News letter


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News letter
Alternate title:
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
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Vol. Y, No. 2 (Not for publication) February 1, 1938


Wayne E. Leer, associate pathologist and Bureau representative in
charge of the barberry-eradication program in Indiana, died at the Home
Hospital in Lafayette, Ind., on January 2, 1938, following an illness of
several weeks' duration. His wife, Elizabeth P. Leer, and two daughters,
Jean Frances and Virginia Anne, survive him.

Mr. Leer was born at Fairmount, Ind., on June 5, 1897. In 1919 he re-
ceived the degree of 3achelor of Science in Agriculture from Purdue Univer-
sity and in 1923 he received the I. S. degree frop.the University of Illinois.
Since then he has held the position of State leader of barberry eradication
in Indiana, with headquarters at Purdue University.

Mr. Leer was a member of Epsilon Sigma Phi, an honorary fraternity of
agricultural extension workers, also of Alpha Zeta, Sigma Delta Chi, and
Kappa Delta Pi frlternities.


Headquarters for peach-orchard-insect survey moved.--The headquarters
for the survey of insects in peach orchards in connection with the peach
mosaic problen were moved, effective December 1, from Riverside, Calif., to
S:n Bernardino, Calif., -nd were consolidated with the suboffice of the Divi-
sion of Domestic Plant Quarantines at that point. L. D. Christenson is in
charge of the survey work and is assisted by Laurence Jones.

,Two _enerations of peach borer in Georgia.--O. I. Snapp and J. 3.
Thomson, Jr., Fort Valley, Ga., report that during the 1937 season they
reared second-generation adults of the peach borer in peach trees under nor-
mal orchard conditions. The nunbcr reared was szrll in conparison to the
total borer population.

Succession of insects in raisins.--A stack of 12 tons of Thompson Seed-
less raisins of the 1936.. crop was sampled by H. C. Donohoe, of the Fresno,
Calif., laboratory, at intervals of 4 weoks, beginning March 24 anc ending
October 4. The following table presents a sunnary of succession of all species
and all stages of insects found. -Y


: Infestation per ton
:Raisin:Indian-: Saw- : : Misc.
Date : moth : meal :toothed:Crypt- :Cephal- :including: Total
1937 : : moth : grain :ophagus :Dermes-: onomia : Micro- : (all
: :: beetle:insoitus : tidae :tarsalis: bracon : species)
3/24-: 1,350: 400 : ,400: o : : : 3,750
4/21-: 850: 300 : 8,500: 550 : 0 : 0 : 0 :10,200
5/19-: 350: 700 :213,050: 500 : o : 0 : 150 : 214,750
6/16-: 200:2,200 :178,150: 0 : : 0 : 50 : 180,600
7/14-: 150: 700 : 79,900: o : 50 :6,350 : 150 : 7,300
8/12-: 250: 850 : 24,600: 0 :500 :1,000 : 50 27,250
9/8--: 350:2,000 : 15,100: : 900 :1,250 : 400 : 20,000
10/4-: 100:2,550 :6,650: o : 450 : 350 : 350 : 10,450

Of especial interest are the dominance of the saw-toothed grain beetle;
the appearance of Cephalonomia tarsalis Ashm., a parasite of its larvae, in
the samples taken in July and later; the disappearance of Cryptophagus insoi-
tus Casey after the May sampling date; the appearance of dermestids in July;
and the typical dwindling of the raisin moth population during the year fol-
lowing harvest. The table supports other evidence which points to the in-
ability of the Indian-meal moth to become abundant in the presence of an in-
festation of the saw-toothed grain beetle.

Organisms of milky diseases of Japanese beetle larvae viable after 25
months in soil.--In October 1935 the late G. F. White buried samples of soil
contaminated with organisms of the milky diseases of Japanese beetle larvae
in outdoor plots. The plots throughout this period have been protected so
as to prevent any Japanese beetle larvae from being in the plots. Recently
R. T. White and S. R. Dutky, of the Moorestown, N. J., laboratory, have
tested these soil samples on healthy larvae, to determine whether the dis-
ease organisms are still viable. The results of the tests show that the
disease organisms are still viable, after 25 months, both types of the dis-
ease, types A and 3, developing in healthy grubs the soil samples.

Normal depth of soil population of Japanese beetle.--I. M. Hawley and
T. N. Dobbins, Mocrestown, have completed a summary of data on the depth of
the soil-inhabiting stages of the Japanese beetle in turf in the older in-
fested New Jersey-Pennsylvania area. Records are available on a total of
213,037 individuals over the period from 1925 to 1935. Over 90 percent of
the larvae normally hibernate at depths of from 2 to 6 inches, with the
greatest number in the 2- to 4-inch layer of soil. During 5 of the years
covered by the surveys, no larvae were found below 8 inches, whereas in the
other 5 years only 56 larvae were found as deep as the 8- to 10-inch layer
of soil. The data given apply only to larvae in turf. In cultivated fields,
where the soil is of a looser texture and where soil temperature and moisture
conditions are somewhat different, the larvae often move to greater depths.

Overwintering strawberry leaf roller a reservoir for hibernating para-
site.--For a number of years large quantities of material of Macrocentrus
ancylivorus Rohw. for distributicn in colonization of the oriental fruit moth
parasite have been obtained from strawberry leaf roller in the immediate


vicinity of Mcorestown, N. J. The great reduction of strawberry acreage
in that vicinity has nmde it desirable to look elsewhere for supplies of
leaf roller parasitized by Macrocentrus. H. W, Allen and W. P. Yetter, Jr.,
of the Moorestown, N. J., laboratory, have recently completed a survey ex-
tending from Norfolk, Va., to Moorestown, N. J. It has been found that
strawberry leaf roller occurs in varyinge degrees of abundance at all points
between these two locations in which cultivated strawberries are grown. It
has also been found that M. ancylivorus occurs in fair abundance in the
overwintering strawberry leaf roller at most of the localities sampled. At
Moorestown strawberry fields are sparse, the overwintering leaf roller is
moderately abundant, and the overwintering Macrocontrus is unusually abundant,
parasitiezing more than 60 percent of the larvae in sone fields. Strawberry
leaf rollers are very abundant and strawberry acreage extensive about Bridge-
ville, Del., and the parasitization by Macrocentrus is about 20 percent.
The strawberry leaf roller infest-tion from Pocomoke to Cape Charles is fron
noderate to scarce, although the strawberry fields are abundant and the Mac-
rocentrus parasitization at places is in excess of 50 percent. At Norfolk,
Va., the leaf roller is scarce, but parasitization by Macrocentrus is acbut
15 percent.

Mexican fruitfly caught in lower Rio Grande Valley.--Inclement weather
throughout nost of December seriously interfered with field activities on
the Mexican fruitfly project. In spite of bad working conditions, however,
the month's trap catch was one of the highest on record. Anastrcpha ludens
Loew. was taken for the first time since July, 11 of this species having
been trapped in the groves and brush. 'The population of Anastropha serpen-
tina Wied. dirinished only slightly from the high mark of last ronth, and
Anastrepha sp. "Y" increased from: 12 in November to 106 during this period.
To date none of the adult A. ludens trapped have been gravid nor have any
larvae been found in the fruit. Fruit shipnonts for the season total ap-
proximately 7,650 equivalent carloads by rail, truck, and steamer. The nun-
bers and species of fruitflies identified during December are shown in the
following table.

Species : Texas : Mexico
Adults Nu.ber : unoer
A, ludens----------------------- : 11 : 0
A, seerpentina--------------------: 50 : 7
A, srp. "L"-----------------------: 15 : 0
A. sp. "X" ----------------------- 1 1
A. s. Y"----------------------- 106 3
A. sp "C!----------------------- 2 : 0
A. sp. "Z"----------------------- 1 : 0
A. sp ". sp.-----------------: 5 : 0
pllens Coq------------------- 975 : 73
Miscellaneous--------------------: 22 : 4
Total------------------------- 1,646
Larvae :
A. serpentina------------------- 0 : 55
ohagolctis sp--------------------: 0 31
Total--------------------------: 0 :
Grand total-------------- ------ : 174b
From narket fruit.



Fall shipping season nears end.--Inspectors in the Philadelphia, Pa.,
district reported that fewer plants were certified for shipment to points
outside the regulated area this month than last, and that the peak months
for the year 1937 were April and November, over 1- nillion plants having
been shipped during each of these months.

Preparations for spring shipping season.--Many establishments are
dijging and storing plant stock intended for shipment in the spring. Pre-
mises of classified dealers were closely checked for the presence of un-
certified stock which had. ben received but not reported as required,. In
order to insure several carloads of stock, received by a large establish-
ment at Princess Anne, Md., fron States outside the area, against possible
infestation, a certified storage shed was provided by erecting a 10-foot
partition of solid boards in a large general storage shed located on the
premises, thus separating certified and uncertified naterial.

More quarantine violators successfully prosecuted.--Seven violntors
of the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations were successfully prosecuted
in Deceimber. All but one of the violators convicted this r.onth were anong
those caught with uncertified farr. products by the inspector stationed at
the public market in Rochester, N. Y., last su-i:~er. One of these who had
pleaded not -uilty at the: special session of the district court called last
month at Rochester changed his plea to -uilty and was ordered to pay a fine
of $25. Fines of $25 each were also paid by four violators resident in New
Jersoy who pleaded -uailty to identical char es in Federal Court held at
Candon, N. J. Similar disposition was nade of a single case at Buffalo,
N. Y. Misuse of Japanese beetle certificates on two shipments of ivy des-
tined to Florida was the charge to which the sixth violator pleaded guilty
in the district court session held in New York City. A fine of $50 on each
of the two counts was remitted by the court in view of the defendant's
clear record over a pericC of many years.

New straw ''erry plan-t treatment authorizsd.--Successful experinents
conducted sinice errly laons spring with eothyl bronide as a fu:;icant for
strawberry plants haveled to the authorization of this treatment by the Bur-
eau. A large nursery in Salisbury, Eid., is now consultin!g with representa-
tives of this Division concerning the erection of a suitable fur.iation
shodr for such treat.ments. The newly authorized trent;-;mnt is e:pected to
save runch 1-bor without iupairin: the- quality of thel-plants.

Quarantine hearinLg will not be called.--Fron a study of the data ob-
tained .uri:; the last trapping season, it appears that -only local extensions
of the regulat ed area will be necessary at this time. In lieu of a quaran-
tine hearing, w.hich will not be necessary this year, the Bureau has distribu-
ted a statement which sum.arizes the results of the season's trapping in
nonregulated areas. Acconpanying the statenent is a detailed trapping re-
port by States, including comparative data, where available, of beetle
catches in this and previous seasons.


Cold weather pernits scouting and clear-cutting in swanipy areas.--New
Jersey Dutch elL. disease s=outs took advantage of the frozen swanps to scout
a number of such areas, which are practically inaccessible when not frozen
over. Clear-cutting work in the four major swa:r areas in New Jersey made
rapid progress. Swamps were sufficiently frozen to pernit tractor units to
work with little interruption for several weeks. In a single work week of
4 days, a total of 16,619 trees were rem;oved in these areas. Of this nun-
ber 11,487 were removed fror. the 5 work sites in Morris County.

Removal of sickly and inaccessible trees.--Elms in infected areas
difficult to scout and all dead and dying trees in the major infected work
area are being rapidly eliminated. In areas scheduled for clear-cutting,
approximately 845,000 elms were removed this year, as compared with less
than half that number last year. Over half a million dead and dying trees
in the major infected area were also removed in 1937. At the end of the
year approximately 375,000 trees tagged for removal remained standing. This
compares with approximatoly 634,000 trees tagg-ed DT standing at the beginning
of the year. During the 12 months ended December 31, 1937, DT scouts tagged
approximately 334,000 trees for removal. The total num.ber of trees removed
in clear-cutting, eradication, and sanitation activities was approximately
1,550,000 in 1937, as co.pared with approximately 1,270,000 removed in 1936.
To December 31, 1937, a grand total of 3,833,454 trees have been reuoved in
all activities. 3y far the largest nunber of these, 2,298,504, were re:oved
in the New Jersey infected area.

Logs confirmed as Graphium infected.--During the first week of the
month confirmation was reported of specimens obtained from one of a group
of lo-.s located on the grounds of the ?iocklur.n_ State Hospital, N. Y. The
logs had been cut fron a nearby point on the same property.

Inspection of Christmas trees ancd reenery coplcted. --Althou.Gh final
reports of Christ:.-as-tree and greenery inspections in the New England St tes
have not yet been compiled, it is evident that the wholesale narket for this
material was as ;ood if not better than last year. The quality of the trees,
however, was rather poor. Recutting over a period of years in the sano lo-
calities of the lightly infested gypsy noth areas, to which cutting is re-
stricted, has resulted in a scarcity of the best grades of trees.. Thinning
of needles observed on trees offered for inspection in the 'Maine areas was
attributed by inspectors to feeding by the E -ropean spruce sawfly. An ap-
preciable increase was noted in the quantity of material intended for manu-
facture into Christmas wreaths and decorative pieces requiring, inspection.
Many tons of fir balsam boughs, later cut into snall pieces for use in the
manufacture of Christmas wreaths, required piece-by-piece inspection bocause
of increased gypsy 2,oth infestation conditions throughout the regulated area.
In some instances inspectors found balsam boughs so heavily infested that
they denied certification and advised the owner to collect other boughs else-
where. Increased infestation in the fir balsa areas of Maine is nakin; it
nore difficult each. year to properly inspect such wreath naterial and to
'certify that the completed wreaths do not include uninspected material.

Historic granite is inspected.--A piece of granite obtained fron the
premises of th.- birthplace of John Greenleaf Whittier, at Havcrhill, Mass.,


required gypsy moth inspection and certification for shipment to Battle
Creek, Mich. The granite was shipped by the Haverhill Historical. Society
and is to be placed on a historic monueont.


Mininmunair temperatures in eastern Oregon forests.--J, 1-. .7hiteside
reports that on December 3, 1937, the first readings were taken in an ex-
periment being conducted by the Portland, Oreg., laboratory, to determine
the variation in the ninimum air temperatures over a large area of ponde-
rosa pine on relatively flat terrain. The spread in the temperatures re-
corded by 50 thermoneters placed in pairs at random over an area of 8 town-
ships on the Deschutes National Forest, Oreg., was 120 (100to 220F.),'with
the elevation ranging from 4,500 to 5,300 feot over the s80-foot area. How-
ever, owing to local conditions, the lowest temp-erature was recorded at
5,000 feet a-nd the highest ninimum at 5,300 feet. Thean cor.pared with
similar readings taken in 1936 on the Ochoco National Forest, Oreg., a con-
siderable difference is noted. On November 2, 1936, a spread of 18g
(-20 to 160 r.) was recorded, but with an elevational difference (3,600 to
5,800 feet) over the 2,200-foot area. Here the lo:rwest ter.erature occurred
at 4,400 feet and the highest iniri'un at 4,800 feet. It is evident from
these observations that local differences in topography are potont factors
in influencing the air temperaturos that e::ist at any given point during
periods of cold weather. This socr.s to be true on both broken and flat
forested areas.

Locust borer infestation in Spokane, 'Tash.--J. C. Evenden, of the
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, laboratory, reports that the locust borer infestation
in Spokane, which was first recorded in 1931, has increased in severity dur-
ing the last few years, and that treos on a much larger area are now being
attacked. City officials and officers of the S;il Conservation Service
are showinig interest in this situation and plans are jeing formulated for
the institution of control in the spring of 1938.

Forest tent cat~erillar decreased in Northeast.--J. V. Schaffner, Jr,,
of the New Haven, Conn., Iaboratory, reports that collections of egg clus-
ters of the forest tent caterpillar were nmde between ilovember 30 and De-
coubor 3 in 14 localities in Vermont and 1 in Massachusetts to obtain data
on the parasitization of the eggs and also on the present populetion. The
data obtained indicate that the infestrtion has decreased at six points
and increased at three, where collections were made in both 1936 and 1937.
A senoral decrease ,was anticipated, owing to the epidemics of disease of
the cat,.rpillrrs noted last sur:e>ir, which rntorially cut down the extent
of defoliation throughout the entire area. The egg-cluster records indi-
cate, however, that this pest is still a potential menace to the sugar or-
chards and hardwood forests in many localities and, in general, that the
outbreak is not yet under control. In at least five sugar orcharcd heavy
cutting operations of dead and severely weakened trees were ncted. Con-
plete mortality resulting fron 1 to 3 consecutive years' defoliation is
not always the case, but very often the entire center cf the crown succunbs.


Second recovery of introduced parasite.--P. B. Dowden and P. A. 3erry,
New Haven, report that examinations of the birch leaf-mining sawfly (Phyllo-
toirn nemorata Fall.) material collected at Eustis, Maine, revealed the
presence of several larvae of the introduced parasite Phanomeris phyllo-
tomne Muesebeck. Adults have not yet been reared, but the larv.e are very
distinctive. This is the second recovery of this parasite in the United
States, it having been already obtained from host naterial colluct.:. -t Bar
Harbor, Maine.

Tests with spreading agents.--S. F. Potts, New Haven, reports that
investigations carried on during the last fdw years on the action on sto;.ach-
poison residues of nine different spreading agents showed that the rore pop-
ular spreaders reduced the initial insecticide deposit by as much as 50 per-
cent in some instances. lost of these spreaders increased the loss caused
by weathering. In the arsenicals and bordeaux mixture-the copper and ar-
senic were rendered water-soluble' by the spreading and wetting agents, thus
causing much r.ore injury to the plant than when those agents were onittcdi
Observations on the action of spreaders on contact insecticides shcwed that
in some instances the effectiveness of the insecticide was increased,-
whereas in others it was reduced.

Transmission of Dutch eln bark beetles.--7. D. Buchanan,
of the Morristown, T. J., laboratory, reports on experiments conducted in
cooperation with C. S. Hoses, of the Division of Forest Pathology, Bureau
of Plant Industry. In these experirents scie snall eln trees were exposed
to attack by adults of Scclytus nultistriatus Marsh., and others to attack
by adults of Hylurgopinus rufipes Zich. The beetles of both species were
given equal chances. of becomingcontaminated with the Dutch elm disease
funGus (Ceratostomnella ulmi (Schwarz) before they were confined on
the trees.' The trees were later cut down, examined, and cultured to as-
certain whether they had become infected with C. ulmi. -Part of the trees
were fed on by beetles that were confined to specific spots on the'trunks
in gelatihe capsules. The other trees we:c fed on by beetles liberated in
a drun or cheesecloth cylinder that covered the entire tree. The results
are as follows: C. ulni was isolated from 7 bf 10 trees (70%) fed on by
S. nultistriatus confined in capsules; C. ulni was isolated fro:. 4 of 9 trees
T44%) fed on by H-. rufipes confined in capsules; C. ulni .was isolated from
S of 19 trees (42%) fed on by S. :ultistriatus which fed at large on the
trees; C. ul.:i was isolated from 5 of 13 trees (38%) fed on by H. rufipes
that fed at large on the trees; C. ulni was not isolated from: 1l trees fed
on by beetles not contaminatcd with C. ulri.


W. P. A. gypsy m oth- force reduced.--The services of approxiuately 50
percent of the T. P. A. employees engaged in -gypsy noth work were terninated
after the cor-letion of the working. period for Decerber, owing to a reduc-
tion in P. P A funds available for gypsy 2oth work during the 6-nonth
period bcginning January 1, 193S.


Workers withdrawn from woods during deer-hunting season.i--Gypsy moth
work was interrupted for varying periods of time during December in many
sections of the infested areas by the opening of the deer-hunting season
in the various States. Crews were withdrawn from woodland areas and em-
ployed in scouting open country or in residential areas for the duration of
the open seasons, after which they were returned to their former locations.
These precautions prevented injury by stray bullets to any member of the
Federal gypsy moth forces.

Personal injury record is low despite treacherous field conditions.--
All of the territory where Federal W. P. A. gypsy moth work is being per-
formed is now covered with snow ranging in depth from a few inches in the
lowlands to 2 feet on the higher elevations. Despite these adverse con-
ditions, there have been relatively few cases of personal injury to the
workers while performing their official duties in the field. The low in-
jury record is largely attributable to the experience of the workers, most
of whom have been employed on this type of work for a considerable period
of time. Scouting work was suspended for 2 or 3 days in the middle of the
month over most of the territory, when a severe ice storm coated the trees
and highways.

Two towns in eastern Maine found to be lightly infested by the gypsy
moth.--Check-up work in Washington County, Maine, was completed about the
middle of December. The work was done in eight tbwnships, only two of
which were found infested. Two infestations totaling 28 egg clusters
were found in Princeton, and 2 colonies of 1 egg cluster each were located
in Calais. The Canadian Government is continuing similar work near infes-
tations found last year on the east side of the St. Croix River, in St.
Stephen and St. Andrews, which are located across the river from Calais.

Large cherry trees endangered by the gypsy moth.--Early in December
the agent in charge of gypsy moth scouting, selective thinning, and treat-
ment work in Hampshire County, Mass., reported an'infestation in cherry
growth in Goshen. The trees, ranging from 1 to 2-- feet in diameter, are
valued highly for furniture making, and rarely grow to such large size,

Work in Vermont to be confined to mountainous tections during the re-
mainder of the fiscal year.--With the completion of work in Addison County,
Vt., at the end of December, gypsy moth scouting work planned for that
State during the remainder of the fiscal year will be confined to towns
along the Green Mountain Range, where a large percentage of the area is
heavily wooded.

New flood-control reservoir isolates a section where gypsy moth work
is in progress.--The flood-control reservoir under construction on the Little
River, an important tributary of the Winooski River in northern Vermont, was
partially filled with water during a period of heavy rainfall early in De-
cember. The impounded water flooded several of the.old abandoned roads lead-
ing to mountainous areas in the northeastern part of the town of Waterbury,
where scouting is now in progress. The cost of scouting this section of
Waterbury will be materially increased unless the water recedes sufficiently


in the near future so that the old roads can be used in transporting the
men to and from their work.

Two infestations apparently eradicated.--A gypsy moth infestation of
approximately 100 egg clusters was discovered in Clinton, Vnayne County,
Pa., and another colony of 325 egg clusters was found in the adjoining
township of Dyberry during the fiscal year 1937. Both townships arJ just
outside of the Pennsylvania quarantined area. Intensive extcrminative
measures applied at these colonies have evidently been entirely succesoful.

Heavy infestations in Pennsylvania are concentrated in four adjoining
townships.--From July 1 to December 1, 1937, approximately 135,000 acres
of woodland and open country have been scouted in Pennsylvanir, and over
132,000 gypsy noth egg clusters have been destroyed. More than 90 percent
of the egg clusters found were in the four townships of Spring Brook, Jen-
kins, Pittston, and Plains, all located within the most heavily infested
area. Only two infestations have been found outside of the ar:a under quar-
antine. One is barely outside of the quarantined area near the Coolbaugh-
Paradise line, and the other is loctted a few miles northeast of the quar-
antined area, in the township of Damascus.

New infestation discovered by former gypsy moth employee.--A forner
W. P. A. gypsy noth e.mloyee discovered a new infestation while hunting in
a wooded area near Lake Harmony in Kidder Township, Carbon County, in the
southern part of the Pennsylvania quarantined area. He reported his find
to the supervisory employee in charge of gypsy moth work in a nearby section.
The report was confirmed when a hurried examination of the area by the
agent disclosed approximately 10 new gypsy moth egg clusters. The wooded
area within which the infestation was found was scheduled for scouting later
in the season, and the infestation would undoubtedly ha-e been discovered
at that time. This, however, does not dctract frou the value to the eradi-
cation campaign of the continued interest in the work which is maintained
by former gypsy moth workers. This is the third occasion this year, in the
Pennsylvania area, where former erployos have located and promptly re-
ported infestations foun'. by them while hunting or working.

Heavy infestation threatens barrier zone.--A gypsy moth infestation
estimated at from 2,000 to 3,000 now egg clusters per acre and which is
scattered over several hundred acres, exists in Granby, Hartford County,
Conn. This is the heaviest infestr-ticn over an extended area that has ever
been observed by the C. C. C. personnel in that St!te. The forest growth
in this area consists partly of whito oak and gray birch and certain sec-
tions are suitable for silvicultural treatnont.

Silvicultural treatment controls serious gypsy moth colony.--Coordina-
tion of silvicultural methods and gypsy moth treatment work by C. C. C. en-
rollees has been practiced at a heavy infestation in Shelburne, Mass. FPcrty
large white oaks nd. 7 old apple trees growing among pines over an area of
approximately 4 acres on a high elevation were destroyed. A total of 19,065
new egg clusters, or an avere e of 4,766 per acre, were creosoted on these
trees. The cutting of the trees rem:oved a serious source of windcspread of


small caterpillars, and left a practically pure stand of white pine which
should require no further treatment for the gypsy moth.


Nursery inspection and identification.--During the last summer and
fall 46 eastern ancd midwestern nurseries planning interstate shipment of
immune species of Berberis and Mahonia, other than Berberis thunbergii, re-
quested the inspection required before permits are granted. A total of ap-
proximately 10,760 acres of nursery stock was.inspected. Thirty-three nur-
series fulfilled the requirements of Quarantine No. i8 (revised) and were
granted permits by the Division of Domestic Plant Quarantines; 9 failed to
qualify, and 4 are pending. During these inspections 2,870 susceptible bar-
berry plants were destroyed.

Farmers assist in barberry eradication in Pennsylvania.--During 1937
stem rust spread to virtually all fields of oats and wheat in an ares of
approximately 150 square miles in eastern Erie County and 200 square miles
in western Bradford County, Pa. Some fields of graih within these areas
were completely ruined by rust and rmany of those that were harvested yielded
only fro.. 5 to 20 bushels per acre, with the weight per bushel ranging from
12 to 20 pounds. Practically every farm within these areas was found to be
infested with barberry bushes, which were definitely established cas the
principal source of inoculum. As a result of these losses, numerous letters
were received from farners requesting aid in barberry eradication. As
emergency funds wore not available for further expansion of crew work in
Pennsylvania, local cetings of farmers were arranged through the county
agent and a procedure was outlined, which they might follow in effectively
applying their own efforts toward control. L. K. Wright, in charge of bar-
berry eradication in Pennsylvania, st-tes that,.when they are given assist-
ance in organizing the work, the farmers are extremely cautious to locate
and properly eradicate all bushes and seedlings. As a result of two co-
operative programs, 66,891 bushes and i.ore than 126,000 seedlings hnve been
destroyed on 48 different properties in Bradford County. In Erie 'County
4 square niles of territory have been surveyed and 31,000 bushes and 85,000
seedlings have been destroyed on 8 propprties.

Portable wooden mess halls for blister rust control camps.--In the In-
land SEmpire all Ribes-eradicrtion ::ork is performed by crews quartered in
tonporary carps. Until 2 years ago little attention was given to the prob-
lem of makin-; mess halls fly-proof; however, in 1935 this part of cfp sani-
tation began to assume more importance because of the larger camps and the
great number of men working in the forests. To solve the problon.of fly-
proofing the moss hells it was decided to construct secfional wooden units
that could be easily transported, assembled, and dismantled for use in
other locations. Eighty of these wooden sectional ness halls were con-
structed during the spring of 1936. After two seasons ofuse these units
are still in good condition, even though some of them have been taken down
and reassermbled five times.


Autogiro used iln :aiing white ine areas.--In coinlecti.n with blister
rust control activities in r:onrce Coriity, Pa., n e-7eriirent was recently
conducted to deternine the 'racticability of napping white pine areas from
an autogiro. Using U. S. G. S. sheets, or enlvrge.:.nts of such 1::r.p, the
observer indicated the location of the pine areas and classified thre "'-c>rd-
ing t tthe n icunt and size of the pine stocking. The other sections were
nerely shaded in, to denote that they did net contain sufficient pine to
justify protection eaisures. Althou-: the observer had no previous experi-
ence in flying, he was able in 22 hours and 40 rinutes of actual cr.appi
tine to determine a:nd record conditions on 396,666 acros, or 17,551 ecres
per hour. The cxa:-ination of such a larg1 e area in the time indicated was
possible, o:ing to the fact that over 95 percent of the area could be
covered rapidly because of the lack of white pine. The survey shoed that
Monroe County contains obout 19,200 acres of white pine v.rth protecting,
mostly n.-turol -stands. It would hove takon ground crevw of four eon sev-
eral nonths to have accoQl1ished the smae r sults.

Blister rust control operations in sugar pine region of California.--
During the field season of 1937 blister rust control operations were con-
ducted in California on four national forest control units--the Plunas, 21-
dorado, Stanislaus, and Sierra National 7orests--and in Oregon on the Rogue
River National Torest. T7ith the closing down of field operations e-rly in
Eovember the equipneni was placed in the warehouses and one winte-r cemp
was opened at a lower altitude on the Sierra iNaticnal Forest, ne r H1ariposa,
Calif. All work done in this region during 1937 was conCucted uni'er the
technical supervision of the Bureau o_' Entorolo.y end Plrnt Quorantine and
was performed in cooperation with the U. S. Forest Service in the field.
Two C. C. C. coaps, one on the Eldorado TNtional Forest and the other on
the Plunas National Forest, engaged in Ribes erviication work during the
sunmer. The following table shows the results of the control work in Ccli-
fornia and Oregon during the year, together with averages for man-days -and
for Ribes bushes eradicated on a per-acre basis. Of the total acrera-e
worked, 43 percent was initial and the rer-ainder was reeradicotion of pre-
viously worked areas.

: Total : Total : Total : Per acre--
Operation : area : nan- : Ribes : ian-
__: o___rked : cys : pul._ : Cdays : u d Rib s
: -cres : Nuber : uLb,.-r : Nur.oer : Nu:_ r
Plus ------: 4,172 : 5,076 : 488,508: 1.21 : 117
Eldorado--------: 11,715 : 21,613 :2,383,654: 1.84 : 203
Stanislaus------: 16,847 : 18,697 :3,771,965: 1.11 : 224
Sierra.--------- : 7,574 : 18,613 :1,745, 90: 2.45 : 230
Total---------: 40308 63999 ,389617 1.59 : 20
Oregon: : :
Rogue River-----: 21,355 : 5,703 : 990,109: 0.27 : 46
Total for region---: 61,663 : 69,702 :9,379,726: 1.13 : 152
1/In ovdition, 157 nc-n-Cays were spent by the bulldoc.or crew clearing
25 acres of willow and Ribes inerr-e. The nan-days include the tine of the
ground crew, and the time spent in piling and burning the slash and in seed-
ing the area to grass.



Relationship of boll-puncturing insects to internal boll diseases.--
L. D. Christenson, of Tucson, Ariz., has submitted a report on his investi-
gations on the nature of "spotting" and .. "staining" of cotton
lint, internal boll rot, and the role of insects in their transmission.
These investigations were conducted in cooperation with John T. Presley, of
the Bureau of Plant Industry, at Sacaton, Ariz. Previous 'ork by Cassidy
and Barb2er had shown the importance of staining in lowering the grade of
cotton and had proved that in Arizona it occurs largely in association with
the attack of boll-puncturing insects, the most important of which are the
pentatomids Zuschistus iupictivontris Stal, Chlorochroa sayi Stal, r-nd Thy-
anta custator F. Cultures were made of the organisns causing the staining
and boll rot and a species of bacterium rnd three fungi were isolCted and
grown in pure culture. The fungi have been identified by specialists of
the Burnat of Plant Industry as Asporgillu niger, A. nidulans, and A. ter-
reus, but the more abundant bactorium has not been identified. Inocula-
tions were made with a hypodermic needle into healthy, surface-sterilized
cotton bolls and the wounds wore closed by dipping the bolls in hot paraf-
fin. Nearly all bolls inoculated with suspensions of the brcterium showed
severe lint staining typical of tha.t prevalent in the fields. The excep-
tions were large, nearly nature bolls that were about dried out. Inocula-
tions in culture tubes on sterilized cotton fibers of the proper succu-
lency also resulted in typical staining .nd showed that living tissue nas
not nocessr.ry for the d.velopmcnt of the bacterium. The staining or dis-
coloration of the lint progressed from a faint yellow;ing to a dark brown
or almost black. The seed usually rnemined unaffected, unless pricked by
the noodle, although in advancd cascs cf infectici the entire contents
were retted to a sliny nmass. Bells inccul'toe c n the outside remained un-
affected when no abrasions wcru present. 17hile the effects of inoculations
with the throe species of fungi varied scmncwht, they w;re in general
ch:-arctorized by crasing internal boll rot, decoposition of the soee, and
browning or bla.cohnin:; of the bcll valls. Typical staining did net occur
inmmdiatoly, though the lint was ultimLrtel;r brcken down inte a flesh-colored
or brownish-colored sli'y and cor-iplete destruction of the boll contents
resulted. These fungi are also known to external boll rot. Of the
orgnnisms tested, only the btctcriun caused str.ining sin:il:r to the type
most con~.on in Arizond, c.lthough there nay be other organisrs concerned,
which were not worked'with. Cotton bolls protected from insects "by socks
did not beco:.c infected and: in the dissection of 2,200 field-infected bolls
all cwre found to hoIv been punctured by insects. The pentatomids pro-
viously doterr.mied b. Cassid.y and Ba rbor as rPsponsible for c-using lint
str ining were allo.ocd to puncture hoIalthy boll- from time to time to do-
ternino whether they consistently caused staining. It.was found that not
all of the filid-colloctecd individuals c-aused: staining'rnd that the infec-
tive organisms :ere present prirarily as superficial contanination of the
mouth parts, which could be elininatod by surface sterilization in n
nercuric chloride-alcohol solution. In the fields under observation the
incidence of strining a.n. boll rot. ws correlated with the seasonal abundance
of the insects.


Overwintorintg pink'bollworm larvae enter soil at different dates.--
Additional data on the relative nunbers of pink bollworr larvae entering
hibernation at different dates were ootained by A. J. Chapman and H. S.
Cavitt at Presidio, Tex., this fall. In a block of uniforn cotton all of
the, fruit was stripped from the- plants in the plots on October 1, October
15, Novenber 1, and NoveoiLer 15. Most of the overwintering larvae that
leave the bolls had energed and entered the soil by Noverber 15, as the
temperatures are too low for much activity after that date. Approxirmately
a mnnth after the last date of stripping the plants, 10 square yards of
soil from each plot was examined for larvae. It was found thr't 12 percent
of the hibernating larvae had entered the soil by October 1, 65 pornent by
October 15, 70 percent by November 1, and 100 percent by Novernbr 15. As
a further check, nature larvae were allowed to energe naturally from cotton
bolls and were placed in cages over soil within 24 hours after emergence.
Four cages, each containing 1,500 larvae, were examined 3 weeks after the
last installation. An average of 24 percent of the total number of larvae
was recovered as hibernating larvae in'the soil. Conputed on the basis of
total recoveries, the following percentages of the larvae placed in the
cages at different dates were recovered as hibernating larvae: September
16-30, 17.6 percent; October 1-15, 58.5 percent; October 16-31, 80.8 per-
cent; November 1-15, 100 percent. These results agree with the previously
mentioned stripping tests in that the optinun pericd for the development
of hibernating larvae was October 1-15. Although these tests are subject
to a number of experimental errors, they indicate that early maturity of
the crcp and an early clean-up of the fields are important factors in re-
ducing the pink bollworn carry-over in the soil.

Balloon drifts in relation to flea hopper dispersal.--The final re-
sults of balloons released in May and June to obtain data on the relation
of air currents to the dispersal of the cotton flea hopper have been re-
ported on by J. C. Gaines, of the Texas Experinent Station, end K. P. Ewing,
of the Port Lavaca, Tex., laboratory. Of the 3,334 balloons released in
17 counties in south-central Texas, 346, or 10.4 perc-nt, were recovered
and the identification tags were returned by the fin'. :s. The maximum dis-
tance covered by any recovered balloon was 375 miles. Each of three
balloons drifted over 300 miles, an average of 341 miles in 19 htours, or
17.9.niles an hour. Twelve of the balloons recovered on the saLe day re-
leased had drifted an average of 62.4 miles in 4.7 hours, or 13,3 miles per
hour. Most of the recoveries were from comparatively short distances, the
average drift being 42.6 miles. The prevailing direction of the drifts was
to the north and northeast. The releases were made in areas of light soil
where there were large quantities of Croton, the principal host plant in
which overwintering flea hopper eggs are laid. The general directions of
recoveries were toward the black-land areas where Croton does not grow
abundantly but where the flea hopper damage to cotton is more severe than
in the sandy areas. Those experiments and the catching of flea hoppers
on airplane traps at 2,000 feet elevation indicate that flea hoppers could
drift or be carried by wind currents for long distances from the hopper-
infested Croton to cotton fields.



Insp!ection.--Gin-trash inspection was continued in the Salt River
Valley and Coolidge-Casa Grande sections of Arizona until December 10. At
that time the trash was b-coming ;ore bulky, indicating that the most
favorable period for inspection had passed; therefore the operation of the
machines was discontinued. Five crews had been operating, and as condi-
tions were ideal a large volume of trash had been inspected. The only
finding in the above area was one specimen at Casa Grande in November.
Since the rbove work was discontinued the non have been engaged in the in-
spection of green-boll samples at the San Antonio laboratory. The results
have been negative,

Destruction of stalks.--In the lower .io Grande Valley of Texas there
are less than 500 acres on which 1937 stalks are still standing, and these
creas are scattered. All of this acreage belongs to nonresident owners
and in rmany instances we hrve beon unable to contact them. The land was
planted by squatters and it has also been impossible to loct.te them. Sone
of the stalks that were cut but not uprooted put out new growth. A careful
check has been kept on this situation and none of the plants have been al-
lc'ed to produce fruit. By the end of Deceuber preparations were begun for
the coming cotton crop and soon all of the acreage will have been plowed.
Considerable rain in Decei.ber put the land in excellent condition for plow-

Road-traffic inspection.--At the Marfa, Tex., road station 1,057
cars were inspected in December and 11 intercepticns cf contrabjand material
were m-de. Of this nunber, three were infested with the pink bollworn,
three living and, one derd larvae being found. In past years the station
has been closed about the first c(f January but this year no field clean-up
is being carried on, consequently the station will be operated as long as
there is danger of infested rmterinl being naken out if the areo. Fewer
interceptions have been nade this season, indicAting that educational work
cone by the inspectors f having good effect,

Wild cotton.--Satisfactory progress has been md.Ce with the eradica-
tion of wild cotton in southern Florida. A c:nsiderable area has already
been completed along the west coast and the upper counties are now being
cleaned for the sec(.nd time this season. All "f the plants found consist
of small seedlings which have recently crene up and none of which have
fruited. Excellent progress has been mado at Cape Sable, where a camp was
set up the latter part of November. Although a larIe number of plants were
found, there has beon a consideorable decrease .s cormared with former clean-
ings. During the ;month 3,598 acres was covered and 254,296 seedlings and
571 sprout plants were removed. Of this number only 1,338 plants contained
bolls and most of these were at Cape Sable, In addition, 325 acres was
covered without finding any wild Pottcn.

Thurberia-plant eradication.--Satisfactory progress has also been made
with the eradication of Thurberia plants in the Santa Cat-lina Mountains
of southern Arizona. The new caup is now in full operation, with a good
supply of water available and little chance of a shortage. The area being


worked is very rough and contains a considerable number of Thurberia plants.
It is estimated that about 30 work days will be required to complete the area
available from this camp. During the month 2,360 acres was covered and
18,231 Thurberia plants were destroyed, making a total to date of 112,245
acres covered in the Santa Catalina Ran.;e and 1,158,070 Thurberia plants de-


Rotenone-containing dust mixtures control pea weevil.--Reports by F. G.
Hinman and R. A. Fisher, of the Moscow, Idaho, laboratory, on the research
work accomplished last summer in the Blue Mountain area of eastern Washing-
ton and Oregon, in cooperation with the Pea Insect Control Committee and the
State experiment stations, show very favorable results in controlling the'
pea weevil by the use of rotenone-containing dust mixtures. Extensive field
examinations showed that the use of hoods on the large dusting machines in-
created the efficiency of these dusts. When hoods were used, the average re-
duction in weevil population was estimated to be 98.6 percent, when treated
with dust mixtures containing 1 percent rotenone, as compared with 94.6 per-
cent when hoods were not used. 7hen hoods were used for the application of
dust mixtures containing.0.75 percent rotenone, the reduction in weevil popu-
lation was approximately 98.1 percent, as compared with 90.0 percent control
without' the aid of hoods. These data are based on results obtained when ap-
plications of the dust mixture ranged from 25 to 45 pounds per acre. Satis-
factory results were obtained with applications of 25 pounds of the dust mix-
ture containing 1 percent rotenone per acre, therefore a heavier dosage is
not considered necessary. No appreciable difference could be detected in the
percentage of weevil control obtained with dust mixtures containing 1.0 or
0.75 percent rotenone when the quantities applied per acre were practically
equivalent. Results obtained indicated, however, that dust mixtures con-
taining less than 0.75 percent rotonone might not result in satisfactory
control. Although unsatisfactory results were obtained in experiments whereby
undusted strips 30 feet wide were left between each trip of the large field
dustors, a reduction of approximately 82 percent in weevil infestation was
found in such undusted strips, indicating that the applicationsof dust mix-
tures have an effect on adrilt weevil populations on undusted parts of fields.
A close correlation was found between the recorded adult weevil populations
obtained by sweeping with an insect net and the percentage of weevil-infested
peas at harvest time. It is believed that the use of early planted border
strips as traps materially reduced the acreage of peas that would otherwise
have needed dusting in the Blue Mountain area through the concentration of
the early emerging weevils on such strips and their ultir.ate destruction by
plowing under. Observations in 1937 demonstrated, however, that unless these
trap plantings were destroyed before the congregated weevils dispersed to
the inner parts of the field, such strips may become an important source of
pea weevil infest-tion to the main part of the crop.. Similar satisfactory
results against the pea weevil with dust mixtures containing rotenone are
reported by J. C. Chamfberlin, of the Corvallis, Oreg., lnboratory, who con-
ducted large-scale field tests with this insecticide in peas grown in the
Willanette Valley for canning or for special processing, in cooperation with
the State experiment station and the canners.


Parasitization of the European earwig.--C. W. Gotzmndaner, of the
Puyallup, fash., laboratory, reports that, to the close uf last October
Bigonichaeta setipennis Fall., the imported parasite of the European earwig,
has been liberated at 20 different points in Washington, Idaho, ane Oregon,
during the 4-year period 1934-37, inclusive. Recoveries cf this parasite
have been made at or near 15 of the colony sites. Three of these recov-
eries were made, however, .only during the year when the parasites were re-
leased and not subsequently, whereas two other recoveries wore mr-dne from
colonies released in 1937. It is believed that the parasites are definitely
established at the remaining 10 -colony sites. Reco'-eries have been made at
sites whoere the oriinal liberation consisted of as few as 10 to 25 B. seti-
pennis adults, indicating that it may be possible to obtain establishnent
of this parasite by liberating a cor.parartivoly small number of individuals.

Relation of time of planting to curly-top damage to beans.--In sun-
marizing the field-plot experiments with beans in southern Idaho in 1937,
A. 0. Larson, of the Twin Falls, Idaho, laboratory, reports that beans of
the variety "Bountiful," known to be highly susceptible to curly-top disease
transmitted by the beet leafhopper, were planted at intervals during the
period fron May 10 to June- 2, in an atte:ipt to discover the relation be-
tween the date of planting and the degree of resulting curly-top disease.
In general, the earliest planted beans showed the lightest infection. Ap-
proxinately 14.7 percent of the beans planted on May 10 showed evidence of
curly-top disease, whereas 61 percent of those planted on June 3 were dis-
eased. A corresponding decrease in yield was rocorde'i. Last year the beans
planted on June 3, the day after the migration of the beet leafhopper fron
the wild to the cultivated area, were the most heavily infected by curly-top
disease up to that tine, and the next planting,nmde 4 lays later, had the
next heaviest infection. Beans that were up 2 weeks before the first leaf
hopper migration suffered the least injury. All plantingsof beans mnde
after tne migration had begun (June 2) were infected more heavily than were
the first three plantings, which were up before that date.

Biology of tomato worm on tobacco in Florida.--In reporting on bio-
loJical studies of Protoparce sexta (Johan.) on tobacco in Florida, A. H.
Ladden an'd F. S. Chamberlin, of the Quincy, Fla,, labor:tory, state that
the attack of the tonrato worn in the Quincy Cistrict in 1931 and 1937 was
confined principally to tobacco, although this species is considered pri-
marily a pest of tomatoes. In the insoctary the duration of the eCg stage
averaged 4.9 days, the larval stage 19.5 days, -an the pupal stage 151.7
days. In a few instances the pupal period required almost 2 years. Three
completo generations and a partial fourth generation occur each year at
Quincy. The maxiLmu seasonal abuniance of larv-e is reached the middle and
latter parts of July, corresponding to the period of :aximun growth of the
tobacco plants. Although various natural enor.ies, including several species
of parasites, predators, and a bacterial disease, attack the tomrato worn
in the Quincy district, their combined effect has'but little influence, be-
cause such enemies exhibit their greatest activity after the harvest of the
crop. In the absence of a satisfactor: insecticide for conbating the to-
muto worm, the data obtained in those studies substantiate the practiciabil-
ity of supplemental control methods, including the de-
struction of the tobacco stalks directly after harvest, fall plowing of in-
fested tobacco fields, and the use of moth traps.


Rotenone-containing compounds give good control of Mexican bean beetle
in Colorado.--In summarizing the results of tests performed. ,ith insecticides
against the Mexican bean beetle in Colorado in 1937, R. L. Wallis, of the
Grand Junction, Colo., laboratory, reports that sprays containing derris and
cube gave better results than any other materials tested, the increase in
yield ranging from 10.4 to 48.7 percent over the check plots; that cryolite
sprays gave the next best results, yielding fronr 7.0 to 18.9 percent increase
in yield over the check plots; and that sprays containing zinc arsenite were
third in importance, giving an increase in yield of 8.3 to 13.3 percent, as
compared with the untreated plots. Sprays containing calcium arsenate-line
or barium fluosilicate gave poor,results.

Late planting reduces wireworm injury to potatoos.--K. 3. Gibson, of
the Walla Walla, Wash., laboratory, reports that results in 1937 corroborated
those of previous years in demonstrating that, in general, the damage to
potato tubers by wireworms, principally Limonius californicus Mann. and L.
canus Lec., was reduced greatly by late planting, Potatoes harvested from
plots planted on May 5, May 20, June 5, and June 20, shoved a progressive de-
crease in the percentages of injury to tubers, i. e., 76, 46, 33, and 25 per-
cent, respectively.

Biology of sweetpotasto leaf beetle.--L. W. Brannon, of the Norfolk,
Va., laboratory, reports that biological studies on the sweetpotato leaf
beetle (Typophorus viridicyaneus Crotch.) in 1937 showed that, from a total
of 268 adults collected in the field on June 15 and caged with food, ap-
proximately 31 percent were dead at the end of June; 72 percent at the end
of July; 87 percent at the end of August; and 98 percent at the end of Sep-
tember. The last beetle died on October 20, after a life span of slightly
over 4 months. These data indicate that the adults of T. viridicyancus are
capable of depositing eggs over an extended period, although it was not pos-
sible to find beetles under natural conditions in Currituck County, N. C.,
later than a month after their first appearance in June. The carged individu-
als reported on in these tests deposited eggs during the period fror. July 1
to September 8.


Wool-neggot fly reared at high temperaC ture.--C. C. Deonier, of the
Tempe, Ariz., laborrtory, reports that ie Ls b: n able to rear Phormi.' re-
gina IMeig, through two successive generation; at temperatures of C"proxi-
mately 99 to 106b F. The larvee ram.tured in 3 days, the pupa in '6 Cnys,
and the preoviposition period was 5 days in the first "en'ratic:. In the
second generation 15 days -were required fron -d.ult emer ence to ad-l t emnr-
gence. This fly is ordinarily consider,-d a ccld-weather species anc vith the
onset of high surmer tenperatures it rapidly disapperrs frcn Southern and
Southwestern areas. The findings in these exp rir:-nts indicate that there nay
be a thermophilic strain of P. regina in the Western States.

Insects darage pickle barrels.--E. A. Back, Washington, D. C., reports an
interesting and rather unusual case of caused by insects recently at New
Lebanon, Ky. Considerable difficulty was experienced in a pickle factory in
keeping the brine in which the pickles were preserved from leaking out of the
barrels after the pickles had been packed for shipment. A close examination of


the defective barrels showed that a large number of then were riddled with
tiny holes end further observation revealed the presence of a small bostri-
chid, Ptorocyclon fasciatum. Apparently, the wood was attacked after the
barrcls had been filled with brine. Practically all the oak barrels at the
plant were damaged, while those made of cypress and other woods were free
from infestation.

"Tagette" oil apparently of little value as a repellent for blowflies
in Southwest.--Oil of tagotes, an essential oil derived from certain species
of plants belonging to the ;genus Tagetes, has recently received some pub-
licity as a very promising blowfly repellent in Africa. Roy Melvin and E. W.
Laake report that tests with this material against adults of Cochlionyia
-uericana .C. and P., C. -macellaria F., and Phormia sp., made in nrture and
under laboratory conditions at Henard and Dallas, Tex., show that it is
practically worthless in protecting the wounds of animals against infesta-
tions by these species of blowflies.

Toxicity of petroleun-base pyrethrun sprays.--Fron the results of re-
cent experiments, C. W. Eagleson, Dallas, Tex., reports that the toxicity of
petroleun-base pyrethrum fly sprays to Musca domestica L. increases as the
boiling point of the base to a critical point, and that when fractions boil-
ing above this critical point are the principal bases, a reversal in slope
of the xrecovery curve is obtained from flies sprayed with pyrethrins dis-
solved in these fractions. The resistance of Stonoxys calcitrans (L.) to
pyrethrun sprays is less than one-fiftieth of that displayed by M. donestica.


Parasite importations in 1937.--The following table gives a record of
importations into the continental United States during the year. These ship-
ments vwre assembled by the two foreign stations of the Division, with the
exception of those of Chelonus annulipos, Collyria calcitrator, Microploctron
fuscipennis, and Leucopis obscurus, which were received through the courtesy
of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, and of Gambrus stokesii, received
from the Australian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.


SCountry Parasites shipped
Hosts and parasites : of origin : Nunber : Stage
Oriental fruit moth:
Gambrus stokesii Cam.-- ----------:-Australia 429 :Cocoons
Dioctcs molestae Uch,. )
Macrocentrus thoracicus Nees.)
Eubadizon extensor L. )
Oriilus longiceps Mues. )-----:Japan, Chosen : 40,468 : Cocoons
Apantel s spp. )
Pristomorus spp. )
Bassus spp. )
Lisc. Hynenoptera )
Phaeogenes haeussleri Uch.---------:Japan :5,092 : Adult females
Elodia spp.----------------------- :Japan, Chosen : 7b9 : Puparia
Perisierola sp.---------- --------:Japan 187 : Adult females
Do.--------------------------:Japan 500 : Cocoons
Citricola scale:
Coccophagus spp.------------------ :Japan 97 : In living hosts
Coccinellidae spp.- ----------------Japan 29 : Larvae
Suropean corn borer:
Phaeogenes nigridens Wosn. :--------I-Italy ,20 : Adults
Chelonus annulipes 'J7sm. ----------: Cnada : ,715 : Adults
Hessian fly:
Platygaster plouron T'alk ----------:Francoe 1,039 : Adults
Trichacis romulus Walk.------------:France 855 : Adults
Black wheat-sten sawfly:
Collyria calcitrator Gray.---------:Canda : 5,100 : Adults
Vetch bruchid:
Triaspis thoracicus Curt.----------:France, Austria 30,570 : In infested beans
Uscana senifuriipennis Gir.--------- :France :1,OCr : In host eggs
Lina bean pod-borer:
Microbracon spp.-------------------Franc : 90 : Adults
Do.-------------------------- :rance : 3,840 : Cocoons
Phanerotoma planifrons Noes.------ :Hungary : ,004 : Cocoons
Do.-- ------------------------ :ungary :3000-4000 In host larvae
,uropean pine shoot noth: 1
Copidosoma geniculatum Dfl.--------:Holland -100,000 In dead host
: larvae
Onorgus borealis Zett. )
Orgilus obscurator Nees. )__. :Holland : ,56: Cocoons
Crenastus interruptor Grav.)
tisc. Hynenoptera
Lypha dubia Fall. )---------:olland 48g: Puparia
Actia nudibasis Steii. )
Larch case-bearer-- -----------------Holland 53,430: Ho t-larvel cases
Spruce sawfly: :
Microplectron fuscipennis Zett.----:Canada 1300000: Adults
Fir bark louse:
Loucopis obscurus Hal.------------- :Canda : 569: Adults




South American bollworm intercepted.--A larva of the South American
bollworn (Sacadodcs pyralis Dyar) was intercepted at New York on February
13, 1937, in a cotton seed-in baggage fror: Colombia. A larva of this
noctuid was also taken at Now Orleans on March 28, 1937, in seed cotton
used as packing in baggage from Panama. The larva attacks the cotton boll,
It has also been recorded from Trinidad, Venezuela, Argentina, and British

Corn diseascs.--The corn d-isease quarantine (F. H. B. 24), which be-
cano effective July 1, 1916, was: based primarily on four known diseases.
These were named -in the quarantine as Peronospora naydis Raciborski, Sclero-
spore s,-cchari LMiyake, Physodernm zeao-naydis Shaw, and Physoderna maydis
Hliyake, Not long after the quariantine became effective it was found that
Physoderna zoae-unydis was already well established in this country, es-
pecially in the South. In. 1937 :Pornospora naydis, now known as Sclerospora
ax.ydis (Rac.) Palm, was reported as occurring in Belgian Congo. Other downy
uildews of corn that are not known to occur in the United States but have
been reported as'occurring in Africe are S. philippinensis Weston, in the
Union of South Africa; S. sorghi (Kulk.) Weston cnd Urppal, in 3gypt and
Tanganyika; and an rndetermined.species of Sclcrospora, occurring in.Uganda.
There are other records of doubtful st.tus. S. philippinensis is rather well
distributed in the Orient and often is responsible for so-ere danaCe. These
reports' of dangerous downy :.ildows of corn in another part of the -orld nay
necessitate an anen,.jient to or a revision of the corn disease quarantine.

Sntcaolo-i'cal intcrceptions of intern st.--Tvwo living larvae of the Hex-
icrn fruit fly (Anastropha ludens Lw.) were intercepted at Hidal.O, Te;:., on
August '22, 1937,: in a swot lile in bar :ge fron Mexico. Living lrvw'e of
the .elon fly (Drcus cucurbitae Coq.) weroe collected on July 19, 1937, in
ccucu-bers in th7 field. in Guamn Two living larvae of the plutellid Acrolepia
aseoctella Zell. were taken at:3altir.ore, 1d., on 3,ove: ~.'r 3, 1937, on leek
(Alliui porrurn). leaves in ship!s stores fro:. the Noth.rliands Living adults
of the hairy vetch bruchid (Bruchus brachielis Fahr.) wore intercepted at
Philr.c.elphia on October 25,1937, in vetch seed foundi in wheat-straw jockets
ueod as packing for vermouth in cargo from Italy. A living larra of the
Asiatic rice borer (Chile si:plox Butler) arrived at San Pedro, Calif., on
Sept;onber 7, 1937, in rice straw in pa'ssnger's ba.ega;; fror Japan. Two
livin: larvae of the weevil Curculio elctphas Gy11. wer- found at Chicago,
Ill., on Novevner S, 1937, with chestnuts in the nail from Italy. A living
specim.en of the cicadellird xitianus obscurinorvis Stal was intercepted at
Brownsville, Tex., on October 21, 1937, on a nari;old in cergo fron Mexico.
Tio living larvae of the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubilalis Hbn.) wero
taken at San Franciscc on August 12, 1937, in string beans in ship's stores
from Japan. Twenty-oight living adults of 3ruchus rufipes Host. were found
at New Orleans on Auust 6, 1937, in spring vetch in crrgo from Hungary. A
living aCult of the ceranbycid Phytoecia rufiventris Gaut. arrived at Seattle,
W'ash., on October 15, 1937, in a chrysanthenun stalk in ship's quarters fron
Japan. Workors of the ant Iridolyr ex iniquus var. nigella Emery wore inter-
cepted at Washington, D, C., on iNover.b r 1, 1937, in a wild orchid in the
nail fror. Costa Rica.


Patholojical interceptions of interest.--Asccchyta acchlydis De!rnoss
was intercepted for the first.ti.e on July 13 at Blaine on Achlys triphylla
fro,. British Colubia. The cc.nidia were latgor than the description calls"
for, An undeternined bacterial spottirig of punpkins fron Japan was col-
lec't d at Baltincre on Novermber 4. The lesions resenbled those prr.duced by
3 actcriuL .1iacIhrynans Si.i'th & Bryan but thiis pathogen is not reported from
Japan ead is not known to attack pumpkin. -Gloeosporiunmsp., unlike any
reccorc.od species, was found on December 5 -at Boston on lobc artichokes fron
England, Hendersoni4 oryzae Iiy., 'first interception, was f6oind on rice
straw mats used as packing for cargo from Japan on DecembeT 28 at Philadel-
phia. Eeterosporium trillii E. & 3., first interception, was found on
Trillium ovatum from.British Columbia on July 13 at 31aine. 'Melanospora sp.,
asci and spores abundant, was intercepted on water chestnuts from Japan on
December 14 at Buffalo. Myrothecium verrucaria (A. & S.) Ditm., first inter-
ception, was found on tomato from -exico on Apiil 30 at Nogales. Asci, as
well as conidia, of a Nectria species were found on ginger root from China
intercepted at Buffalo .on December 14. -There was so little of the perfect
stage and secondary organisms were growing so strongly that a determination
of the species was not practicable.' The first interccption of Oidium horten-
siae Jors. was made on June 20 at Boston on hydrangea from Scotland. Phoma
rimosa West. was intercepted for the first time onr.May 26 at New York on a
cargo shipment of reeds (Phragnites cor:mnis) from Holland. Puccinia tage-
ticola Diet. & Holw. was intercepted on Ta-getes sp. (T. tcnuifoliae?) from
iexico on April 26 at New York, Sclerotium sp., apparently distinct from
S. rolfsii Sacc., was intcrcapted in nongo seeds in begg:e fron Sierra Leone
on June' 21 at Philadelphia.


Activities relating to white-fringod beetle control project.--Caroful
inspection of places adjoining the known infested properties in the Florala,
Ala., area in Dec.ember resulted in finding 15 additional infested properties
totaling 793 acres. From July 22, when the work was started, to the last of
December, 9140 properties totaling 15,720 acres have beein f:und to be infested.
The largest control areas are in Okaloosa and walton Coulnties, Fla., and in
Harrison County, Hiiss., eacch of the three counties havingt' over 4,000 acres
infested. The other infestations are located in Flo-r la, Ala,, Pensacola,
Fla., Laurel, Landon, and McHenry, *liss., and ~ew Orleans, Le, Thirty-nine
percent of the infested area in the four States consists of cultivattd land.
A cjmplete survey of the barrier ditch was mn-do in December and close super-
vision was given the handling of the farming effects and crops cf the 266
tenants who moved from the ruguloted .reas in December.

Crop-production surveys in white-fringed beetle aroa,--Inspectors who
surveyed and platted the crops in the quarantined areas of Florida and Alabona
found that there were 51,000 acres of crops in the area, produced by 1,300
formers. The estinmted value of $545,914, based on actual surveys anad tuits
such as bales of cotton and wagonloads of corn, was taken as very nearly ac-
cur-'te. The acreage of woodland and uncultivated land is also being deternined,
as these types represent distinct factors in the eradication progrnn.


Phony peach and peach mosaic eradication.--Tree-removal was "'con-
tinued in December in Alabama, Arkansas, California,. Colorado, Georgia,
New Mexico, Tennessee, and Texas. Although special attention is directed
toward diseased trees, abandoned orchards are also removed, as well as
wild and escaped trees which are still found in the Eastern States. Of
the force of 476b relief employees, 65 percent are working on the peach
mosaic project. In the Palisade district of Colorado, notwithstanding the
fact that tree-removal has been in operation: since 1935, growers have co-
operated with the project and replanted to the extent of an increase of
80,000 trees over the number grown whon the work was begun. In California
the results of the year, as compared with those of 1936, show satisfactory

Sweetpotato weevil work.--Eradication activities carried on in De-
cember throughout the sweetpotato weevil infested areas of Alabama,
Georgia, Mississippi, and Texas consisted of having all infested fields
cleaned of any remaining host-food material. Throughout the infested
areas, inspectors have had considerable success in having fields repl6wed,
following the cold weather. Storage banks are being inspected and where
infestation is found the owners are induced to destroy the tubers or feed
them to stock; The practice in certain areas of paying laborers with
sweetpotatoes in lieu-of cash has necessitated a careful check of such
farm-to-farm movement. Small markets are,also inspected to prevent the
distribution of tubers from infested properties. The trapping of weevils
by placing occasional clean tubers in fields from which all other host
food has been removed is continued with satisfactory results. Inspections
of these various types, by.16 Federal and 18'State inspectors, resulted in
finding 60 infestations in the 4 States. Local broadcasts by the county
agent of Thomas County, Ga., tand a moving picture by the Georgia depart-
ment of entomology, showing damage caused by the sweetp6tato weevil, have
rendered considerable assistance to the work of the project. A survey of
this important sweetpotatb-producing county was completed in December and
eradication measures were put into effect on the 22 properties on which
infestation was found.

Transit inspection.--Transit inspectors throughout the 21 cities in
which work was conducted in December report a greatly increasea movement
of citrus fruit fron Texas. These shipments and carlots are inspected for
certificates required under the Mexican fruit fly quarantine. Christmas-
tree interceptions from the gypsy moth area in New England were greatly in-
creased at New York and Boston through the assignnmnt of acdditional in-
spectors from the gypsy moth project, and the inspection of truck movement
of Christmas trees and Christmas greens at the New York City flower-market-
district, where some apparently willful violations were caught. Although
New England Christmas trees were inspected at pearly all stations, inspec-
tors report that large numbers of such trees are shipped from the North-
western States and fron Canada, At Chicago the December freight arrivals
consisted of 83 cars of Christmas trees from Canada, 96 from Montana and
Washington, and 46 from New England, Nursery stock other than fruit trees
showed increased shipping over Noverber at Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and
Southern points,


Citrus canker in Louisiana and Texas.--Three Citrus trifoliata trees
were recently found infected on the water's edge, one on Bayou La Fourche
in AssuImtion Parish, and two in La Fourche Parish, all in the vicinity of
sites where canker was previously found. In Galveston County, Tex., in-
fection' was found on nine Citrus trifoliata seedlings recently germinated
on a spot where trees had been eradicated; on five such seedlings mile
from an old infection; and on one seedling orange on a property not pre-
viously known to be infected.


Response of insect heart to electrical stimulation.--J. F. Yeager, of
the Beltsville, Iid., laboratory, reports that electrical stimulation of the
heart of Periplaneta americana L. (in isolated, perfused preparation) has
shown that this insect's heart can give responses that are somewhat differ-
ent fron the responses usually given by the perfused vertebrate heart. The
stimrulated roach heart gives extrasystoles throughout the periods of relaxa-
tion and rest but no compensatory pauses following the extra contractions,
shows marked summation of contractions, shows an apparent response (sunrated
contraction) to stimulus during most of the contraction period, can exhibit
complete cardiac tetanus with rapid recovery at the end of stimulation, may
show apparent treppe or staircase effect, can exhibit sum :ation of stimuli,
and appears to have a relatively short absolute refractory period. These
responses seem to place the cardiac muscle of this insect somewhere between
vertebrate skeletal muscle and vertebrate cardiac muscle, when considered
from the functional standpoint. Histologically, the roach cardiac muscle
is striated.

Few compounds have characteristics of good insecticide.--During the
year 1937 approximately 250 organic compounds were tested for insecticidal
action on mosquito larvae by A. M. Phillips, of the Sanford, Fla., labora-
tory. Of this number only 34 had any appreciable toxicity and a bare half
dozen approached the toxicity of standard insecticides-. Of the 500 samples
tested on several species of leaf-feeding pests by M. C. Swingle and James
B. Gahan, 65 gave good control of first-instar larv:'e and less than 10
filled the requirements of toxicity to full-grown larvae and lack of injury
to foliage. In other words, only 1 sample out of every 100 tested gives
any.definite promise as an insecticide.


Study of quassia continued.--E. P. Clark, of this Division, has found
that the bitter insecticidal constituent of quassia wood (Quassia amara) is
a mixture of quassin, which has a melting point of 20Y C., and neoquassin,
which has a melting point of 226 .. These materials are isoneric and have
the molecular formula C22H0o06. A method for the preparation and purifica-
tion of thsse compounds and some of their reactions have been described in
two recent publications (Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc., vol. 59, PP. 927-931 (May
1937) and pp. 2511-2514 (Dec.' 1937)).


New solvents for rotenone.--H,, Ah. Jones and S. Love have determined
the solubility of rotenone at .250 Q. in 55 solvents not hitherto reported.
Rotenone is more soluble in methylene chloride (58.2 g of rotecnon in 100 g
of solvent) than in any other material., Rotenone is also quite soluble in
benzaldehyde, pyridine, nitrobenzene, furfural, and U. S. P. cresol. These
results are published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (vol.
59, pp. 2694-2696. Dec. 1937).

Deternination of oil deposit on sprayed folipge.--L. H. Dawsey anCu J.
Hiley have described an irproved weighing nethod for the deternination of
oil deposit on chrysanthemum foliage after spraying with emulsions. The
method is applicable to nearly all kinds of nonvolatile insecticidal oils,
including both petroleum oils and fatty oils. The procedure consists of
four steps: (1) Cutting leaf disks in preparation of samples, (2) extract-
ing samples, (3) evaporating the solvent, and (4) drying residues to con-
stant weight. Recovery of oil from chrysanthemum folinge is 100 percent
(Jour. Agr. Research, vol. 55, pp. 693-701, Nov. 1, 1937).

Some physical properties of commercial paris green.--L. D. Goodhue
and E. L. Gooden (Jcur. Econ. Ent., vol. 30, pp. 913-917. Dec. 1937) have
reported the results of an examination of nine commercial brands of paris
green. These were found to vary widely in particle size, density, cubic
inches per pound, and angle of slope. The values for cubic inches per
pound were in approximately the same order as the results of particle-size
determination by sedimentation analysis, and may be used as a rough measure
of the fineness of paris green.

Paris greens prepared from animal and vegetable oils.--F. E. Dearborn,
of this Division,.has described (Jour. Econ. IEnt., vol. 30, pp. 958-962. Dec.
1937) a procedure for making homologues of paris green from various animal
and vegetable oils, including castor, coconut,.cottonseed, corn, fish, pea-
nut, and soybean oils. FassiC and Campbell, of the Ohio State University,
have reported (Jour. Econ. Ent., vol. .30, pp. 681-62) that some of the
greens prepared from oils are more effective than ordinary paris green,
which is made from acetic acid.


Queen introduction needs further study.--C. L. Tarrar, Laramio, Wyo.,
reports: "The introduction of queens under fall conditions on a commercial
scale by the spray-direct release method gave very disappointing results,
as compared with those obtained during the summer. The spray-direct re-
lease method of introduction gave definitely poorer results than were ob-,
tained by cage introduction the previous two seasons. All queens appeared
to arrive in good condition, except two which had dead attendants; one of
these was lost, the other successfully introduced. The results were suf-
ficiently variable to indicate that the spray method may still have possi-
bilities." The actual loss reported in the study of the spray-direct re-
lease method of introduction this fall is 19.8 percent of a total of 207
queens. Roboing is ruled out as an appreciable factor in this loss by the
statement, "Robbing reached serious proportions in only one yard. Three
queens out of 26 (11.5 percent) were lost, which was considerably less than


the average loss fcr the other yards.'" The following conclusion is
given: "In general, these losses are not inconsistent with the experience
of cormmercial beelkeepers carrying out queen introduction on a large scale;
however, the extent of these losses emphasizes the importance of finding a
safe method of introduction."

Supersedure causes heavy Looss.--Mr. Farrer reports as follows on 50
packages received at Laramie on June 5 for use in the supsrsedure studies:
"10 queens, or 20 percent, -were lost between'June 5 and August 24, although
4 of these were probably lost because of manipulation. Neither variation in
the pollen factor while the queens were being reared nor the length of time
the queens were laying in the nuclei appeared to influence losses."

SMutations obtained by use of X-ray.--Otto Mackcnsen reports that a
number of mutations of the honeybee have been obtrined at the Baton Rouge,
La,, laboratory by the use of X rays and that the results indicate a muta-
tion rate of 12-1/2 percent for the germ cells tested. In describing the
mutations he states: "One of the mutations causes thickenings and branches
on the veins of the hind wing; the other a weakened chitinization of the
posterior portions of the abdocinal sclerites causing irregular posterior
margins and often holes through the sclerites'near their posterior margins.
The phenotypic expression of both varies considerably and may overlap the
normal condition. The mature drones carrying either mutation are very weak
and some of thei live long enough to become sexually mature."


West Indian sweetpotato weevil.--It has recently been pointed out by
E. C. Zinrerman, of the Bernice Bishop Museum, that the correct technical
name for this insect is Euscepes postfasciatus Fairm., the specific name
postfapciatus antedas+ng batatae Vfaterh.

Another riropean weevil in Ncrth Aierica.--7. J. Brown, of the
Canadian Ento iological Branch, has deposited in the Nitional uuseum col-
lection several specimens of Sitona linoatus L., collected on green pea
seedlings at Victoria, British Colu.bia, in Hay 1937. The.species is com-
mon and 7idely distributed in Europe, but has not before been reported from
North America.

Larva of a parasitic lepidopteron received.--A lepidopterous larva
attached to the body of the fulgorid Oliarus concinnula Fowler was received
from William F. Turner, of the Division of Freit Insect Investtigtions. The
fulgorid, with the parasite attached, had been swept from plum foliage in
Brown County, Tex. Carl Hiinrich identified the larva as Spipyrops sp.
Larvae of this genus are seldon received, this being the thirC specimen to
come to the National Collection, The genus Spipyrops belongs to a small
family (Epipyropidae) of wide distribution, all of whose species, as far as
known, are parasitic on Homoptera.


3 1262 09243 4538

Notes on ant identification.--Workers of the tiny black ant Mono-
morium minimum (Buckley) were sent in for determination by J. U. Gilmore,.
with the statement that they were eating flea beetles at Oxford, N. C.,
the latter part of June 1937. Specimens of ants collected at Anacoco, La.,
on December 12, 1937, and submitted to the Division of Insect Identifica-
tion by K. L. Cockerham have been determined by M. R. Smith as the Texas
leaf-cutting ant (Atta texana (Buckley)). Mr. Cockerham states that he
collected the ants from collards, turnips, and onions, where they were
cutting the leaves and causing considerable damage.

New record of an aphid on tulip.--Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae (Linn.)
was identified by P. 7. Mason from tulip bulbs from Holland, intercepted
at Detroit (Detroit No. 1931). This common aphid usually migrates between
plum and various aquatic plants, sometimes living partially submerged be-
neath the water, and at times being injurious to aquatic plants in green-
houses. Its presence on tulip bulbs is very unusual and not previously

Preparation of soft-bodied insects.--Soft-bodied insects, such as
wingless crickets, wingless blister beetles, and termites, are rarely found
satisfactorily preserved as pinned specimens. Because of distortion and
shrinkage they are often not readily recognized as the species they repre-
sent. Excellent permanent preparations.-of such material can be made, how-
ever, by the following method which has been outlined by H. S. Barber: The
insects are killed and fixed in 95 percent alcohol. When moderately hardened
the membranes and coagulated viscera are punctured with a fine micro pin
to facilitate complete dehydration in absolute alcohol. The specimens are
then placed in xylol or benzol to clear them and to remove any remaining
soluble fats. After this they are allowed to dry and are then in condition
for permanent preservation., If it is desired to pin the insects through the
body this is done after hardening in 95 percent alcohel, before complete de-
hydration. It has been found more generally satisfactory, "owever, to
puncture the right side of the insect with a scalpel and to insert a.suit-
able card point coated with an adhesive, the pin later to be ran through the
base of the triangle.