News letter

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Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
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Frequency:
monthly

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Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:
AA00023227:00049

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text
STATE PLANT
BOARD OF
FLA. ULIBRARY
UjjD J STA !-.

DEPARTJJEN-JT OF AC.1JCULTURLiEf










BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER *








VOLUM
VOLUME VIII
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter40no2





UNI TED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AITD PLANT QUARANTINE

SE WS L E T TER

FOR DECEMBER 1940



Vol. VIII, No. 2 (Not for publication) February 1, 1941



ADMINI STRATIONT

F. A, Johnston Dies

Frederick Andrew Johnston, plant cuarantine inspector of the Division
of Foreign Plant Quarantines, passed away in a hospital in Mayaguez, P. R.,
at 2:30 p. m. on January 22, 1941, following a brief illness.

Mr. Johnston, the son of Andrew and Lydia A. (McCorkle) Johnston, was
born at Westford, Mass., on May 25, 1887. He attended grammar school and
academy at Westford, and in 1908 graduated from the Massachusetts Agricul-
tural College at Amherst with a degree of Bachelor of Science, having
majored in entomology. He did postgraduate work at the same institution
from 1908 to March 1910. During these years he served -s deputy State nurs-
ery inspector of Massachusetts.

He wns appointed to the Bureau of Entomology on March 1, 1910, as
agent and expert and later as an entomological assistant with the Division
of Truck Crop and Stored-product Insects. On October 16, 1920, he was
transferred to the Federal Horticultural 3oard as plknt quar ntine inspec-
tor, with headquarters at ITogal'es, Ariz., where he served in various co-
pacities. On August 1, 1926, he was called to Washington to assist the
entomologist and executive officer of the Feder~.l Horticultural Board in
the administration of the work of the Mexican Border Inspection Service.
Following a reorganization, on October 1, 192i, he was placed in charge of
the Port and Mexican Border Inspection Service, On March 21, 1940, 'he was
transferred to Puerto Rico as Inspector in Ch-rge at Sfn Juan, with the
direction of -ll the Fede-rl plant quarntine activities on the Island.

During his career as research entomologist Mr. Johnston published
the following: Arsenite of Lead and Lead Chromate .s Remedies against the
Colorado Potato Beetle (Bul. 109, Part V); The Life History of Tetrastichus
asparagi Crawf. (Journ. Econ. Ent. v. 5); Feeding Habits of Pimpla (Ito-
plectis) conquisitor, Say with H. M. Russell (Journ. Econ. Ent. v. 5;
Asparagus B'etle Egg Parasite (Journ. Agr. Research, v. 4).

Mr. Johnston is survived by his wife Cornelia G. (HJvens) Johnston,
whom he married in 1915, and two children, D-ris H. (Mrs. W. C. Clnrk of
Buffalo) and Frederick A. Jr., who is now with the Federal Bureau of Plant
Industry at Gainesville, Fla.

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1942 Budget Estimates for Appropriations to Bureau

The regular Budget estimates for appropriations for the fiscal year
1942 recently submitted to Congress include the following changes in
amounts appropriated to the Bureau for the current fiscal year:

Increases

Mexican Fruitfly Control---------------------------- $ 7,500
Barberry Eradication----------------------------- 20 000-
Insecticide and Fungicide Investigations------------ 5,000
Foreign Plant Quarantines-------------------------- 20,000

Decreases

Citrus Canker Eradication (item eliminated)--------- $13,485
Dutch Elm Disease Eradication---------------------- 100,000

To conform with general authorizing legislation approved April 26,
1940, the Bureau's appropriation item for Blister Rust Control is trans-
ferred to and made a part of a special new appropriation which relates
specifically to White Pine Blister Rust Control and provides appropria-
tions for the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine and the Forest
Service in the Department of Agriculture and for Innd-managing agencies
in the Interior Department. The amount estimated for work to be carried
on under the direction of the Bureau is increased by $100,000 in the
combined estimate.

EDITORIAL OFFICE

Preparrtion of Manuscripts

The work of the Editorial Office would be greatly expedited if
authors would follow the instructions available to them for the preparation
of manuscripts. For practically all tynes of manuscripts to be published
by the Department the instructions given on the inside of the back cover of
each issue of the Journal of Agricultural Research may be followed. Similar
instructions may be found in the same place in the Journal of Economic Ento-
mology. For papers intended for publication in other outside journals the
style for the particular journal should be followed, so far as that can be
ascertained, but in the absence of such specific information the approved
style of the Denartment of Agriculture should be used. If such specific
policy has been followed, a statement to that effect should be made in the
letter of submittal.

Miscellaneous Publication 337, entitled "Abbreviations Used in the
Department of Agricublre for Titles of Publicati-rs," should be followed in
citine literature in Deoartment Dublications and also in papers for outside
publications, unless the 'snecific style used in the outside journal can be
ascertained. Another (unnumbered) Dublication of the Department, "Citations
to Literature in the Journal of Agricultural Research, Technical Bulletins,
Circulars, and Miscellaneous Publications (Other than Bibliographies)," com-
piled by Carolyn Whitlock, gives further directions for citing literature in
the Department publications.





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FRUIT IITS3CT INIESTIGATICNS

More on ethylene dichloride emulsion against peach borer.--Oliver I.
SnapDo, of the Fort Valley, Ga., laboratory, reports that while at Belts-
ville, Md., early in the fall he had an opportunity to make observations
on the results obtained by F. P. Cullinan and D. F. Scott, of the Bureau
of Plant Industry, from treating 1-year-old peach trees in a variety plant-
ing at the United States Horticultural Station with ethylene dichloride
emulsion for control of the peach borer (Conopia exitios. (Say)). Each
tree in this planting had b-en treated with 2 liquid ounces of I--percent
emulsion 6 days prior to these observations. Iot a single live borer was
found, although the trees had been unusually heavily infested with the in-
sect. There was no tree injury whatever from the tratmnent, which was of
the strength and quantity of ethylene dichloride emulsion recommended for
the control of the peach borer in 1-year-old oDech trees.

Fe.e.ding injury on Muscot risins- cncerning feedin injury by
larvae of the raisin moth (Eohesti figulilella Greg.) on rpisins of the
Muscat variety have been obtained by George H. Kaloostian, of the Fresno,
Calif., laboratory. At the end of the period of sun-drying on wooden trays,
some of the raisins were olaced in paper bags and fumigated (with incomplete
success) while the infestation in the unfumigated lots was allowed to
develop unchecked. Part of the unfumigated raisins were enclosed in paper
bags at the end of sun-drying and the rest were exoosed to further infesta-
tion during shade-drying on stacked trays. In the examina:tion of samples
for feeding injury all of the unfumigated raisins were grouned toether.
After the samples had been held for 38 days,l1,0'0 raisins from the fumi-
gated lots and the same number from the unfumignted s.-moles were examined
under a microscope. The results were as follows.


: Injury at--
Raisins : : Cstem:
:Ca-rstem : and : Surface : Total
: alone : surface: alone
:Percent :Percent : Percent : Percent
Fumigated----. 15.6 : 1.1 : 17.7
Unfumigated--: 39.6 : 12.7 : 7.4 59.7


The data, indicate that the gr~artr Tart of the feeding was in the
pulT around the ca -stem, and that bagging -nd fumigntion at the end of sun-
drying considerably reduced feeding injury.

MEXICAN FRUITFLY CO'TROL

Conditions and. trapping results in December.--In December, 12
Anastrepha ludens Loew were trapped on 11 premises in 6 districts in the
regulated area. In addition to these flies there were trapped 304 snecimens
embracing 8 other species in the family Trypetidae. This list includes
specimens of A. sernentina Wied., A. distincta Greene, A. mombinpraeoptans
Sein, A. chiclayae Greene, A. sp. "Y", Anastrepha sp., A. pollens Coq., and
T. curvicauda Gerst. On the Mexican side of the river 22 A. ludens were





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trapped in Nuevo Laredo and 23 at Matamoros. Very beneficial heavy rains
fell in December. A total of 6.95 inches was recorded at Brownsville
throughout the month, but amounts considerably in excess of this figure
were unofficially recorded at various.points in the valley. The rains oc-
curred over a period o' several days and fell so slowly as to permit the
soil to absorb most of it. High winds on December 26 and 27 reached a
recorded velocity of 13 miles an hour at Brownsville. These winds continued
for such a long period and at such a high rate that they caused an estimated
25 percent of the remaining grapefruit crop to fall. Much of the fruit re-
maining on the trees was severely damaged and a considerable portion of this
is exnected to fall in the near future. At the close of December 12,064.6
eauivalent carlots of fruit had been moved from the regulated area. This
amount is 652 equivalent carlots in excess of the movement for December 1939.

CEREAL ATD FORAGE INSECT IIVESTIGATIONS

Methyl bromide unsuccessful as grain fumigant in elevator bins.--
R. T. Cotton, Geo. B. Wagner, and T, F. Winburn, Manhattan, Kans., report
that the fumigation of stored grain in elevator bins with methyl bromide has
not proved successful, although several methods of applying the fumigant
have been tested. One method of application consio ted of introducing the
liauid through a i-inch metal pipe running from top to bottom in the center
of a bin 80 feet deep, supplied with openings at every 10 feet of depth. A
second method consisted of applying the entire dosage at the top of the bin
but just below the surface of the grain. The third method consisted of in-
troducing the fumigant in 1-pound cans that were tossed into the grain stream
as the bin was being filled. Although dosages up to 3 pounds per 1,000
bushels of grain werp applied, the kill of insects was incomplete in all
cases. In order to overcome difficulties of distribution due to the low boil-
ing point of methyl bromide, arrangemennts were made to obtain a 15-percent
mixture of methyl bromide in the commonly used ethylene dichloride-carbon
tetrachloride mixture. Preliminary tests made with this mixture in bins of
shelled corn contaiining 2,000 bushels indicated that a dosage of I gallons
per 1,000 bushels applied to the surface gave excellent results.

Multi-walled paper bags vulnerable to stored grain insects.--Messrs.
Cotton and Wagner also report that in an.extensive test of multi-wall paper
bags for protecting flour from insects it was found that, although the paper
acts as an efficient barrier against'flour-infesting insects with the ex-
ception of the cadelle, the prevailing method of closing the bottom of these
bags defeats the purpose of their multi walls. The bottoms of most of these
bags are closed by stitching, and the newly hatched larvae of flour-infegting
insects wer,' observed to enter the bags through the small holes made by the
needle. An additional a-enue of entry was afforded when the top of the bag
was closed by sewing. Covering the sewed strip at top and bottom of the bag
with a gum-latex tape eliminated this point of entry.

Chloroethyl formate as a stored-grain fumigant.--Mr. Cotton and J. C.
Frankenfeld, Manhattan, st:te that preliminary tests with chloroethyl formate
indicate that this fumigant has good insecticidal propertie.s and may prove
useful in connection with stored-grain fumigation. Germination tests with
wheat of 12-percent moisture content showed that no injury .to germination re-
sulted from dosak~as required to kill stor.ed-gr in insects. This material has
a boiling rang'e of 1270 to 100 C. and a flash point of 610 C.







-5-

Second.generation of corn borer in Indiana and Ohio.--A. M. Vance, Toledo,
Ohio, reports that data on midsummer pupation, indicative of a second generation
of the European corn borer, were obtained during the fall infestation survey in
August and September. 1940 in 35 counties of Indiana and 43 counties of Ohio.
Live or emerged pupae were found in 32, or 91.4 percent, of the Indiana counties
and in 30, or 69.8 percent, of the Ohio counties, In Indiana in 19go-0, among-
7,255 specimens of the borer observed, the pupation was 7.2 percent, which was
significantly higher than that of 2.6 and 0.6 percent in 1939 aend 1938, respec-
tively, in the same.group of counties. In Ohio in 1940, pupation averaged 6.4
percent among 2,207 individuals examined, being most pronounced in 8 counties
in the southwestern corner of Ohio, where 29.6 percent of 152 specimens were
found as live or emerged pupao in the fall,

Field status of European corn borer parasites in Lake States.--W. G. Brad-
ley, Toledo, Ohio, reports on surveys made in October to obtain data rela-
tive to the status of parasites in the Lake Stteos area at the close of the 1941
active season. Collections of ectophagous p-rasitcs and the puparial remains
of those Which issued from their host prior to the time of collection, together
with living borers which-might harbor ectophagous forms were collected.at 6
points in the area. The total pnrasitization obtained at these points will not
be determined until development is completed in the spring; however, from a
cursory examination of the field-collected material, it seems evident that para-
sitiza.tion by the tachinid Lydella stabulans var.grisescens R. D. shows a tend-
ency toward an increase at the 2 points where observations have been made annu-
ally to determine its status. At each of these points psrasitization by the
fall-emerging individuals was higher than by the total nunber of prrasites at
the close of 1939. In Perkins Township, Erie County, Ohio, the average para-
sitization within a radius of l-].miles of the release point was 40.7 percent
and 2 of the collections showed over 70-percent parasitization, The total
number of borers observed at the 6 points was 2,648. In addition to the collcc-
tions at release points, obsorvations to obtain data, on the dispersion of the
exotic chalcid Eulophus viridulus Thors, were made in the followring 6 counties
in Ohio: Sandusky, 'Senca, Hardin, Auglaize, Log-n, and Allen. Only 1 observe-
tion per township was made and only a few townships in some of the counties were
included; however, E. viridulus was recovered .t 1 or more points in each of the
counties. Because of the method utilized in making this study, the chief. ob-
jective of which was to check dispersion over as great an area as possible, no
accurate datn on the abundance of Eulophus wore obtained, but it was indicated
that at some points this pnrasite may be present in encournging numbers. One
colony was found over 50 miles from the nearest release point. The farthest
limits of dispersion were not defined by this surovy.

Severe tests imposed on hessian fly resistant wherts under greenhouse con-
ditions.--W. B. Cartwright, D. W. LaHue, and C. Benton report that mass produc-
tion of hessian flies in the greenhouses at Lafayette, Ind., has made practic-
able extended and critical tests on wheat varieties rnd strains not attainable
in the field. Daily production of flies for experincnts bas often exceeded
5,000 adults which were confined in oviposition cages for infesting wheots.
Under severe tests, individual mwrieties are infested with from several hundred
to 1,000 or more fly eggs per plant and then subjected to cnntrasting environ-
mental conditions with respect to toeiporature, light, and other factors. Under
adverse conditions in the tests to date, several durum vnrieties and strains





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retain a resistance that approaches innunity. Most common wheats have not re-
tained this high rate of resistance. The variability of results in the tests
with common wheets has not been definitely attributed to any single factor or
combination of factors but nore extensive studies are now being nade which in-
clude those of inheritance, environmental modifications, and variability of
the fly populations. Included in the varietal tests, exclusive of hybrid lines,
have been highly resistant plant selections from the durun varieties, as Branco,
Aza de Corvo; Cascalvo, Monjil No. 2, Durazio rijo, Trenez preto, Trneez rijo,
Tremez nolle, and a few unnnaed strains; and fron the conmon wheats as Java,
Dixon, Illinois No. 1-W38, Marvel, Beirao, Portugoz, Ribeiro, Trijo roji, Rafael
Triunfo, and several unnamed strains including some especially promising winter
wheats from Turkey.

Fly-resistant wheat nakes good showing in field test.--W. B. Noble, Sacra-
ment, Calif., reports that in 1940 about 30 acres of Big Club 3g (Dawson X Big
Club ) fly-resistant wheat was grown for field test in Solano County, Calif.
This wheat showed a 96-percent reduction of plant infestation and a 30-percent
increase of yield, as conpared with adjacent regular Big Club variety.

Insecticidal control of chinch bugs on corn,--E. V. Walter and Curtis
Benton, Lafayette, Ind., state that numerous tests made during the sunners of
1938-40 indicate that chinch bugs can be srfely and effectively controlled on
corn at a cost of approximately $2.50 cpr acre for materials, by means of a
spray consisting of an emulsion of highly refined white minoral oil fortified
with a small anount of either nicotine sulfate or derris extract. Such a spray
is too expensive for use on corn grown for feed but is cheap enough for use on
specialized crops, such as inbred or hybrid seed and market sweet corn. The
spray is not reconrendcd as a substitute for the creosote barrier but rather
to kill any chinch bugs that nay reach the corn, despite the barrier or before
it is constructed. The oils used in these tests were highly refined water
white nineral oils having an unsulfon.tablc residue of at least 96 percent and
ranged in viscosity between 85 and 210 seconds Saybolt at 100" F. No difference
in effectiveness was observed between the different oils used, owing to viscosit
Since the lighter oils are cheaper they are rocommended for this purpose. An
enulsion was easily nreprred by adding 1 gallon of oil to 1 pound of potn.sh
laundry soap dissolved in j gallon of hot wa.ter, and agitating until emulsifica-
tion was complete. Ready-prepared emulsions were found effective bu.t higher
in cost. The cheapest nixture that gave satisfactory results contained 2 percen
oil and 1/8 ounce of ~0-p-ercent nicotine sulfate, or derris extract containing
5 percent rotenone, per gallon. Oil enulsions of this type were found safe for
use on corn 12 inches and more in height at much greater then the recommended
strength. Occasional injury was observed on very small corn, especially when
the spray was allowed to collect in the tops of the plants. Serious injury
has been observed whore commercial niscible or sunner-spray oils were substitute
for the nineral-oil emulsion. A man using a knapsack type sprayer can sprnay
slightly less than 1 acre of corn in an S-hour ay. .

JAPJEANSE BEETLE CONTROL

Open weather permits longer shipping season.--Mild weather during December
pernitted many nurseries in central. ancd southern Now Jersey to clean and obtain
certification for dormant stock to be placed in storage for early spring ship-
nent. Quantities of azaleas wore treated with-nethyl bronide and paradichloro-





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benzene and were shipped. under certificrtion for forcing for the Easter trade.
Certification of pansy plants iiniicates that an excellent market for these
plants has opened up in the Southern States. Two central Jersey establishments
found it difficult to keep up with their orders for pansies. Increasing demand
for azaleas resulted in 1 New Jersey establishment equipping a separate building
for treating nlants. Cnntrolled ventilation and ad'equate hecting facilities
were installed. Another establishment in the Strte is planning a special room
for p-radichlorobenzene treatments throughout the winter months. A series of
electric heating cables will be evenly spaced on a concrete floor and covered
with cinders. The treatnmnt of the plants will be performed on the surface of
the cinders. The temperature is not expected to vary nore than 10 during the
entire treatnrent. Another grower has decided to discontinue methyl bromide
fumigation of azaleas, except those of the variety Hinodigiri. Treatment with
paractichlorobenzene will be substituted. At another nlant in the State 14 methy.
bromide fumigations were made during the month, involving r total of 7,000 plant:
mostly.azaleas. Shipments of dchlias to foreign ports still continues from Long
Island, T. Y. Inquiries are also being received from foreign countries on these
items. Two of the biggest erowers in the Philadelphia area claim that in 1940
they experienced their best and largest shippin: season in years. The largest
pansy grower in this area claims that business during 1940 was the best he had
ever had.

Nurserymen and greenhousemen found 1940 a good year---During December a
large Mar-land grower of hydrangeas treated with methyl bromide 12,016 hydTrangera
for shi-pment to nonquarrntined States. Classified nurserymen in the vicinity
of 'Washington, D. C., had av very good fall business. Judging from certificates
issued, shipments of fruit trees from the Ecstern Shore of Maryland, especially
to North Carolina and South Carolina, are much heovier than usual.

Now packing sheds to speed Japanese beetle certificrtion work.--An east-
ern Maryland nursery englred in the large-scale -production of strawberry plants
has just completed the erection of a packing shed to be used for the cloening,
washing, counting, and packing of strawberry plants. The shed is of fra.e con-
struction with cement floorinl:. It has good light to facilitate the inspection
operations and is equim--ed with a large heater. This building will enable the
nursery to ship practically all of its strawberry rplants directly from the
farm where they are grown and will permit the nursery to aet out its shipments
irrespective of outside weather conditions. Owing to heavy recei-t of orders
for spring shipments, it is anticipated that under favorable weather con-
ditions spring ins-ection work on the Pastern Shore of Marylanr~ m d Virginia
will be very heavy. Another Maryland nursery has started the erection of a
new and improved packing shed with fiacilities for grading, storing, treating,
and washing plants and nursery stock. One room 6f this shed will be set aside
exclusively for chemical-treating puroses. Present plrns call for the instal-
lation of a new methyl bromide fumigation chamber larger than the one now in
use. The new addition will be comnleted ann rearly for use before the spring
shippinug- season opens.

Experimental funigation of perennials continued.--Perennials representing
186 varieties were fumigted expe-rimentally at the Division's cdistrict office
at White Horse, N. J., on December 27. These plants had been donated by three
New Jersey 7rowers. The naterial was taken to Sanforr, Fla., by government
truck and arrived in good condition. Early observations of the growth mde by





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these fumigated perennials will be ma:de long before spring shipments are
started in the North. Severely injured varieties will be omitted from com-
mercial fumigations this spring. As was the case with the other two lots
of plants taken to Florida during November, the plant-growing and injury
check will be performed by members of the staff of the Division of Control
Investigations.

All potting soil in a class III establishment to be treated for
Japanese beetle.--A greenhouseman in the New York City area, who has been
obliged to treat with carbon disulfide potted soil to be used in producing
certified plants, has been so pleased with results that he has extended
this practice to all potting soil used throughout both his certified and un-
certified greenhouses. At this establishment 28 cubic yards of potting soil
were recently fumigated under the supervision of an inspector. The owner
claims that the soil is not only freed from all insect life but that the
treatment apparently stimulatos plant growth.

Grower to force azaleas to disprove alleged fumigation injury.--A
grower in the New York City area had some potted azaleas returned because
of alleged injury from fumigation with methyl bromide and treatment with
paradichlorobenzene. These plants were checked in by an inspector for forc-
ing in a certified greenhouse, as the shipper is convinced that the apparent
injury is not due to the fumigation. The plants will be reshipped as soon
as they bloom, as evidence that they would have responded to proper growing
methods.

Seasonal gypsv moth certification activities.--Inspection and certifi-
cation of evergreen boughs, the cutting of which was confined to the lightly
infested arPT of southern Vrmont and western Massachusetts, amounted to
over 900 tons. Work was completed on Dece!ber 23. Because of increased:
gyrsy moth infestation it was necessary in some localities to abandon the
method of bough-lot inspection and resort to actual piece-by-piece examina-
tion. Increased gypsy moth infestation in the lightly infested area of
Vermont resulted in the finding of 7 gSYsy moth egg clusters on Christmhs
trees inspected there during Decerber. District inspectors engaged in
routine inspection activities durin7 December were responsible for the re-
moval of 502 egj masses. Of this number, 2240 were taken fron forest
products, nursery stock, and evergreen mat-ri:l inspected for immediate
movement to nonregu-lat'd points. An ad(lition.al 262 egg clusters were re-
moved from materinls inspected prior to their manufacture into novelties
and subseauent shipment to outside points.

Elms killed by changing water level are heavily infested with bark
beetles.--In a swxipo area in New Milford. Township, Litchfield County, Conn.,
a very heavy infestation of Hylurgopinus rufipes Eich. and Scolytus multi-
striatus Marsh, has b~en found in ,bout 500 elms. It appeirrs tht the
principal reason for the creation of tilis situation is the co'par;rtitively
sudden chpng- in water level caused by beavers constructiag a dan. in the
swamp. Ai-oarently this abun0d-nce of suitable beetle material resulted in
such an increase in beetle popul-ti: as to force beetles into living treEs.
There are now numerous trees with diameters of 4, 5, and 6 inches with
dried foliage of this past season indicating that the trees were recently
alive. These trees now show woodpecker injury from the base of the tree





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through every part of it to the 1-inch material. This extensive wood-
pecker work has resulted in a pile of bark approximately 2 inches deep
accumulating at the base of the tree. The woodpeckers apparently attacked
the thousands of beetles attempting .to enter and prepare galleries in this
living wood. In practically all cases only a contact with the wood was
made. In numerous instances, however, egalleries from to inch have
been tunneled in the live wood.

Scouting for beetle material in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., area.--Systematic
scouting for potential beetle material in the circle within a 5-nile
radius of the center of Wilkes-Barre has been completed. Within a 2-mile
circle all the elms have been top sampled for discoloration as well as in-
spected for beetle infestation or the presence of potential beetle wood,
This coverage has been thorough and will be of material aid in controlling
the disease in this district. Many elms have been tagged as Dutch elm
disease suspects and many tagged as containing beetle wood. There have
been no cases noted of Hylurgopinus infestation, and only a few instances
where old galleries of this soecies have been observed. Of the numerous
trees tagged as suspects in the 5-mile circle, eight of them have been con-
firmed as infected with the fungus causing the Dutch elm disease.

Permission required for Dutch elm disease scouting in restricted
areas.--Before scouting may be performed.in areas where firmsare engaged
in the manufacture of materials for Nationql Defense, special permission
must be obtained and arrangements made with the authqrities concerned for
entrance on their properties, By cooperating with the manufacturers, very
little time is lost or additional work involved. Prior to the entrance of
scout crews on United States Army reservations, it is necessary to contact
the range officer. This is necessary as rifle and gun ranges are located
at various points on the reservations and in some locations the danger of
accidental shooting is great.

Bark-beetle observ:-tions in New York.--Exceptionally heavy beetle in-
festations were recentl- discovered in two swanp areas in Dutchess County,
N. Y. Th- trees in both locations had died as a result of changing water
level. One locatian is in the northeastern corner of the county, within
approximately 1 mile of the Massachusetts line. The other is in the south-
ern part of the county in the town of East Fishkill. .At the time the first
survey was made for beetle-infested material, the water was too deep to
permit examination of the trees. Since the swamps have frozen over it has
been found that a major portion of the trees are very heavily infested with
both Hylurgopinus and Scolytus beetles. Inspection of dead and dying trees,
as well as healthy trees, in the Binghamton, N, Y.,, area has shown liter-
ally thousands of adult H, rufipes hibernating in the outer bark of many
elms. This condition is most common in areas where there is considerable
old beetle wood. Trees of this type in the vicinity of Dutch elm disease
locations will be removed as part of the sanitation program.

Factors in the development of bark-beetle infestations.--On the basis
of field reports and-general observations, it is believed that a hilh.per-
centage of the current selective work on Dutch elm disease eradication,
especially the pruning now under way, involves the removal of beetle ma-
terial created by the heavy iceS storm in March 1940. Some of the work in
Connecticut can still be associated with the severe hurricane of September





-10-

1938. Considerable of the remainder of the work is the result of beaver
dams or of road-building operations. Once an area is rid of dead and
dying elms the development of beetle material would be almost negligible
were it not for the above situations. Inasmuch as the extent, intensity,
and time of such damage is unpredictable, it is frecuently necessary to
make drastic revisions in work plans and to introduce into the field work
as much flexibility as possible.

Loggine operations in Morris County, N. J.--During scouting in Morris
County considerable beetle material was found that had resulted from
logging operations. A logging firm had been operating in the area and had
cut a number of large elms, using only the butt pieces, leaving the re-
mainder scattered over the area. Upon inspection it was found that most
of the wood on the ground was beetle-infested. An investigation is being
made to determine the points to which the butt pieces have been shipped.

FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Powder-post beetle damages stored apple wood.--Apple wood stored
for fuel and home wood-working purposes in the basement of a residence at
Burley, Idaho, was found by J. 0, Evenden, of the Coeur d'Alene, Idaho,
laboratory, to be severely infested with the southern lyctus (Lyctus plani-
collis Lec.). This infestation, which had reduced many of the larger sec-
tions to a mass of powder, is believed to have been in the material at the
time of its storage. Although one could not be sure that the under side of
the hardwood floors of the residence had not been attacked, no evidence of
such injury was observed and it is thought that damage had been confined
to the anole wood. It was recommended that this material be removed from
the residence and destroyed.

Douglas fir beetle infestation in Cody Canyon greatly reduced.--
According to D. A. Hester, of the Portland, Oreg., laboratorv, the infes-
tation of Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk., which has been present for
nearly 10 veprs in scenic Cody Canyon nealr the east entrance to Yellow-
stone National Park has at last yielded to control. Efforts.at controll-
ing this outbreak have been comnlicated by an outbreak of the spruce bud-
worm (Archips fumiferana Clem.) running concurrently with that of the
Douglas fir beetle. Defoliation by the budworm weakened the trees, caus-
ing them to be more susceptible to bark-beetle attack. With a declinein
budworm population brought about by natural control factors and a conse-
quent improvement in tree growth, it has been possible through direct con-
trol to reduce the Douglas fir beetle infestation to a point where control
is no longer necessary. Current infestation on 12,000 acres, surveyed in
the fall of 1940, is estimated at 400 trees, or approximately 21 trees per
section.

Beetle-infested ponderosa pines salvaged.--Salvage logging operations
on the Bear Valley pine beetle control project on the Malheur National
Forest, Oreg., were begun during the second week of December, according to
W. J. Buckhorn, of the Portland, Oreg., laboratory. The work is being
done by a lumber company in cooperation with the Forest Service. In ad-
dition to salvaging beetle-infested trees, abandoned trees of high quality
and a few green trees of very poor thrift are also being removed from the






-11-

stand. This operation is being carried on in ponderosa pine stands se-
lectively logged 3 years ago under a system whereby 40 percent of the
volume was removed from the stand.

Low winter temperature field study continued.--J. M. Whiteside,
Portland, reports that during the last three winters really low tempera-
tures in Oregon and Washington--those lethal to overwintering western
pine beetles (Dendroctonus brevicomis Lec.)--have been absent. However,
in the hope that the law of averages will shortly apply and that the
current winter will be a cold one, minimum recording thermometers have
again been distributed over a wide area in the ponderosa pine region of
eastern and central Oregon. These thermometers have been placed on many
pine-beetle-survfy plots in order to obtain a simple correlation between
minimum forest-air temneratures and pine-beetle mortality and losses.

Direct-current voltage gradients an index to physiological condi-
tion of tree.--T. J. Parr, of the New Haven, Conn., laboratory, reports
as follows concerning investigations on direct-current voltage gradients:
"From the first of June, when the portable vacuum tube direct-current
voltage gradient equipment was completed, readings were taken on a. con-
siderable number of trees at intervals of a few days un to October 24.
In general, healthy conifers showed a hi:cher gradient early in June than
was the case at the end of the season, the trend being downward as
growth activity became slower. There was a slight rise in gradient when
secondary growth occurred. In normal trees in the string and early sum-
mer the gradient in the cambial region was oriented with the top of the
tree positive to the base. This condition became reversed in August. One
physiological activity of the trees with which the reversal of gradient
was correlated was that of fat storage in trees that were going into a
winter condition. With the electrodes placed longitudinally on the trunks
in the cambial region, and the distance between them standardized at 1
inch, there was little deviation in voltage gradient between individual
trees. Where subnormal trees were concerned, conditions were entirely
different. If the voltage gradient in the spring was oriented in the
same direction as that in normal trees, it was much lower in magnitude
and fell rapidly until it became oriented in the opposite direction,
i.e., with the base positive to the top. The gradient on subnormal trees
remained oriented in that direction until August, when it reversed again
as the gradient in normal trees was reversing. Thus the gradient in sub-
normal trees was o-upositely oriented to the gradient in normal trees over
most of the year. Ordinarily, normal trees had approximately the same
gradient on -ll sides. On an exoerimental plot near Alfred, Maine, read-
ings were taken on white pines that had been exposed to full sunlight in
sunscald exoeriments conducted by personnel of the Northeastern Forest
Experiment Station. Gradients on the shaded side of the trees were normal,
but on the ex-osed side were oriented in the opposite direction. Spruce
trees in southern Vermont, which had been heavily defoliated by the
European sDruce sawfly, showed voltage gradients on September 26 and 27
which were, if not opTositely oriented, entirely different from those of
undefoliated trees. Voltage gradients on less heavily defolii- ted trees
aoproached the normal; that is, varied with degree of defoliation."





-12-

GYPSY MOTH AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH CONTROL

Weather conditions hamper gypsy moth work.--The progress of gypsy
moth work was generally satisfactory during December, although some re-
arrangement of plans was necessary in many sections because of frequent
unfavorable weather conditions. Snowstorms rendered secondary roads tem-
porarily impassable in many arees, and blocked wood roads used to transport
the men as cle as oossible to the scenes of their labor. Sleet storms
slowed transportation at times by coating the roads with ice, necessitated
the withdrawal of workers from rugged elevations to relatively level coun-
try at lower elevations as a precaution against injury by falls, and ham-
pered scouting operations by covering the trees with ice,

New brush-disposal machine redy for field tests.--The construc-
tion of a new brush-disposal machine has been completed It the gypsy moth
storehouse in Greenfield, Mass. The new machine is generally similar to the
machine which has been demonstrating the usefulness of this method of brush
disposal in the field for a considerable period'of time, but embodies sev-
eral refinements, such as the lowering of the feeding mechanism in order that
the brush can be more easily inserted. The new machine is now ready for
field tests, after which it will be put into regular service. This type of
brush-disTosal work is esoecially valuable at locations where burning would
injure living trees or where it is inadvisable for other reasons, and at all
locations when ground conditions are such that the burning of the brush
piles would be dangerous.

Scattered small gyosy moth infestations found in Vermont.--Several
of the gypsy moth crews, which were withdrawn from the forests during the
deer-huntin? season in Vermont, were assigned to scouting work in the resi-
dential section of Rutland, Rutland County. These men found and destroyed
numerous scattered egg clusters on fruit and shade trees. The distribution
of the colonies indicated that the primary cause of the infestation was the
wind spread of small c.,ternillars from other infestations. Rutland has been
free of the gvrsy moth for several years, the last infestations recorded
havini: been found during the fiscal year 1927. A gy-osy lnoth infestation
consisting of four egg clusters was discovered in a woodland block contain-
ing anproximately 400 acres in Manchester, Bennington County. Two of the
egg clusters were located comparatively close to each oth r on one side of
the wood lot, while the other two clusters were about 1 mile distant. The
western half of Manchester is mountainous, heavily wooded, and traversed
only by a few scarcely discernible logging ronds.

Gypsy"moth colony in hawthorn brush difficult to clean.up.--Three
gypsy moth infestations were located, late in December, in Lanesboro Town-
ship, Berkshire County, Mass. One of the infestations centers in a thicket
of wild scrub apple trees and hawthorns, all of which must be chopped out
and burned. The workers handle the hawthorn brush with long-handled forks
for protection Pgainst injury from the long sharp thorns, the points of
which are brittle, frequently brenk off after penetrating the flesh, and
are painful to remove.

'Small infestations found on Mount Greylock.--A crew of gypsy moth
scouts working on the west slope of Mount Greylock, which lies partly in
New Ashford Township, Berkshire County, Mass., recently located several small





-13-

infestations of widely scattered egg clusters, all of which were immedi-
ately destroyed by creosoting. The lower slo-oes of Mount Greylock are
heavily wooded -nd support a substantial percentage of trees favored as
food by thp gy-sy moth. Considerable thinning r-nd clenning work is neces-
sory in the vicinity of gyosy moth infestations in this region.

Birch logs inspected before movement to mills.--A crew detailed to
conduct srecial scouting work in a white birch timber lot through which the
New York-Massachusetts StSte line passes, in the vicinity of Willinmstown,
Berkshire County, Mass., found and destroyed several gyosy moth egg clus-
ters. Logs cut from this wood lot are transported over the road to wood-
working mills in Berlin, N. Y., and Bennington, Vt.

Wood lots examined before movement of Christmas greenery.-- arly in
December large quantities of Christmas trees and greenery began to move
daily from- various points in the Massachusetts section of the barrier zone.
The points of origin of practically all of this material had. been examined
erlier in the season to insure against the transportation of gypsy moth
egg clusters.

Gypsy moth work in Connecticut.--Scoutine work was recently com-
pleted in several areas in Connecticut, which were found to be infested by
the gypsy moth last year and wnich received treatment work, including spray-
ing. The ebsence of new egg clusters at the sites of these old infestations
is indicative of the thorough work done last yepr. A small infestation was
found in the northern part of Canaan Township, end a small number of
scattered egg clusters were found and c-reosoted in a heavily wooded section
in the northeastern corner of the adjoining town of Salisbury. Four small
infestations were discovered in Washington Township, none of them near any
of the infestations discovered and trepted last year. All three of the
above towns are in Litchfield County. Chopping work continued at infested
locations, and ideal burning conditions nermitted the destruction of con-
siderable quantities of accumulated brush and waste wood. The recent shift-
ing of livestock from pastures to winter quarters removed the necessity of
fencing the sections where gypsy moth spraying work was done last season,
and a large amount of government-owned barbwire was removed during December.
This work was completed late in the month in the northwestern section of
Litchfield County and is progressing rapidly in other sections.

LstP Christmas-tree insoection in Connecticut.--It was necessary to
continue the examin.tion of Christmas trees cut from a spruce plantation in
Litchfield Township, Litchfield County, Conn., until the morning of Decem-
ber 24. Although most of the trees were cut for local use, the oresence of
gypsy moth infestations in nearby wood lots made it advisable to insoect all
of the trees removed so there would be no possibility of transporting gypsy
moth egg clusters to uninfested areas. No egg clusters were found on the
trees inspected.

Few gynsy moth infestations found in residential sections of Pennsyl-
vania,--All gypsy moth workers were transferred from wooded areas in Pennsyl-
vania during the deer-hunting season, which comprised the first 2 weeks in
December, in order to avoid th,' possibility of injury by stray bullets. An
unusually large number of hunters were in the woods this year, and State





-l4-

game wardens estimated that no fewer than 1,000 cars were parked along a
10-mile stretch of road traversing a heavily wooded section in the.moun-
tains east of Wilkes-Barre where gypsy moth work is ordinarily conducted.
The men were assigned to scoutin- residential and open sections and to burn-
ing brush during the danger period. The results of the residential scouting
indicate that many gypsy moth infestations have been eliminated from sec-
tions of Luzerne and Lackawanna Counties that were formerly heavily infested
and where intensive extermination work has been conducted annually since the
gypsy moth was first discovered in Pennsylvania. A few small infestations
were found in the residential sections of Kingston and Wilkes-Barre,
Luzerne County.

Report of C. C. C. gypsy moth work for first half of fiscal year
1941.--There was a substantial increase in the amount of time used by thG
C. C. C. on gyosy moth work east of the barrier zone during the first half
of the present fiscal year, as compared with the similar period of the fis-
cal yer 1940. Approximately 36,000 6-hour man-days were used in the 1941
period, while only about 25,000 man-days were available in the corresponding
period in 1940. This large increase was due to the return to gypsy moth
work of crews that had been engaged in fire-hazard-reduction work since the
hurricane of 1938. Work was performed on a total of 30,707 acres; however,
it was necessery to cover 669 of these acres twici as additional treatment
work was necessary, leavinr a net total of 30,038 acres treated. Gypsv moth
thinnine work was done on 1,162 acres of woodland, and s-routs of favorable
gypsy moth food plants were removed from an additional 1,517 acres that had
previously been thinned in order that grrsy moth resistant sprouts would
have a better opportunity to develop. All of this work resulted in the de-
struction of 135,819 new gypsy moth egg clusters. Seasonal burlapping work,
begun toward the and of the fiscal ye!'r 1940 and extended into the 1941 fis-
cal year, resulted in the destruction of 291,435 additional gypsy moth cater-
pillars and pupae. STrrayin- work, which wqs also done in parts of the two
fiscal years, resulted in the coverage of 2,81o acres.

C. C. C. gyJns moth work reduced during December.--A total of 4,650
6-hour man-days were used on C. C. C. gyosy moth work during December. From
1,400 to 1,533 man-days eor weeh were used during the first part of the
month, but the time dropped to a low of 193 man-days used during the week
ended December 28. This extreme reduction was due to storms, to two holi-
days during the week, and to the ending of an enrollment period. The amount
of work accomplished each week was less than had been anticipated, as the
quotas of the camps were considerably below the maximum during the entire
period. While C. C. gypsy moth work consisted principally of selective
thinning work during the first 4 months of the oresent fiscal yepr, more
emphasis has been placed on scouting work since the droptoing of the foliage
in order to determine infestation conditions and to locate the sites of
heaviest infestation so th.t further thinning and intensive work can be done
at the most advantageous locations. It was necesspr-r to interrupt the scout-
ing work for short periods during the deer-hunting seasons and also on days
when conditions were unfavorable for scouting, and to assign the men to
thinning and burning operations.

Economy stressed in C. C C. gypsy noth work.--Gypsy -oth foremen
have been instructed to conduct the thinning work as economically as possible,





-15-

consistent with obtaining the desired results. One method of reducing the
cost of operations is to scatter the cut brush so that it will rot and
disintegrate rather than to assemble and burn the debris. The use of this
method where conditions are favorable has resulted in a gradual reduction
in the cost per acre and has permitted the treatment of a larger acreage
with the man-power available. This type of work has been considerably
more costly in Vermont than in Massachusetts and Connecticut, as large
areas in Vermont have not been cleaned up since the hurricane and are
covered with a tangle of blown-down trees which must be treated.

Infestation conditions east of barrier zone.--C. C. C. gypsy moth
scouting work east of the barrier zone in Massachusetts and Connecticut
indicates that the egg depositions are not as heavy as they have been dur-
ing the last few years, but that a generally scattered infestation is
present. The situation is different in certain parts 6f Vermont, where
very heavy infestations have been found in Westminster, Rockingham, and
Springfield, and scattered but annually increasing colonies exist in the
towns of Chester, Ludlow, Gr?,fton, and Plymouth.

Property owners apply approved gypsy moth methods to woodlands.--Prop-
erty owners are showing an increasing interest in C. C. C. gypsy moth work.
Many of them have consulted C. C. C. gypsy mothforemen regarding proper
methods for treating their properties, and have treeted their woodland
blocks in accordance with good gypsy moth pr!.ctice. Some have followed up
their thinning and cleaning work with the planting of species of trees
resistant'to gypsy moth. Similar cooperation has also been found in the
treatment of some public lands. The superintendent of a large water board
property in Massachusetts has agreed to follow the C. C. C. thinning work
with the removal of large white oaks, thereby improving the work and shar-
ing in the cost. Such cooperation results in improvements in the stands of
the property owners and is of great assistance to the gypsy moth work as a
whole.

PLANT DISEASE CONTROL

Barberry bushes destroyed on 31 properties in Ohio in December.--
Crews working in Ashtabula, Champaign, Columbiana, Fulton, Lorain, and
Muskingum Counties covered areas totaling 115 square miles during the
month, and 608 barberry bushes were destroyed on 31 properties, 10 of
which were new locations. The crews assigned to Fulton County conducted
some resurvey in adjoining townships in Henry County, and 145 barberry
bushes were found and destroyed .on 6 of 127 old properties visited. Henry
County was given an intensive survey in 1936 and no clean-up work has been
done since. 'The results of this resurvey, therefore, indicate that sub-
stantial progress has been made toward putting this county on a maintenance
basis.

Eleven million barberry bushes destroyed in Pennsylvania since 1935.--
In 1939 Pennsylvania produced more than 50 million bushels of whe-t, oats,
barley, and rye. The State ranks about ninth in the production of winter
wheat, with an average yield of 21 bushels per acre. Prior to 1935 re-
peated crop failures resulting from black stem rust had forced many farmers
to abandon the growing of maAll grain crops in localities heavily infested
with barberry bushes. Farm operators were compelled to buy feed which





-16-

ordinarily would have been produced on their own farms, were it not for
the rust hazard. Since 1935 more thrn 11 million berberry bushes have
been destroyed on 7,500 different properties distributed throughout 17
counties. It is estimated that initial control work has been accomplished
in areas totaling approximately 17 percent of the State.

Benefits from control work in Pennsylvania,--Since complreting the
initial survey in Lackawanna and Susquehanha Counties in 1935 and 1936,
there has been an increase in the production of small grains in these coun-
ties amounting to 30.7 and 33.3 percent, respectively. Similar increases
in production are recorded in other counties where barberry bushes have been
removed, while in counties where no control work has been done there was no'
appreciable increase in either acreage or production. Based on 5 years of
observ-tions, L. K. Wright, in charge of control work in Pennsylvania, es-
timates that losses from stem rust in that State have been reduced by 90
percent where barberry bushes were eliminated. Grain growers are 'advised,
however, that theirx crops will escape damage from rust only if surrounding
woods and fence rows are kept free from barberry bushes. In many com-
munities organized groups of farmers are makiig annual inspections of their
own farms and destroying ibshes that develop from seed. There are, however,
extensive wooded areas where one or more systematic resurveys will be needed
before maintenance work can be turned over to local groups.

Scanty Ribes regeneration around white nine shelterbelts in Iowa.--In
Blackhawk County, Iowa, Ribes eradication was performed in 1910 for the
second time around 45 shelterbelts initially worked in 193". An interest-
ing and encouraging comparison in numbers of Ribes pulled in each of these
workings, 6 years a-art, follows:


orkin :Ribes per area : Ribes destroyed: Total bushes found
Wo rki ng ------------ i- --
:Wild :Cultivated: Wild :Cultivated: Wild : Cultivated
:Number: Number :Number: Number :Percent : Percent
Initial, 1934---: 452.4: 12.5 :20,356: 563 -
Second, 1940----: 41.6: 0.4 : 1,874: 17 : 8.4 : 2.9


An "area" i'n this table relates to a singl'e shelterbelt and the pro-
tective zone of about 80 acres surrounding it. The wild Ribes pulled were
almost entirely Ribes missouriense growing in.and near shelterbelts. Red
currants and gooseberries made up the cultivated Ribes destroyed. Labor in
1931- was emnloyed on N. R. A. funds, and in 1940 on W. P. A. funds under an
efficient foreman. It will be noted that in 1940 the proportion of total
bushes found was only 8,4 percent for wild Ribes and 2.9 percent for culti-
vated Ribes. These findings are most encouraging as an indication of the
effectiveness of eradicative measures in suppressing Ribes. It is equally
encouraging to analyze the number of jobs from the standpoint of the
presence or absence of Ribes at each eradication, as follows: (1) WI Ribes
present first eradication, present second eradication, 22 jobs; present
'first eradication, absent second eradication, 11 jobs; absent first eradica-
tion, present second eradication, 7 jobs; absent first erddication,' absent
second eradication, 5 jobs; total, 45 jobs. (27 Cultivated Ribes present
first eradication, present second eradication, no jobs; preeent first eradi-
cation, absent second eradication, 22 jobs; ab'sent first eradication, present





-17-

second eradication, 5 jobs; absent first eradication, absent second
eradication, 18 jobs; total, 45 jobs. It appears from this record that
one-third of the 33 areas on which wild Ribes wer-' found in 1934 were suc-
cessfully and completely freed from them at that time, but that Ribes were
either overlooked on 7 of the 12 areas reported as Ribes-free in 19T31 or
hrve since developed there from seed brought in by birds. Considering cul-
tivated Ribes, none of the 22 areas where bushes were found and destroyed
in 1934 showed any Ribes in 1940. This is largely due to the low regenera-
tive ability of cultivated bushes. On 5 of the areas cultivated bushes had
either been planted between 1931 and 1940, or the workers overlooked them
in 1934. On a fairly' substantial basis of 45 areas, all of these datn 'show
decidedly encouraging results in the establishment of control around Iowa
shelterbelts.

Cultivated Ribes in Tennessee.--R. D. Tanksley, in charge of blister
rust control work in Tennessee, re-oorts that 255,622 cultivated Ribes were
removed from 1,601 loc-tions during the period 1934 to 1940, inclusive,and"
that 17,116 cultivated bushes are still growing at 991 locations. Of 20
counties known to be growing white pine, cultivated bushes have been dis-
covered in 13 counties. The total number of recorded cultivated Ribes in
the State, including those destroyed and t.ose still living, amounts to
272,738 bushes. Of this number, over 93 percent already have been destroyed.
The work in Tennessee has been based on education and persuasion, rather
than on law enforcement,

Spread of white nine blister rust in 1940, summary.--During the cal-
endar year 191O, blister rust was found for the first time on either white
pine or Rib'es in 16 counties of the Eastern States and 1 county in the West.
Ten of these counties are in 'the North Central region, b in the Southern
Apoalachian region, and 1 in the sugar pine region. In 2 counties, namely,
Jackson County, Mich., and Ham-oshire County, W. Va., infection was found
for the first time on both Ribes and pine; while, of the remaining 15 coun-
ties, infection was found on Ribes in 9 counties, and on pine in 6 counties.
The rust is generally distributed throughout the Northeastern States on
both host plants and in many sections danage to large pines is becoming in-
creasingly noticeable in unprotected areas. Observations show that the
disease continues to spreadc unchecked in arc-as where Ribes are Dresent and
that effective control has been accomplished on those tracts from which
these bushes have been removed. In the western white nine region of eastern
Washington, northern Idaho, and western Montana, the known infected-area
remains the same as at the end of the calendar year 1939. With nine infec-
tion scattered over all of the white -ine belt of the Inland Emnire, infec-
tion may be found on Ribes each yerr in all parts of this area where these
bushes occur in any number. Consequently, the rust is intensifying to some
extent in those parts of the white nine type from which the Ribes have not
yet been removed, and at a greatly increased rate in those unprotected
drainages where the disease has been present for several years, particularly
in the younger stands. Scouting on the Gallntin National Forest at a point
19 miles from Yellowstone National Park, where Ribes infection was found in
1937, revealed negative results on both the Ribes and the limber pines.
Additional scouting in and adjacent to both Yellowstone and Grnnd. Teton
National Parks also failed to show any evidence of blister rust. In the
sugar nine region an importa-nt development in the spread of the rust was the





.-18-

discovery of 2 infected sugar oines in Calif)rnia, along Bailey Creek near
Viola (Shasta County), on the Lassen Notinnr;l Forest in the general vi-
cinity of Ribes infections found there in 1938. This infection places the
known southern limits of pine infection in California about 107 miles south
of the Oregon border -an. is the first recorC on pine in Shasta County.
Scoutinj. in the Shasta and Klanath 1Ntional Forests in California from late
in Aucust through Sentembrer was directed primarily toward determining the
extent to which infection hrd become established on pines as a result of
previous years' spread of the rust to Rib s, especially from the wave of
Ribes infection which blanketed the Klamnth National Forest and extended
more lightly over the Shasta National Forost in 1937. Results on the Shasta
National Forest wer- negoti-e. Over the moister regions of th1 Klamath
National Forest, however, it was found that a widespread return of infection
to sugar pines which were situated near Ribes thrat werl infected in 1937 had
taken plnce. The negative results obtained in scouting for the rust on
Ribes in California in 1940 indibntes that this year, like last, was un-
favorable for long-distance sprea," of the rust from the pine infection cen-
ters in the north to Ribes in that State.

Ribes erqaic-tion 20 years ago still controls blister rust.--N. H.
Harpp reports that Ribes were destroyed on severl1 thousand acres of forest
land in Warren County, ,. Y., in 1918 nd 191 in the towns of Caldwell and
Chester. When compared with unworked areas in the same localities, the
effectiveness of the early Ribes-eradic'tion work is readily aao'arent. In
the town of Caldwell, situated alonz Lake George between Lake George Village
and Bolton landing, many acres of white pine are practically free from rust
infection, except for very old cankers. In the town of Chester, near Chester-
town and Loon Lake, the area on the east side of Highway No. 9, which was
worked in 1918, shows little or no infection, while on the west side of
this highway in the vicinity of Igerna, where no Ribes-eradication work was
done prior to 1936, infection on pine is very heavy. A 1-acre plot was
examined in this unprotected section in October 1940, and it showed that
40 percent of all trees over 6 inches in diameter breastheight were dead or
will die from stem cankers established before 1936. During the fall of 1940
a study of 26 unprotected plots in Warron and Essex Counties, N. Y., showed
infection ranging from 30 to 70 percent. All diseased trees inspected were
6 inches d.b.h, or larger and had stem cankers. No Ribes eradication was
done on any of the areas on which these plots were located in the early
years of the control program. On those that have been worked in recent
years, very little new infection has taken place. In the town of Lewis,
Essex County, the Ribes were removed from about 400 acres in 1919, 1920,
and 1921. In different locations on th-se areas, the trees with old can-
kers originating in 1919 or earlier range from 30 to 45 percent. In the
town of Elizabethtown, Essex County, 100 acres were worked in 1924, and
here in ulaces 70 percent of the nines show infection that took place be-
fore Ribes eradication, while very little infection originating since 1924
can be found. On and near the ar.as which were worked some years ago pro-
lific white pine reproduction practically free from infection is very
noticeable. The destruction of some 12,000,000 Ribes in Warren and Essex
Counties since the beginning of control work has brought about this marked
improvement over early rust infection conditions.






-19-

COTTON ITSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Early freezes cause high mortality of nink bollworm.--A. J. Chapman,
of the Presidio, Tex., laboratory, reports that the first freezing tem-
peratures in the Big Bend caused a high mortality of pink bollworms in
green bolls. Temperatures of 300, 24, 24, 290, and 330 F. were recorded
for November 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18, respectively. At the beginning of
the cold. spell cotton w-s growing. Examination on November 18 of 200 green
bolls that had been killed by the freeze showed that of the 273 pink boll-
worms found in this environment, 11 were alive and 262 were dead, or a mor-
tality of 95.97 percent caused by the cold weather. The pink bollworms in
the succulent bolls were the only ones affected by the low temperatures,
as no mortrlity was found to occur among larvae in open bolls,-in cocoons
in surface trash, or in the soil. Accordino to the lest severrl years'
records, overwintering larvae in the last three environments would not be
affected by the temperatures listed above.

Small and lrrge boll weevil control plots comprred.--During 1940 boll
weevils caused serious damage in the Waco, Tex., area. Studies conducted
by K. Ewin, and associates in fields and large plots showed considerable
gains in yield of dusted over undusted cotton, whereas in the small plots
differences between cotton yields from tre'ted and untreated plots were
much less marked. Control experiments were conducted on 36 plots of 1/18
acre each, in a compact 2-acre area within a 27-acre field. The cotton
within the experimental area and throughout the entire field wrs unusually
uniform and, exclusive of the fact of boll weevil control, it was believed
that the potential production was practically the s,.me in any part of the
field. Large plots of 1 acre or more were used in control exoeriments in
5 other fields in the Waco area.


: Yield of : Yield of
Plots
: dusted cotton : undusted. cotton
Pounds Pounds
Small------------------- 1,445 1,336
Genrr-l yield,
(same field as above)-: 52
Large (average,5 other
fields)--------------- 840 : 382


It will be observed th-t untreated small plots Yielded much nearer
the level of treated cotton than did large lots or fields. While some
of this apparent gain may be due to random variation or insecticidal
action of drifted dust, it is believed that most of it is due to decrease
of weevil population, in the compact plot area. Thoma.s and Reinhrd (Tex.
Bul. 475, 1933) have shown th-t weevils are very migratory, eand it is
probable that many weevils from the small check pl ts get into dusted
plots and are killed. Infest-tion records in :ener.l agree with yield
records and support this belief. In the check plot's within the 2-acre ex-
periment1l Prea the peak infestation was 32.1 percent, while the peak in-
festation in the rest of the field reached 90 percent.





-20-

Effects of calcium arsenate on reproduction of cotton aphid.--The
effects of calcium arsenate on the reproduction of the cotton aphid was
studied by E. W, Dunnam and J. C. Clark at Stoneville, Miss. Plots of
the same variety of cotton were dusted during the period July 18 to
August 19 with 9 applications of 8 pounds per acre of calcium arsenate
containing 13,9 percent and 0.7 percent water-soluble arsenic, respective-
ly, by the Geneva method. Colonies of aphids occurring naturally on the
plots receiving the high and low water-soluble calcium arsenate and the un-
treated checks were enc:;aed in organdy bags and left undisturbed for 12
days to note the renroduction. Sixty-one anhids in 5 colonies were used
for each treatment. One series of each treatment was started before the
date of the last anplication of calcium arsenate, 1 series was started 10
days after the last application, and 1 series 20 days after the last appli-
cation. In eqch series the rate of reproduction was higher on the plants
dusted with high water-soluble calcium arsenate then on the plants dusted
with the low water-soluble calcium arsenate or the checks. The number of
young produced in the 3 series were l,620, 1,367, and 1,029, respectively,
on the plants dusted with high water-soluble, low water-soluble, calcium
arsennte and untre' ted. Another series of tests was started on Septem-
ner 1S, or 30 days after dusting was discontinued, by placing 10 newly born
-nhids in individual organdy bags on the fourth leaf from the tops of plants
receivins' the different treatments. In anotn~r plot dusted with the low
water-soluble calcium arsenate, all of the fruiting forms were removed at
weekly intervwls through August 12 and n wly born -whids were caged individ-
ually as above. In all tests the young a'hids were removed daily after re-
production started. The average reproduction and longevity is shown in the
following table. All scuares were removed through August 12.


: Average d:ys :Anhids born:Totrl aphids:OAverage longevity
Calcium :prrereproductive: in 12 : born in 40 : of aohids
arsenate : period : day s : days
i: umb er : umber : Number Days
High As205--- : 4.2 : 96 : 22 25.3
Low As205 : 5.2 : 80 320 32.6
None---------. 6.9 40 127 22.6
Low As20---: 5.7 74 143 20.5
None---- : 6.8 6g 201 25.1


On the normal plants, wh-re the squares were not removed, the average
prereproductive period w's shorter and reproduction was faster during the
first week on the ol-nts dusted with calcium arsenate containing high water-
soluble arsenic than on those dusted with low water-soluble calcium ar-
senate, or on the checks. After the first week there was little difference
in the rate, but reproduction continued longer and the total number of young
was greater on the plants dusted with low water-soluble calcium arsenate
than on the high water-soluble calcium arsenate or the checks. The average
longevity was also greater. On the plants where squares were removed the
prereproductive neriod was day longer on the plants dusted with low water-
soluble calcium arsenate than on plants receiving similar treatment with the
squares not removed. However, on plants where the squares had been removed,





-21-

the total reproduction and longevity was greater in the checks than on the
plants dusted with low water-soluble calcium arsennte, which is a reversal
of conditions on the normal plants. The prereproductive period in the
untreated checks was practically the same for the two series, but in both
cases was longer than where calcium arsenate had been applied. With the
influence of parasites and predators eliminated by the organdy bags, these
data offer strong evidence that nine applications of calcium arsenate af-
fected the food value of the cell sap and accelerated aphid maturity and
reproduction.

PINK BOLLWORM AND THURBERIA WEEVIL CONTROL

Inspection.--Gin-trash inspection of the 1940 cotton crop was con-
cluded about December 15. At the tine inspection was terminated machines
were operating in the Arizona district and in Mexico at Mexicali, Baja
California. For the season a total of 136 pink bollworms were found in
Maricopa County, Ariz., most of these coming from the Glendale area, where
infestation existed last year. None were found in the Gilbert area, which
was infested last season. Two specimens were found at Coolidge, in Final
County, the same number found in that county last year. Large volumes of
trash were inspected in the cotton-growing areas of Pima County, with
negative results for the season. Last season 2 specimens of the nink boll-
worm were found in that county. During December, 3 Thurberia weevils were
taken through the inspection of gin trash in Pima County. Results of all
inspection in the Mexicali area of Mexico were negative. Field inspection
of cotton forms found on random plants in the lower Rio Grande Valley dis-
trict, incidental to grubbing operations for the purpose of creating a
host-free period during the fall and winter months, was continued through-
out December. A total of 225 green bolls found and inspected during the
period yielded 13 specimens of the pink bollworm, 12 of which came from
Cameron County and 1 from Hidalgo County.

Destruction of sprout and volunteer cotton.--One of the principal con-
trol measures for the suppression of the pink bollworm in the lower Rio
Grande Valley calls for the destruction of all live cotton plants immedi-
ately after the harvesting of the crop and not later than October 1, each
season. However, on account of very favorable soil and climatic conditions
in that region it is necessary to crry on during the fall and winter nmnths
en intensive campaign against developing sprout cotton in the fields and
random plants growing in out-of-the-way places to prevent fruiting of these
plants .nd the consequent build-up of infestation to attack the spring crop.
The campaign for the creation of a host-free period in the lower valley
area was continued during December, with 35 grubbing crews operating
throughout the greater tart of the period. Although this campaign has been
prosecuted vigorously since the corrpletion of the main stalk-destruction
program, it is not believed that a complete host-free period was established
until the latter nart of December. Farmer cooperation in the accomplishment
of a hs t-free condition has been very satisfactory, and it is believed that
there was less fruiting cotton after October 1 this season than at any other
comparative period since control measures have been in effect in that area.

Field clean-up in Presidio area of Big Bend.--Since a special control
program was put into effect in the Presidio area of the Big Bend of Texas in
the fall of 1938 the heavy pink bollworm damage to the cotton crop in that





-22-

area has been reduced to a negligible degree. One of the principal con-
trol measures followed in that area calls for the cutting, piling, and
burning of stalks immediately after the cotton crop is -icked out. Clean-
up for the present season got well under way around December 1, and was
nearing completion at the end of the month. During the last two seasons
it has been -necessary to resort to hand-picking of cotton debris in many
of the heavily infested fields in an effort to further reduce the winter
carryover but, owing to the oresent light infestation, it has been neces-
sery to hand-pick only a compair-tively few fields this season. Through
the cooperation of the Cotton Insects Division, fields have been located
showing sufficient surface and soil population to justify winter cultural
practices, consisting of plowing followed by irrigation. With the in-
centive of further reducing the pink bollworm infestation for the 1941
crop, all farmers have evinced considerable interest in such cultural
practices, and at the end of December plowing and irrigation were under way
in a number of fields where the degree of infestation wtarranted such meas-
ures, and plans were being mde by other farmers to start such work. Other
control measures for this section restrain farmers from planting cotton
prior to April 20, and no sprout cotton is allowed to fruit prior to the
fruiting of the spring crop. The manipulation of the pl:nting date in re-
lation to spring moth emergence results in most of the overwintering pink
bollworms emerging as moths in the spring and dying before the cotton comes
into fruit. The effects of the comrlete control program for the pink boll-
worm carried out on both sides of the river were reflected in cotton pro-
duction. Production of cotton in Presidio County in 1939 was 622 bales;
in 1939, 1,466 bnles; and in 190L, 1,9'48 bales. The greater part of this
incr ase in production is undoubtedly due to the control of the pink boll-
worm; however, some 200 or 300 bales were destroyed in 1938 by a flood.

Control measures in lower end of Juarez Valley, Mexico,--The Mexican
and United St- es Dei-nrtments of Agriculture make ins-ections annually on
both sides of the bound, ry. There is a place in Mexico in the vicinity of
Vado de Cedillas considerd'd as part of the Ju-rez Valley, but which is
really the ucper end of the Big Bend area, and its climatic conditions
more nearly resemble those prevailing in the Big Bend. On account of the
isolation of this area, and its being attached to the Juarez Valley dis-
trict, the control measures heretofore applied in the Big Bend area were
not apnlied; consequently, the pink bollworm increased here enormously.
One sample of trash from seed cotton originating in th-t locality revealed
a total of some l0,000 nink bollworms in the fall of 194O. The control
program of the Big Bend is being c:rried out here. By the end of December
it was estimated that 75 Dercent of the fields had been cleaned and plow-
ing was well under way. The delay in planting will be carried into effect
in that region for the year 1941; therefore, we can expect a substantial
reduction in the infestation in this area in 1941.

'"ild-cotton eradication.--For years efforts have been under way to
eradicate the pink bollworm from southern Flr-ida and adjacent keys by de-
stroying one of its principal hosts, the wild-cotton plant. This action
was considered necessary when it was found that the pink bollworm was
spreading from this area northward to domestic cotton plantings. From the
beginning of the pr-sent season up to themiddle of December, W. P. A.crews
have handled all of the wild-cotton-eradication work, except that being done
by 2 Bureau crews operating from house boats. At the beginning of December





-23-

the W. P. A. quota of 90 workers was increased to 102. As a result of
previous arrangements made by this Department with Army and Forest Service
officials, a C. C. C. Camp was established at Cape Srble during the first
half of December to aid the Bureau in the eradication of wild-cotton plants
from that region. Enrollees of this camp, approximrtely 180, reported for
duty with this Bureau around December 16. .At the end of the period the
Bureau W. P. A. and C. C. C, work had become well coordinated, and good
progress was being made in all areas. During the month a total of 4,261
acres was recleaned, from which were removed 3,267 plants with m.ture bolls,
166,332 seedlings, and 289 sprout'plants.

TRUCK CROP AND GARDEN INSECT IiVESTIG"TIONS

Tests of hornworm insecticides.--An experiment conducted by L. B.
Scott .nd Joe Milam, of the Clarksville, Tenn., laboratory, during the sum-
mer of 1940 on replicated small plots of dark fire-cured tobacco showed
that cryolite was more effective. ainst larvae of the hornworms Protoparce
sexta (Johan.) and P. quinquemaculata (Haw.) than was peris green at the di-
lutions and rates of application compared. Following are the results ob-
tained.


t :Application : Reduction in--
Treatment i,- -
:rate per acre:48 hours:72 hours
Spray mixture: ::Percent :Percent
Cryolite and water (6 lb.-50 gal.)-: 70 gal.: 84 : 93

Dusts:
Crvolite undiluted-----------------: 20 lb. : 63 : 81
Paris green and hydrated lime
(1 lb.-5 lb.)----------------- 7 b. : : 48

Untreated---------------------------: --- : -11 -23

The datP show that the cryolite spray was consider:-bly more effective than
the cryolite dust and that both were more effective then the paris green-
lime dust mixture at the rates of application used. Each treatment was
replicated on 4 plots of tobacco containing 100 plants each, the 16 plots
being arranged in a Latin square. Application of the spray was by a knap-
sack sprayer, while that of the dusts was by a rotary hand-operated duster.
The effectiveness of the treatments was determined by counting all larvae
found on 20 plants per plot before application and at 48 end 72 hours after.
The cryolite used in these tests contnined 85 percent sodium aluminum fluo-
ride.

Effectiveness of mole cricket bait.--Intensive experiments conducted
by C. B. Wisecup and A. H. Madden during the fall of 19l0 near Plant City,
Fla., showed that a calcium arsenate-bran bait was effective against mole
crickets under field conditions when applied at the rate of 30 pounds dry
weight per acre, that the addition of molasses to this bait did not increase
its effectiveness, and that the bait can be stored for 1 month without a
loss of effectiveness. The species involved was chiefly Scapteriscus vicinus
Scudd., although S. acletus R. & H. and Gryllotolpa hexadactyla Perty were also





-24-

present. There was no appreciable difference in the amount of surface burrow-
ing by the mole crickets in plots treroted with 30, 50, nnd 70 pounds per acre
of the bait, but there was more burrowing when only 10 pounds of bait was
applied. For the 30-pound applicrtion an average of 90 percent reduction in
the surface disturbed by mole cricket burrows was recorded 2 weeks after the
bait was first applied; however, on 3 of the 5 plots tre'.ted at this rate,
a second application was made 1 week after the first. The addition of mo-
lasses caused a significant reduction in the efficiency of the bqit when the
combined results from the 4 rates of apolication were comiprAred. The reduc-
tion in surface area burrowed by mole crickets ranged from 75 to 83 percent
1 week following a single application at the 30-pound rate for bait mixtures
that had been prepared and stored for periods of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks prior
to application. There was no significant difference among these and one
freshly mixed at the time of application, although during storage the tem-
pertture in some of the mixtures rose to 1260 F. The standard bait mixture
employed in these exoeriments consisted of 7- pounds of calcium arsenate and
100 pounds of mill-run wheat bran, slightly moistened with water prior to ap-
plication. When molasses was included the bait was moistened with a mixture
consisting of 1 pa.rt of molasses to 6 parts of water. The treatments were
replicated from 4 to 20 times in randomized block arrangem2nt of plots on
representative farms. Each plot was 10 by 30 feet in size, surrounded by a
vertical metal barrier extending 6 inches into the soil and projerting 2
inches above. The effectiveness of treatments was determined by counting the
numbers of square inches of soil disturbed by mole crickets in each of 20
random areas of 100 squre inches ner plot before and at intervals after ap-
plication. In order to stimulate surface activity and thereby to obtain a
better index of the mole cricket populations, the plots were sprinkled with
water a da.y or -nor porior to each examination, because these exoeriments
were conducted during an unusually dry period. These studies were conducted
in cooperation with the Division of Domestic Plant Q~narntines, in connection
with the widespread bait operations being crried out against mole crickets
by that Division.

Seasonal vriati on in percentage of infective aster le-fhopners.--From
a series of tests conducted by F. F. Smith, of the Beltsville, Md., labora-
tory, during the oeriod M:v to Sentember 19410, inclusive, it w'.s found that
of the aster le(lfhoppers (Macrosteles divisus Uhler), which transmits the
"yellows" infection to aster pl;nts, very few were infective in the field,
and there was a considerable seasonal variation in the percent.-e of infec-
tive leafhoppers. From a total of 761 adult leafhoppers tested during the
entire period, only 20 were found to be inf-ctive. The percentages of in-
fective leafhoppers from collections made during May, June, July, August,
and Seotamber wer- found to be 0.4, 1.0, 5.2, and 5.4, respectively. In con-
ducting these tests, individual leafhopoers were isolated on aster seedlings
to determine their ability to cause yellows infection at the time of col-
lection. The smnples of l:nfhopoers from which thL individuals used in these
tests were drawn were taken from collections mnde on lettuce and China asters.

Toxicity of insecticides against Say's stinkbug.--An intensive series
of small-sckle toxicity tests against Chlorochroa sayi Stal, an important
pest of sugar beets grown for seed in the Mesilla Vally of New Mexico and in
southern Arizona, has recently been conducted by 0. A. Hills, V. E. Romney,
and K. B. McKinney, of the Phoenix, Ariz., laboratory, In these tests a large
tI





-25-

number of insecticides were used as sprays and dusts. The results showed
that dust mixtures containing from 1 to 4- percent of dinitro-o-cyclohexyl-
phenol effected high mortalities of the test insects but caused severe
folinae burn when applied to sugar beets. There is some possibility, how-
ever, that a dust mixture can be prepared which will contain a sufficient
quantity of this ingredient to be effective and will not cause foli-'e in-
jury to the beets. Impregnated pyrethrun dust diluted so *s to contain
from about 0.2 to 0.3 percent total pyrethrins was the most effective in-
secticide tested. Corroborating field.observations made during the summer
of 1940, which showed th-at impregnated nyrethrum dust mixtures varied con-
siderably in effectiveness against this stinkbug, the laborptory tests
showed that careful grinding and mixing of the stock impregnated dust with
some of the diluent was necessary to prepare a honogeneous Oust mixture.
Unless the mixing was thorough, small pellets of the impregnated dust oc-
curred in the finished dust mixture, resulting in too great dilution.
Dusts impregnated with derris extract, even at excessive strengths, gave
unsatisfactory mortality of the test insects. A dust mixture consisting of
impregnated pyrethrum dust and a diluent proved to be more effective than
the some fixture which had also been impregnated with derris extract. In
general, less effective results were obtained fro- tno application of snray
mixtures than dust mixtures of the insecticides compared. In conducting
these tests quantities of the insecticides as nearly equal as possible
were ap-lied by means of hand sprayers or dusters to the test insects through
the walls of small cylindrical screen-wire cases, which also contained
branches of green plants for food,- extending beneath into seprr~at con-
tainer filled with water. After amplication the cages were tetained in the
laboratory and periodic examinntions were made to determine the rate and
amount of mortality resulting among the treated insects. In most instances
each treatment was applied to 6 cages contaiinin 10 insects each.

Fumigation detrimental to parasites and predators of stored-tobacco
insects--C. 0. Bare, of the Richmon., Va., labor-tory, reports the results
of tests to determine the fate of parasites and predators of the cigarette
beetle (Lasiorerma serricorne (F.)) andl. the tobacco m-,th (Ephestia elutella
(Hbn.)), subjected to fumirgtion in open storage warehouses that had been
sealed prior to tre-atment. The results of these tests indicated that the
hymenopterous parasite Anl.stomorpha calandrOe (Howard) nnr. the mites Seiulus
spp, and Monieziella (7) aueusta Banks were ensily killed by atmospheric
fumigation with hydrocyanic-acid gas applied at the rate of 12 ounces per
1,000 cubic feet in an onen storage wrrehouse sealed with balloon cloth,
when the test snecimens were sus-ende:d in open-air spaces. However, the
Monieziella mites at a depth of 51 inches in bales of tobacco withstood the
fumigation. Previous exoeriments had indicated that the hymenopterous para-
sites Mesostenus gracilis (Cress.), Microbracon hebitor (Say), and A. calan-
drae are epsily killed under similar conditions from the ap-olication of hy-
drocyanic-acid gas at the rate of 6 ounces per 1,000 cubic feet. In these
tests the test specimens were suspended in open containers at each of three
levels in the fumigated warehouse--nerr the ceiling, near the floor, and
midway between. By use of testspikes the two soecies of mites were also
placed at various depths in bales of tobacco undergoing fumigation. After
50 hours of fumigation the mortality among test specimens was determined
and compared with similar data from other lots exposed in warehouses that
had not been fumigated.







INSECTS AFFECTING MAN AND ANIMALS

Design of micro-apnaratus and technique.--William Robinson, Belts-
ville, Md., revorts that in his search for the enzyme urease in various
organs of individual screwworm larvae, his associate, C. S. Wilson, has
designed micro-apparatus and techniaue so that determinations have been
made from tissues raneing from 15.0 to 0.3 cubic millimeters in size. It
is believed that this is the first time such minute amounts of material
have been isolated and analyzed,

Breeding -lace of stablefly larvae.--In his renort for the last
quarter of 19Cn, W. E. Dove, Panama City, Fla., tells of the discovery of
infestations of "dog fly" (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) larvae and nupae in pea-
nut litter in the fields throughout the principal peanut-growing section of
northwestern Florida, southeastern Alabama, and southwestern Georgia. The
breeding occurred in fermenting waste, leaves, and stems left in the field
where pcanut vines were baled for hay. After fall rains the infestations
were found in ev-rv oile of litter examined. The piles, about 25 x 30 feet,
and rangin. from 3 inches deep on the edge to 3 feet deep in the center,
werp found at the rate of -bout 1 to each 1l acres of harvested peanuts.
In 10 counties of western Florida, 9 counties of southern Alabamn, and 33
counties of southeastern Georgia it is estimated that 1,000,000 acres of
peanuts were harvested in 1940, and that these resulted in about 100,000
piles of litter which are breeding, or are caoable of breeding, outbreak
numbers of dog flies in that arra. Mr. Dove states that in favorite loca-
tions there may be more than 100 larvae and pupae ner square foot of litter.
Another and a different dog fly breeding problem exists in drifts of
marine grasses washed ashore on beaches of bays and sounds. The latter
breeding occurs in different areas and at times when one would expect the
breeding in peanut litter to be at a low pcint. In general, the months of
July, August, and Seite-ber are the dan_:erous months for breeding of dog
flies in marine grasses, whereas breeding occurs in the wet peanut litter
a month or two later.

New compound toxic to mosquito larvae.--W. V, King and R. C. Bushland,
of the Orlando, Fla., laboratory, have found a new compound which has
shown outstanding toxicity to larvae of the southern house mosquito (Culex
quinquefasciatus Say). In preliminary laboratory tests 1.0 p. p. m. of
the compound killed about the same percentage of test larvae as did pheno-
thiazine (in 48 hours) and seemed more toxic than 4-(p-bromophenylazo)-m-
cresol. Mixtu-res of the new compound with phenothiazine and with 4-(p-
bromonhenvlazo)-m--cresol were not as effective as equal dosages of the com-
ponents. The tests indicated a minimum lethal concentration of about 1.5
p. p. m. of the new material for satisfactory kills.

Ae of mosauito larvae and resistance to insecticides.--Mr. King also
renorts that tests on Culex larvae at ages of 2, 3, 4, and 6 days indicated
that as the larvae mature they become more resistant to insectioides.

Ditching reduces breeding of salt-marsh mosquitoes.--G. H. Bradley
and B. V. Travis, of the -ew Smyrna, Fla., laboratory, state that during
1940 ditchin. reduced mosauito-lrrval density 100 percent on Batis marshes,
99 -ercent on bunchgr.ss marshes, 99 oercent on Juncus marshes, 75 percent





-27-

on Distichlis m-rshes, and 67 percent on Salicornia marshes. Wherp Sali-
cornia and Batis combined were.dominent, a decreased larval population of
only 63 percent occurred, whereas on areas where Solicornia and Distichlis
combined made up the dominant flora, a decrease of only 23 percent was ob-
served. Messrs. Bradley and Travis conclude that it is important to de-
vise special control measures for various marshes or sections of marshes
based on their special requirements, to which the vegetative cover is an
index.

Ditch spacing a factor in reduction of mosquito larvae.--From data ob-
tained on field studies conducted south of New Smyrna, Fla., by Messrs.
Bradley and Travis, it was shown that ditches spaced at 75-foot intervals
reduced breeding 91 percent; 150-foot spacings gave reductions of 87 per-
cent and 18 percent, respectively, for two sections; and no reduction was
noted where ditches were spaced ot 300-foot intervals. This experiment
further demonstrates the necessity of devising control procedure based on
the special requirements of an area.

Examination of turkeys for Leucocytozoon smithi.--During the last
quarter of 1940, Mr. Travis examined 81 turkeys from 15 flocks in Volusia
County and 7 turkeys from 2 flocks in Gilchrist County, Fla., to determine
the incidence and distribution of the turkey oarpsite L. smithi. Of the
88 turkeys examined, only 6 birds fro-i 2 flocks showed no parasites in the
blood. Mr. Travis' survey showed all birds examined from rural locations
to be infected and birds from urban locations to be free of parasites. In
all flocks where birds were heavily infected the growers indicated losses
of young birds.

Soil sampling for marsh mosquito surveys demonstrated in .Dade and
Broward Counties, Fla.--At the request of Fred Stutz, mosquito control
director of .the Mosauito Abatement District of Dade and Broward Counties,
Messrs. Travis and Bradley demonstrated the soil-sampling method for marsh-
mosquito surveys in Mr. Stutz's .district early in December. IHatching of
both Aedes teeniorhynchus (Wied.) and PsoroDhora columbiae D. & K. was ob-
tained from snmoles of soil trken on ditch and furrow sides,, hummocks, and
pond rims. No hatching was obtained from extensive unditched, flat marl
marshes.

Relation of malaria control to wildlife conservation.--A joint meet-
ing of the Technical and Policy Committees of the Tennessee VYlle., Authority,
held in Knoxville, Tenn., on December 6, was attended by F. C. Bishopp and
W. V. King. At this meeting consideration was given to the results ob-
tained during the last 2 years and approval-was given for the oublication
of some of the completed work. As the final-action of the meeting a notion
was passed to discontinue the present cooperative organization, but pro-
vision was.made for continuation of the projects on a less formal basis.

Combinption screwwrmrlarvicides and wound protectors.--Roy Melvin,
H. E, Parish, and C. L. Smith, of the Menr-,. Tex., lboratory, have sum-
marized a study of approximately 100 mixtures of larvicides and organic
chemical wound protectors, Of these, 12 smears have been developec and
are now ready for large-scale field tests. These 12 compoun.s, in experi-
ments on large, blo)ody cattle wounds, have, on the average, given not less
than 3 days' initial protection and not less than a lO-day interval of pro-
tection between reinfestations, and hrave required not more than 4 treat-
ments to heal thp wounA.





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Seasonal appearance and abundance of cattle grubs.--A cross-section
survey was made in the vicinity of Dallas, Tex., by E. W. Laake and W. G.
Bruce, of the Dallas laboratory, to determine the seasonal appearance and
abundance of cattle grubs in dairy cattle. The survey revealed that the
first grubs appeared somewhat later than usual and that the heaviest in-
festations were in cattle on upland farms. On December 13, when 181 grubs
were carefully stared, the development was as follows: 9.4 percent of the
larvae were in the first stare, 71.8 percent in the second stage, and 18.8
percent in the third stage. The abundance of grubs in mid-December in an
average herd on an upland dairy farm was as follows: 20.9 percent of the
cows were uninfested; 53.5 percent hod from 1 to 10 grubs per head; 18.6
percent'had from 11 to 20 grubs per head; 4.7 percent had from 21 to 30
grubs per head; and 2.3 percent had more than 30 grubs per head. Cattle
grub control experiments were started in the vicinity of Dallas the second
week of December.

Experimental dipping for control of cattle grubs.--Three groups of
cattle were dipped in the standard sulfur-cube dip and in modifications of
it to test its efficacy against cattle grubs. These tests were made by
R. W. Wells, of the Dalls laboratory. Clearly, about 40 percent of the
grubs in cattle dipped once failed to survive the standard dip, while it
was indicated less clerrly that from two dippings a destruction of 75 per-
cent of the grubs may be expected.

FOREIG-N PLAFT QUARNTINES

Another bruchid intercepted in vetch.--Eive bruchids infesting vetch
seed from Rumnnia, intercepted in foreign mails at New York, were identi-
fied by H. S. Barber, of the Division of Insect Identific.tion, as Bruchus
sp., near rufines Hbst. Mr. Barber remarks that this appears to be a form
not hitherto recognized in the Nation!l Museum's collection.

Imnorted live Eurooenn corn borers, $1 per pound.--On December 12 two
sample packages of living larvae of the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubi-
lalis Hbn.), one sent to a pet shop and the other to a gold fish company in
San Francisco, were intercepted by a Customs mail examiner., A company in
Tientsin, Chins,had sent the samnles with a mimeogrn-hed letter stating
that they were in position to furnish large ouantities of these live "worms"
for bird food. from October to April at $1 per pound f.o.b. San Francisco,
including packing, in l1ts up to 3 pounds. Shi-oments of more than 4
pounds were offered to be sent c.o.d. A similar mail shipment was inter-
cented at Baltimore on December 17. Although these samnle.s contained only
about 20 larvwe each, with corn-husk nacking, it is not known whether or
not all have been intercepted, and 20 mature larvae could easily start a
serious infestation if Eiven an onportunity. Again our thanks are given
to the Customs personnel for stopping a dangerous plant pest.

Entomological intercentions of interest.--Adults of the lygaeid
Peritrechus fraternus Uhl. were taken from lettuce found in passenger's
baggage from Mexico at El Paso, Tex., on November 20 and 25. Lettuce was
the host for an adult of the -entatomid Thyanta accerra McA., which was
found in baggage arriving from Mexico at Laredo on November 19. At Nogales,
Ariz., on July 20 there was a live adult of Euphrytus. parvicollis Schaef.





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taken.from mustar: greens arriving.in baggage from Mexico. H. S. Barber
states that this chrysomelid'is new "to the Museum's collection. On Novem-
ber 16 at New York an insnection of ship's stores revealed apoles from
Portugal infested with live lairvae of Ceratitis canitata (Wied.). A live
adult of Chelymoroha pubescens Boh. was intercepted on bananas from Mexico
which arrived at New Orleans on September 11. A live adult of the lygaeid
Exptochiomera fuscicornis (Stal) was found at Brownsville on November 2
on cockscomb flowers from Mexico. Live larvae of the pink bollworm (Pec-
tinophora gossypiella (Saund.)) werc; intercepted from okra carried in
ship's stores which arriv-d at Boston, Mass., on November 30. Tangerine
fruit infested with one live larva of the Mediterranean fruitfly (Cerati-
tis capitata (Wied.)) was intercepted at New York on December 4 in bag-
gage from Portugal. Two living larvae of Heilipus lauri (Boh.) were found
in avocado seed in baggage arriving at Laredo, Tex., on December 1 from
Mexico. From grapefruit in stores living pu-oae and larvae of Anastrepha
fraterculus (Wd.) were intercepted at Boston on December 16. The fruit
originated in Argentina. Living and dead adults of Bruchidius incarnatus
(Boh.) were found at New York in Vicia faba beans arriving from Egypt in
stores on October 19, Mr. Bridwell states that this bruchid does serious
injury to broadbeans in Egypt.

Pathological interceptions of interest.--A Cercospora intercepted on
zinnias from Mexico on October 11 and again on December 7, 1940, at Browns-
ville has been determined as C. zinniae E. & M., although the spores are
larger than had been reported for the species. Mycosphaerella citrullina
(Smith) Gross. was found on November 22 at New York on squashes in stores
from Japan. Nectria sp. was intercepted November 2 at Brownsville on a
gardenia twig from Mexico, the tropical and subtropical species of the
fungus being so inadequately worked up that determination to species would
be a difficult task, recuirin- ample good material. Septoria musiva Pk.
was intercepted on October 31 at El Paso on cottonwood leaves in baggage
from Mexico. A group of protuberances making a gall-like'growth several
millimeters in diameter was intercepted on November 11 on stems mixed with
grass packing from Mexico in a shipment entering at Nogales. Preliminary
examination showed that the protuberances were filled with smut spores and
the specialist reports that it appears to be Thecaphora pustulnta Clinton,
heretofore known only from two Puerto Rican collections on Bidens sp.

DOMESTIC PLANT qJARANTINES

Grasshotoer bait used last year.--According to reoorts made by the
State leaders in grasshopper control for the yepr 1940, more than 91,000
farmers used bait in 22 States, the largest number of farmers participat-
ing in the States of Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Mon-
tang, and Kansas. There were 63,673 dry tons of bait distributed by volun-
teer and paid labor in 1940, the bulk' of which was distributed in Montane,
Minneso'ta, North Dakota, South Dakota,. Texas, Colorado, and California, in
the order named.

Field headquarters for peach projects and citrus canker combined.--
The consolidation of the peach mosaic, phony 'peach, and citrus canker proj-
ects has been effected with headauarters at 561 Federal Building, San Antonio.
Tex. A. E Cavanagh, formerly in charge of control -activities relating to





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peach diseases, with headquarters at Little Rock, Ark., is now in charge
of the consolidated project. R. N. Dopson, who has been in charge of
citrus canker eradication, will continue to direct the field work of that
project under Mr. Cavanagh's supervision, and will also act in a similar
capacity in peach mosaic and phony peach activities in Texas and nearby
States. The office at Houston, Tex., formerly the headquarters for the
citrus canker project, will be maintained as a suboffice for that work in
Texas and Louisiana.

Tree-removal work for peach disease control.--During the month of
December the destruction of abandoned, escaped, and diseased peach trees
went forward in Arizona, California, Georgia, New Mexico, and Texas. In
California all mosaic-infected trees have now been removed, with the ex-
cention of 359 trees on 4 properties. In Georgia more than 9,000 phony
trees were removed by the property owners during the month.

Chinch bug outlook.--Preliminary estimates of the chinch bug situation
as determined from the survey completed in-December, indicate that infes-
tations in Iowa and Nebraska neyt year will be lighter and more spotted
than in 19h0, and that the center of the infestation has moved to the north
and west, where winter mortality will Drobably be heavier. In Kansas and
Oklahoma, surveys indicate that the infestation will cover larger areas
than last year and may be more intense. In Illinois and Indiana the situ-
ation has not changed appreciably from that indicated by last year's survey
and it is not believed that there will be any serious outbreaks in Ohio.
Chinch bur_ infestations of a moderate intensity were also found in a small
area in the southeastern corner of South Dakota, involving approximately
four counties. With weather conditions and population develonments compa-
rable to those of 191)l, it is estimated that a-oroximately 350,000,000o
gallons of creosote oil will be needed next year. This figure may be more
than doubled or drastically reduced by weather conditions during the
spring months.

Survey for Parlatoria chinensis (Marl.).--Inspections in the city of
St. Louis during December, by g Bureau inspectors in cooperation with in-
spectors of the Missouri State Department of Agriculture, disclosed a
heavily infested ar-a of approximately 94 city blocks in the immediate
vicinity of the Missouri Botanical Garden and Tower Grove Park. Findings
indicated that the infestation is centered in or near the botanical garden
and diminishes or disappears within a distance of approximtely 6 blocks.
'Ins-ections of isolated points throughout the city, particularly of those
places to which plants from the infested areas hpve been moved, or are
susnected of having been moved, such as cemeteries, other parks, and nur-
series, have disclosed no'additional infestations, with the exception of
1 infestation immediately north of Forest Park. The scale h-s been taken
from a number of different plants, including althea, lil-c, euonymus,
privet, -urple lepf plum, rose, sumac, peach, flowering currant, aprle,
and willow. Collections do not indicate any particular plant as a favored
host.

Mole cricket control.--The distribution of bait for the control of
mole crickets in 11 counties in Florida was discontinued on December 14, as
it was felt by all concerned that the best interest of the growers had been





-31-

servcd. Mixers were dismantled and stored and surplus bait materials were
also stored. During the 12 weeks of oper.ti n of the project, September 25
to December 14, over 2,500,000 pounds of mixed bait was distributed from
four mixing stations located at Plant City, Lakeland, Wauchula, and
Palatka, Fla. Growers and county and St'te authorities were unanimous in
their expression of appreciation for the assistance rendered in controlling
the serious outbreaks of mole crickets during the fall months. Without
such assistance, it is indicated that many plantings of vegetables and straw-
berries would have been either completely destroyed or very severely damaged.

White-fringed beetle control.--A few adult beetles of Pantomorus leu-
coloma Boh. and P. peregrinus Buch, were reported still active in the field
at the close of December. Clearing work, with the assistance of W. P. A.
crews, went forward in various infested areas in Alabama, Florida, and
Mississippi. Over 800 acres was cleared for control operations in the
month of December.

Sweetpotato weevil eradication.--Summing up the situation at the close
of 1940, it is found th -t considerable progress had been made in the eradi-
cation of the sweetpotato weevil infestations since the project was begun
in July 1937, jointly with the States, in designated commercial areas of
Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas, as shown by the following table.


S: Infested properties, 1937-40
State
:Located :Released from quarantine
: Number : Number
Alabama------ : 426 : 399
Georgia------: 75 69
Mississip-oi-- 530 :91
Texas-------: 187 : 182

Of the total of 1,218 infested -roperties located in the last 32
years, 1,1l1, or 93.6 percent, have been released from quarantine as ap-
parently free from the weevils.

Transit inspection.--Seven additional inspectors were assigned to
the Northeastern States region to assist in the inspection of Christmas
greens moving from the gypsy moth and brown-tail moth infested area during
December. As a result of the -ugmentation of the regular force by these
inspectors, 315 apparent violations of quarantine 45 were reported by the
inspectors in this region during December. The inspection covered not
only the mail, express, and freight, but the movement of Christmas greenery
into the New York City markets by trucks and boats. Several mislabeled
and misrepresented parcels were noted as containing material in violation
of quarantine 45. Some outstanding examples were a shi-ment marked "ar-
tificial flowers,"'which was found to contain hemlock and white pine
branches with cones; another labeled "cut flowers" contained holly branches,
wreaths, and evergreen corsages; from a florist came a boxwood wreath which
bore the statement "no inspection necessary." One case of boughs was way-
billed as "case of ferns." A consignment labeled "rush, perishable fruit"
contained apples and oranges attached to a balsam wreath. One carton
covered with stickers reading "glass" and "fragile" was found to contain





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balsam wreaths. .The inspectors from all regions reported a decided in-
crease in the movement of mail and express during the last year, with the
1940 Christmas rush showing from 12- to 25-percent increase over previous
years. Additional inspectors were assigned to several points in the
Southern States, and a ver- thorough check was maintained on shipments of
peach and plum nursery stock moving from the areas infected with phony
peach and peach mosaic. This special inspection was discontinued on De-
cember 21.

Citrus cnnker recurs in Texas.--Citrus canker was found early in De-
cember in the outskirts of Alta Loma, Galveston County, on a small Citrus
trifoliata seedling. It h s been nearly 6 years since the premises were
first found infected, and since that time the disease has not be-n found
there, although the place has been intensively worked each year. The cur-
rent infection was located some 300 yards from the spot where the diseased
tree of 1935 stood. A photograph of the old tree shows that there was a
bird's nest in it and most of the canker found in the tree that year was
about the nest. It seems possible that the birds might have spread the
infection. All the inspectors were promptly assigned to reinspect and re-
check the entire town of Alta Loma, and the W. P. A. laborers to clean
vacant lots, ditch banks, and fence lines in order to expose any other
small seedlings present.

CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS

Sex of cockroach influences resistance to pyrethrins.--The toxicity
to adult American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana L.) of pyrethrins
dissolved in refined kerosene was investigated by E. R. McGovran and E. L.
Mayer and they report that the female roaches were more resistant to the
pyrethrins than were the males. The kerosene solution of pyrethrins,
which was prepared by the Division of Insecticide Investigations, was ap-
plied with a micropipette to the dorsal integument of the thorax between
the bases of the wings, which were spread apart during the application.
To each female roach 0.006 milliliter of kerosene containing the pyrethrins
was ap-lied and 0.0045 milliliter to each male. The average body weight
of the females was 1.208 grams and of the males 0.913 gram. It can readily
be seen from thase figures that the volume of kerosene Pnd the amount of
pyrethrins applied was proportional to the body weight of each sex and at
approximately the rate of 0.005 milliliter of solution per gram of body
weight of the insects. When a kerosene solution of pyrethrins containing
approximately equal amounts of pyrethrins I and II, and 0.5 milligram of
total pyrethrins per milliliter of refined kerosene was used, 81 percent
of the male roaches treated were killed, as compared with 53 percent of the
females. Refined kerosene that contained no pyrethrins when applied to the
roaches at the same rate caused no mortality of the males and 7 percent
mortality of the females. When a solution containing 1.0 milligram of total
pyrethrins per milliliter was applied, it caused 83 percent mortality of
females and 100 percent mortality of males. At this 81- to 83-percent
level of mortality, which was caused by 0.5 milligram per milliliter of
pyrethrins on male roaches, and 1.0 milligram per milliliter on female
roaches, it is evident that the female roaches were twice as.'resistant as
the male roaches to the myrethrins in the refined kerosene. When 0.75
milligram per milliliter of total pyrethrins was used on the males and 1.5





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milligrams per milliliter was used on the females, mortalities of 92 per-
cent and 96 percent were caused. At this high level of mortality the fe-
males appeared approximately, or possibly slightly less than,twice as
resistant as the males. At a lower level of mortality, where 53 percent
of the females and 67 percent of the males were killed by 0.5 milligram
per milliliter and 0.25 milligram per milliliter of total pyrethrins, re-
spectively, the lower mortality of the females at double tie concentra-
tion of pyrethrins, as compared with tha.t of the male roaches, indicates
that the females were more than twice as resistant to the pyrethrins as
the males.

INSECTICIDE INTVESTIGATIONS

McIndoo appointed bibliographer for Division.--Because of -his wide
scientific training, coupled with his successful research exaerience of
many years, N. E. Mclndoo has been transferred to this Division for the
'ouroose of pursuing library research on insecticides -nd related subjects.
Until this transfer on December 1, 1940, Mr. Mclndoo had been connected
with the Division of Control Investigations. In his new assignment he
will be engaged in the writing of critical reviews and the compilation of
bibliogra.hies of insecticides and allied subject matter, such as attrac-
tants and repellents. In this capacity he will abstract and digest the
information on these materials found in the entomological, chemical,
medical, and agricultural journals. As is well known, the published re-
ports of tests of insecticides and.their physiological effects upon in-
sects, as they appear in their original journal articles, are published
in many languages and are inadequately treated in the abstract journals,
and it will be necessary for Mr. Mclndoo to make a wide search of the
literature. On the basis of the classified abstracts so prepared, he
will publish critical reviews on the insecticidal uses. of inorganic and
organic materials of both plant and synthetic origin, in an effort to
guide the research endeavors of the Bureau's chemists and entomologists
who are striving to develop new insecticides and to improve those in cur-
rent use.

Work on testing of new insecticides on goldfish transferred to Di-
vision of Control Investigations.--The toxicity te.sts, employing the gold-
fish.as the test animal, of various insecticidal compounds developed by
the chemists of this Division are now being conducted in the Division of
Control Investigations, where similar studies are being made except that
'in that Division insects have always been used for the tests. W. A. Gers-
dorff, who was in charge of these toxicity tests while they came within
the jurisdiction of the Division of Insecticide Investications, was trans-
ferred on December 1, 1940, to the Division of Control Investi-ations,
where he will continue his studies along this line.

BEE CULTURE

Initiation of brood rearing probably not a temperature response.--
Warren Whitcomb, Jr., of University, La., reports: "Brood rearing of bees
in Louisiana follows rather closely the same trends as in more northern lo-
calities and is ordinarily choracterized by a broodless period during Decem-
ber and January. Colonies which are abnormal in some respect may continue,
or initiate, brood rearing during such normally broodless periods. Feeding






-34-

tests now in progress indicate that this broodless period can be changed
by proper feeding and that brood rearing may be continuous, Evidently
the initiation, or cessation, of brood rearing is a food, and not a tem-
nerature response."

IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS

Wild' hosts of sweetpotato weevil.--A long series of the sw'eetpotato
weevil (Cylas formicarius (F.)), from Sunset, La., was recently received
from K. L. Cockerham, of the Division of Truck Crop and Garden Insect In-
vestigations, for verification of name. The lot is of unusual interest in
that it includes specimens reared from five wild host plants, namely,
Ipomoea hederpcea, I. trichocarpa, I. pandurata, I. barbigera, and I. qua-
moclit. Although the National Collection contains a good series of the
awestpotato weevil, nearly all the specimens are either unlabeled as to
host or are stated to be from sweetpotato, The need of.full and accurate
data on the native or wild hosts of economic insects, and the practical
utility of such information in relation to control measures, is apnarent,
but such records are also of much value in the taxonomic study of insect
groups.

Ap1T.rent extension of range of an introduced European weevil.--The
European barine curculionid, Cosmob.ris scalopacea (Germ.), has been known
from the Northeastern States for at least i0 years, and more recently has
been reported from Illinois, Michigan, and Iowa. During May 1939, P. C.
Ting collected two specimens of this species near Tracy, Calif., about 50
miles east of San FrPncisco, on cattails (Typha). The species has been
reared from the stems of Chenopodium at Hyattsville, Md., by W. H. Ander-
son, -nd has been taken from stems of Chenopodium at Huntington, N. Y.,
by J. C. Bridwell. In Europe it has been reported from several other
genera of Chenopodiaceae, including Salsola, Corispermum, Salicornia,
Suaeda, and Atriplex.

Uncommon grasshoppers occasionally found in abundance.--During the
summer of 19~0, J. F. G. Clarke, of this Division, made a collection of
Orthoptera, in the course of general collecting in the State of Washington,
which is very helpful. Numerous species are included, but especially good
series of the relatively uncommon Eremiacris pallida (Bruner), Bradynotes
caurus Scudd., and Asemoplus rainierensis Caud. Among the more desirable
Orthoptera occurring in partially wooded or alpine areas are wingless or
short-winged grasshoppers, which are sometimes found literally swarming.
As many of them are poorly represented in most collections and some are
significant in the classification of more economically important species,
it is advisable to take advantage of opportunities when these usually rare
grasshopners may be collected in abundance. Large series, consisting of
100 specimens or more per species, for instance, are desired in studying
variation.

The quill-infesting chigger of chickens.--Sylvio Torres, eminent
Brazilian parasitologist, now touring in the United States, visited the
Division of Insect Identification and left several sam-ples of the South
American quill-infesting chigger (Apolonia tigipioensis Tor. & Braga) for
the National collection. This chigger enters the young quill before the





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terminal opening closes and continues to feed long after the feather de-
velops, causing the latter to break off ne-ar its base. After the feather
is gone, a tumor develops about the quill bse,, becoming very conspicuous
on the deplumed area about it.

Two hemipterous predators upon the corn ear worm.--Specimens of two
species of the hemipterous family Anthocoridae w:,r( recently received for
identification through the Division of Cotton Insect Investigations, with
the report that they had been collected on cotton in the Canete Valley,
Peru, in December by B. R. Coad, A note by Mr. Coed accompanying the ma-
terial stated that these insects are remarkably effective as predators up-
on the eges and newly hatched larvae of Heliothis. Observations indicated
that fully 95 percent of the eggs had been destroyed and that, although
there had been heavy egg deposition, it was almost impossible to locate
Heliothis larvae. These predators have been identified by H. G. Barber as
Cardinstethus assimilis (Reut.) and Paratriphleps laeviusoulus Champ. The
former was originally described from Texas, the latter from Panama.

Food-plant record for a coreid bug.--James Zetek, of the Division of
Fruitfly Investigations, recently submitted for det:rminition a number of
specimens of the large coreid bug, Pachylis pharaonis Herbst, which he
states is very abundant on Bougainvillea glabra Choisy in the Canal Zone.
Apparently this is the first record of the food plant of Pachylis pharaonis.


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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


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