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Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
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9 v. : ; 28 cm.
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English
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United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
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Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
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Washington, D.C.
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Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
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serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

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Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
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AA00023227:00048

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Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
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LUj\ JDr P^II

DEPATVJ ElT-J OF AG J CULTUFE








BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER







VOLUME vnr
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter40no1





UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER

FOR NOVEMBER 1940



Vol. VIII, No. 1 (Not for publication) January 1, 1941



ADMIN ISTRATION

Stuart Pinckney Dies

John Stuart Pinckney, assistant entomologist, of the research staff,
at the Carlisle, Pa., laboratory, died suddenly in that city on the after-
noon of Decermber 12. Mr. Pinckney was born at it. Pleasant., S. C., on
September 11, 1901, and was graduated from Clemson College in 1922. He
was appointed to the entomological service on July 22 of that year and
was assigned to the hessian fly investigations at Wichita, Kans., under
J. R. Horton. He resigned from the service in November 1927 end was en-
gaged in private business for a time, but was reinstated on January 21,
1929, with the title of assistant entomologist, and was detailed to the
hessian fly investigations at Carlisle, under C. C. Hill. After the intro-
duced pest Bruchus brachialis Fa~hr. became troublesome in the Carolinas in
1934, Mr. Pinckney was assigned to the investigation of this insect. He
had made excellent progress with this problem but was still engaged on it
at the time of his death.

Stuart Pinckney was a valuable, energetic research worker and a man
of fine character ,who will be greatly missed in the service. He held a
captaints commission in the infantry of the United States Reserve Corps
and was deeply interested in military affairs. He was a descendant of
Governor Charles Pinckney, of South Carolina,of Revolutionary War fame.
He is survived by his wife, his parents, and one sister.

FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Causes of injury to peach trees.--A 1,600-mile-trip taken in October
by Oliver I. Snapp, of the Fort Valley, Ga., laboratory, through Virginia,
West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, to in-
vestigate injury to peach trees revealed that winter injury, rather than
the ethylone dichloride omulsion treatment for borer control, had probably
been responsible for the condition of the trees in most of the orchards
visited in which there were injured trees. The use of 85-porcent stock
emulsion of othylene dichloride instead of the recommended 20-porcont
strength had definitely contributed to serious injury in 1 orchard. In 5
of the 50 orchards visited, improper manner of application of ethylene di-
chloride emulsion or failure to regulate the dosage may have caused injury
or contributed to a condition initiated by winter injury.

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Miscible ethylene dichloride unsatisfactory for peach borer con-
trol.--Mr. Snapp has reported on tests conducted this fall at Fort Valley
with miscible ethylene dichloride, a comm~ercially manufactured substitute
for ethylene dichloride emulsion that recently appeared on the market.
When diluted to application strength, the mixture was unstable, and layered
very rapidly. Although the miscible ethylene dichloride gave very good con-
trol of the peach borer, it caused some injury to the trees. This may have
been due to the rapid settling of the diluted material, which caused the
last of the dose poured to be stronger than the first portion poured. The
injury in most cases was to the outside bark layers, especially where there
was an opening in the bark, and to crown galls. The miscible material
caused very little cambium injury and, of 236 trees of various ages treoted
with miscible ethylene dichloride, only a stunted 3-year-old tree growing
beside a hedgerow was injured sufficiently to cause death.

Fumigation of raisins in rolled paper trays.--Eoxerimental fumiga-
tions of raisins in rolled paper trays, designed to kill infestations of
the raisin moth (Ephosti" f igulilella Greg.) before larval feeding had
caused much damage, were carried out by Goorge H. Kaloostian, of the Fresno,
Calif. laIoratory. In former years raisins were dried on wooden trays.
This method is still used extensively, .specially for drying late-maturing
Muscat grapes, but probably 75 percent of the leading variety, Thompson
Seedless (Sultanina), is dried on trays of Kraft paper, 2 by 3 feet in size.
After the raisins have been dried for 10 or more days the trays are rolled
into bundles by folding the long edges of the paper tooard the middle and
then rolling the tray the long way to form a "biscuit roll." The rolls re-
main in the partial shade of the vines while further drying takes place.
There are from 6-1 to 71- pounds of raisins on each tray. Both methyl bro-
mide (2 cc. per tray) and granular paradichlorobenzene (10 g. per tray)
greatly reduced the population in Zante raisins (currants"). The reduction
was apparently aided by 3 days of partial exposure to the heat of the sun.
More successful were applications of about 2 cc. per tray of dichlorethyl
ether absorbed in white cornmeal, applied to Thompson Seedless raisins.
Treated and control rolls were left in the vineyard for 7 days. Samples
token ot the end of the teet indicated that living infestation in the
treated rolls was zero, whereas the untreated controls averaged 72,000 per
ton.
M2XICA FTRUITFLY CONTROL

Only one larval infestation found.--One larval infestation was found
in the Edinburg district on Novermber l4. In this infestation 11 fruits were
found on or under 7 trees. Larval infestations in the fall of the year are
somewhat rare, although in a fue other seasons infested fruit has been found.
As very few fruitflies have boon trapped this fall, and as none of the
previous fall infestations have ever been widespread, it is not believed
that this one instance presages a general heavy infestation for this season.
Fruit shipments for November totaled 4,325.7 equivalent carlots. The total
shipment for the season, as of November 30, amounted to 7,392.2 cars. This
amount is 774.7 equivalent carlots more than was shipped at the some date
last season. Cold weather in the lower Ric Grando Valley, as well as in the
winter-garden area, aided the maturity of citris fruit but was damaging to
tender vegotables. The eather Bureau thermometer at Brownsville recorded
a low of 38, but unofficial thermometors at Edinburg and other places in




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the western end of the valley recorded 2S for short periods of time on
November 15. Rainfall for the month aounted to 2.34 inches. Although the
rains were general and precipitation was recorded on 13 days, there was not
sufficient rainfall in parts of the area for the growers to dispense entirely
with irrigation.

CEREAL AlD FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Mornon cricket in Big Horn Mountains requires 2 years for develop-
ment.--J. R. Parker, Bozoran-, Mont., states that repcrts had reached the
Bozeman laboratory since 1935 to the effect that Mormon crickets in the Big
Horn Mountains of 7Wyoming exhibited a biennial life cycle and consequently
became abundant only every other year. F. T. Cowan, up'n investigation,
found that in collections of eggs from this locality, nado in the fall of
1939 and at intervals during the following sumner, the contained embryos re-
quired miore than- 1 year to attain maturity. The experimental evidence at
hand failed to indicate that toIoerature alone was responsible for this re-
tardation of development.

Carbon disulfide an effective soil fuRigant for white-fringed beetle.--
H. C. Young, Florala, Ala., reports tt tests conucted during. April and May
1940, in the Florala area, of carbon disulfide as a soil fnuijmc:ant for the
w h i t e f r in g e d b e e tl e g av e an e f f e c t iv e k i l l o f th e in s e c t T h i s fur; ig ian t ap -
plied at a dosage of 6G pounds to 100 square feet of surface procuccd a
drastic reduction in population but failed to effect complete mortality. The
injection of the entire dosage at a depth of 2 inches was as effective as
when half the dose was injected at 2 inches and the remainder at a depth of
8 inches. No apparent advantage resulted when areas that had been treated
were covered with tarred building paper after fuuigotion occurred.

Noely hatched larvae of white-fringed beetle descend rapidly in soil.--
Mr. Young also states that recent studies have s'hown that the newly hatched
larvae of thi white-fringed beetle descend in the soil -t a rapid rate. On
the sixth day after hatching they eore found at a depth of 3 inches; at 21
days they had rCeched a 9-inch depth, awnl by 37 days they were 11 inches deep
in the soil. The mortality of newly hatched larvae is great and reached 50
percent during the first woee after hatching.

Effect of low noisture content in grain on certain insect species.--
According to R. T. Cotton, lanhattan, Kans., e:periments to determine the ef-
fect of low noisture content in stored wheat and corn on various species of
insects contained in it snowed that, although some species succuzibed rather
promptly, others survived for long periods under such conditions. The rice
weevil, the flat grain beetle, and the lesser grain borer failed to reproduce
in grain having a moisture content of froin 7 to S percent and diedc in a short
time. On the other hand, the black carpet beetle and the confused flour
beetle lived for long periods in such grain, but were unable to breed freely
in it.

Lygus bugs in alfalfa yield to conu:unity control action in Arizona.--
V. L. Tildernuth an' L. L. Stitt, To:po, Ariz. report that serious reduction
in yields of alfalfa seed, caused by feeding of Lys bugs,, in the Mohawk and
Antelope Valleys of southwestern Arizona, led in 1939 to the adoption of a





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community control progran which has proved higjhly successful. This was
arranged through the cooperatir-u- of the local alfalfa-seed growers, the
Bur:au of Entomology and Plant Quarlantine, and the Extension Service of
the Arizona State Experiment Stti-n. In accordance with an outline pro-
parred by Messrs. Fildermuth and Stitt and C. E. Slmackledge, county:agent of Yui.
County, the growers agreed to adopt uniform cultural action throughout the
year, aimed at greatly reducing the numbers of Lygus bugs early in the sea-
son, and later exposing, them to maximum solar heat and starvation during
harvest of the hay crop preceding the seed crop. This program consisted
in a combination of clean-culture, pasturing, and irrigation schedules, to-
gether with uniform harvesting sciedules so timed as to expose the bugs to
maximum summer temperatures. In a seed-producing area of 4,600 acres the
growers cooperated practically 100 percent in adopting this outline during
the seasons of 1939 and 1940, with the result that bug populations were
greatly reduced d an alfalfa-seed production rose from an average of 174
pounds per acre in 1938, to 314 pounds in 1940. Some fields, having un-
usually excellent stands, produced from 400 to 600 pounds per acre. A
check on these results was afforded by the Lygus infested but untreated
south Gila seed-growing area, located some 29 miles distant. This produced
in 1940 only 171 pounds of seed per acre and had a bug population per acre
about five times as great as that present in the Mohawk area.

Many species of Phyllophaga capturcd in Japanese beetle traps.--Philip
Luginbill, Lafayette, Ind., states that through the cooperation of E. G.
Brewer, of the Japanese beetle control project, the trapped specimens of
Colooptera other than Japanese beotle wire sent to Lafayette for study. A
total of 7,103 specimens of Phyllophaga, takon from 75 points located in 28
States, were received in 19 40. Those comprised 55 species and 3 varieties,
which was 13 species and 2 varieties r ro than wore received in 1939. The
collections in 1940 came from 10 more States than in the previous year.
Through this excellent cooperation many valuable specimens and distribution
records have boon accunuletecd for inclusion in a publicotimo on the taxonomy
of Phyllopha:-a which is in prp aration. In addition to Phyllophaga, repre-
sentatives of 2 othlr genora of tlh Scarabaoidae were included in this ma-
terial.

First roariUng of a littlo-knownv blind bootle.--August BSazer, Beaumont,
Tex., reports the successful r;:aring of a little-knorwn, blind and wingless
bootle, Thaunophrastus karanisensis Blaisdell, from ogg to pupal stage.
This was accomplished by placing the eggs in petri dishes on mixtures of
corn, wh.at, ard rice flour. This insect vwa originally described from ma-
terial collected in an Egyptian tomb and its habits wore previously unknown.

Dusting with rotonone for control of vtch- bruchild.--According to
J. S. Pinczkncy, Carlisle, Pa., dusting experiments w ith rotonone of 0.8$
percent strength at the rate of 20 pounds per acr', for ccntrol of vetch
bruchid, shortly after oviposition began in June and July 1940, at Arondts-
villo, Pa., gave encouraging results. In the plats receiving one applica-
ti .. 82.6-percer-t nortality resulted. Those tlhat received six applications
showed 89.4-porcont mo rtality. This work '~as done under rather unfavorable
conditions, rain having retarded the applic-ticns this year until after ovi-
position had begun.





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Cadelle in stored rice resists fumigation.--August Balzer, eaCumont,
Tex. reports thet in the fumigation of a rico mill and ,arehouse, contain-
ing 693,500 cubic foot of space, and a load of 5,500,000 pounds of clean,
brewer's rice in 100-pound sacks, 525 pound-!s of liquid HCN was applied. This
application resulted in 100-percent .ortality of rice weevil adults, and
100 percent of their in.mature fiorm, but of th. od4ill.-s only 84 percont
succumbcd. The gas in this oxpoer.ment was :.ot artificially vaporized or cir-
culated. In another experiment a concrete warehouse having a contnte of
894,200 cubic feat, and .lso a load of 3,939,000 pounds of clean rice ,
approximately nine-tenths of which was in burlap sacks and the remainder in
cellophne-wra..pped cartons in cases, was fumigated with m.thyl bromide. The
dosage wvas 2 ounces of tnhe fumigant to 1,000 pounds of rice, at 870 F. It
resultod in killing 100 percent of the rice weevils and flour boetles in bur-
lap bags but only 97 percent of the cadllos. An unsa.tisfactory kill of all
insects was obtained in the rice packed in cartons.

JAPANESE BEETLE CONTROL

Perennials funigted for J-panese beetle in Ohio and planted in
Florida.---During Noveber Carrangenents were .'rmadef., for the fuiig- tion at one
of the large Mentor, Ohio, nursories of approximatoly 10,000 porennials of
all varioties and the transportetion of these fumigcatd plants to the BurCeau's
field laboratory at Sanford, Fla. for planting and observation as to the
tolerance of the different species to methyl bromide fumigation. The Di-
vision of Control Investigaetions arrangd for the land at Sanford, and as-
signed Randall Latta to cooperate with V. A. Johnson, of th Division's treat-
ing section, in conducting the tests. On November 18 about 490 varietios
were funigated, 6 plants of each v-riety. Because it ,was difficult to certify
check plants for movoement into Florida, it was decided to funigate all b and
have a larger number fumigated to comrpensato for the lack of check plants.
The plants wero packed for shipnmnt on th: 19th, left Mentor on the 20th, and
arrived at Sanford on the 23d. Mr. Ltta had the landL prepared for planting
and t he plants wore set in on the 25th and 2Oth. There w oas some leaf drop
fro; foliatd plants, owing to swnti.ng in transit. This lot ias fu.iigated
at the 500 to 54! F. temperature range, 2-7 pounds of methyl bromide per 1,OCO
cubic feet, with a t 4--hour e:xposure. A second lot of plants, consisting of
about 430 varieties, was dug on Novenber 27 and brought into the boiler room
for preheating. They were- fumigatet the following day and arrived in Sanford
on Docmnber 3, where they were plante the next day. In general, this lot
arrived in better condition t-an the first truckload. At the time of the
airival of the seconLd lo?, the first lot was showing strong growth, from
buds to loaves 3 or 4 inches long.

Nurseryman employs variety of chemical tretmonts, for Japanese beetle
control.--Numerous tre- tcmnts with carbon disulfide uerlsion and naradichloro-
bcnzone and fumigations witth rothyl bromide were performied oat a large Mary-
land nursery. At this est blishment carbon disulfide and. paraichlorobonzone
treatments have proved more satisfactory t han fuligation. Part of the treated
nursery stock was used to fill present orde:rs an the remaincer was hoeled in
in a certified plot for filling future orders. This nursery has inst-lled a
new power pumi aond pressure hose for use in washing nursory stock and plants
which must be shipped soil-free. This is a .:cre satisfactory and efficient
methoo than hand washing. A nursery on the Eastern Shore of Maryland reports








that orders for fruit trees are being received f-ster than they can be
filled. A vashing room that. wavis recently completed at this place has en-
abled them to wash several thousand fruit trees early in the morning and
has speeded up inspection work. Owing to cold weather on the Eastern Shore
it was almost itpossible to dig any large orders before 10:30 in the morn-
ing. This short working day necessitated hiring of additional employees by
some of the nurserymen.

Jaoanese beetle control activities by YIew Jersey growers.--During No-
vember the nursery ancd greenhouse business in New Jersey has been such that
all inspectors have ben kept busy. The greenhouse business has boon good,
w.ith most of the classified establishments reporting more business than for
the same period in 1939. In some cases shipments of certified stock indi-
cated a 35-percent increase in trade. The nursery bucin ss, on the other
hand, has been rather slow. A few small orders have be n handled but
spring orders have received nore attention. Stock haf. boon cleaned and
stored for early spring shipping. A cold snap during the month stopped all
digging. Azaleas continued to hold a veryp ii.-portant place for holiday stock.
One South Jeroey estcablishment leased a range of greenhouses near Bridgeton,
where they are growing thousands of a"aloes.

Japanese beetle control programs at isolated infestoations.--Soil treat-
ment with lead arsenate for Japanese beetle control was carried on in 20
cities in 7 States durin~g noverTC ber, with a total of 324.4 acres covered.
Tre.ting in Chicago vas concluded or. N1irember 5, total of 107 acres hav-
ing been treated since wvork began i that city on Auust 29. tWork in Indi-
anapolis, Ind., :.here !- 3.2 acres have thus far been treated, will be resumed
next spring. The o-il-tre-atmeent progr:m'.s in Loerns-oort and 2ichmond, Ind.,
vere finished in I7ovrebr. Tr:o tin: ectivities were also comrleted in De-
troit and Melvind.le, ,Tich.; -e:l.rl7.r, I. Y,;:Djrham, Elizabeth. City, Golds-
boro, .igh Point, -Rileigh, -ocky Mount, and S-r- Bclpre, Gallipolis, anl. Mariott, Ohlio; and Divillc, Va. There still re-
mains additional acre-e to be covor:d in 'iniston-Salcm, C.

Hedgerow certifid from To rli s Fir gro mnds.--Cold and r-in hampered
the treatment with c -bon disulfide emulsion of 260 Taxus that formed a
hedge rt the form-ir Glacf: Center, o.- t ITe w York World's Fair grounds.
Tw.o iwees wver. recLred for application of the -culsic, to the entire lot.
The 'w'ork was finally completed ,an 3 lar-g tr-il- r trucks transported the
certified stock to a nonaquarantinod State.

Nursery and groenhouos inspecti n activities.--In the Baltimore, Md.,
area only 1 greenhouse w.ill handle certified Christmes stock. This firm
will benefit by higher prices for this certified material, since other
classified establishments must confine their purch-ses of stock to be taken
into their houses to certifidd material. Inspection of chrysanthemum and
gladiolus shinrcnts, in accordi..ncc ith State European corn borer quaran-
tines, ,was contirnue at the Baitimore wholesnlc houses. Some shipments had
as many ars 0 dozen blooms -ach. A Iarge hydrangen grower in the Maryland
district requoired the services of an inspector throughout most of the month.
Over 12,500 hydr-ng7as in D-inch to 8-inch pots '-ore fumiated with methyl
bromide, 2 carloads of which wore shipp:ed to Canada and 1 to Chicago. Two
grc1nhousemen in the 3altimcre area completed new concrete soil-troetmeont





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bins, and another expects to start a nmthyl brcmide fumigation chamber in
December. In the Norfolk, Va. area i.mspction and certification of nursery
and grieenhou- stock increased greatly during 'Noveboer. Two treatments of
camellias wero made with paradiclorobenzone.

Evergreen inspection for gypsyI moth.--Oving to the finding of a large
number of gypsy moth ee clusters on spruce-bouglh lots in the lightly in-
feated area of western Massachusetts and southern Vermont, it vas necessary
to make actual piece-by-piece inspection of more thein 160 tons of boul-es.
These were shipped under certification in 100-pound bo ls. Their principal
use is for covering cemetery lots and pcrennial beds or for decrative pur-
poses. No infestation was found in any of the boughs enamined.. Many N'To
England nurseries are now manufacturing wreaths, sprays, and centerpieces
from nursery-grown trees that are not fit for sale. In this :wa-y they rre
able to realize so e noney fron their oversized stock. One nursery in con-
tral Connecticut in cutting and selling thousands of nursery-grown spruce as
Christmas trees. This serves to thin out their plots to allow for increased
growth of the remaining trees. Christnas tree oper-tors report a scarcity
of good, salable spruce or balson trees in the lightly infested gy-sy noth
areas of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vernont. Of the two types, balsac is
preferred because it does not sho the spills :hen placocd in hoted rooms.

Additional inspectors added to gyp-sy r.cth forc.--T'enty-nine temporary
inspectors were euployed in the No,, Engla States during November to assist
with the seasonal rush in conntion it tectio t insction and certification
of evergreen products. For the inspection of Christm s trees and greenery,
8 inspectors were employed in a.inec, 1 in Now E m-pshire, 12 in Vermont, -and
2 in Massachusetts. Two inspectors w:ere added in Cronnecticut for the in-
spection of nursery stock ar" naursery-grown Ch-ristmas troos. To t,:e care
of inspection of lunber in carloia lots, 1 inspector was adeed in Maine, 1
in Vermont, and 2 in Noe'. Hampshire.

A6coiplisrnents in gypsy noth inspection.--sron 45 infested ship.onts
submitted for gypsy moth inspection and certification, 286 egg clusters were
removed. In addition, 353 eSg masses were re.movd from material inspected
prior to its manufacture and shipnent to various points outside' the infested
areas.

State Highway departments cooperate in eradication.of Dutch elm
lisease.--A recent commanication from the State Highvwa.' Commissioner of Con-
necticut outlined the precautions that Department is taking to cooperate in
Dutch elm disease eradication work. "All of my specifications for road con-
struction," the letter states, "are now carr:ing in their 'Special Provi-
sionsl the following note: "'All elm wood to be cut as a result of the con-
tractor's operations v'ill be confiscated by the United States Depertment of
Agriculture or burned by the contractor at the direction of said Department.
The contractor is warned that no portion of any elm tree shall be sold or,
removed from the premises."' Arrange ants have also been made with the
State Highway Commissioner of Ncr Jersey for similar disposal of elm wood
cut as a result of contractor's operations in the State.

Additional hDtch eln disease infections in isolated areas.--Four
diseased elms were discovered in the detached areas in November--one each in
Kirkwood Toarnship, Broome Coundty, N, Y., and in the towns of Canaan, Dover,





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and Lodi, Athens County, Ohio. Since the discovery of first-record cases
in Canaan and Dover on August 7 sed 13, 194-0, respectively, a total of three
infected trees has been found in each locality.

Observations by scouts surveying for beetle-infested oels.--A large
eamount of beetle matorial w:as picked up during the course of scouting in
the West Virginia area during Yovcnmer. Treetops and small broken trees
left by timber cutters comprise' a large portion of the material. Most of
these trees were cut during August and September and are now suitable for
beetle entrance. A few of the trees observed were infested with larvae of
Scolytus nultistriatus Marsh, An unusual case of MLagdalis infestation was
found in the Preston, New London County, Conn., area. A 5-inch hanger was
so heavily infested that the larvae were only about 1/S inch apart. A 3-
inch hanger that had dropped to the ground was equally as bad. Woodpeckers
had worked the entire length of the 5-inch limb that was still attached to
the tree but had not attacked the lirmb on the ground. Both of these breaks
were caused by the hurricane in September 1938. In Laryland, scouting for
beetle material was mainly confined to the Town Creek Valley. This is a
new area for systematic scouting and a large quantity of beetle material
was tag.ed. The heaviest bark-beetle infestation in the Maryland work area
exists in this section, and it is believed that the unexpected amount of
S. n.ultistriatus collected in the northeastern section of the re:u lar Mary-
land work area was due to beetles being "fed" frou this vicinity.

Torkers trained to recog;nize bark-beetle infested material.--Training
of scout and sa.nitation crews in the identification of elm rood infested
with bark beetles, or wood likely to furnish breeding places for vectors of
the Datch eli disoas, fungus, was started late in Novem3ber and will be con-
tinued throughout Deceriaber. Last year a uniform trainin prograr.- was de-
veloped for the entire project, involving principally removal crows. This
year each State superr-iscr has developed his own progran. In this way,
scout crows that are still in the field tag~ing beetl-infosted or potential
beetle material can be trained, as well as crews that will remove the tagged
material. Reports from the several States indicate that without exception
the W. P. A. foremen and scouts are rkenly interested in such studies and
are unusually anxious to learn more about their w:ork. The quality df scout-
ing for beetle raterial h-.as improved considerably as a result. During the
course of these studies in Tew Jersey it was found that a lar-e percentage
of the material previously regarded as potential beetle wood in slippery
el_;. was actually beyond the stage suitable for beetle attack. This condi-
tion seemed to indicate that the bark of slippery elm rots much faster than
does that of the Anerican elm. Much of the naterial tagged in the course of
the special beetle material study n n Tew: York was slash and woodpiles; how-
ever, a few intercesting trees were noted. One such tree was l00-percent
dead and wac infested thro-ughout. The larvae in the tree appeared to have
been heavily parasitized, with a mortality of over 50 percent of the fully
grown larvae. Several of the larvae in the top of the tree showed. bubble-
like pro tuberances.





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FOREST ITSECT IL'VSTIGATIOlTS

Parasite of European spruce sawfly utilized against native sawfly.--
W. F. Sellers, New Eaven, Conn., reports that early in November this Divi-
sion supplied from 300,000 to 400,000 of the chalcid parasite Microplectron
fuscipennis Zett. for release in pine plantations that have been severely
infested by the native LeConte's pine savfly in the vicinity of 7ilson Dam,
Ala. The parasites were released at 30 colony sites by G. M. Bentley,
State entomologist of -Tenessee, and Karl Schuster, of the Forestry Rela-
tions Department, Tennessee Valley Authority. This parasite has become suc-
cessfully established in the Northeastern States on the European spruce saw-
fly and is fairly abundant in certain areas. It apparently will attack
practically all species of Diprion end Neodiprion sawflies. LeConto's saw-
fly cocoons are readily attacked under laboratory conditions and the adults
produced are larger than average size.

Time of year when elm hangers die governs bark beotle attack.--R. J.
Kowal, Morristown, N. J. is making a study of insect attack on elm branches
that are broken by wind, ice storms, and other causes. Often branches are
almost completely severed at their bases, but remain in the trees and later
die. They are commcnly referred to as "hangers." Early in March 1940 a
severe ice storm created on immense amount of such material in elm and other
trees in portions of the major area affected by the Dutch elm disease. Mr.
Kowal has kept some of those elm hangers under observation and has periodi-
cally created others by partially cutting through the bases of branches with
a saw. He has found that those hangers created by the March storm and which
died rapidly, and those hangers artificially created in June, have since
been only lightly attacked by the elm bark beetles Scolytus multistriatus
Marsh. and Hylurgopinus rufiyes Eich. The March hangers that died in mid-
sumner and thos e which were created in midsumrmer and died soon after vwre
moro heavily attacked. Considering all han.gers, more galleries of S. nmulti-
striatus than of H. rufipos occurred. The H. rufipes galleries were made
mostly in the material of larger diameter.

S. multistriaqtus attack heavy in wind-broken branches.--W. C. Baker,
Morristown, N. J., reports concerning an experiment begun in 193~ in eastern
Pennsylvania areas, in cooperation with the Bureau's Dutch elm disease eradi-
cation unit. During the winter of 1938-39 the project involved the de-
struction by burning of trees known to be infected with the Dutch elm disease
fungus (Ceratostomella ulmi), the destruction of dead and dying elms, and
the cutting off and destruction of all dead and dying lirbs of the other elm
trees within a mile of known infected trees. The purpose was (1) to remove
known infected trees, (2) to remove latent infections that might be present
in dead and dyiing trees or branches, and (3) to climinato elmn at-rial in
which the bark beetles Scolytus multistriatus and Hylurgopinus rufipos,
'which carry the fungus, might be present or which was suitable for attack
by then. During August 1939 nd August 1940 the pruned trees wore exanined
for die-back and wind-breaks and the doed and broken branches were indicated
on sketches that had previously boen drawn of the trees. In October 19.40
all dead branches having an estimated basal dianctor of 1-1/4 inches or
greater wore removed and examined. Smaller matorial was disregarded because
of its lack of importance as a breeding ground for the bark beetles. After
being removed the branches were stripped of their bark, measured into 2-foot





-10-

sections, the circumference of each section taken, and a record made of
the various insect galleries found. Eighty-five percent of the total num-
ber of sections examined were in the diameter classes of 2 inches and less,
while 69 percent were in the 1-inch and 1-1/2-inch diameter classes. There
was a total of 343 square feet of bark on the sections. Only 10 H. rufipes
galleries were noted. These were all in a 3-inch diameter section. The
number of S. multistriatus, Magdalis, ceramiiycid, and buprestid galleries
per square foot of bark area averaged 1.28, 0.30, 0.30, and 0.12, re-
spectively. In the case of H. rufipes and S. multistriatus the term"gal-
lerytas used here included the egg gallery and the larval-tunnels radiat-
ing fron it, while of the other insects it refers to the tunnel made by
one larva only. When the number of S. multistriatus galleries in sections
from ibranches that had been broken by the wind or by other causes was com-
pared with the number in sections from "natural die-back" branches, it
was found6 tLt the wind-broken branches were much preferred for oviposition
by the beetles. In the wind-broken branches the average number of S. rul-
tistriatus galleries per squaro foot of bark .wa 14.S8, whereas in the
"natural die-back" branches it was only 0.27.

ConcentrAted sprays offective against Cylindrccopturus weevil.--C. B.
Eaton, Berkleley, Calif., reports that concentrated sprays, which have proved
to be offective against the white pine weevil in the Northeast, will pro-
tect young ponderosa and Jeffrcy pine trees from attack by the weevil Cy-
lindrocopturus sp. In experimental tests with potted seedlings at the Hat
Creek labor-tory, a-nd wCith 5-and 6-yo-r--old plante stock in the Big
Springs brush field, Lasson National Forest, a load arsonate spray ef-
fectively prevented d ,-.ge to trees exoosod to attack by the weevil. The
spray consisted, by weight, of 1 part acid lea.d r.sonate, 0.25 pnrt summer
Vaporol, 0.03 part V.tsol OS, -and 10 parts water. It ras applied at the
rate of approxinm.tcly 1/10 pint per tree, using P. paint spray gun operated
in connection w1ith a wheelbarrow-tye power compressor. Unsprayed check
trees succumbed to the injuries crausnd by the weevil in nor-rly every case.
No deleterious effects attributeble to the chemical were evident on the
treated trees 5 months after the spr-y was applied. Largo-scale tests arc
necessary before accur'at costs for this method of control can be deter-
mined.

Field work on forest insect haard inventory completed.--P. C.
Johnson, Bereley, roports that with the coipoletion in Septeomber 1940 of
field w-ork on0: th oe Ta'~o Nationrl Forest, the Berkeley forest-insect lab-
oratory is rapidly bringing to a close one of the largest and most compro-
hensive survey studies ever undertaoen in California. The forest insect
hazard Liven tory was begun in 1937 as an initial measure in a new and de-
tcrmined offort to subdue the pino-beetle infestations in the pondorosa-
Jeffrey pine region of northeastern California. This region furnishes
annually aDbout 630 million board feet of pine lumber and is the chief
sourco of box shook for the mrany thousands of fruit grocers in the State.
In addition, the forest drain from insects in northeastern California has
averaged no-rly half this emount during the lact few years, or over 300
million board feet annually. This has not only been a tremendous loss to
the lumber industry, but threatens to become a continuing source of forest
depletion and monotary loss unless sonme dr.stic measures are soon taken.
Direct-control measures in the east-side pino stands of northeastern Cali-
fornia have not been successfiul in stemming the beetle infestations and





-11-

recently the western forest-insect labortories have advocated measuren to
salvage the timber values before they are destroyed and to further reduce
the beetle populations by rc::ooving the favored host, i. o. those trees
which, by reason of their low vigor condition, are most likely to be at-
tacked by the beetles. These susceptible, or high-risk trees, can now be
recognized with a narked degree of certainty by symptoms which even tlhe lay-
man soon recognizes. The hazard inventory has nade available the informa-
tion most needed by both private and Feder-l tibeor agencies interested in
this logging nethod of insect control. So;me 21- million acres of pine tin-
ber have been covered by a 0.6-perceot volune cruise which necessitated
running approxinately 1,900 miles of strip through the forests. Compila-
tion work which will soon be conpleted will shc': for this entire area (1)
maps of the distribution of the area according to insect hazard, and'(2)
complete statistics, by small units, of tinbor resources by species, cumu-
lative insect loss for the last 15 years, ?and the proportion of the exist-
ing pine stand now nacde up of highj-risk tres. This natorial is being re-
ceived with interest by the pine industry and has already been the basis of
several logging studios to test the effectiveness and practicability of
this mo1thod of control. The Forest Service has also incorporated hazard
inventory results on sor.e arlas into new forest-managen:ent plans nov: being
completed.

Beetle cpidemic in San 3Brnardino Mountains s has bean checked.--S. T.
Carlson, Berkeley, has recently, coupleted the fall survey of the San Bernar-
dine National Forest bnd re-orts that the control work carried on last winter
and spring has successfully checked an aggressive bark-beetle epidemic. The
control area included 12,000 acres of intensively used recreational forest
lands in the Lake Arrowhead and Crestline districts in San Bernardino County.
During the summrer of 1939, the pine cover on some 30,000 individual sumrier-
hone lots was threatened by a grouping infestation of Ips and western pine
beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis Loc.). The private owners financed control
work through an assessment by the Zone 5 Flood Control District of San
Bernardino County, which is authorized to conduct various projects involving
watershed protection. Work on the National Forest lands was carried out by
the C. C. C. organization. During the 1939 season arl: beetles killed a
total of 1,250 trees, of which oo0 wore treated during the winter control
camrpaign. For the season of 1940, the total loss is estimated at less than
50 trees, and only a small amoount of maintenance work will be necessary for
the coming winter.

Abnormal season complicates beetle control.--7estern nine beetle con-
trol projects now being conducted by the Fremont Tational Forest and Klamath
Forest Protective Association are experiencing sone difficulty in locating
the proper trees for treatment because of the unusually wide ranige in foliage
fade on trees containing overwinori.ig broods. According to W. D. Bcdard,
of the Portland, Oreg., laboratory, broods can be found in trees with tops
ranging from green to sorrel, while some slightly faded trees have been
abandoned at the base but contain abundant broods above. These peculiar
foliage conditions resulted froi.m an unusually early spring in the Klamath
Basin, which caused an abnornally early attack 'by the beetle and permitted
three broods to develop during the 1940 season, instead of the usual two
broods for this region. The danger of nissing green-topped trees under
-those unusual conditions has necessitated slowing the rate of spotting in
order to make a more thorough examination of the area. It was also found

LIBRARY
,Aw-r' P1 ANT BOARD





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necessary to mark mc-ny doubtful trees so th`t they coulC be felled anc ox-
anino_ by the tre:ting crows to ascertain whether beetle broods aro present
in. the top.

First bark-beetle control projoct on Malheur IT.ntional Forest.--The
Bear Valley control project aglainst the western pine beetle in ponderosa
pine stands of the Malheur National Forest, in eastern Oregon, got under way
on November 5. This is the first pine-beetle control project to be attempted
on this forest, according to W. J. Buckhorn, of the Portland forest-insect
laboratory, who handled the training of spotting and treating crews for this
work. The area of infestation covers approxinately 56 sections, consisting
of equal portions of virgin stands and cut-over stands from rwhich approxi-
mately 40 percent of the volume was removed by selective logging. The in-
festation ranges from 40 to 90 trees per section, which is considered as a
moderate epidemic. Treating of the infested trees will be carried on jointly
by the Forest Service and the Edward Hines Luombr Company of Burns, Oreg.
All infested trees accessible to logging are to be salvaged by the company.
Inaccessible troos are being treated by C. C. C. labor using the fell-peel-
burn method of control.

Westcrn pine beetle found in Douglas fir region.--An infestation of
bark beetles in a native grove of ponderosa pines along gravel flats of
the Willa.netto River near Corvallis, Oreg., was called to the attention of
F. P. XKen, of the Portland foreat-insect laboratory by W. F. McCulloch,
assistant professor of forestry at Oregon State Collegc. On visiting the
area, infested bark containing western pine beetles and the usual assort-
mont of associated species was collected. Many pines had been killed and
sonm yoou.ger troos had boon killed by Ips confusus Lec. It is of interest
to find these insects folloingr their host tree, oven though isolated by
70 miles of Douglas fir forests fron- their typical habitat in ponderosa
pine forests oast of the Cascade 1ilountain Ra.go.

Ely:. loaf bctle parc sites liberated in Portland.--The Park Bureau
of the city of Portland, Orog., has boU interestoe in getting the help
of beneficial insects i: t'E control of t'he elm leaf boetle, against which
the city wages an intensive spray progron- each year. Through the. coopera-
tion of Stanley Flanders, of the California Citrus Experiment Station's
division of beneficial insect investi ntions, two species of elm leaf beetle
parasites have now been introduced into Portland. The hymenopterous larval
and pupal parasite, Tetrastichus brevistigna C-ahan, was first received at
the Portland forest-insect laborAtory and liberated on September 11, 1940.
More recently a shipment of the tachinid parasite, Erynnia nitida R. D., was
received as overwintering larvae within host adults. These will be libera-
ted after colonization in the laboratory.

GYPSY MOTH AND BROTF-TAIL MOTH CO-TROL

Brush burned in unfavorable scouting weather.--Scouting conditions
were generally unfavorable over the entire region where gypsy moth work is
performed during much of November. However, the rain and snow removed the
fire hazard from the forests, and large quantities of brush and debris,
accumulated in the course of selective thinning and cleaning operations,
were destroyed by burning.





-13-

Gypsy moth work modified during hunting seasons.--Early in November
suitable locations were selected in Veor:ont, ,Lassachusetts, and Pennsyl-
vania v:here gypsy moth scouting work coul. be done during the hunting sea-
sons without the danger of workers being struck by stray bullets. Dur'ing
these periods work will be done in village areas or in open country where
the tree growth is sparse and scattered. The nen will not be permitted to
work in woodlands, except in areas reserved as.gane sanctuaries or on
private properties which are adequately patrolled during the hunting sea-
sons.

Varying degrees of infestrtion in Vernont.--The discovery of num-
erous scattered gypsy noth infestations continued in the townships of
Castleton and Hubbardton, Rutland County, Vt. All of these: infestations
are small, most of then consisting of single egg clusters. Intensive
scouting recently completed in the vicinity of the singlc-egg-cluster
infestation found several weeks ago in the southern part of the township
failed to disclose further evidence of the presence of the gypsy moth, al-
though another singlo-egg-cluster infestation was found abou.t 4i niles away.
Several days' close scouting of thn vicinity of the latter infestation also
produced negative results. Crews working in Eden, Lamoille County, pro-
gressed slowly while working under ospecially difficult conditions in the
course of examining larie bog and swamp areas where scrubby growths of
spruce occur in almost impenetrable thickets. Only one single-egg-cluster
infestation has been found in Eden during the present work. Late in Novem-
ber scouting work was started in the townships of Fair Haven, Pittsford,
Pcultney, and Sudbury, Rutland County, anc in Shaftsbury, Bennington County.
Two gypsy moth egg clusters were found in Pittsford Township, which was
infested in 1327.

Lumerous scattered infestations found in Chester.--Gypsy moth scouts
working in the township of Chester, Hami erous scattered infestations, and much intensive scouting is needed in that
area. The progress of t.e work was materially impeded because of the ne-
cessity of closely examining stone walls that extend long distances through
the infested area. These ralls furnish excellent concealment for gypsy
moth egg clusters, and they cannot be roadily inspcted during the winter.
Therefore as much of this work as possibOle was accomplished while the
weather conditions were favorable.

Scouting of spruce wood lots completed.--The scouting of areas in
the townships of Beckt and Washington, Berikshire County, Mi-s.s, where
spruce boughs are to be cut during the coming holiday season, was completed
during the latter part of November. Eight wood lots, aggregating obout
250 acres, wore carefully scouted and resulted in the discover- of two
gypsy moth ogg clusters in one of the lots in Washington, and three egg
clusters at one loc-tion and four at another in Bocket. Spruce growth com-
prised 50 to 90 percent of the growth in theso stands. Hundreds of tons
of boughs are cut, baled, and shipped annually from Ber.shire County towns
to New York City and other large centers for use during the Christmas soa-
son.

Brush-disposal machine used in State Forest Reservation.--Rain and
snow prevented substantial accomplishments by gypsy moth scouts in Massa-
chusetts during the first 2 woees in November. Light conditions were








unsatisfactory for the oxoaninyation of troo growth during mch. of the time
when scouting work could be perfor.oed, except in isclated. spots where the
growth was low. How.over, the coititions '-rc fr.vorable fr burning accunu-
lated brush ald debri.s, and progr ss s r.good in this tmyneo of work. The
brush-disposal machine o::wnd by thi:' Cctivitiy wa c uscd in a State Forest
Reservation near Pittsfiol__, L ::nhir:. County, .wher a sall gmpsy .oth in-
festatirn :"as found early in tho fall. Only light thinning work w: necessary
to free this comparatively dense stand of the dead cnd defective trees and
other undesirable material, and to rut it in satisfactory condition for
future gypsy rmth co!:trol work. Much of the brush which accumulateCd during
this work could not '!Le turned inr:lediat3ly because of the fire hazard. The
brush-dispoal r.achine converted iiuch of this brash to sawdust nd sr.iall
chips during the limited tirme when operations we:e possible .dring November.

G-ynyv :ctli work at heavily infe ted site.--Intsnsive scouting lihs
been completed in the center of the gypsy rooth infestation in Southbury,
I r' Hayven Crunty, Conn., whre several thousand new eg-- clusterrs were found
lsct year. ]No now n eg clu.ters were f un daring tbo current ;:e ination,
althoug.h about 30 c01: egg clusters were discoverel in hidden loa'tionC.
Th.e abscnce of livin'-- i:festatio:n clearly indicrtes the effectivenoss of
the verious trpes of trctl:ent t;ht have been pnlied sinc, tie ,gy-'y noth
was discovered" in Soutlbury, :.n it n:.. seems r as ,nable to e ,-ct that any
living infestations t-hat, nay cxis.t in the area inr:diately surrounding this
formnerly heavily in f-st d. l otie.n will be e::tor:minted during the present
fisco.l ter.

Pro ::ress :ndJ ini Co : et' t cdosr it difficult labor situaticn.--The
unscottled wenatheor prevalent c.arie :.ich of Novewuer intterfX-rod to some ox-
tent witl g.pay i:;th s ..utin r:k n Ctonnectic t, but provided excellent
burnirn c nd itio:ns. Lar e t q ities of brushl, 't;. ~c', and. other trash
which had .acc-.ullat:.- at var!c. infe;stcd sites wor: burnd. An incr-ased
dcma~d fororrhit or paper birc ;:od for firelc-i s :nd novelties by Niow York
City in-rkt- e hrs rdde i. te.tj "te ps ; ?,;i i :1sp >:tion ework in Connecticut.
Much cf ti' r wTcd is. oai-od in LitchiediC County., end. it ::it be carefully
oxrcindc before sl.i lnt fon;:. the uar:r.nt inc a::ee. I'ost of the wood- is
shippcd in 1-foot leits. Te rolea; oft T c1 r.x-cilt.in; a ful1. force of g~7sy
rn.eth wocrkers is bec :;nie. i scr ouas'-el. diffic.ultt, ..s prodcti n in industrial
centers is spee-Dod ap to u -o ,t the de..... ef the ,ati- el, Defense prograor.
It is2 especially cii'ficrlt to obt-.in foreoen, as .on cepable. of directing
crews are irn d erianr i .n 'a.fa- turi.n plant-s at decidedly bettetr ::ages t6han
they could receive a! W. P. A. wori rs. SEveral fore:,en resigned recently
beca,.ne th:- had obtried other inploy'-;ent, ald 'orker in lower classifi-
ca-tins are als resigni:: for the :oe reason.

-Gypsy th work in P en.oy, lvaia. --Stormy '.:eather J and unsatisfactory
light coCition:s intrfered consiLerobly 'with -gypsy moth scouting work in
Pennsylvania during .u.ch of INove-. or, but the elirination of the fire hazard
by snow per.iitted the burning of large ac,. .lat ons of brush and deadwood.
The enloyent situat..ion in: this Stteo i:rprove:, .onmwht late in the :..onth,
as the n:rl-:br of rnewly assiign~led wor', rs_ slig':tl, exceededt the nu-fbor of
resignati of W. P. A. workers. Althou:h there has boeen no appreciable in-
crease in business activity i:1 the area w lro gypsy r.oth work.is conducted,
there has bc n a cefinite .ovenont of workers to ini.dustrial centers in other





-15-

parts of the State that have boon :more affected by the NTational Defense
progran and this has caused a' heavy turn-over, ,hich still continues, in
gypsy moth personnel. GCysy noth extor.'ination work in LL ckavwana and Lu-
zerne Counties done by the IT. Y. A. under the sulervision of this Bureau
increased grea-tly during Novenber. Arrangements were recently 10d0 to in-
crease the number of enrollees available for gypsy :moth work, and the men
were broken up into smaller, more oefficient crows, many of which< were di-
rected b, experiencedc W. P. A. foremen. While the amount of work accom-
plished. by W. P. A. workors is less than was expected, owing to absences of
':orkers, the men have given satisfactory service, and their employ:ent has
released more active and e. eriencod men for work in outlying territory.
The cutting andI baling of 6vergreon boughs increased greatly in the gypsy
moth auarantin ed area of Pennsylvania, particularly in the Pocono Mountain
regicn -whore spruce is most abundant, and it woas necessary to detail ad-
ditional inspectors to eoanine the shipm .nts so there would be no spread of
the gypsy moth from that source.

C.. C.C. Gypsy Moth Work During November

G-eneral.--During Novmber' 5,490 -hoour nan-days. v:re: used on g-psy
moth work by the C. C. C., as conpareod with 6,45-2 r..n-dys used in October.
Although the niount of wcrk acco:pllishodl was less d--in:g iovomber, the re-
dnction w:as not as gret as the figres woul s u work s per-
forned during 5 weeks in October end c4dri.g only 4 weks 4in YTcv.ior. The
actual reduction in work was caused by a lack of sufficient :tian power, ow-
ing to unfilled quotas at thPe camps, to 2 holidays :during the :onth, and to
rains and heavy snowfalls. The treatment' consisted of selective thinning of
favored. food plants, burning accumlated brush. and forest deobris, and scout-
ing, with more emphasis placed on sccuting than was the case earlier in the
season. Inspections of aroas treoted before the hurricane to reduce the
anount of favored food plants of the gypsy moth have shown generally light
and scattered infestations, and iany cases were noted whore the reproduction
of nore resistant species of trees in tre-ted aroeas is resulting in notable
iiprovement in the stands fro;; the gypsy m.'oth control point of view. Clear
cutting has been done on some State properties where the State foresters
plan to follow the work with the planting of trees unfavorable to gypsy moth
development, and similar work has also bren done on some private properties
where the owners agreed to replant with gypsy moth resistant growth. Sev-
eral cases were observed where the owiners of private woodlands were follow-
ing the methods of treatment used by the C. C. C.

Vernont.--'ypsy moth scouts continue to find severe infestations in
the eastern part of Vermont. The cost of tretment work is running higher
than normal in some areas that were badly damagoed by the 193 5 hurricane and
where no clean-up work has been done. The debris is so thick andi tangled
that it is impossible to do selective thinning or cleaning work in some of
these areas until the fallen trees have been removed.

Massachusetts.--Grypsy moth infestation in Massachusetts is scattered
Ahd without pockets of heavy concentration except in an area in ""sthampton,
Hampshire County, where the egg clusters aie somewhat more abundrnt than in
other sections that have been scouted this fall. The extent of this heavier
infestation has not yet been determined, but rapid scouting showed approxi-
mately 300 egg clusters per acre. This is a much lighter infoetation than







was present in this area 2 or 3 years ago, but the infestation is heavier
than those now present in the surrounding areas. Areas of heavier infesta-
tion, such as that in Westhiam-pton, are riaried for further treatment, par-
ticularly the reduction of favoreds gosy eoth food plants by selective
thinning of the forest growth.

Connecticut.--Gypsy moth conditions in Connecticut are similar to
those in Massachusetts, scattered infestations with no heavy concentrations
of infestation. C. C. C. "ypsy moth work in this St&et. i.s closely coordi-
nated with that of the State gypsy moth organization. The C. C. C. work
i-s done in towns bordering the barrier zone, while the State w:ork is done
in ar-as tha-t cannot be reached by the C. C. C. The cooperation between
the two organizations permits the attainment of maximum benefits from the
work of both, and i, of gre t advantage to the igypsy moth project as a
whole.

PLAINT DISEASE COTTREOL

Chemical tests on Ribes bushes.--H. E. Yost, in charge of blister
rust control work in Mar land reports that tests to determine the ability
of different substances to kill th:. root systems of decapitated Ribes bushes
wore nmad ini Garrott County, Md. in 1940 on the lst slope of Meadow Moun-
tain, et an oelevation of a'pro.ximately 2,500 feet, with northwest exposure
and open hardwood typo. The bushes were not measured but an attempt was
made to seloct old plants, 5 or more years of ago and fro:- 2 to 3 feet in
height. The bvshes were cut off with a pockotknif t or jt o above the
crown. Six chemicals w. :o used--bor'x, sodiium chlorate, dieosl oil, salt,
used crank-case oil, anc anmoniuma thiocy anato. Two dosae;o of each chemical
wore applied to 11 bushes, and th-ere 'cre 11 chocks in which no troe tmcnt
was applied eocept decapitation. A total of 31-3 burhes woro tro'.t; and
staked on July ?5, 19L0,. Tho.e buh1 s wore checked on October 7. Th. re-
sults indicate that a mixturo of 5 porte of borax to 1 part of sodii um chlo-
rate, 'r well as dio:ol oil .nid c' :moniu-m thiocy-nate, k.illed the root sys-
terms, no regro th having b -on oboirv.d in ,any bush so treated. Coarse salt,
when applied at al, proxl:itly 4.4 ounces per cro-wn, resulted in no regrowth,
but in 1 cse wch n it 'wa-'s :pplied at 2.2 ounces per crown, about I inch of
sprout grot:}th. was observed. Vl here bora-:- was "appliid at the roto of 1.3
ounces, 2 crc. s sproutd a total of 4inch of rowth, and wh ro born
wao applied at 2.0 ouences p-or crc-.n!, 1 sprout producod approximetoly 3
incho s of growth. Crank-case= oil a.s applied a t the r.to of 2 ounces and
4 ounces and in e-ach c-.se all of the trc-tod cro-:ns sprouted. Tho hi-gher
dosoC r-sultod in gro:th of approximt.-ly twice as much live ston ,as did
the zwo-:or dosicr.. The bushes receiving n:o tr--tmcnt produced approxinratoly
half as much live stoem as did those receiving cra.nk-caso oil. The tests
incdic-,to th-t aorninrti. thicyio-te, dii:sol oil, and th miatur_ of borax
and sodium chlorate aro equal in their killin-, povor. Si-ce the diosol oil
is by far theo cho pest of the 3 itc.is, it apparently should be used. Course
salt purchas. c in cuantity wv:oud probbo-bl be choaper than any of the above
items and when -applice in a larger dcosage w.:ld probably bo equally effective.
All of the bus!he:s in thoos tests ,o '- R. rOtetundifoliujm. In aoch case 'Then a
bush :was decapitated the stems w-re loft lyi:ng on the ground. On October 7,
1940, l16 of t:.e original 143 tops were found. Of these, 16, or 13.5 per-
cent, had layered and produced tip sprouts. A total of 36 sprouts wore ob-
served. This indic'ates the advisability of continuing the practice of hang-
ing up bush s durin-g eradiciation work.





-17-

Ribes eradication effectively'controls blisteor rust.--Mr. CcCasland,
district blister rust leader in NTew York State, reports th-t in 1932 all
valuable white pine areas in the town of Cairo, Greene Co.unty, N Y. were
initially protected from blister irust by the eradication of Ribes and this
fall, after a lapse of 8 y-ars, pine-infection studies were male to deter-
mine the effectiveness of the control work. Seven areas, as nearly repre-
sentative of varying conditions in the county as it was possible to obtain,
were selected and strip lines 1 rod wide and 1 chain apmr-mtre run through
the areas. All white pines on these strips were examined and listed as
healthy or diseased, and, if diseased, the year of infection was obtained
by determining the age of the wood at the point where each canker occurred.
The 7 areas totaled 7.2 acres. Of the 14,192 trees examined, 1,0:7, or 7.4
percent, were infected with blister rust. Of the 1,047 infected trees,
only 67 became infected in 1932 or later, that is, following the initial
eradication of Ribos on these areas, although no reoradication of sprouts
and seedlings has %yet boon carried out.

Blister rust notes from Rhode Island.--A. C. hiite, blister rust
agent in Rhode Island, writes tehat he visited a roofing company in Rhode
Island which was using 10,000 cords of wood a year--white pine, pitch pine,
and soft maple--for pulp. Of this wood 75 percent is white pine, which is
preferred because it has a better and longer fiber. Hurricane timber is
being used in manufacturing shingles and roofing paper. The letter is
another use for white pine which may increase as time goes on, as it is now
in its infancy. It is also helping greatly in the forest clean-up, es-
pecially for the small property owner. A total of l8i,169 pines were
planted this year in Rhode Island. A good share of thcse. trees woro planted
on State property where Ribes-eradication work was carried on during the
summer. Nearly 19,000 currant and gooseberry bushe.s core destroyed in the
State during- the last yoer to protect the white pil-, which is the State's
most valuable timber crop. Those bushes wore removed from 25,S64 acres by
116 omnloyces of the Soil Conservation S "rvice, tho Civilian Conservation
Corps, and the Works Progress Administration. This work was especially
timely as white pine is reproducing on many areas since the hurricane, and
unless protected the young trees may succumb to blister rust infection.

Salt-spray damage in lassachusetts.--C. C. Perry, in charge of
blister rust control w-ork in Massachusetts, reports that he recently visited
areas in the towns of Marion, Mattapoisett, and Tareham, where pines were
injured by salt sp-ry during the 1935 hurricane. Evidence of damage per-
sists only in the white pines in the. open or in individual pines whose
crowns towered above the associated forest growth. Such trees still show
the effect of defoliation by the salt sprayl1 and are no charecterized by
the persistence of large limbs devoid of foliage and with dense groupitgs
of dead branchltets. In closely stocked stands and, in genoerl, in younger
age classes little or no: effect is apparent now, approximatoly 2 years
after the injury occurred. Where areas near the coast line -wre completely
submcrged in salt water, the trees weoro completely killed. This condition
is different, however, from the salt-spray situation, where complete kill-
ing rarely occurred, and then only in cases where the trees had apparently
been weakened by other causes, such as defoliction by the gypsy moth.

Rye straw used in manufacture of strawboard.--The control of black
stem rust is of interest to companies engaged in the manufacture of strawboardo





-11-
-l g-

According to a recent letter from. L. 7. Me.l.ler, one firm in St. Paul
purcha.ses annually about 15,000 t r3s of r-;o straw! f r this purpose. Only
straw that is clean, crisp, and of go r length can be used. Str>n that has
boon cdamage by sten rust is ::ot suitible fr this pur7oseo.

Barberry bheis found alon R ish River, iT Dak.--Five barberry bushes,
Berberis vu!agaris three of \;7ic i .- o v bearing fruit, were foundr in Septom-
ber alon t.he Rush Rivo-, in Cass County, about - mile from a location
where plan't.:-c bus.o-s were d-ctroyeocd in 1923, Considering the location of
those bzushes w ith respect to important grain-groewinp: ar, s in iTorth Dakota,
an intensive sur-ve of ,al unc.:ltiv-tod lands for a distance of several
Fil1s in 11 d -iretio ns shoulLd be ranc, to insure conplete eradcication of
any wild bushes in this area. Iirin-i the period Jauary to June 0,
areas given an intensive survey in RaP- ses, Bencon, ind ells Counties
totaled 1,800 square miles. More tha .ICO man-months of 7. P. A. labor was
used. Lc W1. P. A. labor has ,been used in 1orth D.cote since July 1.

nureau-sponsored J. P, A. project in Micki e:n State program.--A
roceitly approrved ureau-sponsored project in the Stnte i. P. A. program
in Michi:gan pro-vides an aver*ae o loS securitry-wge earners for a period
of 12 monthc. On OctoLcr 1, 140, the firLt assi :nments were made under
this project and survey ras boegu in ?cnsie, Grand Traverse, Kent, Leclanau,
Hanistee, sanc Miecta Co:unties. t the first of December, 114 men were em-
ployea. These .r. ivided into cre.TS of to 10 men each and. field work
is ireT'rted. as progressing r.. oot. I und. r the directin o survisors
To;n.,e:, Case, ixon, Lindy, and 3tcner.an. Chsrte' r Salisbury, assistant
State leader in Mic~i.int, has boon J .ignated ss gencral superintendent in
charge, of the State- project. Crew o rganizati and field proceduro follows
the sa.e Cun ra o:tliine as in the case of the F. A. project.

Destrfction c"f ,000 barberry bushes in 1i-consin since Septorfoer 1.--
The folloing table briefl s ..arizeo c ntrol work accmrrplished in T.isccn-
sin daring the period Soptonber 1 to 7Cov). .r 30, and includes a report of
the nen erlcove- as of c v. cber 1.










*. e b r i





-19-


: : : : n employed
County : Area : Properties: Tushes : D-ccmber 1
: covered cleared :dstroyed: F. A. : State
_: _: ew : l : : project : project
:Sauare miles: Tumzfbrer:N iu r: uibr : i'ber : Turmbcr
Buffalo---- 7 4 0 : 65 17 --
Columbia----- 3 5 : 9 117 : () ()
Crawford-----: 22 : 3 0 6 -- : 5
Dan----------: : 11 : 33 : ,23 : (1) : (1)
Do --------- : 105 : 7 9 : 74 :: (2)
Dunn---------- 5 : 19 : 2 : 97: 7 : --
au Clairo----: 4 : 4 : 2 : 75 7 : -
Fon2 cu L.c---: 2 : 4 : 4 : 37 : (2) : (2)
Greon Lake----: 1 : 0 : 0 : 0 : -- 11
La Crosso-----: 7 : 24 2 : 549 : () : (1)
Portage------: 4 : 2 4 : 29 : -- 20
Shoboygan -----: 56 31 : 26 : 175 : 21
Winnobago---: 104 :21 : 17 : 272: (2) (2)
Manitowoc C----: 0 : 0: 0 : 0 : : 15
Total------: 135 : 10: 4,33 : 31 : 72

Work suspended.

2/ Work complotod.

Accordling to Ton Van Zendon, leader .in charge, State project crews
are now operating in Crafcrd, Green Lake, IMoInito-oc Fortao, and Shoboy-
gan Counties. It is e:xpcted tlht F. A. crev-s now under assignment will
comnplete work remainim to be dclon iin Ea Claire and Dunn Counties shortly
after January 1. F. A. funds re..ai.ing for expenditure ducring this fiscal
year -v.ill beo usecd in TBuffalo County.

Correction.--In the NJovemner 1, 1940, isjue of the Ieows Letter
(v. VII, No. 11, pp. 17-1) a briof sunmary of a report by R. U. Cotter,
of the ed-ero1 rust l1boratory, St. Paul, Mlinn., concerning the results
of rust icdntifications vws incorrectly quoted an stating that Race 17 of
Puccinia grarninis tritici is one of the feor races which has, under cer-
tain conditio.ns, caused, son infection on Thatcher 'l:hot. Race 17 has
beon comparativeoly rar until recent years and. its potentialities are
not fully known. It attacks .nost of the curum rnd con:ion v'hests severely,
wvith the exception of varietics derived from Kanrod, amon-g .which is
That her.

COTTON Il'SECT INVJESTIGATIOTS

Pink bollworn parasite releas:s--L. W. Noble, of the Presidio,
Tox., laboratory, reports that during: the ouarter July 1 to Scpteober 30,
1940, 90,500 Chelonus blo ckburni Ca-mercn, bred on the Mlediterranean flour mot
(Ephostia lkue~-7.mie]ll Zlil.), were reloas, in the Presidio Valley and
30,000 in the lower Rio G-rand- Valley ncor -Brov'nsville. Pink boll':orm
host larvae which a.ro neco;ssary for roaring t.- other spocies of parasites





-20-

on hand, were not available until the latter part of September. One ship-
ment of 1,974 Mi'crobracon ki rW:etricki Wik. was sent to Brownsville on
Septeroor 23 and %was released in nearby Mexico. One colony consisting of
2,000 adults of Hicrobracon nigrorufun Cush. was releaced in the Presidio
Valley on Septem.ber 19. T:hseo we from miterial stored since last fall.
The survival in the stored m:aterial vas about 4 percent. The remainder
of t he stored msterial :'as used for breeding in the labor.tory. Three
shinments of Chel on-us pectinnohorae Oush. were received from Japan through
cooperation with the Division of Fore'ign Parasite Introduction. Twenty-
two acul.ts arriv-d alive in the first shipment on August h4S in the
second on Ausust 31, end 17 in the third on SeptembCe 10. Oviposition
fro-m those was obtained in eggs of the pink bollworm and the Mediterranean
flour moth, with successful development in both hosts.

Dolljoarm control in field-plot terts.--Accorlin to K. P. Ewing and
R W.orelan-a, 1 6 small plots (l/18 acre in size) were utilized at Waco,
Tx. during 1940 in testing various insecticides against. the bollworn.
There .e re h eandonized-block 'exeriments, 2 of o a! nd 2 of treatu.,ents,
each treatmnnt rep.licted 4 times in each experirent, started durin the
latter part of July. The treated plots in all 4 tests received 3 applica-
tions of insecticide but 2 of the experiments were ,:' isccntinued on August
1, o'wing to lack of an injuriousr infestation. The remaining 2 experiments,
wlich were duplicates of those di cardec, were carried through to comple-
tion. In the eserinent where all the itreatments were @usts, lead or-
senatl_ cryolites contaiinng S9.o percent and 87.9 percent socium fluo-
alnminat rspectively, and basic copper arsenate, in the order named,
gave the b:est res'ults with ains over the chUcks of 208.3, 179.4, 163.1,
and 1:55.0 ouncds per acre, r-sl ectively. These are fair gains for appli-
cations, considering that most of the worms were over half grown when dust-
ing operations were be.u7n .n' th'-t the first application was made under con-
ditions very unfavorable- for tusting. Oai.s from the other treatments were
144.4 pounds from calcium ars-erate, 123.6 pounrcs from cryolit. containing
S6 percent N,~-Al, and O., poAun s fror cryolite containinng 50 percent
Na7Al7fY. The bollorm injury and increas- in yields wore in direct pro-
portion to the saw.unt of sodirn flueolu..ninate in the cry:olites with the
higher percentages, but the cryolite containing onrly 50 percent 1TaAlF6
gave very poor c-.trol. In the the .r completed bollworm e:perincnI 4
sprays a.nd 4 ,Tists were: appclied at approximately the s t-"r nLuber of pounds
per acre. The lead aursen'nte spra, gave a slightly higher gain than any of
the otLher treatrnts. The .ais fror. the treatments w.re : 12_ pounds from
lead ers.nato spray; 110 pounds fro; lead erson te dust; 121.? pounds fron
calcium ars nute (cust; 1,.2 pounds from calcium arsenate spray; 49.4 pounds
from rg:Cular barium fluosilic:to dust; 53.9 pounds from micronized barium
flucsilicto dust; 27.5 pourds from micronizod barium fluosilicate spray;
and 17.4 pounds froc cryolite spray (87.9 percent Ta-,Alg). Calcium ar-
senate, lead arsenate, end mnicronized barium fl1uosiliate, -applied as both
dusts and sprays, produced an veregoe gain of 95.2 pounds w-hen applied as
dcsts end 71.2 pound:i~ of seed cetton- per acre .en a pplied as nsrays.

Insecticide tests for pirnk bollorm control.--Investigations on in-
secticid.l control of the ni:k bollworm were- continued thic season r.t the
Presidio, To-:., 1-.boratory, by T. L. Lowry. Conditions were unfavorable for
the tests because of the lizht and uneven pink bollworm infestations and





-21-

the presence of bollworms, leaf worms, stink bugs, and Texas root rot in
the cotton used for the tests. In view of the fact that previous investi-
gations had shown that arsenicls wrere not very effectiv against the pink
bollworm more attention was given to fluorine insecticides and various ovi-
cides. The results in the plot and cage tests with insecticides were based
on the percentage of reduction in larvae per boll. In the laborstory tests
with ovicides, the results wer- based on th- percent.ge of reOduction in the
number of hatchable eggs. In a Latin square with 1/l1-acre plots, comparing
cryolite dusts composed of different particle sizes but approximately the
sane (85-93 ) sodium i fluoaluminate content, nicronized cryolite (Kry cide)
caused a reduction of 5e.5 percent in nulmer of larvae per bell over the
checi., as compared with 46.7 percent for the regular warticil; size (Alorcc)
and 25 percent for coarse particles (Alorco Precipitate 5~2). T-he coarse-
particle material was distinctly inferior to the others in eeuting qualities
and frequently clogged the hand cust guns. In thr:~ ot lr field tests
Alorco cryolite dust containing 33 percent Na-zAl? caused 19.7 percent,
24.C percent, and 414.8-nercent reductions in numeber of larvae per boll. In
a small series of case tests where t-he cotton plants ore first: treated and
pink bollwornm oths "ore then released, barinum fluosili cte -plied as a
duct caused Sl.41-percent reduction in larve. per boll, as cor.ared bith
Sb.4 percent when raplied as a concntroted spray containin, an adhesive
oil and a wntting agent. In a ran.dmizod-block expe'rient (three replica-
tions) where six applications of insecticides were .ade at 5-day intervals,
basic copper arsoentn dust caused 28-per.cent reduction, cprou cyanidce .ust
43 percent, cryolite dust (approximately 95 percent Na 'lFg) 53 percent, rnd
cryolite-cil spray (50 lb. to 50 g-l. summr.er oil, rand 30 cal. water), 59 per-
cent reduction. Nicotine sulfate 1nd' light pntrole- oils, alone and com-
bined in various proportions with rni without emunlsifirs, were tested in
the leborctory against several thous'.nd tegs of the pink collorn. In part
of the- tests t'he bracts ware ro: Corc fror~. the bolls and the c"ly: turned
back to exoose the eggs, in othrs the eggs were cither removed to blotting
paper or were allowed to r:eain u i tiar'b on : tho boll. zither the ovi-
cide wae applied as a spray or the be!ll were dipped in the solution. Both
the nicotine s'-lfate and the oils renced soe.-.hr.t the per-cent-ge of eggs
hatching but in all cases 'ere more effective wh`in comboined. In general
the older eggs were acre susc etible to the ovicides than the freshly laid
eggs, especially in cases where iotine sulfate w:as used. The percentages
of reduction in hatch d.L to tre-tmonts, as calculated by Abbottls forula,
ranged from 7.3 to 97.3 percent. The imost effective trctent was a spray
composed of two parts of L40-percent n-ic'.tine sulfate to 50 gallons of
niscible oil (Vaporol) and 50 ing in that a high p, rcena of e mortality : otain; hover, it
should be bcrne in mind that u.nder orlinar fieldc conditions incermleto
coverage and other factors rwould doubtless influence the efficiency of the
treatment.

PI:1K 30LLWO rI AlD T=U=2RIA WEEVIL C07-TOL

Inspection.--It is necessary to make annul inspections of gin
trash in all cotton-growingZ a res of the United States each season in-order
to have definite knowled-o relative to the status of Oink oolllworn infesta-
tion. Soma -;in-trash inspection is also condutcted at opCortune seasons in
the various Mexican areas, as a result of the control program for the





-22-

suppression of the pink bollworm carried out cooperatively by this Bureau
and the Mexican Department of Agriculture. Gin-trash inspection was con-
tinued in the Panhandle district throughouit ITovermber, with from 9 to 11
units in operation. No worms were found in that district during the month
and, except for the extremely light infestation found in Tom Green, Midland,
Martin, and Howard Counties in October, iispections in all of that area
were neative for the season, and no infestation was found in outside areas.
Gin-trash ir.3pe3ction which was begun in the Salt River Valley of Arizona in
October, was continued t"hroughout iovember. In adlition to the light pink
bollworm infestation found in the Glendale area of the Salt River Valley in
October, a few more specinedns were found in the same field around the middle
of Tove;ober, and 12? additional pink bollwrmsi were taken from this field
on November 29. Results of inspection wn'n. nogative in all other parts of
the Salt River Valley. Inspection was also carried on in Pinal County, a
consicdrable amount of trash beting inspected in the Coolidge-Casa Grando
area. One specimon was taken from a gin at Coolidge, the only specimen
found in Pinal County. Examination of all trash from the gins at Marana
and Sahuarita, in Pima County, where an oxtrorely light infestation was
found last season, gnve niegative results. A nuYmier of cottonfie lds in the
vicinity of Vado do Cedillas, in the J-aroz Valley of Mexico, across the
Ric Grmde. fromr tho El P: sc Vcll.:y dis-triwt, were found to be heavily in-
fecstcl ith tho il bollworm d6urin? October end H'Nvomober. Infestation has
been present in thiis vicin-ity for a n- r Lbr of yero;, but apprare to have in-
creascd in intensity duri-g the present season. P.L-ns ore being rmdc to co-
operate with *the ex.:ice- insp.ctor in cP.r: cf that area in cleaning a
linited cottor. acrcag in the vicinity of Vado do Ccdill s in an effort to
suppress the in:festation. A li;ght inf:ttion of t he pink bollworm w'as also
found during the priod in trsh originating .t La Ascncicn. This is the
first trash to be inspect)d from this now rcaa planted to cotton in the
northwe_.storn p:,-ert of th State of Chi:ubliua.

Destrvuction of sprct ?nc vlunteer cotton.--For the. l- t soveral
years a stalk- struction "are-in hi is "!e .7 con ,uctkd in -outh Texas im-
mediatietly after te arvesting f tli cottonr. crop as a cantrol measure look-
ing to the craiic-te of the pin olloT: f:;em thet are.. In the lower
Rio Grndo V.ally cli tic con.ition a.'e fave r-.ble t to th growth -nd fruit-
ing of cotton throughont practi 1cnl all of the yvo.", therefore it is
necossary to ent: r into a second, phase of fi ed lon-up opera.tions imnnedi-
atey followin completion of th initial stalk-lestruction program. This
con-siCts in preventing sprout cotton, which develops from roots 'nd other
parrts of the cotton plant left in the ground -ft(r plowin- cut the stalks,
from taurin friuit on which .th pink bc ll 'orn m-y "irntain itself. A vig-
orous campaign was th.erforo begOui in ai ffo'rt to get the farmers back
into the fields and, on the whole, ccoperation has been good. In addition
to ap7proxir.atea1y 95,C00 acres of cotton lanc that has b.en replo:ed by the
farmers, between 29 anrd 35 grubbing crews operated intermittently during NIo-
vemb-r, removing scattered sprcut a-nd seedlin cotton th-t h.'id not been
killed through plowing operations or hac develope:d after the land had been
reolowod. Pl.nts on a.bandoned acrage or growring in out-of-the-way places
are also being removed. The grubbing crews spread ou.t ever the are syste-
maticlly, taking out all the fruiting cotton as they come to it. At the
end of NoveOiber almosnt all of the 220,000-acro area had boon covered by the
crews; not-:withstn.-ing, the objoctive of this Division, to bring, about a





-23-

complete host-free period for the pink bollworm, had not been realized,
as in some areas a limited quantity of fruiting cotton still remained.
This condition is attributed principally to the fact that the sprout-
destruction work was hinderod to a considerr-ble extent throughout Novcmbcr
on account of excossive rains, preventing farmers s~ac griobing crvws fron
reworking the fields. The amount of sprout cotton in the lo-oer Rio Grando
Valley of Mexico was reduced considerably during the last pert of November,
and at the end of the period there was very little acreage on which thero
:ore any fruiting plants. In all of this lover valley area, on both the
Mexican and American sides of the Rio Grando, there is much less sprout
cotton than ever before at this time of the year. Now growth will, of
course, continue to appear, -and all of this aroa must be continually watched
throughout the season in order to maintain a starvation period for the pink
bollworr until the fruiting of the 19)41 crop. Only about 3 aweks are re-
quired from the time sono sprouts first appear until fruit is formod.

Stalk destruction.--Excessive rain during October prevented the com-
pletion of .the original stalk-destruction program in the Coastal Bend dis-
trict, and on account of intermittent rains and misty weather throughout
most of November, approximately 600 acres of cotton stalks remained stand-
ing at the close of the period; also, some sprout plants and seedlings have
developed. Most of the farmers in that area are anxious to complete the
stalk-destruction work and replow their land in order to conserve the
moisture and destroy any sprout or seedling plants. Consequently, it is
expected that field clean-up in that area will be completed as soon as
weather conditions will permit,

Wild-cotton er.dcication.--Pink bollworm infestation was found in do-
mestic cotton plantings in northern Florida in 1932. Following the deter-
mination that the source of this destructive cotton insect was infested
wild cotton plants growing in southern Florida and on adjacent keys, a cam-
paign was begun to 'eradicate the pink bollworm. by destroying its host plant.
This undertaking has bern continued to the present time with outstanding re-
sults. Twolvoe T. P. A. crews, aggregating on average of 90 workers, were
engaged througchout November in wild-cotton-eradicetion work. Two Bureau
crows, consisting of S men, started eradication work around the middle of
November. *These crcws live on houseboats and work in remote areas. In
the Bradenton-Fort Myers subdistrict first cleanings of the season were com-
pleted during the month in Pinollas, Hillsborough, Manatee, :nld-Sarasota
Counties. In addition to the destruction of all wild cotton plants, the
crews have been engaged in clearing vegetation from wild-cotton colonies in
this area in order to stimulate the germination of wild cottonseed. The
first cleaning of the Key Largo, Matocuboo, and Long Key sections nas con-
pleted the latter part of Ncvomber. Work in those areas was accelerated
during the first cleaning of this season, owing to the presence of numerous
work- and turn-trails which were completed last season. In other sections
of the Bradenton-Fort Myors and Keys subdistricts first cloanings of the
season were still in progress. The 2 houseboat crows are operating on the
Dade County mainlancd immediately to the oast and to the west of the main
Cape Slable area. Considerablyfewer wild-cotton plants are being found in
nost of those aroes then were present last season. In a.ll of the above area
only 139 plants with mature bolls were found in November. A total of
91,160 seedling and 127 sprout plants were destroyed.





-24-.

TRUCK CROP AND GARDE N IINSECT I:TVESTIGATIONS

Curly-top cd.rj'age to tomatoes docreased by use of cheesecloth covers.-
H. E. Dorst, of the Logan, Utah, laboratory, reports the results of an ex-
periment conducted during the summer of 19_40 on replicsted small plots of to-
matoes to ,etermine the protection afforded early and late transplanted to-
matoes from curly top, a virus disease transmitted by the beet leafhopper
(Eutettix tenellus (~ak.)), by covering the plants with cheesecloth pro-
tecto::s luring the early part of the season to prevent the incoming leaf-
hoppers from feeding on them. He found that this protection materially re-
duced the percentage of tonato plants infected with curly top at the close
of the season on September 17, and it also increased, the yield of tomatoes.
The results from this study are summarized as follows:


:Plants having
Period of plant protection by : curly top Yield
choosecloth co ers c per acre
: Septemcbr 17 :
Percent Tons
Early planting date (April 25):
Apr. 25 to Juno 17 (all influxes of leaf-
hoppers)---------------- 23.3 7.9
Apr. 25 to June 3 (or1ly influxres of loaf-
hoppers)-------------- 48.3 7.9
May 17 to June 17 (late influxes of leaf-
hopi s) ) --------- --- 3.0 : .
No ch. escloth covers used-------------------: b5.2 5..7

Lat3 planting diat (Mayt 10)s
May 10 to June 17 (all i:fluxes of loa f-
"hopprs)----------------: l6.3 :.0
May 10 to Juno 3 (early influ:es of leaf-
hopp ers) --------------: 37.1 7.9
,May 17 to June 17 (late influxes of .lef-
hoor:r) ---------------: 2-.9 7.2
No cheesecloth covers used-------------------: oO.0 4.3

Those data sho'Iw that considerabe! protection from curly-top infection
and~ deruacie was afforded both orrly rid late tr nsplanted tou.atoes from the
use of cheesecloth irotectors :hDon the tomatoes were covered from the tine
of t.ranspln tig until influx from migrotion by the leofhoppor was conpleted
on June 17. Th.oy also indicate tlhat the protection from curly-top infection
was 'greater on theso plants covered during the late influxos of lo.fhoppors,
but that the yield wns grc-ter on those covered duri n the early influxes.
The data indicte further that the yield of unprotected tomatoes was reater
for those transplcrnted early than for those tr -irpl.-nted late, even though
curly-top infocti-n was most pr3valent at the end of the season on the early
to matoes. Tehe protector used cc::nisted of 1 square yard of cheesecloth
supported over the tomr.to plant by3 2 galvanized .-ire loops 42 inches long,
placed at right angles to 6ach other, so that the cloth formed a hot cap over
the ,plet. Each of the 8 tr:eatments was replicated on S plots, there being
a total of 64 plots arr[ans:ed in a systematic Oquare. Each plot was 24.5 feet




-25-

by 28.G feet, and comprised 7 rows of 8 plants each, the distance between
rows and hills being 42 inches.

Ingredients of "dynamite" spray less effective than complete mixture
against narcissus bulb fly.--Ralph Schopp, P. M. EidsC, an- E. S. Bonn, of
the Sumner, 7Wash., laboratory, conducted 2 series of tests on small replicated
plots of narcissus to determine the effectiveness of the various ingredi-
ents of the "dynamite" spray in preventing infestation of narcissus bulbs by
ierodon equestris (F.). They report that, although the various ingredients
of this treatm.ent have some effectiveness, none was so effective as the com-
plete spray formula. "Dynamite" is an oil enulsion-in-werter spray to which
lead arsenate has been added at the rate of 5 pounds to 100 gallons of
finished spray. The stock emulsion, by volume, consists of 76 percent light
summer oil, 18.76 percent water, 3. percent oloic acid, and 1.44 percent
triethanalaminL; and the finished spray contains 5,000 cc., or 1.32 gallons,
of the emulsion to each 100 gallons of water. In those tost;" the ingredi-
ents of the "dynamite" spray were tested singly and in various combinations
at the same concentrations as used in the conplete formula, with the follow-
ing results.


Treatment : Blbs :eoduction of
:infstod: infested bulbs
Series I: : Number Percent
Complete ynaite spray---------------------------- 49 71.2
With load arsenate omitted------------------------- 95 44.1
?Wth oil omitted----------------------------------- 131 22.9
7ith oloic acid and trithalnine omittd-------- 82 :51.8
Untreated----------------------------------------- 170

Series II:
Complete dynanite spray---------------------------- 88 5.0
Spray containing mineral oil onl -------------- 150 25.0
Spray contaiining oloic acid and triothanalamine only 172 : 14.0
Spray containing load arsenate only-------------- : 226 -13.0
Untreted -----------------------------------------: 200 :


SEmulsified by nixing 100 gm. of a sodium salt of alkyl estor of
sulfosuccinic acid for oech 1,520 cc. of raw oil.

These data show thet infestation of narcissus bulbs by the narcissus
bulb fly was less when the complete "dynT]aite" spray mixture was used than
when the individual ingredients of the mixture wore used or when the ingredi-
ents wero used in various combinations. The treatments of each series wore
coupuared in 2 localities on a r andomized-block arrangCeent of plots, there
being 5 replications of each treatnent at each locality. A plot consisted
of a 200-foot-long row of bulbs. There was but 1 applic-tion of each treot-
ment, made with a power sprayer at a rate of 35 gallons of spray to 1,000
feet of row. Application of all treatmuents was 'ade during the period May 3
to 7, anc the counts of infested bulbs were mamde when the bulbs wore dug in
the fall. The numbers of narcissus bulbs infested by the narcissus bulb fly
were determined at digging time by examining 3 samples of 100 bulbs in each
plot, 1 sample cug from the middle and 1 towardd each end of the plot.





-2S-

Natural mortality of young wirewor T larva.--K. E. Gibson, of the
Walla Walla, W'ash. laboratory, from: quuatitative sampling of the soil de-
signed. to determine the amount of natural reu:.ction in infestation of wire-
worm larvae, principally Limonius ca.nus L. reports that natural mortality
was very high under field conditions irin the first fe: months after hatch-
ing. The reduction varied g;re tly in soil plante to different crops. The
percentcaes of reduction in numbers of the young, living larvae, during a
2--nmonth neriod for various crops were: Lima beens, 100; carnots, S3; pota-
toes, 74; clover, 72; onions, 6S; sugar beets, 54j corn, 45; fallow, 39;
alfalfa, 32; -nd rheat, 1. These percentages were obtained by comTnaiorin
the infost-.tions of young larvee soon after hatchiin, early in Julyl, with
those found in the sanm plots late in Septr-mbcr. The sam:le in each plot
for eacc scrapling perio consisted of 20 units of scil 1/16 scuare foot in
area can.I 12 inches deep, the nuubers of youns w:ireworn _larva in each being
determ.inocd by .means of a soil-sa-o:l; \wshcr. At Wa.lla 7alla thore were 3
plot replicrtos of eachi of the 10 crop conditions, while at Prosser there
wore 5 plot r 'pliccats of alfalfa, corn, potatoos, sug;ar beets, and whea.t,
makin a total of 70 plot.

Psyllid :-ll.os probrbl not eusled by fecdiag of dlult psyllid.--The
indications obtainred from a series of tests conmucted by, R. L. 'Vallis, of the
Scottsbluff, lebr., laboratory, are th.t the psyllid yellos syrtons of tona-
to ai potato probaobly did. not r suit fromi feidi-g by c .ults of the tomato
psyllid (Paratrioza cocko elli Sulc.). Th'ring the oriod July 1 to August 16
a total of 10 to:rt. &ind 10 poto t pla.t 'er-c ex:osed ie'.i!ividually in in-
door cages for pe:io~s cf 4 to doeys. In e -ch cc t ee wor- from 300 to
400 adults of the t't- p:-7 id. Aftr eo ocureo ,r:plats wv.ere removed,
half of th:cm thorhcouhl dted rith ulfur, and all '-wore st outside for
further observeaton. 1o sy:. n'stm of: pyllid ;,lls developod on tl.o
plants hich, ftr o hr, ffd `. Co:: I, tl.a ad:'t 7sllih.s, had bi.on cdusted
vwith sulfur; but 0light s' :pt.::'n;. 1iopc e'n th.: untrated plaints that had
been foed upon by the sdult psyllids al later y ny.Tphs whic h hcad: eveloped
from eggs la:id by the a.ults.

Unusual infostation of cobba o phid. --. C..pb bell, of the Al-
hanbora, Calif., nlaborert r, rocotly reolrtet r~a' unusual infestation of
Brevicoryne brassicao (L.), obso'vc dc:rril; the lost suRnnr on cabbage near
San Juan Capistrano, Calif. Altsh oih it vra. on o:xtreoly heavy infestation,
the outraord. ppo"-ranco of the c-bbat s very gc. :r Th a.phiioS were
established not only on the heds but alo un,.rneath ovoer.l layers of the
whit-o, tightly fitting loaves of th: c'bb.o h-eads. The entire surface of
the hea b::tr:en th so tv or thr:e I-rs of l-vo as as a m.ss of the aphids.
In an attempt to control t'h aphids, the grower had stripped b'ncl the in-
fested layers and applied a s.ray; however, the infestation w s so far within
the heads that poor control was obtained and most of the heads were not
mark b:t, because of ~ir:ds blorvi:-g oost of thie tine, th-ey had :not been sufficiently
effective; conseq ently, the ac;hids .orked in.ide the cabbaee heads, where
neither spra s n:or dsts could reach tiern.

To:icity of in-secticide to peper v:envil.--Mr. Ca;::pbell has reported
the res ilts of s-a1l-scale toxicity, tests in vhich a large nu.:ber of materials
'ere- used as dusts again:t Anhono is er:enii Ca-no on c',ced pepper plants in





-27-

the field. Of the dusts tested none proved so effective as calcium ar-
senate and cryolite. Fron a large number of replications the percentages
of weevil nortality resulting from treatment vith calciun arsenate, fron
cryolite containing 70 percent sodiun fluoaluninate, and cryolite contain-
ing 50 percent sodiun fluoaluminate yore 90, 87, and SO, respectively. Of
the other dusts used in those tests the only one showing much promise was
one of the coded natcrials, which gave 77 percent of weevil nortality.
Using a precision duster 1 gram of insecticide was applied to each pepper
plant, which during application was covered vwith a large cone to coifine
the dust to a single plant. After a feno inutes the cone was removed, a
screen cage placed over the plant, and 10 living wecvils per ca e were in-
troduced. The soil at the base of each plant v.s covered with cloth to pre-
vent the escape of test insects and to :id in their recovery.

Parasite of asparagus beetle abundant.--C. W. Getzendaner and R. S.
Wright, of the Puyallup, Wash., laboratory, report that the parasite Tetra-
stichus asparagi Crawf. was very abundent late in August and early in Septon-
bor in fields infested with Crioceris asparagi (L.). This parasite, which
vas first released near Puyallup in 1936, has beco-le established and appcrs
to be generally distributed throughout the Puyallup-Sunner district. About
1,550 adults of the parasite wcre collected- from 1 field on Au~gst 22 in
about 3- hours. In this field there vs considerable now growth of young
asparagus and the asparagus beetles were congregating on it andc ovipositing.
The parasites were present in greater .numrib'rs Ead w:ere dostroying the beetle
eggs as fast as they appeared. No fields ;ere found there the beetle larvae
were sufficiently abuondant for rearing the parasite where the parasite was
known to be present. The low host infestation during ruch of the season ap-
pears to be due in a large part to -the efficiency of the parasite. A survey
of asparagus fields outside of the Puyallup-Surmer district in which para-
sites were released in 1939 showed then to be present at Kent and Orting.

INSECTS AFFECTING AN AUD ANIMALS

S_.all yellow jacket feeding on stableflies.--W. E. Dove andi his
associates at the Pana.ia City, Fla. laboratory, report that Vespula soua-
mosa Drury has ben feeding on dog flies (staoleflies) about cattle, As
many as 15 to 20 were noted hovering about a group of 4 animals. There has
been a noticeable decrease. in the stablefly population about these aninals
and, according to Mr. Dove, part of this is undoubtedly duo to these predators,

Stabloflies in South Carolina.--Mr. Dove and S. 7. Simmons visited.
several points along the South.Carolina coast in the vicinities of Charles-
ton and Georgoton-vn, .where an outbreak of dog flies was reported last season.
The iarine grasses co.monlyl; found in the vicinity of Pananm. City did not
occur in this area. It is evident that the dog fly problo-. in this area is
entirel," different from that encountered on the vest coast of Florida.
According to Dr. Dove, the indic.tions sug est that the noist areas which
receive seepages of sal t .'atcr during high tides nay be concerned in the pro-
duction of the Carolina outbreaks.

Stableflies along Florida coast line.--During the first week in Novem-
ber Mr. Simmons made a survey of the littoral territory along the Gulf and
Atlantic coasts of Florida. The purpose was to ceteorine the lirits of the







area infested by dog flies, the extent of breeding, the materials in which
breeding occurs, and the factors responsible for greater or lesser fly out-
breaks. It was found that dog fly outbreals occur along the Florida Gulf
coast as far south -.s HoLosassa. WTith this point as tho eastward limit,
and Moobile, Ala., as the westward limit, there is an infested area hlong
the Gulf coo st of about 400 miles. The greatest brooding is found along
the 200-mile shore line betwleen Pensacola and Carabolle, Fla. South of
Houosassa dog flies present no problem. According to Mr. Sir.-ons, the prin-
cipal limitation to dog fly breeding along the southwestern Gulf coast and
the Atlantic coast of Florida is the lack of suitable bay beaches for tide-
drift deposits of bay grasses.

Mosquito survey of naval air base at Cocoa, Fla.--At the request of
Cormmender Tollefson, of the Taval Air 3ase at Cocoa, Fla., Mr. Dove and
W. V. King met with the naval authorities at the Base early in November for
the purpose of discussing mosquito control at that point.

Mosquito conforence at New Smyrna, Fla.--At the request of Mr. Dove,
the following personnel met at the New Smyrna Beach laboratory, where a 2-
day conference was hold on problems of nosquito biology: W. V. King,
G. H. iradley, 3. V. Travis, S. WT. Sir--ions, J. B. Ilull, and S. E. Shields.
Methods for obtaining samples of narch soil for floocdini samples to obtain
hatching of eggs wore demonstrated to the group by G. H. 3radley and 2. V.
Travis. Arrangements woo emade for Mr. Travis to introduce this method
in Datd County so that needed surveys can bo made by the county mosquito-
control official.

Mansonia mosauitoos in South Cc rolina.--In answer to requests, W. V.
King, of the Orlando, Fla. laboratory, visited health officials in South
Carolina during the week beginning Yovenrer 25 to locate the breeding places
of Mansonia nosquitoes. Concentrated breeding was found in a small lake.
As control rneasures, Mr. King advised the cutting of certain types of vege-
tation beneath the surface of the water and an application of an oil during
the period when the mosquitoes were energing.

Incidence of screwworns in Florida.--According to ICr. ; 7. E. Dove,
there were only a few cases in the western and northern counties of Florida
during Septenber. In correspondeence directed to Mr. Dove, the county
agents agreed that the incidence of screwworns was lower than at any time
since this pest established itself in the Southeast.

New larvicide for control of goat lice.--O. G. abcock, Roy Melvin,
and C. L. Smith, of the ienard, Tex. laboratory, report that results from
recent eepori-ients indicate a now, practical dip may soon be developed which
will kill 100 percent of the lice within a few hours, and all eggs with one
treatuent.

Ranch ranageiimnt in scrowworm-prevention progran.--E. C. Cushing;,
Menard, reports that the ranch-nnaemagent progran is well under way and
that four district eeotings of county agonts woer held at Uvaldo, Boovillo,
Boornc, and Gonzelos, Tcx., on ITovenmbr 12, 13, 14, and 15, respectively.
The proposed plan and its purpose were explained by Messrs. Cushing and
W. L. Barrett, Jr. The meetings rwere well attended, and in addition to the
county agents, a number of leading ranchmen and others were present. There







-29-

were enough immature stages of the fly in the -round, during Deceber to
develop a rather severe outbrea. of t :e fly Oier th entire overv:intering
area shoul. there be a consider' ble perCiod of warm weather during: the month
of January. The essential reco.ren-,dations icluded in the program include
avoiding all vwoumnds and dropping no yon fro.. Oct.ober 1 to Jan ary 7.;
perform surgical opertions, drop young, and -hear as soon es posibole
after abruary first, lwen flies are few in number; avoid all wounds ond1
drop no young duri._: E ,y, June, and July; and fall ;hear rCn emerg:ncy
operations only in Auigust anuc Septeuber. The peak of fly abundance is
reached late in Djce-ber in the overwintering area. If there re no no wrouns
during this period the l 'rgest crop of flies of t'.h yer 'ill! die "Vithout
a suit':ble plce for 'oviposition.

-iological studies of horn fli s--Ao Accori g to -. 3r ce, of the
Dallas, tex., laboratory, adult horn flies cnergd. fro:. infested droppings
placed in over,,intering cae c on Octotbr 7, 14, and 1S, bt ncon er .i-od
since Nov.ember 21. Records of 475 ippae, kept at a con-t', t t temperature
of S50 F. . 20, slhowed the rupal period to be 127 hours, correct vithin 1
hour. An elephant dropping V-as infe.ted writh 100 ne:ly e:er-red hiorn, fly
larvae and was kept in a room :'t t50 F. 20, but no flies enorged.

FOREIG2T PLANT TQUAA~IuT- S

Moro i.sccts in crating.--Live scol.yti lryvo were fouon ii, ein wood
use8 irn, open structu i ore? i fc:
used in open structure crates for eaorthcnvi-re rrivi-,: at ile':: York during-
the latter a',rt of Octob;r. Th-e larvae wv~,:; det rai.ed by ',. I. Ancderson
as probably Scolytus scolytus P., b'ase::ed. on dc ler.i i:ntions of ss:ociated
adults moa d by I. I. 131.cknan. Cer-oibycid larva., Ceteornined by lIr. Ander-
son as Clytus .arictu L., vwre also foIun. This pecies is recorderd by
Sorauer as feoodin on the larv.- of '.rk botl. s (Scolytidae) in fir' trees
and grapevines in southern r.; :-ce.

Entoiloo ical int;erce:tions of i at ret.---- living .lts of the
bruchid Brich.us tristic s- Fair. r intorcep ted. t v.ew Orleaans on Septerm-
ber 11 in sweet pna se.ds in :.il frorm Pcrtugel. Two living larvae of th"
melonfly (Dacus ccurbitae (Coq.)) v-re t..en : t Span i. g Calif., on
Toveiber 5 in stri:'; ba in stores fro Hawanii. A livin;g -adrlt of the
scolytid C-nathotrich-r.as cons et:neus Tldfd. vas found at 21 Paso, Tex. on
October 23 with sour lines in cargo fron Mexico. Seven liv In larvae of
the celery fly (P il oph:y la her clei (L.)), we.:-e foiiun, t Toew York on Octo-
ber 1 in celery in stor:s fron Z nlad. Ten 1 iving l-rv"e of t:: Mediter-
ranean fruitfly (Cor atit is cap ~iat Wiod.) ve:'e tiO n at Sa.. Pedro, C-lif.,
o: October 9 in coff:- berries in b -gane fror. Haaii. A living adult of
the carculionid Coratopus bi sinatus Bo3. 'as ta:..en at icw Orleans on Octo-
ber 30 on banana in cargo fror. Meico. One living cdult each of the coreids
Agonosona flavolinoata (Lap.) and Plune:tis poro;u.s Stal was intercepted at
Hoboken, N. J., on October 29 in bronelicd leaves in ba.gage froir Brazil.
A living adult of the lyaeici Acroleucus tullus (Stal) was intercepted at
Laredo, Tex., on October 23 on gardenia in cargo from Mexico. Living ead
dead specimens of the olethreutid Lap2e esia splendana (-bon.) were taken
at Philad.elphia on Noveni ber 13 in a bag of chestnuts in stores from Spain.





-30-

Pathological interceptions of interest,--Alternaria cucurbitae Let.
was found September 25 at Seattle on squash (Cucurbita maxima) from Japan.
Aphelenchus avenae Bastian was intercepted on November 19 at New York in
Xanthosoma sp. roots fron Cuba. Asper gillus ochraceus Wilhelm, intercepted
on October 10 at New York, appeared to be responsible for a dry rot which
was destroyinL a gladiolus corm from Turkey. Cercospora sp. was intercepted
on October 20 at Laredo on husk tomatoes from Mexico. Cylindrosporiurm
chrysanthemi All. was unusually prevalent at Brownsville on chrysanthemumss
being brought from Mexico during October annd November, a total of 1' inter-
ceptions being made. Peronospora pisi (De3y.) Syd. and Sentoria pisi West.
wore found on NovbcLier 24 at New York on peas from Chile. An undescribed
species of Pratylenchus was intercepted on October 30 at New York in Lilium
longiflorum bulbs fron Cuba. Sclorotinia gladioli Drayton was intercepted
ca October 22 at San Francisco in gladiolus corms from Japan. Sphaeropsis
sp. closely resembling S. malorum Pk., was intercepted on August 31 at
Brownsville on pine cones from Mexico.

DOIESTIC PLANT QUARA TINES

Survey of Parlatoria chinensis.--A Federal-State survey is under -way
in Missouri to deter:,ine the extent of spread of a diaspine scale new to
this country, specimens of which were submitted earlier in the year by
Missouri inspectors and identified as Parlatoria chinensis,Marlatt (see
News Letter, dated June 1, 1910, v. VII, To. 3, p. 35). Investigations con-
ducted by thie Missouri Departr-,nt of Agriculture during the suiSner resulted
in finding a number of infested properties in the vicinity of the Missouri
Botanic Gardens and Tower Grove Park in St. Louis. As this appears to be
the first record of the occurrence of the scale in the United States and
it is therefore not known to what extent it may become a pest of economic
importance on ornareental and fruit plants, the State requested Federal
assistance in making the su-rvey. sight Federal inspectors were assigned
to the work eorlyr in Decerml.ir, under the cur-trvision of William Dickison.

Grasshopper control, estimated savings and losses in crops.--From re-
ports of State leadsrs in 'grasshopper control and from Bureau records it
is estimated that the 1940 control program conducted in 22 States saved
crops valued at mor, than 42 million dollars. Theao savings represent a
net benefit of more than $22 for each Federal dollar expended. On the
other hand, it is estimated that more than 22 million dollars of grasshopper
d:ia'ge 'was done to crop in these States. Tie co:Tparison of savings and
losses is encouraging, the ratio- being nore favorable than might be expected,
cs- ic'd ioring the wid areas involved '-nd the ra.ny factors concerned in con-
trcl.

Grasshopper bai'ting in N ovmbor. --Grasshopper baiting was continued to
an unusually late date extending into the early cl dys of November in the
second-generation Mlnoplus mexicanus Scuss. area cf the southern Great
Plains in the vicinity of the Panrhndlcs of Texas ond Oklahoma. Subsequent
oetreme low terp-.ratures, however, dropped to 5 above zoro at Amarillo,
Tex. This condition, together with parasitieation and other natural'causes,
resulted in almost comnlete destruction of live grassho ners in the second-
generation arce.

Gras shop or and Mormon cricket control confrence.--A conference was
held in Denver on December 7-S of Bureau representatives, State directors











or coc-missioners o-f cariclituro, dir:ctors of o x tenSion, State lCad rs,
and representativos of tao E::tenc:ion S f'efro:. Wo ington. Te confer-
ence heard. iscussicns of recent reseal r i gra S: hopper control and1 a
historical resum of rashoppr outbr suggested out line f pro-
cedure andC plan of opor-tion( for hopper ad cricket control for th: crop
ye:r !41 va's pr:sen:ted for diccussion and noxt ith a.proval.

Gracs'l!.oper_ i _a1 .Icrmon cricket eg surrvey.--Inf2ormtion obtained from
eg surves for both thse peCsts in t auturmn of 14 iic-tes r Tnaei.l
d.ownvward trena in tch probabilities of infestation for 1-41. T1- serion:oe
irasshopoer outbreoc: of 1939 .cws .otorially roflecocd to a ::icl- 1 sC difficult
problo.1 in 140 and the ;work of that :,o-r -appers to have offectC a cr-
ros ccnclin. reouction D both as to rea s and i::to;Lsity.

Fali in oe "ctio ns of poea.cbh treeS.--In coopn:rc.io. n .:ith the States con-
corned, the prelofoli:itin inSpection as rcouircd umaCdr the provisions of
the stiandard State ouar = tins on account of the peac asaic ws cori)lote C
ecorly in thi: onth. ILo.ic-inf ac ae ac tro. -ere fouLiL in tCi;- in-
spection in iNo' MIoico, -Oklal.:ia., ...l Te.s. At 1the reC.Ct of ar i, co-
operation with tl:e Lou.isiana. St.ate official, v .ral mirs :ri: tft
not been insprcted in the spring fr the phony peach "isa- vere ilnpected
in tih: fall, and :with one ercoption er found cligibl: for certification,
as no .hony trees :ere f;un 1in thir env'ireo: nor in t::> nursery tlock.
Of the noar-ly 700 nurseries in scted uring t:. year in tie entire regicn
infected v'ith the phony' .r mosaic c is:.s, only 13 v-re -'u:nd to be in-
eli;iib1o for certification. T~: o are lIcc.ts in ci:: S.ates.

Tree-rem.ioval orlk on peach projects.--Tree-rer-.oval -::ork was conducted
during the month in California, Colo;::-do, G-oria, Nw Mexico, Tennessee,
and Texas, with t.he main n ti s in Califoria an,: G-or7ia. Eight thou-
sand mosaic-infecte- t-re.-s w ier re::ov:d in California, leaving slightly more
than l4,000 and t h- ork contimnue to go for-ar in tllt reoCr. Good co-
operation is being received from :he gro: _rs, it- fe'' e::ce-,tions. In
Georgia more than 11,500 phony tr-ees wre re:i.o:od during Nlov mber and every
effort is being made to complee the reoval. of -th diseased treies rior to
the arrival of severe veather. In the St Is a :1ntioned from 400 to 500
W. P. A. certified ;orlors woe employed in the r oval of diseasec, es-
caped, and aba.Cndond poec trees during the m.onth.

Chinch-bug survey. --The Fed.eral-Stat: survey begn arly in Nove::-r,
to doeterriin the full status of the chinch -bugS infest::.ti C: w ternina.ted
at the close of the month in Misiouri, Nebrac:i and Soiuth Dai-ot, Can con-
tinued into Deceober in Indiana,, lo., ndc Okl' ona. Surve:s in EL s.as ,
Ohio, and Illinois have boon .de by the departments of agric.lture of
those States.

Mole cricket. do .ne s-:bsidin:.--Unumally diry ve ,th er throughout NoIve-
ber in those parts of Florida. in T.:ich A:oe cricket o)erations have been





-32-

conducted, has minimized the a re tin the taae fro he cricket infesta-
tions. aFrthermore, most of the crops needin~ protection from the
cric:kts have reacieed an Rdvanced stage aCd it is felt that the serious-
ness of the situation v'which recently created an emergency requiring Bureau
participation has gre.tly dim-inished. The demands for bait were light
during the month,averag ing] approximately 10-,000 tons of mixed bait -per
week, less than one-fifth the quantity distributed during the first week
of operations. ,ait was distributed in November in 12 counties. Mixing
stations at ';uchula and Plant City were kept in operation during the en-
tire month and a nlant was set ru at Palat~ka on November 8. The mixing
Tlan:t located at Lakelan-i vws discontinued on i:ovenb er 15.

Sweetpotato weevil eradication areas extended i- in ississippi.--A co-
operative observa.tiJonal survey of conc.ition; affecting the svretpotato
weevil situation was conducted in Iovecmibr in the Gulf coast counties of
M.ississipi, at the roquest of Clay. L-le, St-to entomolo-1ist, and for con-
sidolation at th-. eeting of the StLt- Plant 3:ord hold at State Ccllego
on Novemb r 22-23. With the infor:mation obtain:d fro:. the sur.vey it was
ccnsid:red advisable to ext-nd the erdication activiti s, to thes Gulf
coact counties for tho protection of the ar~-as hlre cooperative eradica-
tion neasures have be-' carried out in the comCrecir sweetpotato-growing
areas rf tli. State ainc- e in 7 Aocor; ingly, arraJe- Dnt are cbing con-
clucdd to start conporative eoraicati.,r ;ork in tn. ncrth:-rn portion of
those S coutics.

WiTite-fringed boetle contr,;l verk.--The Tov-eber activities of the
whitc-frin, o bc ti: control project consist cd nrainly of repairing and
overhuling fi eld equip;nt, protpar ing individual records of prmc:ises con-
cerned in the 1- l contr9' piro~~ r.: -id cnfo-:ci g OFedr ol S andtc State quaran-
tin : r lat ins.

Pests intercepted by transit inspectors.--Thre Japanese beetle larvae
were recently found in a shinrent of coil conslcned froa Alexandria, Va.,
to a point in Ohio out:;ide t:he reg laed area The shipment was intercepted
at PittsbTurh.

Transit-inspecru tion focilitic- inc.reased for f Christmas shipping.--Transit
inspection w 'a rezen tl resumed at erit tirou.rgh the cooperation of the
Michian State D'. ,a rt-nt of Agric.ul:ture in the assignment of 1n inspector
at this point. At Birrin;gham the asista-nce of an Alabama State inspector,
working vwith the regplar transit inspictor, makes possible the inspection
of -ll trunk lines, operating out of the rhite-f ringed beetle area, which
move ma;nt,.;ri:ls into or through Birmin:ihm.

CONTROL INVESTIGATIONS

The applica.tion of the aerosol to fum:igation.--W. N. Sullivan and
J. H. Foles, of th : Beltsvillic, id., l bor tory, in cooperation vith L. D.
Goodhu.e, of the Division of Insecticide Investi ations, are rmaking studies
on the a:pplication of the aerosol to fumi tion. It has been shovn by
toxicity tests against the horsefly t:ht the effective period of dispersed
naphthalene coan be gr eatly increaseoc by vaporiztion in the presence of an
inert aerosol, It is apoarent thrt absorption occurs eand the insecticide is




-T3

held in an effective form for a longer period. The presence of the inert
particles changes the character of tle eosit. The ra-te of crystalliza-
tion is greatly retarded and ti size of the crystal is reu.ced. Instead
of the mrost of the naphthalene collecting on the flonor, it was more uni-
formly deposited on all surfaces ro rcless of pozition.

Turf tre.atments withl methyl bronidce solution caainst Jepanese 'beetle
grubs.--HT. C. Donohoa lWhite Horse, I. J. re orts on the application by
sprinkling of methyl bromide and alcohol (oith-r methyl or otnyl) in
aqueous solutions to lwn tiurf for the control of Japenese beetl gru'bs.
Mr. Donoho was assisted by t F-. Ke rbcy aon H A. l:ess ,rs ith, of t
Division of Japanese eeotle Control. Gre.test survivol as found in the
top inch of coil. Mortality was greater i: m.arginal dcosages followed by a
water cover than without this c-ver wher -ised ',:ith sol.':ii cf C.l1 por-
cent methyl bromide or over, and was lo:wer w'ith soltions -f 0.10 prerceat
or less followed by a water suoplen:=t thin whlre none owas adc. So il
t:amperetures ranged from 53 to 30 F. -. treatment a.ppli:ation. Mortality
rithin a scheOdule .os gener-1 1less t higherr than at lo:wer temperatures
'here any eifference occurred. At cAmparablo schedu:les :ortslity v:-s less
in light sacdy soil then hn heavior lo an.

INSECTCIDIE I:VSTIQ:A:SIOCS

Dihydrorotonene.--t'ong the nu2r.'ero derivatives of rote. ne tbhus far
studiied, only dihy:roroter.one r-tains the: high insectici al action of the
parent compound.. T!e apparently gr tr. stability of this derivative has
led to its coi.ueercial production. Catalyttic hydr:genatin of rotenone pro-
duces, in addition to cihyrorotencxne the nontoxic hydro{gnaticn p*roducts--
rotenonic acid, dihVydror-tenonic a.cid, _an di.y.: ro.rotenl. To develop a
method for the d-etorm-ination of clihyr;ro_ tenc in thie nxture of hyidr-oena-
tio.-n roduct;:, scrm- of the physical and chemical propr ti s of th-se con-
pounds were e::a2ined. A coi.inetio of elhysic':z 1 )cro:ti s wvill give some
information as to th a or.t of r ihyd.:or Cte:ona prt o nt, but be tt er
methci is basd. on the) observation thi t this is the only r:d:ction product
giving an appreciable red, color by th: C-: dl:hue teo,. L. D. CGodhue pnd
H. L. Hallcr, of th. Division cf Inscticidce Inve titions have proposed
a method basd on thiS test -' ich is descri! ed in Inc. trial an,' Egineering
Chemistry (Analyt. Ed., v. 12, N -o. 11, pp. 6,2-6,, v. r 14).,

Laboratories ncved. to Bcltsville Md.---Duri)_ October and Coveouber the
laooratories of the Division of Insoecticid.c Investiogations, oich, since the
surr~:or of 1935, had been located_ on the first floor of t:h first wving of
the Departe. nt So .th Building, wore r.ove d to al ne:o buildin- in eltsville,
MCld., Icnown as the Sruth Laboratory Building, This buildging, rpl.nned to
houce the nharmacologicol and. vita"in units of tlh Fod and Drug Adcinistra-
tion before it 'Ua transferd fror the tDeprt-i.nt of Agriculture to the
Toderal Security Agency, is nowv occupied b- the v:-ariou units of the :Denrt-
nent of Agriculture. The Division cf Ins cticide Invisctig;tic: s is located
on the first floor of tVhis b.ilding, w-her the lab';ratcries of th. Insecti-
cide Division .of the Agricultueal i.Ielrhting Service will also be locted
shortly. The n-ow crLartcr in th1l Soe:th L-,br-tor Euildin afford more
space tc each ch.emist th: : wa available in Weasin:ton, D. C. Moreov,:rr, the
now location, being cnly 1 mile from the Entormol g Building of this Bureau,
will enable the choeists and ent oolo ists to confer freI:ucatly on problems
that are being attacked jointly.








B:E CULTUE

Carbohydrate metabolism of 1developing honevybe.--R. M. Melimpy, of
University, La., reports: "2uring the larval feeding stage of the worker
honeybee (Apis -ellifera L.), the total carbohydrate and the glycogen in-
crease. The total carboh-ydrats includes free redu.cing sugar of th: tissues,
unassimilated carbohydrate of the a limentary tract, glucose produced by the
hydrolysis of glyco.en, and other carboHydrates convertible by acid hydroly-
sic into reducing sugar. The maxirum storage of total carbohydrate and gly-
cogen occurs between the fifth and sixth dlays, which is "proxi-'ately the
end of the larval feeding period and the time the cell is s-aled. T-h total
carbohydrate at this timis i is 100 rg. and the glycogen 68 m. per gram of
tissue; however, 12 days later the total carbohydrate has decreased to 9
,g. and the glycosen to 0.9 ng. per gram. If it nay be assumed that the
daily rate of utilization is constant, the total carbohydratoe dcr-eaces at
the rate of 8 mg. end the glycogen at the rate of 6 ag. per grem per day.
It is of interest that the synthesis and utilization of total carbohydrate
and glycogen parallel each other throughout the life c :cle. However, the
glucose de to th- hydrolysis of gl cogen varies at different stages of de-
velo-pment. For exar:ipe, at the; 3- CLay stZ!O it conprises c42 percent of
the total carbohy-drate, at the -6 day stlag 68 oprcent, and at the 17-18
day stage 10 percent. At no time does the free rdcu-ci n seu r make up the
difference existing botwoen the total carbohydrate and glycogen. The
great-st difference is 72 me. puer grn of tissue -t the 5-b day stage, but
at this time the fre reducing sua"-r is only 1.0 rn. per grar. The free re'
ducing sugar decrCaso to 0. n:. p-:.r gr~- n ,at the 5-7 .:ay stage, rises to
2.0 r.. per gran b the 16-17 ay stEtae, and decr:'ases before ;' ,rgenco. It
is clenrly scvn, fro:, the results p r:-:tsn d hero, that s0one other form of
cr'boh1drate other than lycon and. fre: reducin. sugar must be present in
the devCelping ho. -.,b e. This ccrbo hycato is convertible, by acid hydroly-
sis, to reducing svanr."

Hone-r;iac beS:ax cn1dles.--A revival of the art of naking beeswax
candles at hol..: in ol1.-fashi ned mocl: is evitnrcec, as these hand-molded
canedles are in .ldemand a.,'n p:r'sons intercste- in c tiaues. Beeswax is
also extensively used in. hig:h-grae cor:urcial canles. Such candles have
su-ff-icient riditq~ to stan up well in the ihet of sur-oer, a quality not
posssssed by ordinary c Iles n-ade of par'OaVz:. B-cswax c.andles are made
comrrcially by y. diTp-in, rolling, or pouring. Te beeswarx nust be very
cleon and qlite clear, when in-the liquil plhas, to be satisfactory for
cadle 1 :cin Mr. Vcnsell, of the Pacific St-tes 3Bee C:ture Tiold Labora-
tory, h stu.did cC ncle aing n h f ounC t 't careful att:tnti'n nust
be giv en to tr erai control vhen :oldingr, bOs'wax candles. The, tempera-
ture of th.: iouid wa7x should n'ot exceeo 155 F. when placol in the 'old.
Bces':ax is ahesive an .d must be ver, slowl- cooled to prevent it fron stick-
ing too tightly, or fro: crack in. through ,shrinkage. then candles are only
slightly stuck to the mold tlihy na beSe satisfactorily renoved ofter thorough
chilling by a da:h of boilin: water applied along the metal tube wall. Con-
nor cal '::icks are r.cor-ended.










IDENTIFICATTION AD CLASSIFICATION OF IlSECTS

A ccrabyc cid destroying prickliypoaor in Coler rao. -Speci-ons of a
ce:robyciCd beotle, ice ntifid by T7. S. Fisher as k;ile annule tur. Sy,
.were recently received fro: the Cool.r. io Stat; Collo-e acco:.paieca 'bO the,
reart: "Tl.i innect is copl! tel :.;iin- cut st-n 1 .s f pric!kl Tcr in
pastiure l on:- in the vicinity of Fountain, Colo." Cactus stan -ds in ot"th:e
parts of tlhe State, however, appT:r not to bo scverely attacked.

A _European noth in Torth ALerica.--In the course of akin-g idIntifica-
tions of moths associated with stucdies on the Dutch elm Cisease, the a'parent
similarity between English specii-ens of Oecophora lunaris (Havorth) and a
series of tw'o males and three fe::ales from the State of Washinonton Tras noted.
Further investigation an a coco-parison of the male genitalia of these vith
the English specimens and other European material proved- the to be identi-
cel. The 7'ashi-ton speci nes were collected at 3onnoville .1 Vanccuver,
Clark County, fro", June 2o to July 7, 1971, by J. F. Gates C lark. It is
possible that this speciess cs been nre sent in the vicinity of Vancouver
since early in the days of the settlement of the English on the Coluvfbia
River. Apparenti:" thlis is the first record of this species in North America.
Proba bly the insect is of no economic importance, for, like several rel-ted
forms, its larval-stage foods undor loose bark., presuna-bly as a sca-vng:r.




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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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