News letter


Material Information

News letter
Alternate title:
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:

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News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
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Blister rust news

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Vol. V, No. 3 (Not for publication) March 1, 1938
------------------------------------- 4 ------------------------


The special educational and demonstrational work on control of screw-
worms, which has been carried on for the last few years, was discontinued
on February 15. With the discontinuance of this work, the headquarters for
screwworm controlpmaintained:at San Antonio, Tex., and Gainesville, Fla.,
will be closed out as early as practicable.

The extensive work conducted during the last few years in cooperation
with various State agencies and individuals has made-available to farmers
in the areas where screwworms occur information regarding methods of con-
trol. It is believed that the stockmen and others have now had ample op-
portunity to become fully advised regarding the control measures, and the
educational and demonstrational work will npw be turned over to the. State
and other agencies to be handled in the same general is the work
concerning the control of other important pests.


Part of the unexpended balance of the appropriation for the control
of incipient and emergency outbreaks of insect pests and plant diseases has
been made available for .use. in cooperating with States in the control of
grasshoppers and Mormon crickets. This fund will be used for the establish-
ment of field headquarters and preliminary work incident to the organiza-
tion of cooperative control work, as well as for the procurement of bait
and other materials needed. Information regarding the program for coopera-
tive work during the coming season has been made available to the State
agencies. Field headquarters for grasshopper control work are being es-
tablished at Minneapolis, Minn., and field headquarters for.the control
work against the Mormon cricket will be established at Salt Lake City, Utah.
As indicated in the News Letter dated December 1, 1937 (vol. 4, no. 12),
this work is under the direction of B. M. Gaddis, leader of the Division of
Domestic Plant Quarantines. W. E. Dove has been selected as field leader
in charge of the work on.grasshopper control and will be assisted by F. D.
Butcher. The field leader in charge of the work on Mormon crickets. as not
been selected. R. A. Roberts and K. H. Townsend, who have been associated
with the work on screwworm control,.are being assigned to this work.



Figs with closed eyes less subject to spoilage.--Perez Simmons and
C. K. Fisher, of the Fresno, Calif., laboratory, report on examinations of
figs selected for closed or wide-open eyes. The selections were made in
the packing house where the figs had been graded to six sizes, but not
culled, having, presumably, been culled on the ranches where they were
grown. The examinations showed that the figs with closed eyes were les
subject to spoilage. The samples examined to determine infestation, dis-
eases (mold, souring, and endosepsis), and internal dirt, gave the follow-
ing results:

: Total percentage objectionable
Size : Adriatic : Calimyrna
: Closed : Open : Closed : Open
Standard------ 6 0 7
Choice-------- 2 16 0 16
Extra choice-- 0 16 3 21
Fancy--------: 2 : 26 : 5 27
Extra fancy--: 3 30 : 2 : 23
Jumbo--------- 7 : 39 1 1

Of the 19,500 figs of the Adriatic variety about 3,500, of all size
grades, were closed at the eye. About 1,500 of the 19,000 Calimyrna figs
were closed. As the fruit was a mixture from' several sourcos, the figures
indicate that closed figs were plentiful in these loading varieties in the
crop of 1937. An investigation is planned to determine the extent to
which such figs occur in orchards.

Emulsifiers for ethylene dichloride,--To provide a nonsoap emulsifier
for ethylene dichloride for use in localities whcre hard water may cause
trouble with soap emulsions, 0. I, Snapp and J. R. Thomson, Jr., of the Fort
Valley, Ga., laboratory, have made a study of emulsifiers for use in con-
nection with the new treatment recently developed at that laboratory for
peach borer control. They found that calcium caseinate will satisfactorily
emulsify ethylene dichloride when used at a rate as low as 1 pound to 51
gallons of the chemical. Emulsions made at that rate on January 17 and di-
luted with water to 12 and 50 percent concentrations, were holding up even
better than soap emulsions on January 31. They also report that ethylene
dichloride emulsified with potash fish-oil soap and diluted with the hardest
water obtainable in central Georgia (from a lime-rock area) held up as long
as emulsions of that material diluted with very soft water.

Accuracy of observers taking field records.--At the suggestion of
E. R. Vanr Leeuven, of the Yakima, Wash,, laboratory, the accuracy of ob-
servers ta:king field records of fruit infested by the codling moth has been
checked and the results computed by F. P. Dean. The procedure was to have
each observer record separately the condition of each of 100 blemished apples,
then to have a committee of experienced observers decide on the actual con-
dition of each apple by careful examination. Based on percentage of wormy


fruit, the accuracy of observers with less than 3 years' experience was
from 90.0 to 95.5 percent, and of the more experienced observers from 97.0
to 97.5 percent. Based on the number of worms per 100 apples, the ac-
curacy was from 78 ic 84 percent and 89 to 92 percent, respectively. The
greater accuracy in the first instance is due to the greater ease in deter-
mining whether or not an apple is wormy than in determining the exact num-
ber of worms that have attacked it. As some of the errors were negative
and some positive and'therefore would cancel each other in the total re-
sults from the 100 apples used, the'average:accuracy of all the observers
turned out to be 98.percent foi percenttage wormy and 93 percent for number
of worms. This degree of accuracy would apeear to be sufficient for the
purpose for which these observzations are used-,

Normal trends in Japanes- beetle populations as .indicated by trap
catches.--During the '7-yer.r period from 1926-132, trapping was carried on in
the earliest infested area in -the general Vicinity of ~ioorestown, N. J., to
obtain data on trends in the adult popul'-tionr during the summer. I.M.
Havleyy and-T. N. Dobbins h .ve-recntly suz-marized these data. The numb'er
of:traps ermployed tiraged from.21 to 24 and all were. in continuous use from
June 15 to'September.15 each year.- The number of beetles caught in each
5-day period was determined for each of the 7 years. "The period when the
greatest nu.fber of.beetles were taken was considered to be1 the peak of popu-
lation and was expressed in the table as an index num'ber equivalent to 100.
The catches in all. other periods were expressed as: proportionate parts of
the catch during the peak period. There was- a variation in
the numbers of beetles caught in the different seasons. To prevent a large
catch of any 1 year having a disproportionate influence in determinig the
average for the 7 years, the index numubers for each period for all years
were sumoed and used in the same manner as in evaluating the yearly trap
catches. It is evident from the table that the peak, or highest 5-day
period, may occur at any time between mid-July and mid-August, depending
largely on weather conriticna. Trap catches arc. dependent on the number
of beetles in flight and this, in turn, is influenced by temperature,
humidity, sunlight, an wind velocity. On cool, cloudy, or rainy days
there is little flight. tM,.en the air is hui.d on clear, warm days, beetles
feed exte-sively and fly little, but they arc very active under conditions
of low humidity. From the normal for the 7-year period, as shown in the
last column of the table, it is evident that a gradual increase in the
beetle population until late July is to be expected. This is followed by
a slow decline in numbers until mid-August when a sudden drop in the.popu-
lation occurs, followed by a gradual falling off during the remainder of
the season. This relative abundrnce is shown in the following table.


: Relative abundance in-- : Average
Period 19 to
Period 1926 1927 192 1929 1930 : 1931 1932 6 o
: : 19~3

June 15-1 ----: -- -- : -- -
June 1924----: : /-: 0.3 : .1: -1/0. 0.1: 0.1
June 25-29-----: /' 0,1: 0 : 32 : 0,8: O,2: 1,3: 1,1
June 30-July 4-: 0.2 : 0.3: 0.6: 9.1 : 4.8: 1.9: 8.: 5.0
July 5-9---- : 2.4 : 2. 2: 48.5 : 27.5: 4.7: 25.9: 22.9
July 10-14-----: 11.5 : 10.1: 3.2:00 : 24.7: 21.3: 88.5: 51.6
July 15-19----- 15.0 : 22.6: 39.: 35.4 : 7.1: 16.9: 62.6: 51.6
July 20-24-----: 62.8 : 15.3: 32.8: 56.2 : 83.9: 46.5: 27.0: 65.1
July 25-29-----: 46.9 100,0:2/ 5,.0: 90,7 : 73.5 :/10,0: 34,7:2 100,0
July 30-Aug. 3-: 29.3 : 41.3::-100.0: 75.9 90.6: 559: 95.9:- 97.3
Aug. 4-8---- --- 63.9 : 479: 701: '44'3 :E/100 : 33.9:/ 75.0-. 86.6
Aug. 9-13- : 1o : 61.0: 59.6: 32.6 : 26.7: 14.1: 100.0: 78.4
Aug. 14--- 37.7 : 11.9 51.7: 17.1 : 8.3; 17.1 44.6: 37.5
Aug. 19-23--- : 4 : 6.6: 23.7: 50 : 6.4: 1.8: 17.7: 12.9
Aug. 24-2---- 11.5 1.6 15: 5.: : 5.8: 2.6: 78: 10..0
Aug. 29-Sept. 2: : -61: 8.3: 1. : 4.3: 1.9: .0: 5
Sept. 3-7--- : : 6.1: 0.2: 0.6 : 1.7: 0.4: 1.0: 2.1
Sept. -12-----: 1.0 : 0.7: 1.5: 0.4 : 1.3: 0.3: 0.3: 11
Sept. 13-15----: 0.2 : 0.4: 0.4: 0.1 : 0.4: 0.1: 0.1: 0.3
Peak catch--:255,926: 02,920:145,929:139,431: 72,855:184,096:116,977:

A few beetles were caught in this period but the index number-was much
less than 0.1 and is considered practically equivalent to 0.

~ Index number of 100 shows highest catch in any 5-day period in each
season. The numbers caught in this period are indicated at the bottom of
each column.


Fewer Mexican fruit fly than a year ago.--Traps indicated that the
population of Anastrepha ludens Loew in the Rio Grande Valley throughout
January was less than one-fifth as iigh as for the corresponding period of
1937, only 97 individuals of this species being taken in traps. Of the 39
female flies trapped, 18 we.e gravid. Spraying operations were started on
four large developments and several snall citrus plantings the last week of
the month. A spray couposed of tartar emetic, sugar, and water is being
applied. Fruit shipments for the season are approximately 200 cars less than
last season. The total to date stands at 11,420 equivalent carloads. The
numbers of fruit flies identified in January were as follows:


Species : Texas : ,ecico
Adults :
A. ludens------------ 97 : h
A. serpentina Wied-----: 23 16
A. sp. "L-------------: 20 : 0
A. sp. "Y"-------------: 103 10
Other A. sp. not ludens: 7 0
A. pallens Coq---------: 2,171 : 92
Total-------------- 2,6l :122
Larvae : I/
A. luens------------- 0 1,118

-/Froa market fruit.


Estimated da;age by European corn borer in 1937.--A. M. Vance,
Toledo, Ohio, presents the following estimates of daumae to the corn crop
by the European corn borer in 1937, based on crop values computed from
estimated yields and current market quotations. The estimates include
only the area involved in the 1937 fall survey of corn borer abundance,
comprising 1,643,021 acres of corn harvested for grain and 43,480 acres
harvested for sweet corn. Damage indices of 3 percent and 8 percent loss
per borer per plant for grain and sweet corn, respectively, were utilized
to measure the effect of the borer, the estimated total loss in 1936 for
the same area being included. Resulting from differences in borer popu-
lation's in the 2 years, the percentages of crop loss calculated from these
indices for field and sweet corn, respectively, were 4.2 and 11.3 in 1937,
and 2.6 end 6.9 in 1936. The increased loss due to the borer in 1937, as
compared with 1936, was partially offset by lower market quotations in
1937. The estimates of damage by areas arc shown in the follo-ring table.

Area Field corn : Sweet corn : Total
Lake States------- : $406,754 : $162,4 l : $ 5-9,2225
Eastern States-------- 85,701 : 79,165 : .85,566
Total loss in 1937--:$ 492,465 : 31,26 $1,424,091
Total loss in 1936--: : : $1,1,326

Certain spring wheats resistant to hessin fly.--E. T. Jones, Man-
hattan, Kans., reports that several years'work in southeastern Kansas and
southwestern Missouri, in coo'peration .with R. H. Painter, of the Krnsas
Agricultural E:periment Station, have shown no variety of common winter
wheat to be resistant to the hessian fly. In the same tests a very few
spring wheats and a large number of hybrid selections (F2 to Fg generation)
of crosses between the resistant spring wheat Marquillo and desirable win-
ter varieties have shown continuous resistance in the sane tests. In a
search for resistant parental material, 299 foreign plant introductions of
spring habit were tested for resistance at Springfield last fall. Recently
completed examinations show 14 of the varieties tested to be resistant to


infestation. The remaining varieties were definitely susceptible. Varie-
ties found resistant were::Pusa 101, Triumpho, Barletta, Candeal No. 2,
Rafaela, Caliph, Lambrigg, Queen Fan, Commonwealth Champion, and F. P. I.
Nos. 94511, 94571, 94570, and 94594. Further tests of- these resistant
varieties will be made in 1938.


Accumulative Dutch elm disease totals.--During the 4-woek p'eriod
January 1 to 29, reports wEre received from the Dutch eln disease" labora-
tory of 47 elms confirmed as infested with the disease.' In the sr.e period
4,650 twig samples were submitted tq the laboratory for culturing. Samples
in process of being cultured and on which reports were being awaited nun-
bered 3,757 on January 29. Accumulative grand totals on this date were:
E1ms confirmed, 28,123; suspects collected,209,007; dead and dying trees re-
moved in elm-sanitation w-;ork, 2,387,997; dead and dying trees tagged for
future removal, 341,653; elms removed in.selective-cutting areas, 123,813;
elms removed in clear-cutting areas, 1,566,659; and total elms removed to
date in all activities, 4,106,591.

Special 'elm-sanitation projects around isolated New York infections.--
In upper Westchester and Orange Counties an attempt is being made to remove
all devitalized elms within a mile of isolkted confirmed trees. Permissions
for selective sanitation work have been obtained by the State office from
the owners of most of the swamp areas around these locations. Sanitation
crews will work on this basis as long as possible. Should the number of
trees encountered prove to be too large for completion of the program, the
trees removed will probably be limited to those showing at least 30-porcent
devitalization, as has previously been practiced in Orange County.

Scouting for dead and dying trees in New Jersey.--Scouting work in
Warren County was discontinued about January 15 and the crews were trans-
ferred to Morris County to assist in completi.g the work in Washington Town-
ship. Washington and Jefferson Townships were the only unsccuted townships
in Morris County. Scouting for dead trees in Hunterdon County was co.rpleted
by January 22. Toward the end of the nonth scouting was terminated in
Passaic County and the crews were transferred to Bergen County. Work was
also discontinued in Sussex County and the personnel assigned to elm-sani-
tation work in Warren County. Bergen, Middlesex, and Morris
Counties was continued.into February.

Reduction in'J. P. A. persnnel.--In January the force of W. P. A.
workers engae e in the winter ela-sanitation work in Connecticut, New Jer-
sey, and New York and at Indianapolis, Ind., vwas reduced to 5,110 r-en, in-
vol;ving a lay-off of apprcximately 950 sen since mid-Decenber.

Clear-cutting of elms postponed pending beaver removal.--Cont e.plated
clear-cutting of the elms in beaver ponds located in Ramsey, Hohckus, and
Franklin Lakes Townships, Bergen County, N. J., have been delayed, as the
Stte Fish and Gane Com:-ission has announced its intention of removing the
beavers in these sections to a more suitable location. Were the clear-
cutting to proceed now, it would be necessary to break the beaver dams to
lower the water level and permit access to the elms that are to be removed.


Inspection of funeral spray discloses gypsy moth eg- cluster.--In-
spection at Somerville, Mass., of a funeral spray prior to its removal to
Bakersfield, Vt., disclosed one egg cluster on an evergreen cutting. Wreaths
containing cuttings of evergreens are always probable carriers of the rot.h
Other interceptions of importance made in January consisted of 32 egg clus-
ters taken fron S truckloads of logs being transported from Ossipee, N. H.,
to Johnsbury, Vt.; 18 egg masses in a carload of lumber moving from Deering
Junction, Maine, to Reading, Pa.; 13 egp clusters in a carload of rocks and
stumps being shipped from Readfiold, Maine, to New York, N. Y.; 9 egg masses
in a truckload of stumps and trees moving between the same points as the
rocks'and stumps; 3 egg masses in a carload of lutber originating at Deering
Junction, Mlaine, and destined to Suspension Bridge, N. Y.; and S egg clusters
in 2 carloads of lumber from the sane point of origin consigned to Buffalo,
N. Y. Egg clusters in lesser num.bers were found in four other shipments of
lumber and shims, making a total of 94 egg clusters removed from certified
shipments during the month. Rocks, stumps, and trees in which infestations
were found were among the exhibi+ materials certified for shipment by the
Maine Fish and Game Commission co the Sportsman Show to be staged in Boston
from February 5 to February 12. This e:xhibit will later be moved to New York

Increase in annual Christmas-tree inspection.--Final tabulation of
records of the past Christeas-tree-inspection season shows that 763,062 trees
were'inspected and certified for movement to nonregulated ...ypsy moth areas
from the lightly infested zone. This was an increase of 20 percent over the
number of inspections in 1936.

Farmer to build own fumigation house.--As a solution to his problem of
farm-products inspection during the adult Japanese beetle season, one South
Jersey farmer decided to construct a fumigation house for the large quanti-
ties of fruits and vegetables he transports to nonregulated points in his
fleet of trucks. He has received reports that growers in California are
successfully using old railroad refrigerator cars as fumignting chambers,
thereby reducing the expense of building air-tight structures.

Strawberry-plant-funigiation house to be constructed.--Shortly after
approval on Dece.ibr 20, 1937, of a supplement to the Japanese beetle treat-
ing instructions authorizing the fumigation of strawberry plants for Japa-
nese beetle larvae by means of methyl bromide liberated in an approved fumi-
gation chamber, 'a large-scale grower of strawberry plants on the Eastern
Shore of Maryland began plans for constructing an approved house that will
accommodate large quantities of strawberry plants. This will be the first
commercial attempt to fuiigate strawberry plants with this type of funigant.

Classified nurseryman enlarges azalea shed.--Results in growing potted
azaleas under a screened shed apparently show such an irprovement over pre-
vious methods that one large azalea grower in central New Jersey has in-
creased the size of the screened shed he devotes exclusively to this purpose.
Better control over growing conditions is claimed. The screening furnishes
an ideal protection from Japanese beetles, permitting certification of all
plants grown in the shed.



iild winter favors bark-beetle activity in central Sierra-region.-
Development and activity of mountain pine beetle broods in sugar pine
stands have been but slightly impeded thus far during the winter. A field
trip to'the Yosemite area by G. R. Struble, of the Berkeley, Calif., lab-
oratory, during the first week in January revealed that all stages of brood
were present, from parent adults and eggs to pupae and new adults. The
lowest temperature teached this winter prior to the examination was 20 F.,
the highest 800. Continued mild weather in this area gives promise for an
early season in 1938. New developments of the western pine beetle in pon-
derosa pine were also'noted'during this same trip. Several small groups of
freshly faded trees were seen along the South Fork of the Merced River.
One group contained 11 trees. In two groups examined near Wawona, Calif.;
heavy broods of mature larvae were found. This condition and others reported
on similar sites is indicative of a build-up in western pine beetle activity.

Fecundity of green trogositid.--Mr. Struble also reports that labora-
tory experiments at Berkeley on Temnochila virescens F., on important preda-
tor of the mountain pine beetle in sugar pine, have brought out the follow-
ing points on reproduction and larval development. (1) A total of 504 eggs
was deposited by 9 female adults between October 19, 1937, and January 10,
1935. Thaoe adults were collected in the field from infested trees in Sep-
tember. (2) Dissection of 5 gravid feriales revealed an average of 312 eggs
per individual. (3) Newly hatched larvae fed. oh a diet of fly larvae
(Lucilia sericata Meig.), in experiments started on December 1, had developed
to fully grown larvae by January 15.

Control directed against abundant mountain pine beetle broods.--Control
work against an infestotion of the mountain pine beetle in western white
pine was conducted in the Smith Creek drainage of the Kaniksu National For-
est, Idaho, last season. In order to ascertain the actual status of this
infestation, 18 trees were felled and examined intensively. W. D. Bedard
of the Coeur d'A'1ene, Idaho, laboratory, in reporting on the results of
these examinations, states that mature broods of the mountain pine beetle
were very abundant in those trees. Normally, under comparable conditions,
there are from 40 to 50 insects per square foot, whereas in the Smith Creek
trees there were 85 per square foot. The numbers of parasites, on the other
hand, were approximately 40 percent below normal. The brood-analysis data
indicate that, had this infestation been left untreated, an increase of 500
percent would have occurred in the area.

Forest-insect exhibit.--An exhibit depicting the destructiveness of
forest insects has been placed in the window of the Potlatch Lumber Company
at Cceur d'Alene, Idaho, by the forest-insect laboratory. This exhibit,
which has caused considerable comment and attention, centers around a large
painted sign telling of the annual losses of commercial timber within the
Coeur d'Alene National Forest as a result of bark-beetle attacks and showing
what these attacl:s mean in the local security of the lumber-manufacturing
industry. A white pine log infested with the mountain pine beetle, with a
portion of the bark removed to show the bark-beetle brood, occupies the fore-
ground. l'ountain pine beetles in the process of attacking a white pine log


are shown on freshly cut material within a glass cage. Adult beetles were
reared in the laboratory for this purpose. Trays of mounted insects and
bark specimens complete this exhibit.

Western pine beetle losses diminishing.--The Portland, Oreg., labora-
tory reports an encouraging indication in the trend of the w:estern pine
beetle epidemics in the ponderosa pine forests of Oregon and Washington.
A recapitulation of the data gathered on annual cruises of permanent sample
plots totalins 45,106 ceres (40,160 acres in 1934) shows quite conclusively
that this trend is continuing downward from the peak reached in 1932. The
following table shows the number of trees killed per timbered acre on these
sample plots during a 4-year period.

State : Trees killed per acre in!--
:___1934 :19 : 5 936 : 1937
:Numiber : ,u:.ber: ITufber : :r1.iber
Oregon------------- 0335 : 0,218 : O,161 : 0,138
Washington--------- .1 : 05 .049 : .0-7
Regional average-: .287 : .167 : .126 : .119

Notwithstanding the fact that the 1937 figures nar estimations of the
total expected losses based on partially completed surveys, those data in-
dicate that the bottom has not yet been reached in these infestrtions. How-
ever, in Washington, a slight increase in th: number of trees killed on cer-
tain areas was noted this year. On the Yakima Indian Reservaticn, where
the greatest increase was found, maintenance control work is now under way.

Cerabycids attacking fire-killed Douglas fir,--Salvage loggers in
the Tillamook Burn of 1933 are becoming .lore and more apprehensiv. regard-
ing the possible presence of Ergates spiculatus Lee., an important wood
borer that frequently limits salvage of fire-killed Douglas fir in the Pa-
cific Northwest, according to R. L. Furniss, Portland, Oreg. However, there
has been no authentic record of this beetle'attacking trees killed in 1933.
Recently a Portland mill was reported to be cutting wormy timber that orig-
inated in the Tillarook, Burn. Upon investigation the boer we wre found to
be Criocephalus sp., a cerambycid that for the last year has prevented sal-
vage of many of the smaller trees. In some of the boards examined at the
mill Criocephalus galleries had penetrated the heartwood from 1 to 3

Sprouting and infestation in old elm stumps,--R. . 1nitten, of the
Morristown, N. J., laboratory, reports concerning the examination of h3
elm stumps. The trees had been cut from 3 to 4 years previously and the
stumps ranged in diameter from 2 to 18, inches. 1ione of the stumps had
been chemically treated. They were exam.ined for evidence of sprouting and
insect attack. Eleven strumps (26%) showed vigorous sprouts and five (125)
weak sprouts. Only one stump showed bark beetle attack. In it there was
one gallery of Hylurgopinus rufipes (Eich.). None of the stunps had been
attack:ed by ambrosia beetles, but 28 (G5%) showed either past attack by
cerambycids or contained their larvae at the time of exam-ination. There was
an average of 19 cerambycid larvae or holes through which beetles had emerged
in stumps with no sprouts, as compared with 13 in stumps with sprouts.


Production and hatching of Matsucoccus eggs.--T. J. Parr, of the iTew
Haven, Conn., l.boratory, reports that some information has been obtained
on the reproductive capacity of Matsucoccus sp., based on counts of complete
eg; iasses laid by 15 females. The number of eggs laid by individuals
ran ed fromr 163 to 469, the average. number per female being 293.46. -Experi-
uents to determine the percentage of hatching of the cg;:s are no': unader way.
One mass of gc s held out of doors from October 27 and transferred to the
laboratory at room tei.rperrture and humidity on Decer'ber 23, becan hatching
in 16 days. Another series from the sane mass placed in a covered jar at
roo::. temperatur an"dt 100-percent humidity, began htchi. i inr 11 days. Ex-
cept for mnchanically injured eggs, both series hatched 100 percent. A
third series collected on October 23 and held t 50 until January 11,
when they were placed in an incubator at 700 and a relative humidity ranging
from 40 to 70 percent, began hatching 14 days later. ..


Disappeararnce. of snow, aids gypsy oth work. -After unofficial records
of -30 to -350F. in nbrt-nten Vernonrt in the. ri ddle of January, with corre-
spondingly low temppraetures. over the. remaindpr of the area where gypsy noth
work is done, scouting conditions becene better during the latter'part of
the r.onth than at rany time since the middle of Noverber. Unse'sonably warm
weather, accompanied by a heavy rainfall en January 24 and( 25, melted most
of the snov in the open country in Verr.:ont, assaclusetts, and the northern
part of New York State, and in both open and woodland country in Connecticut,
lower New York State, Now Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Prospective thinning work revised.--A :psy noth control supervisor
has boon engaged in surveying the infested areas, together with the dis-
trict superintendent in chiarc; of the work in each State, to select locali-
ties wherz the greatest benefit can be obtained fron the limited arjount of
thinning work that can be done by.the small force of unskilled workers now
available. Many infested areas in Eassachusetts, Connecticut, and Pennsyl-
vania have already been surv yed.

Phrrm.acoutical collections aid gypsy moth work.--The district superin-
tendent in charge of Federal gypsy moth work in western Massachusetts has
been informed that it is planned to cut approximately 100 tons of witch-
hazel growth in Huntington during the winter. The witch-hazel bush is a
fcvored food plant of the gypisy moth and the removal of such a large quan-
tity from the woodlands at Huntington, near the eastern border of the
barrier zone, will be of distinct benefit to the gypsy moth work in that

Several smnll infestations found near barrier zone in Vermont.--Al-
though no gSYsy moth infestations have been found during the present fiscal
year in the barrier zone section of Vermont, a total of five single-cgg-
cluster infestations have been located in the town of Mount Holly, Rutland
County, which is only .one town removed from the zone area.

Progress of igsy moth work in Now York State.--At the end of December
a total of approximately 8,900 acres of woodland and 32 miles of roadside
had been scouted by Federal ,. P. P. A. orkers, C. C. C. enrollees, and New


York State employees in the vicinity of the infestation discovered during
the present fiscal year in Hague Township, Warren County, N. Y. Three
gypsy moth infestations totaling 12,0U3 egg clusters were located and de-
stroyed. At the infestation discovered in'1937 in Shawungunk, Ulster Coun-
ty, a total of more than 11,000 acres of woodland a.nd 69 miles of roadside
was scouted, and 5 infestations totaling 11 egg clusters were found 'nd
treated. More than 6,800 acres of woodland and 53 miles of roadside were
scouted in the infested area in Putnam Valley Township, Putnar County, and
4 infestations totaling 40 egg clusters were destroyed. There was a marked
decrease in the density of infestation in the two letter towns, resulting
from the very intensive scouting and treatment work applied during the past

Progress of_-F;sy moth work in Pennsylvania.--From the beginning of
the current fiscal year to the end of December a total of approximately
112,000 acres of woodland and 58,000 acres of open country had been scouted
in 30 townships in the Pennsylvania area, resulting in the destruction of
more than 156,000 gypsy moth egg clusters. Nearly 90 percent of the egg
clusters were found in the tovwnships of Plains, Jenkins, and Pittston, in
Luzerne County, and in Spring Brbok Township, Lackawanna County.

Infestation apparently eliminated in Dyberry.--Intensive scouting in
the vicinity of the gypsy moth infestation located during the fiscal year
1937 in Dyberry Township, Tamyne County, Pa., was completed. in January. No
new egg clusters were found. Dyberry is innediately outside of the Pennsyl-
vania quarantined area.

Scouting demonstrates value of spraying.--Because of lack of time,
spraying was the only control measure used. last season in a section of Plains
Township, Luzerne County;, Pa., where gypsy moth infestations are abundant.
A crew now engaged in scouting and treatment work in that area is locating
many old egg clusters, but very few new clusters are being found. The
scarcity of new egg clusters in b region where infestation is general and
in an area that was heavily infested the previous year euphasizes the value
of spraying as an eradication measure.

Pennsylvania State c ypsy moth quarantine revised.--The late-t re-
vision of the Pen.nsylvania State gypsy moth quarantine becomes effective on
February 15. The revision provides for the division of the qu:rantined area
into two zones, one including the towns where infestation is fiost abundant
and the other the towns where only isolated infestations are present. This
change should prove very effective and will reduce the cost of inspection
and certification f.ork.

Egg clustors creosoted by C. C. passes 2,000,000 mark.--From July
1, 1937, to January 8, 1938, C. C. C. enrollees crcosoted 2,018,388 gypsy
moth egg clusters in the 3 States in which such work is in progress. Of
these, 1,852,205 were destroyed in Massachusetts, 20,519 in Connecticut,
and 145,664 in Vermont. During the sar.o period 88,475 acres were examined,
and thinning or cleaning 'work was done on 2,437 acres.



C. C. C. enrollees thoroughly trained before starting field work.--Be-
fore starting actual work against the'gypsy moth, new C. C. C. enrollees
undergo a thorough course of training. They are instructed in the proper use
of snovrshoe-, of spurs and ropes in clirbing, and of tools used in thinling
work. Tree identification, which is necessary in thinning oper.tions, is
also taug ht. Scouts are trained in scouting formations and in searching for
egg clusters, artificial infestations being used for training purposes and
for efficiency ratings. While thorough training requires considerable time,
this loss is more than repaid by the improvement in the character of the
work performed by the specially trained men.


Barberry eradicetion in.northeastern Ohio.--In 1808, when pioneer
settlers from Massachusetts and Connecticut moved westward, they settled in
the five extreme northeastern counties of Ohio--Ashtabula,. Lnke, Goauga,
Portage, and Trumbull. Those early settlers brought common barberry bushes
with them, Here, also, e!arly nurseries were established and common barberry
bushes were propagated and sold in large numbers. From these early plantings,
barberries escaped from cultivation and have been found growing wild through-
out the area. These five counties comprise an area of 2,534 square miles,
50 percent of which is wooded land, consisting of second-growth timber,
slashings, and a generous supply of undrIrbrush. In these counties 2,120,g64
barberry bushes, sprouting bushes, -and seedlings have been destroyed on
2,86o different properties. Two-thirds of all the bushes and seedlings de-
stroyed in Ohio have been found in this s.:all area. Approximately 97 percent
of those bushes had escaped from cultivation, although barberry had been
planted on 1,028 different properties. The high percentage of planted proper-
tics, both city and rural, is due to the great number of nurseries 'in' La'ke
County that sold the plant for ornament:al purposes. Of. the planted locations,
243 were found in Lake County. The area would have shown a greater percent-
age of escaped bushes had it not been for the S0,000 barberries removed from
nurseries in Lake.County. Those five counties have proved to be one ex-
tensive area of escaped barberry and bushes have been found on practically
every square mile. The limited survey -in Ashtabula and Geauga Counties and
the survey in Portage and TruLbull Counties in 1937, show a marked decrease
in the number of new properties and also a great decreas- in the numnber of
new bushes. More than 90 percent of the bushes found in these counties in
1937 were found on old escaped locations. These bushes were small and
scattered, indicating that they had developed from seed since .the last sur-
vey was 'mado.

W. P. A. workors destroy over 12 million Ribes bushes.--R. G. Pierce,
regional leader, reports that, since the beginning of the W. A blister
rust control project on July 1, 1935 uAp to and including December 1937, a
total of 12,321,309 wild and cultivated.currant and gooseberry bushes have
been destroyed in the Southern Appalachian States by W. P. A. workers. On
this ph,_se of the work they expended 832,407 aan-hours of labor and located
andd destrcyed an of about 15 bushes per :an-hour.

Scouting for blister rust in Oregon in 1937.--Scouting was carried on
extensively in southern Oregon during 1937. The r.ajor pine areas were
examined in an effort to obtain samples of infection conditions which would


be representative of the whole southern Oregon area. A total of 19,E55
Ribes plants were inspected and 257 of this number, or 1.3 percent, were
found to be infected with blister rust. Since the infected bushes were
generally distributed over the entire southern Oregon sugar pine region
and were not confined to any specific area, it is assil ed that the samples
obtained represent conditions for the region as a whole. Undoubtedly,
there were many diseased bushes that were not located. As a result, it
appears probable that some pine infection has taken place this yvar .which
will deveiop into infection centers within 3 or 4 years.

Bird Creek infection area.--In 1957 a very heavy infection area was
discovered on Bird Creek in the St. Joe National Forest, Idaho. The lower"
part of this drainage supports mature and pole tin'er but the upper part
comprises several thousand acres of white pite reproduction. Snaple strips
run throughout this reproduction show a general infection ever the area. A
study of the data reveals the fact that the infection decreases rapidly with
the increase in distance away from the stream and that there is a definite
correlation between the extent of infection and the ntumber of Ribes per
acre. Both stream-type and upland Ribes were present. In this area 25,606
trees were examined, of which 6,274, or 24.5 percent, were infected. The.
amount of infection according to distance from the stream is shown in the
following table.

Distance Trees
hs_____: : : Per 100 trees.
(Chains) :Examined ; Infected : Tot:al : examined
: Tub er : Number : Percent: Niunber: Number
0-5----------: 62 ,2 : 3.5 : 23,52: 27
6-10---------: 7,450 : 1,710 : 23,0 : 5,613: 75.3
11-15--------: 5,047 : 876 : 17.3 : 2,280: 45,2
16-20--------: 3,581 : 6 : 103 724: 20.2
Over 20-----: 1,066 : 59 : 5.5 : 90: 8.4
Total------: 25,606 :6,274 : 24.5 : 32,231: 125.9



Pilosity of cotton leaves, effect on aphid infestation.--The ef-
fects of pilosity of cotton leaves and dusting with calcium arsenate on
the abundance of aphids and .their parasites have been studied by E. W.
Dunnam and J. C. Clark at Stoneville, Miss. Previous investigations had
shown that the more pilose leaves held larger quantities of calcium ar-
senate and retained it for a longer period than did the leaves with fewer
hairs. Four varieties with an average of 1.4 hairs per square millimeter
(range 0.41 to 2,43) and 4 varieties with an average of 4.7 hairs per
square millimeter (range 3.79 to 6.09) of lower leaf surface were grouped
as "smooth" and "pilose," respectively. Some varieties of each type were
dusted 3 times, some 7 times, and others were left undusted, The aphid
infestation.was determined by counting the population on a 2.5-inch disc
cut from the fourth leaf from the top of each of 100 plants. The results
are summarized as follows:

:Average : Undusted series. Dusted series
Type :hairs per : Leaves : Para- : : : Para-
of : mm2 :Aphids:infested : siti- :Aphids : Leaves : siti-
leaf : : : :zation : :infested: zation
:Number :Number: Percent :Percent:Number : Percent: Percent

Smooth---: 1,4 : 33 : 145 :35,1 : 284 : 50: 4o,7

Pilose---: 4.7 : 00 : 36.7 : 14.9 : 612 : 72 : 25.4

The aphid population was from two to three times as great on the
pilose-leafed as.on the smooth-leafed varieties in-both the dusted and
undusted series,.and from six to eight times as great on the. dusted as
on the undusted plants with both types of. leaves. .Although the aphid
population was greater on the pilose varieties under all conditions, the
percentage of p.rasitization was lower, Pilosity of the leaves, by af-
fording a more favorable environment or through interference of parasite
activity, appears to be a factor in increasing aphid population. Even
though pilose varieties may not become heavily infested with aphids when
not dusted with arsenicals, this condition is probably just within the
bounds of natural control and the application of poisons upsets natural
control more readily in the pilose-leafed than in the smooth-leafed


Experiments in cotton bollworm control.--The results of his plot ex-
periments for the control of the cotton bollworm in 1936 alnd 1937.have been R. 7, Moreland, of College Station, Tex. 1Most of. the damage
was caused by the second brood of boll.worms from moths migrating from corn
to the cotton. The damage varied considerably in different experiments,
being so great in some that no cotton was picked from the check plots. Cal-
cium arsenate, calcium arsenate-paris green mixtures, and mixtures of cube,
pyrethrum, cryolite, barium fluosilicate, and calcium arsenate with sulphur
were used as dusts. In 1936 the average gains from five plots receiving
four and five applications of calcium .arsenate were 495 pounds of seed cot-
ton and a profit of $16.03. per acre. Four plots receiving twotand three
applications showed an average gain of 431.pounds per acre. In 1937 the
average gain of four plots dusted three times with calcium arsenate was
326 pounds and a profit of $11.39 per acre. The average, gain in the.plots
treated with the calcium hrsenate-paris green .ixtures during the two sea-
sons was 373 pounds, with a.profit -of $9.79 -In the-plots treated with
the calcium arsenate-sulphur mixtures, the gains wore less than in the cal-
cium arsenate plots and. in proportion to the poundage of calcium arsenate
used per acre. The gains from the cube, pyrethrum, and: ryolite were all
much below those from the calcium arsenate. In' the one experiment receiv-
ing barium fluosilicate the profit was $11.71, as coupared to $6.03 on the
calcium arsenate plot. It was not so great, however, as the average profit
froh all the calcium' arsenate plots.

Field population of overwintering pink bollworns.'--Exai.iinations were
made in December and January by A. J. Chapman, H. S. Cavitt, M. H. Hughs,
and 0. T, Robertson, of Presidio, Tex., to determine the population of over-
wintering pink bollworns remaining in the 1937 cotton fields of the Big
Bend after the final picking. The surface trash and plant material above
ground and the soil under the plants from 1-square-yard areas were examined
separately. Twenty-five representative fields with different intensities
of infestation, plant growth, and soil types were sampled nt five points in
each field, or a total of 250 snamples of pl:-nt material and soil. The num-
ber of hibernating larvae in the cotton bolls and orn the plants and
on the soil above ground ranged from 6.2 to 123,2, with rn ver.-; of 55.5
larvae per square yard, as compared to an averge cf 27 in 193 and 43 in
1935. The large increase in number of wor:s over yprevious years is attribu-
ted to the generally heavier infestation an,. especially to the unusually
large amount of unpicked cotton left in the fiAlds because of the shortage
of pickers, heavy fall rains, and the low price of cottor-. i-elds that con-
tinued to fruit late in the season because of lete pl:ntting,- varieties,
soil types, late irrigation, or second growth of the plants, had a much
higher population in the plant material than had fields where the cotton
natured early. The larval population in the top 3 to 5 inches of the soil
ranged from 1.0 to 41.l, with an average of 7.98 larvae per square yard.
In 1936, 4.33 and in 1935, 12.5 larvae per square yard were found. With
few exceptions, the fields with the late cotton also had the highest soil
populations. Contrary to last year's results, more larvae were found in
the heavier types of soil than in the lighter types. This was attributed
to the fact that, because of more rains this year, the heavy soil did not
crack so badly and a higher percent of larvae were near the surface and were
recovered. The exceptionally heavy populations in a few late-fruiting fields


increased the average number of larvae found in the soil. Eleven of the
25 fields examined contained a lower soil population than last year.
Killing frost occurred on November 22, 1937, as compared to November 4,
1936, allowing the larvae to continue to increase and enter the soil for
a longer period. Approximately 13 percent of the overwintering larvae
were found in the soil and 87 percent above ground, which was about the
same percentage as last year. None of the cotton fields were'cleaned by
the Bureau this fall and, owing to the uncertainity of establishing a non-
cotton zone in the Big Bend, the farmers did not begin preparations for
next year's plantings until very late in the season. About 1,000 acres
were heavily pastured by cattle and sheep and examinations before and after
pasturage showed that approximately 95 percent of the larvae overwintering
above ground had been destroyed by the'animals.


Inspection.--The inspection of green-boll samples has been continued
at the San Antonio, Tex., laboratory throughout the month, with negative
results. These samples were collected last fall in areas near the infested
zones. Other sarples were collected in sections where there is not suf-
ficient cotton production to justify operation of gin-trash' machines.

Destruction of stalks.--Preparations for the coming cotton crop have
gone forward very rapidly throughout the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas
and considerable stub cotton has already been destroyed. A close watch is
being kept of all the stub cotton remaining, to see that none of it pro-
duces fruit. In the latter part of the m.onth there was freezing weather
and a killing frost. A survey made since then indicated that all of the
stub cotton had been killed back; consequently, there will be no cotton
upon which any insect could propagate itself until the new crop cones in.
Several hundred acres of the 1938 crop have already been planted.

Road-traffic inspection.--The road-inspection station at Marfa, Tex.,
was in operation throughout the month. A number of interceptions of contra-
band material were made but none of them were infested with the pink boll-
worm. The men on duty at the station report that practically all cars and
trucks showed evidence of having been cleaned before reaching the station.

Wild cotton.--Owing to depletion of funds, eradication of wild cotton
was discontinued at Cape Sable on January 13. At that time a considerable
portion of the area had been cleaned once this season and some of it a
second tine. The last of the month additional funds were obtained and work
has been resumed at Cape Sable. Along the west coast excellent progress
has been made, practically all of the area having been cleaned once this
season and several counties a second time. In a number of locations where
plants previously occurred none were found. Excellent progress has also
been made on the Mainland Keys, most of the area having been covered once
this season. During the nonth 158,897 seedling and 617 sprout plants were
removed, 3,210 containing bolls. Approximately 200 bolls were inspected on
the Mainland Keys and 5 pink bollworm larvae were found on Key Largo and 4
on Long Key. -'


Thurberia-plant eradication.--The eradication of Thurberia plants in
the Santa Catalina Mountains of southern Arizona has gone forward as usual.
During the :rinth 1,360 acres were covered and 10,272 Thurberia plants de-
stroyed. This makes a total of 13,605 acres covered and 1,16S,342 Thurberia
plants destroyed in the Santa Catalina Range. The 'territory worked during
the Lonth has been very rough and rugged. Practically all of the plants de-
stroyed, with the exception of seedlings and very small plants, have shown
weevil infestation. In carrying on this work it is necessary to construct
some roads and pack trails to reach inaccessible parts df the range. The
local chief of the Forest Service has made so.e very complimentary remarks
concerning this work, and the roads and trails are'being used by forest
rangers and Government trappers.


Cryolite and cuprous cyanide control tomato pinworm.--In summarizing
the results of insecticide tests against Gnorimoschema' lycopersicella Busck
in California in. 1937, J. C. Elmore, Alhambra,. Calif., reports that cryo-
lite and cuprous cyanide, in either sprays or dusts, were the most effective
stomach poisons used against this pest. Contrary to former belief, both
cryolite and cuprous cyanide protected the treated plots effectively for
60 days following the last application. Two dust or spray applications
gave sufficient protection from a light pinworm infestation, whereas five
applications were required in fields subject to heavy attack. It was de-
termined that for best restuls, the insecticide applicptions should begin
when the first pinworms formed leaf folds on the plants. In instances
where the leaf folds became numerous before the insecticide applications
were started, it was difficult to obtain satisfactory control. Nicotine
sulphate, light mineral oil, a proprietary insecticide containing an ali-
phatic thiocyanate, and extracts containing pyrethrum, or cube, were not
effective against the tomato pinv-orm at the dilutions tested.

Pyrethrum-oil spray reduces beet leafhopper popul:tlon on seed
beets.--V. E. Romney, of the Phoenix, Ariz., laboratory, reports that exper-
iments performed last November in fields of sugar beets grown for seed in
the Salt River Valley of Arizona demonstrated the efficiency of a pyrethrum-
oil spray, applied in an atomized form, in killing the adults and nymphs of
Eutettix tenellus (Bak.), In experimental plots laid out in a field repre-
senting average conditions and plant growth in the valley, an average of
97.1 percent of the leafhoppers were killed by the spray on November 5,
when the daily range of temperature was from 760 to 890 F., whereas on Novem-
ber 27, when temperatures ranged from 66 to 740 F., an aver'age of 01.1 per-
cent of the insects were killed by the spray. An average of 10 gallons of
spray per acre was applied in the first treatment and 6-3/4 gallons per acre
in the second treatment. Some of the plots received the first treatment
only, others received the second treatment only, a third group received both
treatments, and other plots were left untreated. Forty-eight hours after
the second application of spray the following average numbers of E. tenellus
adults and nymphs were present per foot of seed-plant row for each set of
four replications: Sprayed twice, 0.07; sprayed once (late), 0.47; sprayed
once (early), 0.55; unsprayed, 5.29. In the spring an examination of th;se
plots will be made, in cooperation with the"Bureau of Plant Industry, to de-
termine the comparative percentages of curly-top injury as a measure of the


degree-of protection afforded by each of the spray treatments. The spray
used in these experiments was composed of one part white mineral oil and
two parts kerosene, mixed at the rate of 30 to 1, by volume, with pyrethrum
extract containing 2,03 grams of total pyrethrins per 100 cubic centimeters.

Observations on cabbage worm populations.--In summarizing the results
obtained in a survey of conditions relating to cabbage and cabbage worms at
Baton Rouge, La., in 1936 and 1937, C. E. Smith and R. W. Brubakor report
that the cabbage looper (Autographa brassicae (Riley)), the imported cabbage
worm (Ascia rapae (L.)), and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella
maculipennis (Curt.)) constitute most of the worm population on cabbage,
their relative importance being in the order named. It was found that the
cabbage looper was the dominating factor on fall crops and appears late on
spring crops. The imported cabbage worm is the most important, if not the
nost abundant, species on spring crops and appears late on fall crops in
darmaging numbers. The diam.ondback noth may become abundant on either the
spring or the fall crops. The cabbage webworm (Hellula undalie (F.)), the
cross-striped cabbage worm (Evergestis rimosalis (Guen.)), and several
species of Agrotinae are abundant on fall crops. The importance of the lar-
vao of the dianondback moth appears to depend a great deal on the proximity
of the affected crop to the source of infestation and on natural control
agencies. This species seems to spread rather slowly and thrives best dur-
ing periods of dry, cool weather, especially when the temperatures are low
enough to cause a check in the activity of its parasites but not sufficiently
low to check its own activity. Damage caused by the cabbage wobworm is con-
fined largely to the seedlings of fall-grown cole crops. This species de-
stroys the buds, thus rendering the plants worthless. Although the cross-
striped cabbage worm is seldom sufficiently numerous to cause important
damage, the infested plants are usually injured very severely, owing to the
deposition of the eggts in clusters and to the gregarious feeding habits of
the larvae. In addition to the losses caused by cutworns in cutting off the
young plants, these worms and the corn earworm (Heliothis obsoleta (F.))
often attack the young cabbage plants when heads are forming. Plants thus
injured either produce poorly shaped unmarketable heads, or may fail to form
heads because of the feeding of the worms,

Pacific coast wireworm varies in duration of life cycle.--During the
course of biological studies on Limonius canus Lee,, E. W. Jones, of the
Walla Yalla, Wash., laboratory, found that 62 percent of the 1935 brood of
this species reared in large outdoor cages completed their development as
larvae in 1937 and.are destined to emerge as adults in the spring of 1939,
thus cormpleting a 3-year life cycle. Ten percent of this brood emerged
last year to complete a 2-year life cycle. The remaining 28 percent are
still in the larval stage and will presumably complete their life cycle in
a 4-year period. It appears, therefore, that individual wireworms originat-
ing from the svame brood nay complete their life cycles within periods of 2,
3, or 4 years. It was determined that when moisture conditions in the soil
fell below the optimum during the su.mmer, the wireworm populations decreased
and fewer larvae transformed to adults than when optimum conditions pre-
vailed, This phenomenon occurred particularly in fields planted to aspara-
gs', alfalfa, and pasture.


Data on the cabbage webworm in North Carolina.--In summarizing infor-
mation obtained in investigations on Hellula undalis (F.) at Chadbourn,
N. C., in 1937, W. A. Thomras reports that three generations and a partial
fourth developed in the Chadbourn area. The first generation is of the
greatest potential importance because it functions as the primary infesta-
tion, the progeny of which attack crops 'grown later in the season; t::e
second and third generations cause a maximum degree of damage because of
their larger population; low temperatur.e.s.. .etard larval development late
in the fall and thus limit the degree of injury caused by the species;
freezing weather is apparently not always fatal to the H. undalis adults,
especially when such weather occurs intermittently iduring the late .fall;
data obtained from light-.trap studies demonstrated that there were two dis-
tinct flights of adults, oach with a duration of approximately 6 weeks, oc-
curring during July-August and October-November. Distribution surveys
demonstrated that the webworn is a potential pest to cruciferous crops
throughout North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia,, with the possible
exception of the mountainous sections.


Relative percentage of eggs of two mosquito speqies in nature.--H. H,
Stage reports that of 15,347 mosquito eggs taken from the, soil of a pro-
lific breeding area on Deer Island near Portland, Qreg,, 35 percent were
Aedes vexans Meig. and 65 percent vwere A. aldrichi Dyar and. Knab.

Hexachlorethane -shows little pronise as mosquito larvicide.--W. V.
King, Orlando, Fla. reports the following results of laborrtory tests ,with
a mixture of two parts of hexachlorethane and one part of talc, as a mos-
quito larvicide:

: --. Water : Larae
Species : Tests:Insecticide used:tempera-:dead in 24
S :Per pan:Per ace: ture : hours
:Number: Grias : Pounds : : Percent
Culex quinquefasciatus Say--: 1 : 0.006 : 1 69 : 5.0
Do---------------------: 2 :.032 : 5 : 69 : 0
Do--------------------: 2 : .03 : 10 : 68-69 : 0
Do--------------------: 2 : .320 : 50 :68-69 :
Aedos sollicitans (Walk.)---: 1 : 320 : 50 : 85 : 5,0
C. quinquefasciatus----- : 2 : .630 : 100 .: 68-69 : 0
A. sollicitans-------------- 2 : ,630 : 100 : 5 : 75 1/
. quinuefasciatus------: 2 : 1.57 : 250 : 72 : 47,5(52.5)1/
Do--------------------: 2 : 3.15 : 500 : 0 : 72.5(77.5)
Do--------------------- 2 : 3.15 : 500 : 72 : 92.5(95.0o)/

'Percent dead in 48 hours.


Specificity of organic insecticides.--In tests on the insecticidal
value of organic chemicals, Roy Melvin, Dallas, Tex., reports that of 26
compounds that kill all larvae of Cochlionyia anericana C. and P. in arti-
ficial media at a concentration of 0.05 percent or less, only 4 killed 50
percent or more of adults that were fed 1 percent of the chemical in honey
for 3 days.


Verticilliun wilt of carnations,--A fungus with gray conidia isolated
from wilted carnations found in the Rhine district of Germany in 1929 was
described as Verticillium cinerescens by Tollenweber. Already it is con-
sidered by some to be the worst disease of carnations in England. The United
States imports carnations from England for propagation. As the disease may
be present in the tops of plants for some days before any discoloration or
other symptoms are evident, it is sometines carried in apparently healthy
cuttings and infects the soil of new beds. Sc far as one may determine from
the literature available, the disease might be present and escape detection
on imported propagating material.

Tomato diseases.--A new fruit spot of tomato was intercepted at New
York on January 18 on tomatoes from Haiti. The fungus causing the spots is
a Helminthosporium with much larger spores than any species described as
occurring on tomato. A rotting tomato from Mexico intercepted at Nogales on
January 22 was producing masses of Phytophthora spores over much of the sur-
face. Although the species of this downy mildew genus that may occur on
tomatoes from Mexico cannot well be determined without pure culture work,
this specimen seemed to be P. capsici Leonian. P. capsici is known to at-
tack a number of hosts and appears to have been increasing in economic im-
portance during recent years.

Cercospora leaf spot of banana.--A leaf spot of banana caused by
Cercospora musae A. Zimm. was described in Java in 1902. Although not re-
ported as important in TNetherlands Zast Indies, it has since proved to be
serious in the Fiji Islands, in Australia, and in the Caribbean region. The
disease was not noted in the Caribbean region until 1937, when it was found
in Surinam by Gerold Stahel and in Trinidad by C . ardlaw. It has been
reported from Jamaica also. The rapidity with which this new disease has
spread and its evident destructiveness in the Caribbean region has caused
apprehension regarding the future of the numerous small plantings of bananas
and plantains grown for noe use in Puerto Rico, where the food supply is
already a serious problem. ,udies to determine what may be done to meet the
situation have been started.

Green alfalfa as a packing medium.--A passenger, arriving at the port
of New York on June 25, 1937, carrioe 11 pounds of cherries, which were
seized as contraband material. The cherries were carried in a large basket
and were carefully packed between layers of green alfalfa. Although no pest
was found on the cherries, living larvae of the alfalea weevil (Hypera posti-
ca Gyll.), thrips, aphids, and cecidomyiid larvae were among the 10 inter-
ceptions made on the 4 pounds of green-alfalfa packing.


Entomological interceptions of interest.--Two living larvae of the
Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens. Loew) were intercepted at Laredo, Tex.,
on Sept6mber 8, 1937, in a pomegranate in baggage from Mexico. Nine living
larvae of the MIediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied,) arrived at
Port Arthur, Tex., on November 17, 1937, in.four oranges in ship's stores
from Spain. Living specimens of Anaphothrips orchidaceus Bagn. were taken-
at Honolulu, Hawaii, .n Oct.ber .16, 1936, on an orchid, Phaius ashworthianus,
in express from England. 'A living larva of the bean pod borer (Maruca testu-
lalis Geyer) was intercepted at San Francisco on August 16, 1937, in a
string bean in ship's.stores from Japan. .Two adults of Apiqn craccae L. ar-
rived at Mobile, Ala., on Decerber 21, 1937, in vetch accor~panying straw
packing in cargo from Scotland. This weevil was reported as attacking
vetches and oats in Russia,. A larva o.f the oecophorid Endrosis lacteella
Schiff. was found at Baltimore on October 21, 1937, in a-hyacinth bulb in
cargo from the lNetherlands. Living specimens of the mirid Qeratocapsus punctu-
latus Reut. were taken at.Brownsville, Tex., on October 31, 1937, on chry-
santhemums in baggage from Mexico. A living adult of the sil4y cane weevil
(Metamasius sericeus Oliv,) was intercepted at New Orleans on Iovenber 4,,
1937, with banana debris in cargo from Mexico. Living adults .of Bruchus
viciae Oliv. arrived at New York on October 22, 1937, in vetch seed contam-
inating straw jackets in cargo fromi Italy. The coccid Pollinia pollini .(Costa)
was taken at Washington,, C. Q,, on October 2S, 1937, on an olive leaf in the
mail from Italy. Sixteen living larvae of the West Indian sweetpotato weevil
(Euscepes postfasciatus Fairm.) were intercepted at Eagle Pass, Tex., on No-
vember 22, 1937, in sweetpotatoes in baggage from Mexico., This weevil was
formerly known as Euscepes batatae Waterh.


Progress in standardization of State plant quarantines.--Various State
plant quarantines of several southern States are being standardized, or in
some instances revoked, as an outcome o'f concerted action to this end on the
part of the quarantine committee representing the Southern Plant Board at the
meeting held at New Orleans on February 5.

Grasshopper-control project started.--Cooperating State agencies are
being contacted for the purpose of setting up control organizations, and an
initial supply of poison-bait materials will be made available in all areas
of heavy infestation in advance of grasshopper egg hatching.

Mormon *cricket proJect contemplated,--A cooperative Fedcral-State pro-
ject for the protection of crops against ttihe .ormon cricket is contemplated,
with field headquar.ters at Salt Lake City. The general plan of operation
provides that the States will furnish mixing plants and power dusters, dust-
ing materials, oils, storage for materials, and transportation of laborers,
supplies, and materials. Federal funds may be used for surervision and labbr
and for supplemental light-dusting units. The work will be limited to such
States, counties, and communities as provide ccoperation.

Funds provided to continue work on white-fringed beetle.--To carry on
control activities for the remainder of the fiscal year, $135,440 has been
allotted to the white-fringed beetle project from the appropriation provided


for the control of emergency outbreaks of insect pests and plant diseases.
The infested States are cooperating by allotting special funds to the
project or by'assigning inspectors and laborers. In addition to con-
tinuing the type of control measures carried on in the 1937 campaign
against the white-fringed beetle, several additional measures will be under-
taken including the use of weed killers, flame throwers, metal barriers,
and the recommended adoption of selective cropping and special cultural
practices. The use of cheap crude oil, it is believed, will be the most
practical, economical, and perhaps the most effective weed-killing agent
for most of the infested area. Chemicals will be applied on uncultivated
open land, and on undergrowth in timber land, Nonpoisonous chemicals will
be used on areas exposed to livestock and on vacant city lots. Standard
sprayer machines with necessary modifications will be used for applying
weed-killer chemicals. The use of flame throwers for destroying beetles,
as well as host plants, will be undertaken when the beetles emerge and be-
fore egg d6position, and, if their use is found to be practicable, will be
repeated at about 10-day intervals. Several types of equipment will be
tried for this work, consisting of knapsack burners for marginal and in-
accessible areas; two-wheeled hand-operated burners for city lots and
similar areas; two-wheeled mule-drawn burners equipped with leads of long
hose and nozzles for use on roads and similar stripe; larger units mounted
on pick-up trucks equipped with boom with fixed burners and supplemented
by burners affixed to long lines of hose for reaching inaccessible spots
(this machine will also be used for distributing weed-killing chemicals);
and caterpillar tractors equipped with flane throwers and weed-killing
equipment for use on areas inaccessible to trucks. Selective cropping and
cultural practice will be recommended to farmers in the infested area. At
a recent meeting of 200 farners all agreed to eliminate favored host plants
to the extent possible and to adopt cultural practices most suitable .to
beetle control. Residents of Florala, Ala., are giving excellent coopera-
tion in agreeing to discontinue growing vegetable and garden plants of any
kind in city gardens after June 1, leaving such areas available for control
measures. A large lumber company in the infested area has renoved from
cultivation over 1,100 acres of cultivated land in the interest of the pro-
ject, permitting vegetation to be .kept down and barriers to be erected.
The use of metal barriers against migrating beetles will be undertaken on
certain types of infested areas where trenching is iLpracticable.

No living adults of the white-fringed beetle at Saucier, Miss.--In-
spection for Naupactus at Saucier, Miss., in January resulted in finding
no adults in the field where they were numerous on November 23.

Another shipload of Argentine bones inspected for white-fringed
beetle.--Inspectors who examined the debris fron approximately 126 tons of
animal bones that arrived at New Orleans on January 6 from a town near
Buenos Aires, report finding increased numbers of both insects and species
over the numbers in the cargo that arrived on November 20, but no white-
fringed beetles were found. Half the cargo consisted of field bones with
animal matter and soil adhering to them; the remainder of treated packing-
house bones. About 9 tons of debris taken at random from the field bones
and 2 tons of debris from the packing-house bones were screened and examined.


Sweetpotato weevil.--Fields on infested properties throughout 'the
States of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas where intensive eradi-
cation work is carried on are now in excellent condition, following the
campaign of vine removal after harvest and replowing in winter to expose
any remaining potatoes to killing frost. Grower, are disposing of stored
sweetpotatoes in order to lessen the possibility of carrying over an infes-
tation, and inspectors are assisting them in locating their seedbeds at a
safe distance from the old infested properties. Twelve infestations-were
found in January.

Treated logs found infested-with gypsy moth.--Five gypsy moth egg
masses were recently found on a shipment of birch logs consigned to Washing-
ton, D. C., from a point in Massachusetts, and one-egg cluster on a log
shipped to a point in New Jersey by the same consignor. Although the logs,
which were shipped as firewood, had bean treated to produce colored flame,
the infestations were found on the uncertified logs and the shipments were
intercepted by the Boston transit inspectors,

Phony peach disease reduced 84 percent.--An examination of the results
of the 1937 inspection activities shows that in the 14 infected States there
was a reduction of nearly S4 percent over last year in the number of trees
found infected. Inspection was made in 1937 of all properties that had been
found infected in 1936 and also of outlying areas. In the lightly infected
States 362 counties were worked, as compared with 360 in. 1936. 7Of the peach
nursery stock located in areas inspected for the phony peach disease 'in the
1937 season, 99.5 p'ercent net the certification requirements for interstate
movement. Action on the part of the various States in establishing and en-
forcing uniforn quarantines and local eradication areas has effected out-
standing accomplishments in the canprign against this disease. Supplemental
allotments for the continuance of projects relating to phony peach and peach
mosaic diseases, respectively, have been granted from the emergency relief
appropriations for the remainder of the fiscal year. Nurseryren have been
very active in effecting the removal of diseased trees from neighboring
properties,.replacitng the trees in many instances with clean stock. All
States in the lightly infected area have contributed freely of funds to carry
on the work.

Status of peach mosaic infections.--The cooperative peach nosaic in-
spection work conducted in 1937 jointly by the Bureau and the several States
has revealed an extension of infected areas in certain States. Infection
was found for the first time in Oklahoma in a county adjacent to an infected
county in Texas. The mosaic disease was also found in one additional county
in California, one in New Mexico, and in several additional counties in
Arizona and Texas. However, careful inspection in many Texas counties pre-
viously reported as infected resulted in finding no mosaic disease.

Citrus canker work.--Citrus canker was found in January'on three prop-
erties in La Fourche and Terrebonne Parishes, La. These properties are lo-
cated in an old area of canker infection. Recurrent infections were also
found on young seedlings on two properties in Brazoria Qcunty, Tex. Although
these findings show the'necessity of continued persistent search for-the
disease, a comparison of the 1937 situation with that of 1936 shows a decrease


of 74 percent in the number of trees found with canker in the two States.
More funds have recently been allotted from the emergency relief appropria-
tion for continuing the work of abandoned-tree'removal in the two infected


Plant extract found to be toxic.--W. N. Sullivan, G. L. Phillips, and
E. R. McGovran, of the Beltsville, Md., laboratory, report that an extract
of the fruit of the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense) of China and
Japan, showed considerable toxicity when tested against mosquito larvae
and the house fly. The material tested was prepared by H. L. Haller, of
this Bureau, from the residue left after E. K. Nelson, of the Bureau of
Chemistry and Soils, had distilled the volatile oils from the fruit. Against
mosquito larvae the extract was more toxic than was a derris 'standard con-
taining 5.2 percent rotenone. Tests against the house fly showed the ma-
terial to be about as toxic as the derri's standard. A single spray test
indicated that this material possessed low toxicity to southern armyworn
larvae, but this also appl'ies to derris and pyrethrum. This extract is a
fast-acting poison, much like pyrothrum. The results of these tests are
encouraging, as it is probable that only a small percentage of the extract
contained the toxic principle. The Soil Conservation Service is interested
in the possibility of using the tree for soil conservation.

Dormancy believed essential to laboratory rearing of certain insects,--
Some interesting observations on the hibernation of insects have been made
by M. C. Swingle, of the Sanford, Fla., laboratory, who reports that a stock
of the cross-striped cabbage worm has almost completely died out after being
reared for about 10 consecutive months in the laboratory. The stock became
so badly diseased that it was impossible to rear the larvae even in an open
plot in the field. Meanwhile it was observed that larvae collected in the
field were entirely immune to the disease. It wvs then discovered that
larvae in the field normally experience a dormant period brought on by
lower temperatures and other factors, and it is assumed that this rest
period is requirred for regeneration of the species. Considerable diffi-
culty has been experienced at times in rearing the imported cabbage worn
and it now appears that an enforced dormancy may correct these difficul-
ties also. In this locality factors other than temperature may force the
species into hibernation.


Determination of ratenone in derris and cube.--H. A. Jones, of this
Division, and J. J. T. Graham, of the iood and Drug Administration, have
recently published (Indus. Engin. Chem. Analyt. Ed., vol. 10, no. 1, pp.
19-23. Jan. 15, 193g) the results of a study of the extraction of rote-
none from derris and cube roots. They find that chloroform is the best
solvent. In order to extract all rotenone from a sample, it is exceed-
ingly important that it be ground sufficiently fine, so that at least 95
percent passes a 60-;-ish sieve. Samples containing a high ratio of
rotenone to total extractives were found to be more difficult to extract
than those with lower percentages of rotenone. When the ratio of rotenone
to total extract was about 40 percent or over, particularly in the case of


derris roots, it was necessary to employ extraction at room temperature
with successive lots of chloroform in order to obtain satisfactory ex-
traction of the rotenone. This method should also be employed as a check
whenever there is doubt as to the completeness of extraction by the ali-
quoting procedure. Cube roots in general are more readily extracted of
their rotenone content than are derris roots. The moisture content of der-
ris and cube roots as received in this country has not been found to be
sufficiently great to interfere with their analysis, hence preliminary
drying of samples seems unnecessary.

Determination of small amounts of nicotine,--L. D. Goodhue has de-
scribed (Indus. Engin. Chem. Analyt. Ed., vol. 10, no, 1, pp. 52-54. Jan.
15, 1938) a new method for the turbidimetric titration of small amounts of
nicotine. The unknown nicotine sample is added to an excess of silico-
tungstic acid and the excess of the latter is titrated with standard nico-
tine formate. Results that check to about 5 micrograms can be obtained.
Flocculation of the precipitate is prevented by the addition of Irish moss
extract, and the tendency to crystallize is retarded by using formic acid
instead of hydrochloric acid, as in the analysis by the gravimetric method.

New compound of rotenone,--United States Patent 2103195 was granted
on December 21, 1937, to H. A. Jones on a new cheuical compound co.mposed of
a monomolecular combination of rotenone and dichloroacetic acid, C2-72206.-
C2H202C12. It is believed that this new compound will not only prove valuable
as an insecticide but will also provide a new met' od of enalyzing derris
root, inasmuch as it can be accurately titrated with standard alkali.

New copper--ar~enic insecticides.--F. E. Dearborn on January 4, 1938,
was granted United States Patent 2104584 on certain new compounds of copper
arsonite and a copper salt of a higher unsaturated fatty acid. These com-
pounds, wnich reseable paris green, are practically insoluble in water end
are suitable for insecticidal and fungicidal use.

Nicotine-peat process patented.--United States Patent 2107058 was
granted on Februa-r. 1, 1938, to L. Y. Markwood. This patent covers the
process for preparing nicotine-peat, rhich consists in washing peat with
an acid and then contacting the peat with an aqueous solution of nicotine.
Nicotine-peat contains the nicotine in a form lar~ely insoluble in water.

Is cube equal to derris as an insecticide?--R. C. Roark has reviewed
(Soap, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 111-113, 120. January 1938) the reports of
about 30 investigators who have compared tei insecticidal action of derris
with that of cube of equal rctenone content. Laborator-- and field tests
indicate that in the control of some insects derris gives better resrlts
than does cube of the sane rotenone content, whereas other insects appear
equally susceptible to derris and cube. Any insecticidal superiority of
derris over cube is more than offset by the present difference in price,
which is 11 or 12 cents per pound. Mere economical control of those in-
sects susceptible to rotenone- can be obtained with cube than with derris.



Chemical and physical analyses of western beeswaxes.--Geo. H. Van-
sell, of the Pacific Coast Bee Culture Field Laboratory, Davis, Calif.,
who has been working in cooperation with C. S. Bisson, of the University
of California, reports that western beeswaxes have been' ubjected to chom-
ical and physical analyses and to tests for the removal of foreign solids
and colors. Pure wax obtained by stimulative feeding'has uniform charac-
teristics and lacks color. As the adsorption or mixture of materials in-
creases, the characteristics progressively diverge from those possessed
originally, Contact with metals,-particularly iron, and certain pollens
causes the wax to become discolored with-browns and yellows. The yellow
colors of almost infinite variety occurring in crude beeswax are traceable*
almost entirely to the liberation" of yell6w wax-soluble constitutents by
pollens. The red, blue, .nd purple pollens investigated did not discolor
the wax. Admixture of propolis in wax greatly changes it because this sub-
stance possesses characteristics differing radically from beeswax; for ex-
ample, the acid number of propolis is in some cases siX times that of wax
and it sinks in water, whereas wax floats (specific gravity 1.180 to 0.963).
Treatment of crude beeswax with dilute acids greatly facilitates the clean-
ing of wax by quick coagulation and precipitation of Mi'drous irpurities.
Acid-treated wax, after one washing in hot water, has the same acid number
as the original, but it appears to be somewhat harder and more brittle.


Valuqble additions to collection of eoleeptercus larvae.--Laryae of
the following species of Phyllophag' have been received, all definitely de-
termined by rearing, through Bureau sources: P. submucida (Lec.), P. lati-
frons (Lec.), P. glaberrimr Blanch., P, parvidens (Lec.), P. luctuosa (Horn);
P. soror Davis, P. prunuculina (Burn.7, and P. forsteri (Burn.). Also repre-
sentatives cf six different reared species were received from Paul 0.
Ritcher, of the University of Kentucky, who is engaged in a study of the
Kentucky species. I.Ir. Ritcher has cooperated further with A.'G. Boving by
contributing data on specific variation and suggestions concerning the
value of different characters in the larval classification of this group.

Host record for a species of Agronyzidae.--Specimens recently iden-
tified by C. T. Greene as Phytonyz.a tricornis Ieig. were reared from nines
in leaves of Cynara ecolyrus (artichoke) at-Half Moon Bay, Calif;, by
W. H. Lange. This appears to be the first host record for this species.

The braconid genus Stantonia in North America.--Until recently species
of the genus Stantonia have been recorded only from the Oriont, Africa,
and South America, and the host relationships of'the group have been alto-
gether unikown. A short time ago, however, S. C. Bruner submitted speci-
mens from Cuba, reared from larvae of Lamprosena indicata (?.) and during
the past month a single specimen, reared from a cocoon of the codling moti
in western Kentucky, was forwarded by Hr. Ritcher. Both species are new
and are being described.


Notes on psocids recently submitted for determination.--Several spe-
cies of Corrodentia, or psocids, which represent valuable additions to the
Museu.n collections, have recently been received, A number of species of
considerable interest have been collected in connection with the current
survey of the insect fauna of peach orchards conducted by the Division of
Fruit Insect Investigations. Two species, iTy:phopsocus gravin.ypha (Woebor)
and Psoquilla slossonae (Banks), have been taken at Port VWashington, N. Y,,
and I4ew Orleans, La., respectively. These species occur in houseo; in situa-
tions similar to that of the co.non bocklouse (Troctes divinatorius (Hull.)).
The latter species is practically cosmopolitan and has been record(ed from
the flowers of plants and the nests of birds, as well as from dwellins.
The above species of IT.mphopsocus and Psoquilla are distinguished from pso-
cids usually encountered by the reduced size of the w:ings -nd by diffoernt
venation. In connection with biological studies of Recurvaria illleri 3usck,
J. S. Yuill has submitted nale specimens of Psocus subapterous Chupman taken
in Yosnmite to-.tional Park, Calif. This species has neorly wingless fenoles
and was described as new in 1930. The principal section of the N'earctic
Corrodentia is now fairly well known, but a few sections are in need of
revisionary study. Specific identities are often difficult to determine in
the case of Neotropical Corrodentia.

Another United States record for a W est Indian sugarcane leafhopper.--
A single specinen of Saccharosydne saccharivora (Westv.), collected from
weeds and grass in a peach orchard in Peach County, Ga., on August 28, 1937,
was subritted for identification by illian F. Turner. This is the third
record of the species in the United States, the two -previous ones havin;
been from localities in Florida. Inas-uch as Peach Count- is in c ntral
Georgia, it seems probable that S. saccharivcra is more oidely distrjibted
in the southeastern United States than has been thou jht.

A collection of scale insects received.--The R. A. Cooley collection
of coccids, fornerly chld at the Mon-tana State Agricultural ,xperiment Sta-
tion, has just been deposited in the iational Collection of Coccidte through
shipment by II. 3. Hills. This acquisition addr s e oce species not previously
contained in the National Collection and also the type specir.ens of some
species hitherto represented only by deternined specimens.



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