News letter


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News letter
Alternate title:
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
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News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
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Vol. V, No. 4 (Not fqr publication) April 1, 138


Hibernation of plum curculio.--As very few adults of the plum cur-
culio have ever been found in hibernation and as there has been consider-
able speculation as to exactly where this insect hibernates, sturdies have
been made by Oliver I. Snapp and J. R. Thomson, Jr., at the Fort Valley,
Ga., laboratory, to determine just where it passes the winter and its con-
dition during the hibvrnating season. The plum curculio was found hiber-
nating in debris, woods mold, -and other materials, at the edge of w.oods
bordering or near peach orchards. The individuals reared and fed in the
field had built up a large reserve of body fat beforeentering hibernation
and apparently hkve more of this fat than do the individuial re-.rd and fed
in the insectary. It was found that hibernting female plum curculios do
not contain eggs that have developed to any extent. These workers had here-
tofore determined that a period of ::,bout 1 month is required for eggs to
develop and mature in the bodies of female plum curculios and, as there is
no egg development in hibernating individu ils, an explanation is presented
as to why plum curculio adults do not begin to deposit eggs' in peaches for
a period of a month or more after they appear from hibernation. This gives
peach growers on opportunity to apply a spraT for the control of the plum
curculio before the beginning of the oviposition season in the spring.

Volatility a factor in effectiveness of oil erulsilns in control of
San Jose scale.--Oliver I. Snapp and J. R. Thomson, Jr., ihave just con-
pletcd the third season's experiments to determine the relation of vola-
tility of lubricating oils to their effectivwness in the control of the
San Jose scale on peach trees at the Fort Valley laboratory. A series of
seven oils, with volatilities ranging from 0.3 to 6.9 percent and with
practically the same viscosity, were used at:tio strengths for this year's
experiments. The data. obtained during the 3 years' work indicate that for
best results in the control of the San Jose scale, the volatility of a
mineral oil should be not more than 1 percent, although the toxicity of the
insecticide to that insect is not greatly affected when oils having a
volatility between 1 and 4 percent are used, provided, of course, that the
viscosity is within the range of 125 seconds Saybolt or higher. Control
of San Jose scale was greatly reduced this year with oils hav-ing a volatil-
ity range between 4.9 and 6.9 percent, the vidcosity being within the
recommended range.


Growers using fewer treated bands for codling moth than formerly.--
Surveys lnajc by MI. A. Yothers and E. J. Niwc.oner-in the vicinity of Ydkina
and W7cnatcheo, Wash., for the last 5 years have shown that the following
percentages ,f orchards have been bonded with chemically treated bands:

Year : Yakina : Wenatchee
193 --------: 33 : 33
193--------: 3 : 33

1935--------: 30 : 34
1936--------: -- : 23
1937--------: 17 : 12


Mlore Moeican fruitfly fcund than in February 1937.--Fruit continues
to move at a rapid ra.t. t-' the packing and processing plrnts. It is esti-
mated that 75 percent of the crop has bcon harvested and that much of the
remaining crop will be picked before the end of March. Trap catches through-
out February indicated that the popul :tion of Anastropha ludens Loew was
slightly lower than in January -nd approximately one-tvontieth a~ high as in
February 1937. Much closer field inspection, however, revealed l1 larval in-
festations. This year's total exceeds that of February a year ago by three.
The numbers and species of fruitflies identified in February are shovn in the
following table.

Species Texas : Mexico
Adul t s : ber : u-nb r ludens---: 71 b
A. s-ero'entina Wied--: '22 2
A. sp. "L1--------- 1 0
A. s. "Y"---------- 9 2
A. op. Un. sp",--- 2 0
A. paillns Coq------: 25
.Miscllan ous ------: __25
Total------ --- -- 99,3 : 35
A. ludanc- ---------: _20 : 561
Gran u total-------: 1,33 : 596

1/IMrket fruit.


Airplane meets wind-borne grasshoppers at high elovations.--The fol-
lowing notes were contained in a letter from John P. Gaty, vice president of
the Beech Aircraft Corporation, under date of February 16: "On February 12,
1938, while flying from Des Mcines, Iowa, to Kansas City, o. at an altitude
of 2,000 fe.t, considerable nunbers of grasshoppers were encountercd. MIany
of then wore killed by smashing into th: structure of the airplan.e. Winds of


gale velocity had been blowing from the southwest for more than 2|- days.
Undoubtedly these insects had been carried by this strong southwest wind
into the area in which we found them. We have often encountered grass-
hoppers in flight at altitudes above 10,000 feet."

Differences between single- and multiple-strains of European corn
borer.--K. D. Arbuthnot, New Haven, Conn., reports that the multiple-genera-
tion strain from the field near Now Haven, and the single-generation strain
from the field near Toledo, Ohio, will cross and produce fertile eggs. The
multiple-generation strain, in the two generations reared in the laboratory,
showed a consistence in its reactions which indicate that this is a homozygous
strain. The single-generation strain, in the two laboratory generations,
showed inconsistencies which indicate that this material is not homozygous
but is a mixed race. The reciprocal crosses between the two strains were
very vigorous in the Fl generation, as evidenced by hih rate of larval sur-
vival and eg;; production, but the F2 larvae had a very low rate of survival..
Because of the inconstancy of .characters in the parent single-generation
race, no analysis can be made of characters or their behavior in the crosses.

Field tests with insecticides for European corn borer control. C. H.
Batchelder, New Iaven, says that under the seasonal conditions of corn borer
populations and climatic factors prevailing in the New Haven area in 1937,
reductions of corn borer populations in ears of early market sweet corn
when treated with insecticidal agents under commercial conditions averaged
78 percent with the quebrache-fixed nicotine treatment and 77 percent with
the derris treatment, both applied as sprays. Dual-fixed nicotine, opplied
as a dust, reduced the corn borer ear populations 71 percent under similar
conditions. These reductions were accomplished at average total costs per
acre as follows: Quebracho-fixed nicotine, $25.06; derris, $24.84; dual-
fixed nicotine, $22.3S. Dual-fixed nicotine and cube applied as dusts and
quebrache-fixed nicotine applied as a spray effected approximately 90 per-
cent reduction of borer populations infesting dahlias in experimental plots.
Second-generation corn borers severely infesting ears of late-grvown sweet
corn were reducod from 80 to 90 percent as a result of treatments with dual-
fixed nic9tine dust.

Varietal resistance of field corn to European corn borer.--L. E. Patch
and R. T. Everly, Toledo, Ohio, report that double crosses involving R4, Hy,
and L317B2 in their pedigree, if the additional inbred is not a susceptible
line, are about as bcrer-resistant as the standard single cross R4 X Hy. It
is indicated that the single cross R4 X L317B2 is the most bcrer-resistant of
the field-corn strains tested to date, only half as nany borers surviving on
this strain as on R4 X Hy from an equal .ntuber of eggs in the 1937 tests. Of
146 inbred field-corn strains tested to oate, only the following 4 may be
classed as materially borer-resistant: Illinois R4, Iowa L31732, Iowv 205,
and Michigan 77. The largest part of the differentiation in the number of
borers between R4 X Hy and A X Tr takes place in the first 6 days, and is
possibly associated with leaf characters as -indicated by differences in
feeding habits of the borer on the leaves of the two strains. The corn-
borer resistance of R4 X Hy is shown to be operative at -least over a 30-day-
developmental period, ranging from 21 days before


pollen shedding to 4 days after. Michigan Hybrid No. 561, reported by
Marston to be rcsistant to the corn borer, was found not to be resistant
in comparison with standard strains of about equal seasonal requirements
under the conditions of tests conducted at Toledo. This interpretation
applies to resistance as measured by larval survivals, egg deposition,
and tolerance, the last as measured by reduction in the yield of grain by
a given number of borers.


Further reduction in W. P. A. force.--At the completion of the Feb-
.'ruary work period, the Works Progress Administration personnel was reduced
to 1,182 men. The Connecticut State W. P. A. office requested that it be
given in advance a list of names of men whose services were to be termi-
nated at the end of the work period. Upon receipt of this list the office made
reassignments to local projects. Notices of transfer were given to the men
at the same time they were notified that their services were being ter-
minated on the Dutch elm disease project.

Seasonal sanitction activities nearing completion in New Jersey.--Regu-
lar activities in dead and dying elm sanitation were rapidly nearing com-
pletion in some sections of New Jersey at the end of the month. All scout-
ing for dead and dying trees was completed in Bergen, Mercer, Morris, and
Union Counties. Scout crews in Borgen and Morris Counties were transferred
to regular sanitation work. In Mercer County less than 2,000 tagged de-
cadent trees remain standing, and in Union County less than 1,000. The
only remaining dormant season scouting in the State is in Middlesex County,
whore the work is necessarily slow because the scouts are spotting on scout-
ing maps all standing elms, as well s~ etl-free areas.

Sanitation work completed at Indiar~naolis.--Sanitation work has been
completed in the Crowni Hill section of Indianapolis. Several hundred trees
were pruned and over 100 devitalized elms reroved from the 300-acre plot.

Social Security numbers for W. P. A. woreers.--The State leader in
charge of the Dutch E3l Disease field headquarters at lorwalk, Conn. was
requested by State W. P. A. officials to obtain and submit to them the
Social Security numbers of W. P. A. personnel employed by the division. It
was found that less than 25 percent of the enon had applied for Social So-
curity numbers.

Sanitation activities disclose concentration of disease.--Eleven
diseased trees wre reported in mid-February in a small area within the
Great Swatrp in Morris County, N. J. Confirmations were obtained from speci-
mens submitted by regular clear-citting crews.

Special sanitation work completed on private estate.--Selective sani-
tation work was completed by February 26 on an estate in ?Torth Costle Towm-
ship, Wstchester County, N. Y. Special attention was given this location
because 13 confirmed trees had been found on the property during the 1937
scouting season.


Inspection of wood shavings.--Tests are in progress to determine
whether a special machine, recently built to convert wood edgings into
shavings, will separate out or destroy any gypsy moth eggs that may be de-
posited on the edgings. The owners of a box factory and dressing nill in
the heavily infested area of southern New H.ampshire recently applied for
inspection and certification of 125 carloads of wood shavings to be manu-
factured from waste-wood edgings. Appro:inately 65,000 feet of round-edge
lu ber are sawed daily at this factory, and waste-wood edgings accumulete
at the rate of about 30 cords a day. Actual inspection of this large
quantity of waste material is irpracticable, therefore disinfection or heat
treatmenr t are the only methods of obtaining certification. These me thods
are too costly for the manufacturer.

Infestations in inspected commodities.--One or nore egg clusters were
found in seven shipments presented for inspection and certificp-tion in
February. The largest infestation, consisting of nine e;g nmsses, was re-
novd' froiL seven truckloads of logs inspected at Ossipee, N. H. for move-
ment to Saint Johnsbury, Vt. Six egg clusters were taken from a carload
of white birch wood destined fron Dixfield to Lincoln, Maine. Smaller
finds were made in hemlock boughs and lumber, making a total of 24 egg
clusters intercepted during the month.

Heavy gypsy noth infestation near granite-cutting sheds.--A report
from the district inspector at Quincy, Mass., indicates that there is a
heavy gypsy moth infestation throughout the areas where the granite-cutting
sheds are located in this center for building and monumental granite. City
employees of the local moth department creosoted the egg clusters in those

Heavy shipments of certified pulpwood.--During February, 1 company
shipped 75 carloads of pulpwood to paper mills in northern New York. This
product was obtained in the spruce-growing sections of New Hampshire and
Vermont. It was certified on the basis of either inspection of the lot
where grown or actual inspection of each log, depending on the conditions
of infestation in the cutting areas.

Dahlia growers appoint corn borer committee.--Concern among dahlia
growers over the rapid increase and spread of the corn borer is indicated
by the appointment of a corn borer cormittee by the American Dahlia Society.
One of the duties of this committee is to urge research activities particu-
larly directed to control of the borer in dahlias. The past moderate win-
ter is believed to have been favorable for corn borer survival in New Jer-
sey and on Long Island, where dahlia growing is seriously affected by this

Movement of nursery stock begins in Japianese beetle area.--Early sea-
son shipments of nursery stock fron classified nurseries began in volume
in February. Spring orders to the South were dispatched from the Phila-
delphia area. Three carloads of stock, consisting of fruit trees and rose
seedlings, were certified from the Eastern Shore of Maryland. An unusual
shipment for this time of the year, 100,000 tomato plants, was certified
for shipment from New Jersey to a grower in North Carolina.


Adult beetles in greenhouses.--Acult beetles emerged as usual in the
"run-hot" rose-growing greenhouses in the Philadelphia area. Several
greenhousemen have employees picking them daily. Little damage to rose
blooms has been reported, as many of the growers also had employees destroy
all adults seen last sumner. A report was also received of adults being
found in a greenhouse in the New York area. Two beetles were found on
February 18 in an infested greenhouse on Staten Island.

Winter larval collection.--Five hundred Japanese beetle larvae were
collected during the month in the vicinity of Shiloh, N. J., in a section
where the ground had thawed sufficiently. These were found a spade-
length deep and deeper. The larvae will be used in trials with nmthyl
bronide as a fumigant for strawberry plants now being Salis-,
bury, Md.


Bark beetles more destructive than fire in Rocky Mountain region.--
According to J. A. Beal, of the Fort Collins, Colo., laboratory, insect.
losses in the forests of the central Rocky icuntain region have been par-
ticularly severe during the last few years. Bark-beetle outbreaks in the
pine type are responsible for most of these losses and the Black Hills
beetle (Dendroctonus pondercsae Hopk.) ranks first from the standpoint of
destructiveness. Its importance as a tree killer can be illustroka by
comparing the volui.e of timber it has killed annually in recent years with
the volume lost annually by fire and with the annual timber cut. These
data are presented by States in the following table:

: Annual losses fron-- : Annual
State :Fire, : D. pondercsao, : timber cut,
: all tree species: pine only pine only
: Board feet : Board feet : Board feet
Colorado---: 350,000 : 15,000,000 : 51,907,000
7yoning----: 11,723,000 : 69,150,000 35,70,000
Utah------ : 1,163,200 : 7,500,000 :, 5,730,000
Total--: 13,26,200 : 91,550,000 : 3,343,000

There are some very apparent reasons for this present condition: First,
fires are held in check by an adequate firo-detection and fire-supprossion
system, whereas insect losses have received far less attention; second, we
are undergoing a period of extremely heavy insect losses which have probably
been augmented by weather conditio-s favoring the development of bark-beetle
outbrnaks; third, from the standpoint of tiuber cut, this is not a particu-
larly heavy lu ber-producing region, as nuch of the timber has a higher
value for other purposes.

The Douglas fir beetle causes a tax problen in Oregon.--In 1935 the
Douglas fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk.) attacked a great many
Douglas firs in the vicinity of the Tillan.iook Burn in Oregon. this oc-
currence did not come to the attention of timber owners in the affected area
until 1937, when a 20-percent cruise of one large property showed that
f- !


82,130,000 board feet had been killed on 15,000 acres. R'. L. Fuirnis, of
the Portland laboratory, states that the problem now confronting this con-
pany is to determine when the trees died. Fading of attacked Dcuglas fir
trees is comparatively slow and, in addition, nany trees suffer a delayed
death as a result of infection by Ccratostonel-la, a blue-stain fungus intro-
duced by the beetles. Therefore it may 'not be possible to cruise the en-
tire loss until the second year after attack. The importance of this prob-
len lies in. the fact that the conpany in question is salvaging burned tim-'
bar and can claim credit for a reduction in taxes on the basis of the
beetle-killed volume. As the reduction is dependent on the amount of tin-
ber salvaged in the year of the loss it is necessary to determine when th:
trees died,-in the <'yes of the law.

Insect problems worry forest supervisors.--At the recent annual meet-
inog of the Regional Investigative Con.ittee, two forest supervisors, one
from the Douglas fir region and one from the ponderosa pine region, were
asked to enumerate the most important problems requiring solution in their
respective territories. Of the half dozen or so, subjects mentioned by
each supervisor, forest insects were given an important place.

Pine trees recovering from injury by unseasonal temperatures.--During
the latter part of October and the first part of November 1935, a 3-day
period of low temperatures occurred throughout most of the northern Rocky
Mountain region. These low temperatures, although not extreme for the
region, were abnormal for the season and were preceded by a period of un-
usually warm weather. This sudden climatic change killed considerable
western white pire rand ponderosa pine foliage in many parts of the region,
and records have been taken to determine the rate of -recovery and sus-
ceptibility to bark-beetle attack. W. D. Bedard, of the Coeur d'Alene,
Idaho, laboratory, reports that in the: second year following injury two of
the mature white pine trees marked for observation were attacked and killed
by the mountain pine beetle. This loss is no greater, however, than that
which occurs under normal conditions. In the white pine reproduction plots
two tree's have died'wi-th:no dvidence 6f insect injury, indicating that the
climatic injury was perhaps responsible. In general, -all living trees are
making good eccovery.- In white pine reproduction recovery appears to be
in direct proportion to the deverity df injury. In mature ponderosa and
white pine, the slower growing trees suffered most injury but are appa-rently
making the most rapid -recovery.

Spray controls mountain 'pine beetle in lodgep-ole pine.--In 1936 and
1937 a series of experiments -to develop a spray that viould control the
mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pie was carried on by A. L. Gibson and
J. C. Evenden, of the Coeur d'Alene laboratory. Certain lethal oils ap-
plied late in the spring and -early in the summer were :found to readily pene-
trate the thin bark of lodgepole and gave nearly 100 percent control -of all
stages of the insect. This method offers many advantages over present con-
trol methods, chief of which:are: (1) The small amount of equipment required;
(2) freedom from fire hazard, a very objectionable feature of previous
methods; (3) control operations can b,: deferred until road and weather con-
ditions are favorable for establishing control camps; and (4) control can be
conducted until immediately prior to omergence of the insects ate in July.


Elm bark beetle penetrates bark on sprayed trees.--During the winter
of 1934-35, R. R. Whitton, of the Morristovwn, N.' J., laboratory, conducted
a few experiments to test the effectiveness of certain insecticidal sprays
in preventing feeding by adults of the smwaller European elm bark beetle
(Scolytus multistriatus Marsh. ) in the twig crotches and elsewhere on the
bark of elm. Observations and experiments have sho'wn that elm trees com-
monly become infected with the Dutch elm disease fungus after adults of
S. multistriatus, contaminated with fungus, have fed on then. Mr. Whitton's
experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and consisted of spraying both
small potted elms and small eln twigs with an insecticide and exposing the
sprayed material, together with untreated elms and twigs, to attack by a
knowm nunber of adults. The neasure of control was determine'd by counting
the feeding scars which penetrated the crabiun and by the dry weight of
tho beetle excr.eent after all beetles had died in the cages containing
sprayed elms and twigs. Lead arsenate, mugnesium arsenate, zinc arscnate,
ferric arsenate, and cupric arsenatc were used at the rate of 10 pounds to
100 gallons of water. The dry veight of the beetle excrement showed that
all the spray mixtures reduced the a.miunt of feoding per beetle, but feed-
ing scars which extended well into the xylem were found 'in all cases. Fur-
thor experiments wore conducted by R. R. Whitten and W7. C. Baker during
the past winter. Two 5-year-old potted eln tre.'s were thoroughly sprayed
with each mixture used. The sprayed trees and two untreated trees were
placed in a large indoor screened cage. Twenty-five hundred active S. mul-
tistriatus adults were liberated in the cage and allowed to foed for at
least 2 weeks. The trees were then removed and the feeding scars in the
twig crotches and on the trunks counted. The entire procedure was lator re-
peated. The two lots of trees are referred to as "Series A" and "Series B"
in the following table, in which the nunbers of feeding scars on trees re-
cciving different treatments are shown.

: ~cding scars in--
Spray formula Series A : Series B : Total
:Cretclies :Trunk : Cr t ches: Trunk:Crotc lhos: Trunk
: umber:Nu.1ibor: ITuber :Nuibor: Number : Number
Lead arsenate, 5 lbs.,:
linseed oil, 20 oz.,:: : : : :
water, 100 al------: 57 57 : 70 : 9 : 127 : 66

Concentrated li- : :
sulphur, 1 p-rart,: : :
water, 50 parts-----: 25 : 6 43 :28 6 34

Quebracho -fixed : :
nicotine, 1 part,
water, 100 parts----: 20 : 2 : 64 : 15 17

Untreated-----------: 93 : 74 : 45 : 39 :138 : 113

The table shows thert none of the ;pray mixtures prevented feeding by
the beetles. Most of the b etlos found in the feeding scars when the trees
were finally o xained were alive, except on the trees sprayed with lead


arsenate. On these trees over 90 percent of the beetles were dead but
death did not occur until the beetles had reached the xylem.


Infestation found near Connecticut-Yew York State line.--A crew of
agents assigned to special scouting in Kent, Litchfield County, Conn., on
February 1 found several gypsy moth egg clusters outside of the area
sprayed last season.

New infestation in Pennsylvania quarantined area.--A gypsy moth in-
festation consisting of two egg clusters was recently discovered in the
southern part of Penn Forest Township in Carbon County, Pa. This isolated
infestation, which is near the southern border of the quarantined area, is
only a few niles distant from the site of a colony that was exterminated in
Mauch Chunk Township several years ago. Eradication of the new infestation
this season is expected.

Infested.areas cleared in preparation for spraying.--Most of the un-
skilled laborers assigned to gypsy moth work in the Pennsylvanic area are
now engaged in piling and burning dead wood and debris in areas where infes-
tation is known to occur. It is fortunate that the absence of snow permits
an early start on this type of work, as much remains to be done before the
eggs hatch. Tork of this nature cannot be done satisfactorily when the
ground is covered with snow.

Loose bark in burned-over area retards gypsy noth work;--Gypsy moth
crews working in the northern part of Kidder Township, which is in the
southern part of the Pennsylvania quarantined area, are laboring under most
trying conditions. A serious forest fire swept through the section where
work is in progress in the sunm ir of 1934, killing practically all of the
trees. An enornous number of trunks and large branches are now covered with
loose bark, which n.ust be removed and exr.ained by the scouts. The work is
further complicated by the development of sprouts at the bases of the dead
trees. Dead leaves and twigs, which lodge between the sprouts and the tree
trunks, nust be removed in order to determine the presence or absence of
gypsy noth infestation.

New quarantine regulations in effect in Pennsylvania.--The new quaran-
tine regulations promulgated by the State of Pennsylvania Depart;cnt of Agri-
culture concerning the moverment of naterials likely to harbor the gypsy moth
became effective on February 15. It has already been possible to reduce the
number.of men employed on inspection and certification work, and a further
reduction in personnel will be possible after the shippers become thoroughly
familiar with the requirements of the modified regulations.

Shippers and courts cooperate in enforcing Pennsylvania quarantine.--
Excellent cooperation has been maintained between the officers charged with
enforcing the Pennsylvania State quarantine on account of the gypsy moth and
the shippers and property owners within the quarantined area. The courts
have also cooperated in the prosecution of willful violators of the quarantine


regulations. There were 371 violations of the quarantine regulations, dur-
ing the calendar year 1937, by persons who were unfamiliar with the re-
quirements. Each of the first offenders was sent a formal warning by the
State bureau of plant industry and was officially informed that he would
be prosecuted in case of a second violation. Only eight of the group vio-
lated the quarantine regulations a second time and each was prosecuted,
found guilty, and fined.

Discarded rubbish is a serious problem in Pennsylvania.--A serious
problem in connection with the gypsy moth eradication campaign now being
waged in Pennsylvania is the inspection of tin cans, old jars, and other
worthless articles dumped in wooded areas, especially in the residential
sections. The discarding of materials of this nature along river banks is
particularly serious, as it greatly increases the possibility of down-
stream spread of the gypsy moth during flood periods.

Check-up work by Federal and State forces in New Jersey.--The small
force of W. P. A. employees assigned to duty in New Jersey has completed
scouting work in the area in Mendhan Township, Morris County, where a male
gypsy'moth was recovered at an assembling cage a year ago last summer,'and.
they are now working in the adjoining township of Randolph. The State
forces are scouting at the sites of infestations located several years ago,
which are apparently exterminated. No evidence of the presence of the
gypsy moth has been found by either W. P.'A. or State employees..

Over 21 million egg clusters creosoted by C; C. C.--From July 1, 1937,
to February 19, 1938, C. C. C. enrolleos have creosoted over 2,685,000
gypsy moth egg clusters. Of these, approximately 2,445,000 were destroyed
in Massachusetts, 217,800 in Vermont, and 22,000 in Connecticut.

C. C. C. work program rearranged in southwestern Massachusetts.--
Necessary work at severe infestations in some of the towns near the barrier
zone, worked by the C. C. C. gypsy notl camp in Westfield, Mass., has re-
tarded progress in that section, and it will not be possible to treat as
large an area as was anticipated before the eggs hatch. The program is
being rearranged to concentrate treatment work in the most dangerous infes-
tations during the remainder of the season, and efforts are being made' to
obtain additional non for work in that section.

Proposed C. C. C. gypsy moth work in Vermont.--Plans have been made
for considerable gypsy moth work by C. C. C. camps in Vernont during the
llth and 12th enlistment periods, which begin April 1, 1938, and terminate
March 31, 1939. Of a possible 35,000 man-days, 28,000 have been allotted
for gypsy moth work from the Bellows Falls camp. This c-np has also been
moved higher on the priority list. One crew of men for gypsy moth work
has been promised from the Plymouth camp, with the possibility that a second
crew may be made available during the winter months. Although the Water-
bury camp is located within the barrier zone, 1,000 nan-days have been al-
lotted for gypsy moth work in towns immediately east of the zone. Five
hundred man-days were promised from the camp in Brunswick for gypsy moth
work at a knovm infestation in Lancaster, N. H.



Slashing and broadcast burning as an upland blister rust control
neasure.--An area of several hundred acres of the 1926 burn in Lamb Creek
on the Kaniksu Forest of Idaho represented such a costly and uncertain con-
trol chance that it was not worked when Ribes were eradicated on adjacent
areas in 1934. Control of the rust by hand-eradication methods on this
area would have been very costly because of the abundance of Ribcs and the
difficult working conditions resulting from .a dense tangle of standing and
fallen snags, Ribes, brush, and white pine reproduction. Also there was a
strong probability that another fire might sweep the area and destroy the
white pine. To aed to these difficulties it was found that blister rust
infection on the white pine reproduction was well established on the area
and increasing rapidly. As a solution to the problem, the Forest Service
decided to fell the standing snags and burn the area under controlled con-
ditions, so as to eliminate both the fire and disease hazards. An area of
740 acres was covered by nen from one 100-man B. R. A. camp furnished by
this Bureau. In the fall of 1937 the debris was burned and nearly all in-
flammable material on the area was consumed. The burn is expected to
largely eliminate Ribes regeneration on the area. Within 2 to 4 years any
Ribes that may appear can be eradicated and the area can be planted -to
white pine. This method.elininated a serious pest and fire hazard and
brought the forest land to a manageable status.

Blister rust notes from the Southern Appalachian States.--Blister
rust has been found for the first time on white pine in Highland County,
Va., three pines being infected.' Canker-elimination work was carried out
in Geroge Washington National Forest in Augusta County, Va. Of 3,525
pines examined, 135, or 3.8 percent, were diseased. Of these, 111 were
treated and 24 removed. In all, 277 cankers were removed, all but 5 being
bronch cankers. The weather was so moderate in January and February that
495,022 Ribes bushes were destroyed by an average of 255 men working 50,411
hours on 87,161 acres.

Rust observations in Mexico.--During February, 2. C. and
W. L. Pophan observed rust conditions in four of the six important grain-
growing areas in Mexico. The first stem rust found was on February 11 near
Ric Frio, at an altitude of about 8,000 feet. On February 12 infection was
found to be abundant in some fields both east and north of Tehuacan. There
was a wide variation in the stage of development of crops in the different
fields examined in this area, some being in the rosette stag;e while others
had reached the boot, and a few were heading to soft dough. Very distinct
overwintering centers of infection could be found in fields seeded during
the period September 10 to October 15. The number of centers located in
different fields varied considerably. In some only one or two could be
found, but in others it appeared that practically every grain plant had be-
come heavily infected with stem rust in the fall and- that rust had survived
on from 50 to 75 percent of the plants. In some spots the fungus had reached
the telial stage. Although the prevalence of stem rust in a fey of the more
advanced fields between Tehuacan and Orizaba, near Morelia, in the Saltillo
area, and near Sabina Hidalgo approached 100 percent, with severity ranging
from 5 to 30 percent, the infection was practically all on the lower parts


of the stems and on the lower leaves. Hardly a pustule could be found on
the flag leaves or necks of plants examined, probably owing to cool dry
weather that prevailed for several weeks just prior to the time when obser-
vations were made. Mexican officials stated that there was much less rust
in Mexico this year than at the same time a year ago. Some of the.heaviest
infection observed was in two fields of durum wheat about 3 miles east of
Tehuacan. It is apparent that the extent to which stem rust will spread in
winter wheat in Mexico this year depends on weather conditions between now
and harvest time. The aggregate amount of rust in Mexico was not great at
the time observations were made, as fields seeded prior to October 15 ap-
peared to constitute only a small percentage of the entire winter wheat crop.
Stripe rust was observed to be a little more widely distributed than stem
rust; particularly at the higher altitudes.


Cotton flea hopper emergence.--X. P. Ewing and R. L. McGarr, of Port
Lavaca, Tex., report that the first cotton flea hopper nymphs hatching from
overwintering eggs were recorded in the hibernation cages on February 12.
The earliest dates previously recorded at Port Lavaca vere February 8 in
1934 and February 12, 1937. In February of this year 554 flea hoppers
hatched, the largest number recorded during this month for the 3 years dur-
ing which records have been made. The maximum and minimum temperatures were
higher, and the mean temperature for the month averaged 61.820 F., or 2.50
higher than last year. The rainfall was about the same for the 2 years.
On the same date that nymphs were found in the cages, three first-instar and
one second-instar nymphs were found in Croton texensis in the field in the
light sandy soil area of Calhoun County. This is the first time thot ppsi-
tive evidence has been obtained that flea hopper ec-hs hatched in. the open
fields before hatching occurred in the cages. During the week ended March 5,
two nymphs .iaturec to adults in the insectary and 11 adults were collected
on C. texensis in the vicinity of Rockport. This is the earliest date that
we have ever found flea hopper adults in eastern Texas.

Rain reduces thrips danmge to cotton.--La::t MHay E. W. Dunnam and
J. C. Clark exa mined the various plants used as cover crops on cotton farms
and the more irmortant weeds occurring at Stoneville, Miss., to determine
the thrips populations and the importance of these plants for early season
thrips development. Most of the cover crops and all of the weeds iwere in-
fested with thrips, but the vetches were by far the rost important host
plants. The early population appeared sufficient to cause serious damage
to cotton. On June 1, after the cotton became large enough to become a
favorable host, samples of 20 plants from each of 44 varieties of cotton
were examined to determine the thrips population. On June 15 a second ex-
anination of the soime varieties was made. At the first examination the
number of thrips ranged from 7 to 55, averaging 28 thrips per 20-plant
sample. At the second examination the range was from 3 to 18, with an
average of 10 thrips per sample. This b5-percent reduction in thrips popu-
lation resulted in practically no terminal bud destruction in any of the
44 varieties. A comparison of the weather records and the thrips popula-
tion on cotton in 1937 with those in 1936, when a high percentage of ter-
minal buds were destroyed, showed that precipitation was the important.
factor in the reduction in numbers. In June 1936 rain fell on only 2 days,


totaling 0.84 inch, whereas in June 1937, rain fell on 9 days, totaling
4.23 inches. Most of the rain in 1937 also fell during the period between
the tnrios counts. Of the first 15 days, 7 were rainy, with a toIel of h.11
inches and a ver- heav- rain of 1.74 inches on 1 day. Several spe-cies of
tyrips r-wre involved, but determin tions have not been received.

Hibernating boll wJeevils in wooas trash.--Examinations of .70oods3
to determine the number of hibernating boll vweevils found at various dis-
tances from the cotton fields vwere byF F. ondy at Florence, S. C.
in eoccr-oar, January, anO. Februa-ry. All of the leafage materia and Curface
litter on the soil surface was collected from 3-foot by c-foot areas, and
stored indoors a fe- days to dry o.ut and permit the wcevils to become active.
The material vas then pssed thro.-gh a mechanical shaer w-ith screens of
different sizes that separates out the lar:e and small trash :ud reduces the
volume to be.. ex:amined to one-fourtY or loss of the original volume. Ten
samples of surface tras.h vero collected in "::od fro th'e edge, at distances
of 5C feet, 100 feet, and 150 fe,.t from cotton fields on each of S farms,
or a to al of 2140 sa::nles frlor: 2,530 -cu-o.r, fe--t, and were, eoarinu v:ith the
follo-ing results:

Location Sa: r- lese: evi!-
_____ __ : : Living : Dead :Averuj e per acro
:uxnb r : Inib cr : Tuumb r : iib --r
3d:e of w:roods-------: : 4 : 1,775
50 feet froL. e'e---: 60 : 28 1 : 1,176
100 feet from ede--: 60 S: : 0 : 3;3
150 feet fro e~gde--: 60 : 12 : o : 0
Total-------------: 240 : : 5 : --
Average-- -------- -- : -- : 940

It -will be noCted tUht cwevils wore found in largest numbers at the
ed&-t, of the v:oodp and approxir.:mtel' S30 percent of the total wit--i.n 50 feet
of the edge. This indicates the probable value of burning the tra.h along
the edaes of the woods as a means of redu-ci:g the wieevils. The proportion
of dead eand liv:ing :eevils fcmunc i not an accurate ind-ex of the :ortality
that has takeon place, ecau-se th e ad '.wevil.s disintegrate and ar; more
difficult to fied.

Effects of early dis:king and irrigation on pink bollworo population.--
An experiment was started in Dece...ber by R. S. Cavitt and. 0. eobrtson, of
the Presidio, Te;x., lboratory, to deter:n.n. the offect cf earl rrinter disk-
ing and irrigation on the pi.k bollworma larvae overwintering in the scil.
This is a cultural practice followed. by vhoo plant oats, wheat, or
cth,:r winter crops in the cotton fields. The cotton stalks were cut and
burned and on Deceuber 13 part of the field vos double disked and innediately
irrigated. Examinations of the soil and surface trash prior to the disking
shoed an aver-g: cof 34.9 pin-k 0ollworm larvae per square yard. On February
21, soil sarples were again exa.ine an contained an average of 9.6 larv.a
per- squ'are yard, or a reduction cf 72.5 percent. In the examinations in the
check: tPhat had not been disked or irrigated an average of 46 lrv:ae were
found in Decer.ber and 35.3 per souare ..rd in February, a mortality of only


16.7 percent. Although an experiment of this nature is subject to con-
sier-tle error, it indicatce that the early winter disking anC. irrigation
for plantin;. winter crops'ilcreased the'pink bcllworm mortality considerably.


Inspecti-on.--Thc in:pection of croen boll samples at the San Anto-nio,
Tex., laboratory has continued to give negative results. In addition to the
inspectioi of green bolls, a ccnsider-ble nunmber of Thurberia bolls col-
lecteor in various ocuntain in southern Arizona h-ve been insnected
dur:ing the past few m:nths. Gin-traslh inspec'tion last fall ry.veoled a rnther
gentral pinkl bollworn infest tion in southwestern Tew, Mexico and. southern
Arizona. The only satisfactory e~xplnaticn for this spread of infestation is
that ncths were brought in by f-vcrable wind currents fr:om infested areas to
the east. Assu-ming that tkis was true, it beoca..e important to deternine
whether Thurbrria'plants grewing wild. in various mourt!in rances of southern
Arizona were infested -with the pin- boll:orm. So::e 'O,OOO Thurb 'ri bolls
were inspected and all ra~enos uwre found to be inf"ested wVith Turbria weevil
in v-ryin,_ dcre es, the .igest infettin b bout 33 pere:r t andr the
lowest about 6 percent. Only one speci.en of the -pin" bollc... was foui-.,
this being in bolls collected in the Rincon .eountains east of Tucson. Some
additienal inspectirns will be .gadu.

Thurberia-ple t eradicatirn. -Durin/ the. onth 920 acres v'ere gone
over in the Scata Catalina HPountain.s and3 1,783 Thurberi plants cdstro;yd.
The above acreage' is sonv:hat snaller than that covered during prt-vicus
ulnths. This is due t< the fact that the trrritory cov3red was exco-eedingly
rough ar1 sor;e ti:.:e was lost because of unf:-vorabole weather. Towar.s the
cloe cf the i-.onth all of the area ir:.L;ediately adjacent to the c:Oa hadc
bcen: cor:.pletec' and plans' were bein: :;::::e to nove to aov new site. This new
site i n i the national forest, but is unler lease to an ineividual, who has
not only rante, per:.'ission for the ca.:.p to beo rected il one cf .cr pastures,
out _'s also ;.iven: the privile: of getting an adQ i.ate supply of water fron
a well !adjacent to the new site. Supplies can be truckeC right to the canp
instead of h:ving to be carried part :,ay by pack train, as has 1bcn the case
in severel previous loc: tins. It is esti:. ,ted that by haulin,: the lbcorers
by truck to 1and fro:" canp each day the present site ca-n be usec for the next
3 :;..nths, without ha:ving to :;o r.ore than 6 or 8 :iles from car.ip.

Wild cottonr.--Very catisfact"ry procroes has ben i noe in the eradica-
tion of wild cotton in southern Florida.. 7rik was resumed at Cape Sable the
first of the :onth with six full crews. The aree fa.rthet fro:: Cc-': is
being worked first, so that in case of be`d wather the crews night be able
to reach areas nearer A ccsider:b le number of se,.dlinr plants are
bein; fourn n in the Cape Sable area, but a rather small percent-e of then
have raturod balls. Considc-rable 'iffic:-lty has )bent enccuntered in cleaning
the I:eye in Florida Bay, because of shallow water. This area had not bef-n
cleaned in about 10 ronths, and a good rnny of the plants renoved hac nrature
bolls, but very few cpen )olls. A canp was established on the Chathan River,
in the Ten Thousand Islands section, and the crew has ben rem.,ving a large
nurber of seec'ling plants. A srall virgin colony contarining 10 nature plants
and 9 seedlin~:s was found by this crew. .On the u:per west coast, all of the


Bradenton secti:n has be-:n cleaned twice this season. Jcork has baen discon-
tinued for the tirle bein, in this section and the men transferled to Cape
Sable. In the Port iMyer.; section all of th-: area has been ccvircr once and
a second cleaning is now in progress. Work on the mainland keys is going
forward satisfactorily. This section is now in excellent condition and it is
believed that there will be little trouble in maintoining it. During the
month some 5,300 acres were covered eand 277,11t seedling and 5 L sprout
plants were riemoved. By far the larger portion of these plant-: was in the
Cape Sable area. In addition to the above work, some 2,200 acres were scouted
,without finding any wild cotton.


Cryolite dusts anid sprays control corn worm on lina beans.--Results
of an experiment conducted at Eastville, Va., by L. '?. 3rannon, of the Ior-
folk, 7. lboratory, to determine the relative effectiveness of various in-
secticides for ccntrol of Keliothis cbsolet (2.) on Fordhook liu:a b-an: show
that cryolite du:t- and sT.rays continue to be the nost effective naterials
for control of thi: post. Of the thr_. co(lmnercial brands of crolite used
in the ex:eriuent, iported synthetic cryolite uand c Loestic natur al cry:,lite
appeared to be about equal in effectiveness, ooth brands beinn sli ght ] r ore
effective than a dc!:-estic synthetic cr.olite. Talc appeareod to be equal in
offectiveness to wheat flcur as a diluent for crvylito. Of the -as used,
both irported sy.nthetic cryolite andc phe:.othiazine (4 lbs. to 50 -1. of water)
gav~ satisc-:tory control, the 4 to 0 cilutic:. beig -:ore effecti than a
3 to 50 dilution in each insta nce. Nicotine-peat spray gave no c -ntrc1 and
caused a reduction in the nuinber of pods on the plants at harvest, as compared
with the untreated plots. Sanples of shelled -mn2 unshelled lima. beans frou
the plots that had rocciued four treatne:;ts of cr.yolite :usts nand sprays were
submitted to the Insecticide Division for analysis to deterin the quanti-
tics of fluorine residues present. ohe results of these analyses corroborated
sirmilar analyses m~lde in 1936. iost of tI: sarples of unshellcd, beans ex-
ceeded the tolerance established for fluorine on fruits (0.01 groin per pound),
whereas most of the residues on the shelled rbeans were well b:;lca this toler-
ance These ana.lyses indicate that cryolite myv be applied, in the manner
indic:ated in the'co eJxpri.i-en s, witChout dn.r of harnful fluorin- residuos
rermainiaig on t. o edible parts of t-1he 'tin, provid ed such bean- ace chell6d be-
fore they are c :surTed.

opcrii.e;nts e:ainst the Mexica:n bean buetle in Ohio.--xeri ents per-
for::e in 1937 at South Point, Ohio, -:ainst Eilacihna varivestis lul. by
N. Howard .and H. C. 1.ason, of th.e .olubus, Ohio, labor:t~ry, :ave the fcl-
loving results w:ith the- varicus insecticides tested: Phenothias-in.- at 2 pounds
to 50 -allcns of water gave good contrcl, but slight plant injury resulted;
derris, cube, timbo, and devil's-shoastrings s :ave good control "t a concen-
tration of 0.015 percent rotenone and usually at concentretice cf 0.01 per-
cent rotenone. Thile the use of a varnish sticker with dcerris an cuLe in-
creased the degree of control in one ins-.iance, no increase coulc. be noted in
two other exneriuents. The use of sulphur with dlerris or cube smrays, and
its use as a diluent with dust nixtures cf these i--orials, docs not con-
sistently result in i:.provcd control in Ohio; however, its use farther east


usually results in better bean crops. Cryolite spray, 3 poimds to 50 gal-
lons, ::v~e satisfactory control in nost cases, but the inported smythetic
cryolite tested was not as good as a com estic natu'ral cryolite or a domestic
synthetic cryolit.e. Copper cyanide at 3 pounds to 50 gallons gave fair con-
trol, but odcerrte plant injury resulted. Sulphur nitride could. not bo
nilled satisfactcrily for field use, but with the finest materiasl available,
control was fairly satisf.ctory at 11 pounds to 50 gallons. Poorly nilled
nateri1l at 7 or 11 ounces to 50 gallons was very poor. rQebracho tannin-
unco:. bined nicotine and nicotine peat were unsatisfactory, the fornor being
so poor that bi.ans treated with this raterial hod to be sprayeC with a
rotenone-bearing root to save then. Magnesiun arsenate gave good control.
The use of hoods behind the power duster permitted reduction in dosage -"ith-
out reduction in control.

Residue proporties of derris on bean leaves.--xperinents conducted at
13 Bureau labor tories fror coast to coast, and coordinated by P. A. Fulton
anld 1r. Hovward, of the Columbus laboratory, irndicate that the mest important
factor concerned in the decrease of rctecnce fro:: sprayed beca plants was
rainfall, heavy rains causing greater loss, as vwuld be expected. The loss
in toxicity was co:Tor2atively sliJht after 31 `ays where no rainfall occurred
(Twin Fall-, Ida-hc), but very rapid at Colunbus, Ohio, within 4 days, owing
to railfall. Intense sunlight in the Suth-est nd the Sthe South id not account
for as great a loss in toxicity as did rainfall, although it appears to be a

Seasonal occ'urrence of cabba.;e worms at Charleston, S. C.--Stu:ies con-
ducted by W. J. Reid, Jr. of the Charleston, S. C., laboratory, on the
seasonal occurrence of the principal species of cabbage wcrms or cabbage in
that locality, disclosed that these species, consistinf principally of the
inported cabbage woru, the dia-ondbac: moth, the c jbage looper, and several
species of A-rctinaQ; (cutvo rus) are .::.ore o-bun:rnt ,furinK the si:ring nonths
than durin" the fall and wi:nter; that populations of all species decreased
to a m.arked extent cduring the fall, :;hen the teaperFatures are belo; ap-
proxi:.::tely 500 F, anld do not increase greatly in the spring until the mean
termperatures are co:sistently above 60; that after the plants are thinned or
transplanted the cutuormr;s and the cabb ,-o looper are the m.ost abiundant
species durirn the fall t onths and th cabbage looper anm the ia:;-ondback
noth curing the sprinT; and that there are ai.out tv-o generations of each of
the major species of cabbag-e worm.s Curin- thir m:ore active periods in both
the fall nd spring seasons.

Beet leafho;,per con.itions in soiut ern and central Idnho.--J. P..
Dcuglass atn his associate:s at the U1lls, Idato, laboratory, have sub-
nitted the follovwing sumnrrized report upon the infor-mation va.ilable at the
end of February on the probable populations of the beet leafhopper during
the spring and early in Twin Falls, Jerone, llinidoka, and Cassia Coun-
ties, south-central Idaho: (1) Precipitation above normal during April and
May 1937 gerinated a dense stand of llussian-thistle, the su~~ er host plant
of the beet leafhopper. Abnormally dry sum:er weather reduced the suitability
of dense stands for leafhopper develo:r.ent acr early fall populJ-tions vere the
lowest for the past four seasons, even though the equivalent acreage of


Russian-thistle was the second largest on record. (2) Fall temperatures
above normal, with sufficient precipitation, permitted adequate germina-
tion (about October 24) of mustard, the lee.hopper's natural :all and win-
ter host plant. Exce'-sive precipitation in November and per-
mitted a much more dense and widespread germinEtion near the end of NTovem-
bar. Consequently, the beet leafhopper left its holdover host with little
delay and entered the winter under favorable conditions. (3) Fall surveys
in the Sailor Creek saebru sh area showed the highest late-fall population
in 4 years. (4) The winter was extref.aely mild and in -enercl has been
favors:ale for survival, being comparable to that of 1933-314, which was fol-
lovwed by a season of hi-;h leofhopper popul tions. Recover: fro::. hib--rna-.
tion cges also indic:.tes a high winter survival. (5) "xperience has shown
that an1 early spring a.vances the date of migr-tion into the cultivated
areas. It is, however, possible that if the coming spring shoul' be cool
and wet the migration into the cultivated area will be reduced ane delayed.
(6) Regardless of conditions, high pop-ul: tions may by expected in beet
areas very close to lea.fhopper breedii;. grounds. (7) As spring conditions
greatly affect leafhop'per populations and time of mi`ration i.nto beet
fields, a second statement, based on field studies in the 0prin;c, will be
issued later.


A new variety of Anopheles crucia-zs 77ied. found in Georgir:.--T. V. King,
Orlando, P11., reports: "Specimens of anopni.line larvae shovin' peculiar
variations in larval characters were collected in Georgip by R. E. B:llamy
and forwarded to us for identificat ion. In company with iMr. Sellemy, a col-
lection of this form was lmade by the w.riter at Quitman, Ga., on F.bruary 16
and the material was brought bactk to the Orlando lrboratory for rcaring and
stud:y. The larvae proved to be a distinct variety of A. cruci.ns and are
readily distinguishable from the t.-o other forr.s of this species."

Phenothiazine as a nosouito larvicide.--Mr. King also st tes: "A s-rics
of l.-rvicidal tests was carried out with phenothiazine dissolved in sl-
phonated oil and acetone in the proportions of 1-20-5. In catch-b, sin
tests, using a phenothiazine dilution of 1-500,000, tho troatrnnts ,ave cor-
talities (within 24 hours) of from 85 to 100 percent, with an avira :e of
95 percent in 11 tests. At a dilution of approxir.:atcly 1-1,000, 000 the
mortality ranged from 50 to 87 percent, v;ith an aver'-a of )E percent in
four tests. It was evident, therefore, tha.t a considerably hi''er concen-
tration was required to destroy the larvae than that indicated by the labora-
tory tests, in which rilutions of 1-2,00,000 1ere eff ective -ith tub-reared
larvae. 'Froz, further laboratory tests in rwhich larvae fro. the two sources
were cor.parcd, both in catch-basin wvat-r and in t-ap ,, it was found
that the larvae from the catch basins gave variable results but were ,generally
much more resistant to poisoning with this material. This is some:what compara-
ble with the results obtained last year with Inrvae reared o n n artificial
diet of yeast and dried blood."

Activity of screwworr: flies.--D. C, Parman, of the .Talde, Tex., labora-
tory, reports: "The survey traps indicate that Cochlioyia anericana C. and P.
was practically exterminated during the suj.mer in the southern areas in which

traps are operated, viz, at Catarina, Laredo, Hebbronville, Alice, and
Three Rivers, Tex. In no catch since August 1937 has there been more than
one or two flies in any of these traps, none has been taken since December,
and only one fly was taken in December. From the last screvrworn control re-
ports, it is indicated that there were infestations of C. anericana building
up in C:auoron and Hidalgo Counties. The trappings have indicated that
weather conditions have boon very favorable for build-up of C. nacellaria F.
There 'a ,re 15 quarts of flies taken at Larcdo in January and 87 percent were
Cochlioiyia. We have corpleted Laredo, Hebbronville, and Alice traps for
February and they took 21, 26, and 19 quarts of flies, respectively, and
approxi1rt.t;ly 90 percent wore C. macellaria."

Screwworrim abundance.--C. C. Deonier, Tempe, Ariz., reports: "In Ari-
zona C. americana war taken at Bui.ble Bee and Wickenburg during the latter
half of January, and at Hassayampa during the first part of Febrary.- C.
americana was also token at Nogales and. Tempe during the latter half of Febru-
ary. A considerable outbreak of screwvorms was indicated by examination made
in the Yuma area on Febr.uary 17, infest:ations running as high there as 20 to
30 percent. A few cases of screw.Torr.s have been reported throughout the
area worked during the winter."

Derris powder effective .against cattle lice..--R. 7T. Wells, Amos, Iowa,
reports: "It was found that do-ris powder diluted by tripoli earth to 1/16
of 1 percent rotnncne is inadoquate to kill all the lice, but some dead lice
wore found. Fron this test, and in vieT of the tests performed last year,
it is concluded that dilution should not be greator than 1/8 of 1 perccnt
rotencnea Because of the euall diffor.nce in cost of rotenono content, ,1/4
of 1 percent is judg;cd to be the proper dilution for general recommen:ndation.
Such ccnontent would copopnscate for lac: of thoroughnoes in application."


Mail inspections ir.croast.--Durin the last 2 years a drive has boon
made through the cooperation of the Pcotl and Custons Services for a better
coverageo of foreign nail for plant-quarantine e~nination. Coincidontally,
w e have bon striving to bring about the use of the green-and-yellox- nail
tags for authorized nril shipnents of foreign plant ncrtorial and a correspond-
ing decrease in the amount of unauthorizcd plant nvoterial forwarded to this
country by nail. That these offi-rts are achieving results is shown by thr
fact that during the fiscal year which closed June 30, 1937, a totrl of
249,583 foreign nail p.ckages were inspected, as conpred with 107,450 pack-
ages for the year ended June 30, 1935, the last conplete year prior to plac-
ing the present special cmphasis on this phase of our regulatory work. These
figures show that :iore packages are brought to our attention than was
formerly the case, and the credit is due to the added interest and efforts of
the plant quarantine inspectors and to the personnel of the Postal and Cus-
toms Services.

New fungus on plun.--On February o1 Septobasidium prunophilum Couch was
found covering large patches of a plur branch from Japan in the furnishings
of a Ja panse boat at Philadelp:ia. This fungus grows over scale insects and


do.s nt infect the p'lant its, :lf. The largc prtces of br-vwn f h.guc vwith
light borders ar c.quite showy. The species is based on nateridl collectce,
ix Jap-n by R. Kent 3Batti-. As the articleo in which the opeci >o is C(C-
scribe wcs in (alley prof wheon our Ma'terial was received for co.nfiruition
of the deterr:in ti.n, Mr. Couch said the naue might be usjc in the l
L tt r.

Weovil in bnboo larvae, tw.o 1pup', ad.'four -.'ults of
Sucolandra setulos2 a yll. were intercepted at- a.h in.:t.n, D. C., on Au,'vt
13, 1937, in bacsboo slats in cose containing orchids (Ciattl-yr p.) in
expr.' : fro. Ccloobia. L. remrc2 s as follo-,s: *"For-:orly Sito-
philu: getulos, Gyll. So :'r as knovwn this is th.e first roc-r! 3f S. oetu-
lisa fr2rc ba.boj. Previous data ('n pin labels on other sp.eci::ens in
Natic:al Muscri) indicate that the species :.ay be associatd with b-unana
also.-" A. G. BovinL. reports that th; larv:.e and pur are new tc the.
17ati ...t:l Mus1 'u collection.

ntrtonol&;;ical iat:orccpticns 0of intl r st.--Ton living: la:.-:v:; of th:,
eie-ica fly (Ante li:an- as -Loew) er interce' to a17' ~; T, les,
Ariz., on May 15, 1937, in a sinle: :-:o in bag-ae fron Mexico. rty-
fou-a living larvae cf the1 lediterrane'n, fruit fly (Cora'titi. crtta ti ied..)
arrivcd at hobile, Ala. on Doco:ber 3,' 1937, in cix taooerin in ship
storos fro;m Portugal. A living larva of the Jr anese b.tle1 (-opillia
japica ow;.) 1a1 tcan at TNew Yor.: on Dce:iher 10, 1 37, i:: soil aroun.
the roots of chrys nthe:..u. i caro- fro:e.; Specir..ons of Cardin's
whitofly (Alourcilcu's (m eto lro d icus) cardini Back) v:er int-:rc t tat
Miam.i, Fla., on Dece-.ibour 17, 1937, on a. -:;uav leaf in yrason-r's ba:ag
fr,:. Cuba. A living speciren of Actinothrips trichaetus Fd. vas found at
"e,. Orleans on Oct:ber 2, 1937, ::ita a2nan debris in car-o fro m icarama.
A livin, spccioen of the coreid ChOlir.idea hunteri Ham. was takeni at
-lo-r-Is, Ariz. on Uove:Libor 24, 1937, on a cactus (L Cph c erous schctti-i)
stalk: in c:r;go from MeLxicc. A living larva cf the -turni7p al1 vweevil
(COetorhynchus pleuro stiga lars!h.) arrived at Philadel. iaon January 1
in a turnip in ship's st:res from Germany. A livin.. specinen .f the thrips
Tra,,. ninkl"ia lilivora Kur. was at San 'ra'rcisco o Dece:roer 1,
1937, on a bulb of Lilium sp. in: the nil from. Ja--an. A living specir.:en of
the ly-aei. Fcrigencs ispositus Dist. was foun.d at 3rownsvillc, Te:., on
Au ist 30, 1937, on husk tonato (Physalis sp.) in batgaJe from Mrico. A
living speci:en of 3Crucius chinonsis L. a!rrived at Honolulu, Hi:re.ii, on
February 5, 1937, with red beans in bagga e from China. Three livin.: larvae
of the olethreutid La-peyresia Lsl n.ana Eon. were intercepted at Chicago,
Ill., on INovember 8, 1S37, uith chlstrr-i.t in the ::ail fron it-ly.

Pathological intercepticno. of interest.--Our first interception of a
plant disease on statice was on undte'._-rined species of Corcora on
Strtice arineria in bagua:,- frc-. Gu:ateniala ant taken at the Bro'-nville air-
port on Fubruary 11. Corc~ c-rella sp. was found on Laoelia sp. ii a ship-
uint of orchids from,, Mexico on Kay 20, 1937, at San Francisco. Erysi- he
uimbelliferaru:. D B3ary was intercepte2 for the first time on Feb.marv 7 at
Philadelphia on parsnip seeds in a shipment from: Holland, Fusicladiun de- (B. & Br.) Sac,. was found on fennel seeds in a shipme:nt from Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics on May 17 at lew York. Gloeospoz-ium euonymi-
colum Hemmi was found at Seattle on August 31, 1937 on xuonymus foliae fron


Japan, for the first time since 1931. Hormodendrun cladosporioides (Fres.)
Sacc. was intercepted for the first time on January 21 at Kew York on to-
matoes from France. Macrophomia sp. (no species reported as occurring on the
host) was intercepted at New York on an Ismone plant in baggage from
Azores on June 4, 1937. Phomntospora sp. (no species described on Camellia)
was intercepted on a shipment of canellia plants from Japan on January 6
at San Francisco. Phyllosticta laelia Keissl. was intercepted on a number
of plants of Laelia sp. in a shipment of orchids from Mexico, May 21, 1937,
at San Francisco. P. ruberun Sacc., first interception, was found on rasp-
berry cuttings from: Switzerland on Nove:iber 27, 1937, at 3altimore. Sep-
toria weisii Allesch., first interception, was found on chervil (Chaerophyl-
lun bulborun) from Italy on January 18 at Philadelphia. A fungus found on
bark of a'log of Cryptocarya palnerstoni fron Australia on November 10,
1937, at New York has been determined doubtfully as Sphaeronei.a talcahua-
nense Speg., since the spores were narrower than the description calls for.
Thielavia basiccla (3. & Br.) Zopf was intercepted on sweetpotato from
Japan for the first tine on February 27 at Philadelphia.


Grasshopper control work being rapidly organized.--Field offices have
been established at 707 Thorpe Building, IMinneapolij, Minn., as headquarters
for the grasshopper control work in 24 Jestern Staten. B. E. Gaddis and
the field project leader, W1. J. Dove, arc contacting State comnittees 'and
State leaders and organizing the ca:.paign. The emphasis in this year's con-
trol prograo, is on crop protection and the work will be carried on in the
sa: umanner as in previous years. Activities will be conducted on a county,
township, or cormunity basi3 and 1 ill include the treatnent of highways and
uncultivated lands. The States have been circularized as to quantities of
bait naterial remaining on hand from: last year, points of delivery for early
shipments, storage facilities, rixing staticns for poison bait, and ne-
chanical spreaders available. An early survey will be made of the nymphal
stage of the insect, and later of the adult and egg stages. This work will
be under the supervision of R. L. Shotwell. A recent Depal-trontal press re-
lease says: "Unless conditions unfavoreble to grasshopper development inter-
vene, heavy infestations of the pest may be expected in 24 States from
Michigan to the Pacific coast and from the Canadian border to Mexico." The
season in northern Texas and Oklahoma is reported to be about 2 weeks earlier
than usual. With initial shipments of bait materials madc early, work
started early in each St".te, and it is anticipated that the :ork, if vig-
orously pursued, will effectively aid i:m preventing crop losses from grass-

Field le--er selected for Mormon cricket control.--Cluudce nakeland, on
le::ve from Idaho, h.s been selected as field leader of the project on Mormon
cricket control for the duration of the project. His headquarters are in
the Newhouse Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. Control neasures found effective
in the past--the use of poison dust--will be employec and the program will
emphasize crop protection, with activities placed on a county, township., or
community basis, the as for grasshop er control. The Strtes of Colorado,
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoning face heavy infestations of
Mormon crickets in 1938. State leaders estimate crop losses from the cricket
in 1937 at approximately $898,000.


States vitally interested in now projects.--The Mornon cricket and
grasshopper control activities were recently discussed with representatives
of 6 Western States while attending a conference at Salt Leke City, and all
showed keen interest and activitiy in setting up the local organizations
and getting the work under way.

White-fringed beetle field office moved.--A field office for the
white-fringed beetle control project was recently established in the Gates
and Cook Building, Gulfport, Miss. Other offices are maintained at Florala,
Ala., Laurel, Miss., Pensacola, Fla., and New Orleans, La., the last being
in the State Department of Agriculture and Inmigraticn, 3925 South Carroll-
ton Avenue.

Work in white-fringed beetle areas.--Activities in February were de-
voted principally to contacting farmers as to cultural practices and to
clean-up work in the infested toiwns, in order to prepare areas for trap
crops or for burning or dusting. At Now Orleans, where no control work has
previously been done, an engineer is laying out ditch lines and a 6-man
crew is cleaning up the area. A recent meeting was held in that city at
which colored notion pictures of the beetle wore shown and a talk on control
measures was given by one of the project representatives. The meeting was
attended by members of two large industrial plants in the infested area, a
railway official, sheriff, State representatives, a farn agent, and others,
all of whom agreed to assist in control work. In the Florrla, Ala., area,
contacts with farmers agreeing to leave unplanted 10-foot strips around
fields and between rows and to eradicate weeds along fence rows, ha.sbeen
speeded up in four counties in the infested area in Florida and Alabana by
the employment of additional non. Four men are working Laurel, Miss., and
obtaining signed agreements of property owners to linit garden growing.
This work is furthered by State officers and county agents running newspaper
articles in local papers. Control work at Gulfport, Miss., carried on by
five men, is facilitated by a city ordinance authorizing such activities as
spraying, burning, trap-crop planting, and forbidding the Ipublic to graze
cattle in the city limits. At Saucier, Miss., where an infestation of
Naupactus similar to the white-fringed beetle wai found last year, 15 men
are clearing away underbrush, and farmers are cooperating 100 percent in
the control program. The clean-up work at Pensacola, Fla., has been con-
pleted-in the infested area with the assistance of city officials and is
being extended to adjacent city blocks.

Public cooprating in white-fringed beetle campaign.--Citizens
throughout the infested areas are showing a public-spirited attitude in the
campaign against the beetle. Meeting's are participated in by farmers,
school ,rincipals, industrial groups, chambors of comnerce, counlty agents,
extension workers, and State officials. Project leaders, in response to re-
quests, have exhibited motion pictures and discussed the work before meet-
ings of entomological clubs in Mississippi and Texas.

Equipr.ent for white-fringed beetle work.--Five spray mnchines of 2, 3,
5, 8, and 10-horsepower have been purchased. They are being used in spray-
ing: oil to kill vegetation on areas where eradication has been carried on and
will be used later in the season for spraying arsenicals when adult beetles


ar, feeding. Two nilos of galvanized strips have been obtained for
barrier purposes. Five carloads of tank trucks, trailers, flane-throwing
units, tractors, plows, mad other equipment, have been transferred from
the Japanese beetle project at New Cumberland, Pa. A mobile shol, office
furniture, a caterpillar tractor, and a shroud-burning outfit have been
transferred rr loaned from other projects. Machinists are roworking the
equipment to meet topograp-hic conditions, Pyroligneous acid and oil have
been donated by comnercial concerns for experinental purposes. Pine-tar
extract is being .tested as a weed killer. H-aps of all farns in the in-
fested area are beir.n completed, showing details as to crops or other
ground cover, loc-.tion, and acreage.

Phony peach and peach nosaic disease control.--Officials of States
infected with the phony peach disease, whose activities contributed to the
marked reduction of the disease in 1937, are preparing to increase such
activities in 193S. During the past season the various States assigned 31
inspectors to the phony-peach project and the -ureau Qmployed 64 inspectors.
In the States infected with peach mosaic similar activities were carried on
and a peach mosaic committee was formed of growcrs and State officials.
V.ork carried on by an average of 179 relief employees in February in the
States of Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Georgia, Now Mexico,
Tennessee, and Texas, effected the destruction of 97,000 abandoned and es-
caped peach trees, as well as trees found infected in the inspection season
of 1937. Most of the large abandoned orchards in the infected area in
California, for which waivers have been signed, have been removed, and
waivers are continuing to be signed.

Soil Conservation Service aids peach mosaic progran.--The Indian Ser-
vice has been provided with 7,500 peach nursery trees by the Soil Conserva-
tion Service to replace diseased trees on Indian pueblos in New Mexico, on
condition that all mosaic trees are re.oeved fron the pueblos, and word is
received that agreements are now being made to remove the diseased trees.
The need of familiarizing the growers in the State with the rrsaic situa-
tion is being met through contacts with farmers, aided by county a.ents.

States make i portant changes in peach mosaic quarantines.--One of
the principal changes in the standardized State quarantines rela:ting to
the peach nosaic disease now being revised to include no? areas, is the re-
duction of the 5-nile sanitation zones around nurseries growing peach
stock. During the 1937 inspecticn season thorough inspection was nade of
the 5-m-ile zones surroundi in, 226 nurseries ,and budwood sites in the 7 in-
fected States, representin;r a cover>,;e of 16,950 square Tilcs. Observa-
tions of the disease in the several infected areas over a period of years,
particularly as to spread from year to year, have led to the belief that
the 5-uile inspecticn zone nay be safely reduced to 1 cile, and several
States have adopted this provision as standard in current revisions of the
quarantines. To the host list is added plus, and the movenent of such
stock is prohibited since certain species have been found to be symntomless
carriers of the disease. The quarantines, as heretofore, place restrictions
on shipments from the infected area within the State issuing the quarantine,
as well as upon their entry fron rcjulated areas of other States,


Progress in swvetpotato weevil control.--An analysis of the sweet-
potato wecvil work shows that during the 5- monnths since the pro.i.-ct was be-
gun to the close of the year, 97 counties h ve been surveyed in 5 State;,
in cooperation with these States. The area constitutes a bbolt r-,-nin; from
southern Georgia through southorn Alabama, central Mississip:~i, cenltr)-
Louisiona, and northeastern Texas. .Thirty counties hap-e been found. to bh in-
fested. Yearly 30,000 properties were inspected, 2,500 of which wo~es found
to be infested. The work was int-nsive in the known infested qcars, includ-
ing a 5-mile radius of properties where the weevil was found,a and "sactted"
in the outlyin areas. Eradication activities have been concentr t:d on the
lightly infested areas. To this end sanitary measures and cultural practices
have been carried out in 16 counties. Vines were romoved from the fielr's be-
fore harvest, s-:eetpotatoes were culled before storage, fields were reploied,
storage houses cleaned, s'eed tubers selected, old seedbeds 'destroyed and
sites selected for new ones, and weevils trapped in the cl'-and fiel.s. Of
the 630 acres planted in the eradication arcas, 95 porc.nt h-ve been re-
plowed during the winter. Disposal of tubers normally hold by growers for
seed the following spring, atmo'iting in many instances to 2,)C0 bushels,
was the greatest problem in the eradication work. At the insistence of in-
spectors, however, 85 percent of the sweatpot-.toes stored on infested
properties have been fed to livestcck and those on adjncent prop-rties have
been confined to local markets for food. State inspccteos experienced in
the weevil work have greatly assisted the activities in the
various States. A uniform quarantine on sweetpotato weevil infestationi was
drawn up t the Februaryn met it n Ier Orleans of the Southern P-nt' Board
and the quarantine is being adopted by the various infested States.

W. R. Hearc in charge of citrus canker projcct.--:r. Heard has been
selected as field leader of citrus canker eradication activities, with head-
quarters at 315 Citizens State bank Duilding, Houston, Tex. He h:s been
omployed in tl-i bureau saince 1921 ai'd has successfully conducted field
activities on projects relating to the pink bollworm, tropical Cnd suo-
tropical insect investigations, Liexican fruit fly, and citrus can:er.

Citrus can.ker activities.--It was necessary to close the Federal in-
spection work in Louisiana the last of ~tlru:ry, fcllowin; n int nsive
inspection with the force- increased by 10 inspectors of :hn-a were em-
ployed by the St-.te. All proptrties whvich h rl ve bien found infected with
citrus canker since 1935 er carefully rccv-reo-, as w:er: the 75-mile zones
surrounding them. The bayous and canal leve-s near the water's c- wenre
reached in a boat andedinsected much better than couild hve boeen done on
foot. Aerial photos were ued to lioat old ho .0 sites in .arches. Every
property, fence row, and ditch bank was covered' in such r n'.nner th-t every
citrus tre vwas founrd nend inspected if it ves humanly p cSible to do so. Hi
canker was found in the State in February. The fe.w abandoned an c:ca.e c
citrus trees fo.und were detryed. TI.e State f Louisiana will continue the
services of two inmpectors formerl, on the Wederal roll. .rk is continued
in Texas, and citrus canker wa-s recently foucri on one small seedlin: of
Citrus trifoliata in H'iamshire, Joffero i County, in oin ar:ai where 25 tries
were found infected in the winter rf 1935-36. rot since A ril 1936 hod
canker been fcunCl in the county.


Transit-inspection activities.--Transit inspectors report that shipping
of nursery stock was showing an increase the latter part of February in the
Northeast and Middle West, but that Texas citrus fruit shipments were de-
clining. During the month .of February transit inspection was carried on at
20 of the more important railway terminals throughout the United States, and
77,125 shipments moving via express, freight, and parcel post were in-
spected, and 152 of them were found to be moving in violation of Federal


Electric soil-heating cables for controlling temperature in insect-
reering cages.--F. H. Babers, of the Beltsville, Mid., lboratory, has found
electric soil-heating cables with thermostatic control satisfactory as a
method of controlling termerature in cages used in rcaring southern army-
worms. Thirty-foot lengths of cable are buried in loose sand in the bottom
of each cage. These cages, designed by P. Woke, are approximately 39 by
27 by 16 inches, with glass sides and a fine-mesh metal-cloth top.. With
the outside temperature between 500 and 550 F., the cago temperatures were
maintained at 800 50.

Effect of diet on resistance of mosquito larvae.--An interesting study
has just been made of the effect of 13 diets on the resistance of mosquito
larvae to nicotine, rotenone, and phenothiazine. A. M. Phillips, of the San-
ford, Fla., labor-tory, reports that by feeding various diets to different
groups of larvae it. wrs possible to cause a vwriation of 75 percent in the
mortality of fourth-instar larvae resulting from nicotine and rotenone. The
variation in the results from phenothiazine was not as grest, because the
concentration used was high enough to cause complete mortnlity in most cases.
In general, the better diets caused a more rapid rate of growth and resulted
in r.ore resistant larvae.. It was noted, however, that the diets did not
have the sa-oe effc ct with all three insecticides or, in other words, the lar-
vae most resistant to rotenone were not the most resistant to nicotine or


An irportant rice pest identified.--M.oths reared from rice and sub-
mitted by Belisario Lcsada, chief of the dopartment of economic entomology
of Colombia, were identified by Carl Heinrich as Rupela albinella (Cra-rer).
This species belongs to an American gonus of white moths, all similr in
appearance and identifiable only by their g~nitalia. Until recently they
could not be named with any certainty. R. albinella is distributed through-
out Central and South America and appears to be the major pest of rice in
the American tropics. Dr. Losada states that in the of Vallo,
Colombia, it has caused serious damage to the crop. Specimens of an egg para-
site of this lepidopteron, which accormanied the moths, have been determined


by C. F. ,i. Iluesebeck, after preliminary examination, as ~.parently iden-
tical with Tolenonus (Phanurus) rowani Gah., which has pretiously been
known only from the Philippine Islands and Forn:osa, where it porasitizcs
the eggs of another rice pest, Schonobius incertollus Talk. in the scientific no'-es of twro sawflies.--In the Bureu.
HewJs Letter for February 1937 (vol. IV, no. 4) a distributio.i recordl wa.s
-:iven fcr a spruce sawfly under the none of Pachyei-..-Utus ala rkenis r ovr.
This species has recently been tr-ansferred to a'nother genus an-d nhould no'.;'
be called Pikonema alaskensis (Rohb;er). It has also been tnlke-n in eTew
,Bruniswick and Quebec, as well as other localities between those and British
Col.umbia, on Picea engelanni, P. canadcnsis, and F. r.ariane. Pachyneor.itus
ocreatus (Harrington), the references to which usually apply to P. alas-
kensis, is no longer valid, as it is a synonym of Pikonoma diriockii (Cros-
scn). The purslane sawfly, which has eusually been known unlder the name
Schizocerus zabriskei Webster and l.alley, should, as a result of the synony-
r.izing of the genus Schizocerus -with St:rictiphora, be called Sterictiphora
(Leston) zabrisk:iei (:ebster anid alley), the suboecnus Loston having: been
recently proposed for this species.


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