle~, as this plant is not known to occur naturally in
the Presidio Valley, In Hansonts "The Malvaceous Pl nts of Texas" (Tex.
Agr. Expt, Sta. Cir. 22) this pli.nt is recorded as isspdula lozani (Rose)
Fries and the c'istribution gilen as: "Mesquite woods, southwestern Texas,
Corpus Christi, Brownsville, Mission, Laredo, San Antonio, Uvide." Per-
sonnel of the Brownsville laboratory have found it in Cameron, 'illacv,
Kenedy, Hidalgo, Nueces, Starr, Zapata, Uvalde, Duval, .Webb, and Maverick
Counties, Tex,, and in the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico, from near the mouth
of the Rio Grande to a distance of 125 miles west. P. lozani is a perennial
that grows rather a unantly in the lower Rio Grande Valley. of Texns and
Mexico on brushland, along fence rows and railroad tracks, and on other waste


land. Under favorable conditions it fruits throughout the year but more
abundantly in the spring and fall. Its importance as a host of the pink
bollworm has not been determined and it is not kn6wn whether the pink boll-
worm would maintain'itself on this plant in the absence of cotton.


Destruction of sprout and volunteer cotton,--Under the control pro-
gram for the eradication of the pink bollworm in the lower Rio Grande Val-
ley, cotton plants are destr6yed immediately after the cotton crop is har-
vested, in an effort to create a starvation period for the nink bollworm.
However, climatic conditions in that region are so fpvorable to the growth
of cotton that any lateral roots left in the ground after plowing will
sprout and produce fruit throughout the year. This makes it imperative to
carry on an intensive campaign for the destruction of sprout cotton from
fall until early snring, in order to prevent the'fruiting of sprouts and
the conseauent build-up of the pink bollworm prior to the fruiting of the
Sspring crop. This activity was continued through January with good re-
sults. Hepv, frost and freezing temneratures on January 18, 19, and 20
killed an-oroximatel~ 90 percent of the cotton sprouts over the lower Rio
Grande Valley. So far as is known, all fruiting sprouts had been removed
prior to this subnormal temperature, but the freeze undoubtedly killed back
any plants that might hve been overlooked and will prevent the fruiting
of a.ny plants within the near future. During the last few days in Jpnuary
heavy rains were received over most of the lower valley, amounting almost
to flood conditions in some sections; however, only a light precipitation
was received in the vicinity of Brownsville and in the Matamoros area of
Mexico, which was the most he-vily infested area in the valley in 1939.

Control program in the Big Bend,--Field clean-up is conducted each
year in the Presidio-Ojinaga area of the Big Bend of Texas and Mexico, im-
mediately after cotton is oicked, as one of the principal measures for pink
bollworm suppression. Cotton picking in the Presidio Valley waps completed
in December, and field clean-up activities were completed on January 11.
Prior to its completion a campaign was started to interest farmers in win-
ter plowing and irrigation of fields that showed a high number of pink boll-
worms, such fields being determined by the Division of Cotton Insect In-
vestigations through surface trrsh and soil examinations. The host-free
period thus created will be carried through until late spring by preventing
the fruiting of any sprout cotton that may develop in the interim and by
delaying the plrnting of the 1941 crop about a month later than usual. This
delayed planting will bring cotton into fruit after the peak of moth emer-
gence in the spring, resulting in a high mortality of the pink bollworm.
Farmers on both sides of the Rio Grande appear desirous of putting forth
every reasonable effort to aid in this work. This c an be easily understood
when the material benefits th t h-ve accrued to them as a result of this
program are realized.' At the time thi's plan was put into effect in the
Presidio-Ojinaga area of the Big Bend, in the 'fall of 1938,- farmers were
loding on p'n average, 50 percent or more of their cotton crop through pink
bollworm ravages. I'n 1939 infestation had been so reduced that no damage
was present in the 'crop, aid records for the present season 'show a still
greater reduction,


Control measures in lower end of the Ju'arez Valley of Mexico.--In-
spection of the 1940 cotton crop in the Vado de Cedillos and Banderas sec-
tions of the lower end of the Juarez Valley of Mexico, showed a considerable
increase in pink bollworm infestation. This region is really a continua-
tion of the Big Bend, with very similar climatic and cultural conditions,
Consequently, regulations were promulgated by the Mexican Department of
Agriculture, for reducing the oink bollworm infestation in that area, iden-
tical with those which have proved successful in suppressing the heavy in-
festation in the Presidio-Ojinaga area of the Big Bend. Clean-up of fields
was delayed during January on account of weather conditions, and was then
further delayed because the farmers were required to cooperate in main-
tenance of irrigation canals. The irrigation system is a cooperative pro-
ject, and during each winter the farmers are required to donate time and
equipment in cleaning out the canals that serve their farms, and it is
.necess-ry to pl-ce the canals in good condition before water is available.
However, practically all of the area had been cleened by the middle of Jan-
uary, and by the end of the month most of the acreage had been plowed and
irrigation was progressing r-oidly, with the nromise of early completion.
As an indication of the cooperption !-nd interest of the farmers in the
lower Juarez Valley, some 1,300 acr,s of land in excess of the acrange
placed under regulation, was voluntarily cleaned, plowed, and irrigated by
the farmers immediately adjacent to the area reaiiired to be cleaned,

Wild-cotton eradication in Florid,..--In 19.2 it w?.s found that wild
cotton, which grows abundantly in southern Florid-, was heavily infested
with the oink bollworm, and efforts were begun to eradicate this dangerous
cotton insect through the elimination of its host plant. Good success has
attended the efforts of the Bureau in this undertaking, and both plants and
infestation have been greatly reduced. With the exception of two Bureau
crews operating, from houseboats, all of the wild-cotton eradication work
this season is being carried-on by W. P. A. personnel .nd 0.i C. enrollees.
Wild-cotton work was going forward during the period in the Cape Sable
region, where the C. C. C. Cam- is located, on the west coast of Florida
in pr-ctically all counties from and including Hillsborough to Florida Bay,
nnd on the Mainland Keys between Miami and Key.West. With the exception of
the Ca,"e Sable area, most of the wild-cotton area ha.d been covered once
this season at the end of January, and the second cleaning :as in progress
in.some sections, In some parts of the Cape Sable area conditions for the
work were not entirely favorable, owing to excessive reins, following which
moscuitoes became so troublesome as to handicap the wTork. For the period
approximately 5,300 acres were covered, from which were removed 13,869
plants with mature bolls, 160,836 seedlings, and 314 sprout plants.


Effectiveness of metaldeh-de bait against slugs.--A, E. Bonn, of the
Forest Grove, Oreg., laborptory, reports the results of observations indi-
cating the effectiveness of metpldehyde bait a:ainst the gray garden slug
(Agriolinax agrestis L,), made late in November and e rly in Dece:ber 1940
in fields of vetch and Austrian winter field peas in the Will-nette Vplley.
The fields were being severely damaged by the slugss. These observations,
made in cooperation with L. P. Rockwood and M. M, Reeher, of the Division
of Cereal and Forage Insect Investigations, showed that the mortality of
slu-s from the use of metaldehryde bait was slihtly less thnn 50 percent for


Washington County as a whole. Counts were made in 1 field where the
bait had been distributed by placing large handfuls 8 to 10 feet apart
one way and about 12 feet apart the other. As many as 200 dead or para-
lyzed slugs were counted on or about some of the piles of bait, but counts
for the entire field indicated a total mortality of only about 43 percent.
The bait used consisted of bran or bran and apple pomace, with 3 percent
of metaldehyde. The low mortality of slugs obtained from applying this
bait during the outbreak was probably due to the high relative humidity fol-
lowing the application, thus sufficiently retarding the rate of body desic-
cation to permit full recovery of a large percentage of the paralyzed slugs.

Toxicity of triethanalamine dinitroorthocvclohexylphonate to wire-
worms.--C. E. Woodworth, of the Walla Walla, Wash., laboratory, reports that
the triethanalamine dinitroorthocyclohexylphonate salt proved very toxic to
wireworm larvae (principally Limonius canus Lee, and L. californicus (Mann.))
when thev were submerged in water to which had been added small quantities
of this chemical. However, it was found that the mortality of the wire-
worms was very low when they were placed in soil that had been treated with
a water mixture containing this chemical. When the wireworms were sub-
merged in a solution consisting of 350 parts of the chemical per million
parts of water, they were killed in 4 hours or less. When the soil was
treated, at rates of 10 cc. and 100 cc. of the chemical per cubic foot the
larval mortality at the end of 4 days was negligible, whether the wireworms
remained in the treated soil or in the soil above or below it. To deter-
mine the role of the soil in decreasing the toxicity of this chemical, lar-
val mortality was determined by submerging wireworms in solutions of the
chemical originally mixed so as to contain 350 parts per million but which
had passed through the soil, The results of this series of tests showed
a larval mortality of 60 percent, after the larvae were submerged for 8
hours in a liquid obtained by filtering the drainage from soil spturated
with 2 parts of the solution to 1 part of soil. Larval mortality was 75
percent after the test insects had been submerged for g hours in the liq-
uid obtained by filtering the drainage resulting from the use of a vacuum
pump in pas ing the foliage through a column of soil 3 inches deep. Mor-
tality was 100 percent when the larvae had been submerged for only 4 hours
in a liquid obtained by passing the liquid through filter paper only.
Other tests showed that the larvae took up the solution by osmosis, that
the submerged specimens showed the presence of the chemical in the blood,
and that the contraction of the muscles was stopped in a few hours. Ap-
parently this chemical acted as a contact poison but readily lost its
toxic qualities upon coming in contact .with the soil.

Deterioration of cube mixed with carriers.--N. F. Howard and R. A.
Fulton, in reporting the results of an experiment conducted at Columbus,
Ohio, conclude that there was no deterioration of the rotenone-deguelin
content of ground cube root mixed with a finely ground diatomaceous earth,
Georgia talc, and hcdrated lime, with sulfur, after these dust mixtures
had been prepared and stored at room temperatures in stoppered, amber-
colored bottles for 2 years. They also found only slight deterioration in
the rotenone-deguelin content when the ground root had been mixed with mono-
hydrated oonner sulfate-hydrated lime and stored under similar conditions
for a oeriod of 1 year. However, after being stored for 2 years in glass
Petri dishes in a greenhouse the cube mixed with mnoohydrated copper sul-
fate-hydrated lime, hydrated lime, and Georgia talc, had deteriorated 20 to


35 oercent, but the mixtures with diatoqm.ceous earth and. with sulfur had
deteriorated only 15 percent. The rate of deterioration of rotenone-
deguelin in a cube-bordeaux mixture was found to be 50 percent after 3
months, 50 percent after -18 months, and only 55 nercent after 24 months.
All of the dust mixtures used were originally com-ouinded to contain 1 per-
cent of rotenone, being prepared from a cube root 'jowder analyzed as contain-
ing 5.7 nercent of rotenone and 24.5 percent of total extractives. The cube-
bordeaux mixture originally contained 0.01 percent of rotenone; and was
stored in a clear bottle at room temperatures, .The amount of deterioration
of the rotenone-deguelin content was determined at intervals during storage
of the mixtures "by the use of a colorimetric rmethod of analysis.

Fumigation of infested narcissus bulbs with methl- bromide.--In pre-
liminary tests conducted by F. S. Blanton, of the Babylon, 1. Y., laboratory,
effective control of the bulb fly Merodon sp. was obtained by fumigating in-
fested narcissus bulbs with methyl bromide. A larval mortality of 100 per-
cent was obtained by fumigating with a dosage of 2L pounds of m-thyl bromide
per 1,000 cubic feet of space with a 4-hour exposure. In 3 tests receiving
this treatment n total of 268 infested bulbs were treated and all of the lar-
vae were killed. To determine any possible e'fects of this treatment upon
the bulbs, a number of healthy bulbs were subjected to this treatment and
then planted in the field, while some receiving the treatment were saved for
forcin. in the greenhouse.


Ranch-management, screwworm-orevention program.--Tranoing survey s
and the contacting of ranchmen in regard to winter screwworm cases were con-
tinued during January by D. C. PaRrman, H. M. Brundrett, and W. L. Barrett,
of the Uvalde, Tex., laboratory, Mr. Barett also assisted county agents in
Uvalde and Kinney Counties in presenting the progrLam to meetings of ranch-

Winter horse tick,--Tests were made on a number of horses in the
vicinity of Menard, Tex., by H. E. Parish, Roy Melvin., C. L.- Smith, and
E. C. Cushing to determine the tickicidal value of some of the best new in-
secticides for goat lice. Although some of the new insecticides gave a good
kill of the nymphs, none of them killed 100 percent of all stages of the

Cattle grub control beig started in Wyoming,--The active interest
of Wyoming livestock own:ers in cattle grub control has mraifested itself in
the provision of funds for the initiation of a control project in the north-
ern part of Sheridan County; and an appeal through the State entomologist fr
assistance from this Division in getting the work started. In response to
this request, F. C. Bishopy attended the Biennial Peat Control Conference of
Wyoming at Laramie on January 24 and 25 and discussed the cattle grub and
cattle louse problems, Following this conference, a surve- trip was made in
the northern edie of Color-ao and northward through WVoming to Sheri,-an. It
is in Sh-ridan and Johnson Counties that most o' the active interest in grub
control is manifest. At the call of the county Parent, about 60 cattlemen met
in Sheridan on January 27 and. Margaret Greenwale, assistant Sta:te entomolo-
gist, and F. C. Bishopp discussed cattle grubs an' cattle lice, horse.bots,


and other livestock-insect problems. The following day a demonstration
of the treatment with cube wash of cattle for grubs was staged before 15
local cattlemen at a ranch near Parkmnn, Wyo, This is the locality where
the control work is being initiated, The original plans contemplated the
treatment of about 15 thousand head of range cattle, but it is doubtful if
systematic work will be carried out on such a large scale this year. .The
survey revealed the oresence of considerable numbers of the common cattle
grub (H. lineatum (De Vill.)) in the backs of cattle in northern Colorado
and across Wyoming. A few s-ecimens of the northern cattle grub (H, bovis
(Deg.)) were taken at Casper, Buffalo, and Parkman. These were all young,
indicating that this species reached the subcutaneous tissues of the backs
several weeks later than did H. lineatum larvae, as is usual. The infesta-
tion of animals raised on the -aramie Plains was relatively light. Some of
the grubs i.n, each of the localities visited were nearing maturity, indicat-
ing that treatment should be begun within a week or 10 days.


Citrus black spot from Africa.--Phoma citricarpa McAlpine, known
for years as the cause of a serious spotting of citrus fruits in China and.
Australia, has been reported to occur in South Africa more recently. On
December 1l the fungus was found at New York on a grapefruit .in stores from
Durban, South Africa. As the spots are said to develop readily under conditions, it is hoped that it will be possible to detect the dis-
ease in any infected fruit reaching United States ports and to prevent its
entry and establishment, at least so long as it occurs in distant places

Accents on vigilance and cooperation.--Martin Johnson, acting as
verifier onener and. packer .t the Aploraiser's store at Chicago, is evi-
dently very thorouzh in his work and cooperates to the fullest extent with
inspectors of this Division, as evidenced by his recent of rice
straw in the padded lininc of basket receptacles for china tea sets from
the Orient. Heretofore the nad4ninr has always ,ben of unrestricted material
but Mr. Johnson took nothing for granted. Although the Bureau's representa-
tive, F. 0. Doe ', to whose attention the straw was brought, failed to find
any insects or disiases present, the instance serves to show the importance
of eternnl vigilance in such work, as well as the splendid cooperation we
receive from the Customs personnel.

Entomolzgical interceDtions of interest,--Two living larvae of the
trvpotid Anastrenha fraterculus (Wied.) were found at Boston on December 22,
1940, in grapefruit in stores from Trinitdad. Specimens of the mite Erio-
Shels tulipae Keifer wer- founA at Laredo, Tex., on garlic in cargo from
Mexico. Lavin: a, ults of the bostrichi. Dinoderus bifoveolatus Woll. were
intercepted at New York on January 4 in the stems of rattan in cargo from
the Dutch East Indies. A livin-: larva of the trypetid Anastrepha mombin-
praeoptans Sein was interceptee at Norfolk, Vs., on January 4 in mango in
quarters from Jamaica. A livinE specimen of the -khvcitid Anypsipyla uni-
vitella Dyar was taken with Pithecellobium samen pods at the Inspection
House, Washington, D.. C., on December 18, 1940, in mail from Ecuador. Six
living larvae of the Mexican fruitfly (Anastrepha ludens (Loew)) were taken
,at Galveston, Tex., on December 15, 1940, in an orange in quarters from
Mexico. Living larv?.e, pupae, and adults of the otitid Euxesta sororcula


(Wied.) were found at Brownsville,' Tex.. on December 17, 1940, in green
corn in baggage from Mexico. The scarabaeid Onthophagus margipatus Cast.
was intercepted at New York en September 16, 1940, with cotton waste in
cargo from Cuba. A living adult of the bruchid Rhipibruchus picturatus
(Fahr.) was taken at Hoboken on November 20, 194O, in the seed of Prosopis
nigra in mail from Uruguay. A living adult of the chrysomelid Phaedon in-
certum Baly was taken on a persimmon at Boston on November 17, 1940, in
stores.from Japan. Living adults of the cuoujid Laemotmetus rhizophagoides
(Walk.) were found at New York on September 23, 1910, in bamboo lumber used
as dunnage from Java. Pierce's "Manual of Dangerous Insects" lists this
insect as being injurious to dry rice and grain in Ceylon and Germany.

Pathological interceptions of interest.--Several species of nematodes,
including Aphelenchus avenae Bast, were found on January l1 at New York in
soil around a plant of Musa sp. in baggage from Costa Rica. Bacterium citri
Doidge was found on December 12 at Boston on sour limes in stores from India.
Ceratostomella ulmi (Schwarz) Buism. was found in three lots of suspicious
looking elm crating from England, collected at New York on October 28, on
another on November 29, and on a fifth lot on December 17. Colletotrichum
orchidearum Allesch, with shorter and especially narrower snores than usual,
was intercepted on October 18 at Hoboken on Phalaenopsis sp. from England,
The same species was found on Ansellia africana, a new host for our inter-
ception files, also from England, on October 19 at Hoboken. C. orchidearum
var. odontoglossi Verpl. & Cl., agreeing unusually well with the authors'
description, was intercepted on October 18 at Hoboken on Odontoglossum sp.
from England. Diplodia henriquessiana Tray. & Spessa was intercepted on
October 28 at Hoboken on Cattleya sp. from Peru. The fungus found in a
diseased area of an avocado from Mexico, intercepted on November 12 at Hi-
dalgo, has been tentatively determined as Dothiorella sp. Erinella longi-
spora (Karst.) Sacc. was found on November 30 at Hoboken on decaying wood
in baggage from Brazil. Gloeosporium cattleyae Sacc. & D. Sacc. was found
on December 4 at San Juan on Cattleya mendelli from Colombia. Pestalozzia
rhododendri (D. Sacc.) Guba was intercepted on November 28 and 29 at San
Francisco on varieties of Azalea indica from Japan. Phomopsis magnoliicola
Died. was intercepted on December 30 at Seattle on a magnolia from Japan.
Phoma camelliae Pass. was interceoted on January 17 at Seattle on Camellia
janonica from Japan. Trochila ilicis (Chev,) Rehm. was found on November 22
at New York on holly in mail from England. Uredo oncidii P. Henn, was found
on October 30 at Hoboken on an orchid leaf in baggage from Brazil, and on
November 27 at San Francisco on Oncidium lanceanum in mail from England.


Many Federal agencies helped control'hoppers and crickets,--In the
1940 campaigns against the grasshoppers and Mormon crickets substantial
assistance was given to the Bureau by the Indian Service, the Civilian Con-
servation Corps, the Division of Grazing of the Department of the Interior,
the Soil Conservation Service, the Forest Service, the Bureau of Reclama-
tion, and the Fish and Wild Life Service. Labor, equipment, materials, and
transportation were contributed by these organizations of the Department *f
Agriculture and Interior, to the total value of over $30,000.

Mormon cricket control in 1940.--During last season, Mormon cricket
control operations were conducted in cooperation with various State and

k P32-

Federal agencies, for ,only, in 9.,infesteAd States, namely
Idaho, Montaha, Nebr.aska, Nevada.,..Oregon, Sout; Dakota,. tah,...Washington,
and Wyoming, "Anproximately 'two-thjirds of. the. qos,.t of .control. was
the Bureau and one-third& by. h StAtes,.counties, and-individuals,.. The.
control operations includ:ed power and hand more'than 158,00.
acres of infested lands,'baiting of nearly 16l,O600, .infested acres,.and the
onerotion of 1,602 mile-days of metal barrier, .61 mile-days of oil-on-
water barrier, and 113 mirl.e-days, of trench, barrier,., It was estimated that
these operations resultedih" protetiing 1,629,000 .cer-s 'of crop lands..
Areas infested.with' -opuletions of Mormon crikets,. sufficient. to cause crop
damage were conspicuously fewer in Mont.ana end Wvyoing. in 1946 than in 1938
and 1939. Populations of Mormon crickets remain high in Nevada, and in
rather limited areas in..Idaho., Oregon, and Washington, in, spit.e of.-exten-
sive control operations where .crop pro.tectio.n hag been.naa:dqW-te. 'However,
,"infested areas, rmoQte from c.aops, maintain a, sowr-ce .of supplyU for con-.
tinual reinfesttitin of crop.s.

Methods and equiument in Mormon cricket coQr.o 1.--he. outstanding
development in Mormon cricket control last yet.r. wss the. incroase. in the use
.of npwer dusters end proportionate decrease in theese of.hand dsters, as
well Pas the increase in the use of sodium fluosilic;te' bait. and the propor-
tionate decrease in the use of sodium arsenite dust,. Where, Mormpn crickets
and grasshoppers occur in. the sme area, both are sa.tisfFctorily controlled
by the use of sodium fluosilicate .bait,.. Impor-tant improvemeh.ts, in equipment
effected in the sensn-'.s control of 'hoppers id. i.cikets werethe" dev.elop-
ment and use of a power bait. mixer, a power bai.t spreader, and' portable
units for servicing and- equipping bait .spreaders,-. the designing and
installation of effective bait hopners in Bure.u-owned airplanes.

Diseased peach trp-.s being ttken coning.out.,-All phony trees' found
in Georgia during-the 19-0 field s.,son, a total- of nearly 61,000,' have
now been removed, with the exce-ti.n of 1 tr-e in S'tewart County, Gr.owers,
on th e. wh1ie.,' have coooerated well with the program,. having -them5elveas re-
moved, netrlly one-third of al-1 the peach trees .found .Vo be i'nfec.ted:" i. :
Georgi .during thi1 inspection, work of las.t seAson.. In California god.
progress is being made .in ta.king- out mosai.c peach .trees., ..1 known infected
trees having been removed from San. Bernardino County, There .xemnin only
348 known mosaic tree.s now standing in CaliforniA. The p', are on two proper-
ties in the Honmet dist'ict of Riverside County. Abandoned trees, in the
Beaumont-Banning district are. being removed by ,tractor Perch gro.wers in
the Imperial district have organized to encourage the removal of neglected
npricot, plum, and almond orchards.s

Pench plnntings in California.-,According .to a. recent newspaper
article, peach growers' in the ;'YLaipAndi stri.t, wh-ere -,18,000 trees were re-
moved last year because of mosaic infection, are replanting their orchards,
10,000 trees havihn ben planted up tD .February .1. The new trees are being
purchased in an area well re.soved. fro, mospaic infeoti.n,.

S." White-f'ringed beetle contr'il program discussed.--A conference at-.
tended by representp.tives from the office of the Chief of the Bureau and
from two research divisions, as well :s the control project workers, was
held Pt Gulfnort, Miss., on January 25 and 26, Careful considerati n was
given to the re'sults of the control 'nd..res'earch work -fron 1937 .to th.e


present time, and from these results a general work program for 1941 is
being prepared, to be presented to the State coopertors for consideration.

Certification requirements of white-frin2ed beetle quarantine modi-
fied.--In a revision of circular B. E. P, Q. 4S5, the Chief of the Bureau,
on January 24, 1941, modified the restrictions of the white-fringed beetle
quarantine by waiving the certification requirements for a limited period
on certain articles and materials. This modification apudlies to soil-free
potatoes and sweetootatoes until May 1, 1941. It a!iolies to 5-round
packages of bird sand and bird gravel, and 5-pound quantities of ground
peat, to orchids growing in Osmunda fiber, and to the fiber itself, until
June 1, 1941. The methods under which the above articles and materials are
produced and handled, or the application of control neasures and the main-
tenance of sanitation practices are such, it is believed., as to eliminate
risk of spread of the beetle.

Sweetpotato weevil infestation in another Alabama county.--An infes-
tation of sweetpotato weevils was recently uncovered near Greenville, Butler
County, Ala. The farm and all other properties in the vicinity were care-
fully inspected, and arrangements made to disoose of all infested stock and
materials that might be. exoosed to infestation. The county is also being
designated as an eradication area. The infestation was traced to tenant
movement 3 years ago of sweetpBottoes from an infested area in Louisiana.
No weevils had heretofore been known to exist in Butler County.


Full-bloom stage best time to harvest devil' s-shoestriins,--The
changes in the insecticidal value of the roots of cultivated devil's-
shoestrings (Tephrosia virginiana) at L seasonal growth periods has been
studied by A. F. Sievers, M. S. Lowman, and. G. A, Russell, of the Bureau of
Plant Industry, in cooperation with W, N. Sullivan, of this Division. In
this work the clonal progenies of 10 parent plants of Taphrosia virginiana
were grown under cultivation in northeastern Texas, to study the changes in
the amount of rotenone and chloroform extractive present in the roots of
such progenies and their toxicity to houseflies at 4 -seasonal stages of
growth. Two or more of the clonal progenies of each 'arent were comnletely
removed from the ground at the dormant stage (January 26), the emergence
stage (March 25), the full-bloom stage (Aoril 26), and the mature-seed
stage (August 6). The roots were dried and ground, the amount of chloro-
form extractive and rotenone determined and. the toxicity of acetone ex-
tracts tested on houseflies. The results indicate that at the full-bloom
stage the roots are significantly more toxic to houseflies than at the dor-
mant and. emer:ence stages but their suneriority over those at the mature-
seed stage is less pronounced. The chloroform extractive and. rotenone con-
tent is also highest at the full-bloom staf-e. The toxicity of the roots of
the several clonal progenies of the same parent does not vary significantly,
but significant differences were found in this resoect between the prog-
enies of different parents, The results of this work were published in the
American Journal of Botany (2Z (5):' 2'84-289).



Organic sulfur insecticides.--In May 1935 the mimeoiranhed publi-
cation E-344, entilted, "A List of Organic Sulfur Compounds (Exclusive of
Mothproofing Materials) Used as.Insecticides," was issued. In this publi-
cation an attempt was made to catalog all the organic compounds containing
sulfur used or proposed for use as insecticides, fungicides, or bacteri-
cides, as well as those wetting and emulsifying agents containing sulfur
that have been used in conjunction with insecticides. A sup lementary list
covering the years 1935-37, inclusive, and some early references that were
overlooked when E-344 was compiled, has now been completed by D. L. Vivian
and F. Acree, Jr. After the list has been mimeographed it will be available
for distribution.

Acetanilide derivatives patented,--A dedicated patent which covers
the use of the chloro-, bromo-, and iodo-acetanilides as insecticides was
issued to Lloyd E. Smith as U. S, Patent 2,226,672 on December 31, 1940.


Sugar concentration controls bee activity.--G. H. Vans-ell, Davis,
Calif., has been studying the effect on bee activity of sugar concentra-
ti.on in nectars. He draws the following general conclusions as the result
of work thus far: 'Plants provide bees with nectars of different sugar con-
centration. Only T)art of this variation is because of difference in shape
of blossoms, which is or is not conducive to evaporation. Some plant
nectars are consistently rich in sugar, whether occurring in situations of
low or high humidity, Notable cases are mustard and filaree, which appear
always to yield relatively concentrated nectars. The anoroximate average
values obtained in the field for a few plants are shown in a table below.
The exact values change with additional data, but the relative position of
a plant remains fairly constant. The sugar concentrations in nectars
studied are shown in the following tabulation,

Source Percentage of sugar
Bartlett pear---------------------- 10
Cleome----------------------------- 16
Orange----------------------------- 20 (1939) light crop
Ornnge---------------------------- 30 (l94o) good crop
Blue curls------------------------- 27
Star-thistle----------------------- 38
Alfalfa------------------------ --- 41
Mustard------------------------- 50
Fi lree-------------------------- 60

A plant which is not abundant and does not carry a large number of
blossoms can scarcely qualify as a major source of honey. In addition, it
is concluded that, to be a major source of honey, the nectar in the plant
must frequentlv show a concentration of at least 30 percent sugar. Bee
activity is greatly influenced by sugar concentration; for example, in the
orange orchards they orefer mustard, excent when evaporation of water from
the orange nectar increasps its richness,"


Crop dusting and beekeeping.--Frank E. Todd, Davis, has summarized
the effect of cron dusting on beekee'aini_ in California and Arizona as fol-
lows: "The airnolne dusting of cotton in Arizona for the control of he-
miptirous insects results in considerable losses of bees. The beekeener is
hard-oressed by low prices, as well as by noison losses in the irrigated
areas. The losses are not confined to the field bees, as colo-nies in
poisoned areas die out over an extended neriod and those that live do not
recover strength. This indicates poison in their food stor-s. In other
areas this condition has been traced to poison in the nollen rather than
the honey. In cotton observed in the San Joaouin Valley nollen is not col-
lected to nvy great extent. As cotton blossoms are closed during the usual
dusting time, it is probable that the poison pollen is collected from
ground flowers about the cottonfields. Puncture vine is a probable source
in Arizona. The airnlane dusting of peas and melons in Imperial Valley has
also been the cause of great bee losses. The State regulation requiring
notice to the beekeeper has tended to relieve the situation somewhat, but
has forced the beekeepers of that area to become migratory, thus greatly in-
creasing production costs at a time when honey prices are very low. Begs
work on both peas and melons. Another asn3ct of the airplane-dusting
problem is not concerned with commercial beekeening. The small beekeeper,
unable to move his colonies out of the area, is being eliminated. Losses
of this type may result in pollination difficulties as yet unsuspected."

Pollen sources during winter season at Davis.--Geo. H. Vansell re-
ports: "Honeybees are collecting nectar (Jan. 31) from the female blossoms
on cynress, arborviti, and junioer trees. A large number .f medium-sized
yellow, iink, or brown pollen lo:%ds are also orovided from the same iur.ces.
In some cases the male and female blossoms occur on separated parts of .the
same plant. These plants are usually considered as wind-nollinated but, as
bees visit them consistently, they must be at least in part insect-pol-
linated. The coast redwood (Seouoia asemervirens) canstitutes a fairly im-
portant source of bee rollen each soring, but apparentlTy no nectar is ob-
tained from this source. From the early blossoms of the California bay tree
both nectar and pollen are obtained."

Step towards "self-fertilization" of queen bees.--Otto Mackensen,
University, La., has re-orted success in inseminating artificially unmated
drone-laying queens with sperm from their sons. He statesi "The virgin
queens were confined to their hives until the' started laying unfertilized
elrs. Snerm from the drones resulting from the development of these eggs
was then used to inseminate artificially the virgin mothers, Genetically,
this is equivalent to self-fertilization, since a queen's sons represent
her germ cells. Some sPerm was found in the soermathecae of all the 10
queens mated in this way. The maximum number was 1,550,000. All the queens
stopoed laying immediately after mating and soon all were dead. These re-
sults demonstrate that sperm can be made to reach the spermnthecae of vir-
gin laying queens."



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