News letter

MISSING IMAGE

Material Information

Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Publisher:
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publication Date:
Frequency:
monthly

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
System ID:
AA00023227:00039

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text


uj jr.D[ rSTA.
DE.PArvJ.,JI OF AG. JCUiLTJURE








BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE
NEWS LETTER






SVOLUME Y
*Ifi 4.
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter37no1






UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BUREAU OF ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER

FOR NOVEMBER 1937



Vol. V, No, 1 (Not for publication) January 1, 1938



BRITISH SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY HONORS A BUREAU ENTOMOLOGIST

Robert E. Snodgrass has been elected an honorary fellow in the Royal
Entomological Society of London, the third American to be so honored in
recent years. Honorary membership in this society--one of the oldest ento-
mological societies in the world--is limited to 12, all elected for their
contributions to the scientific study of insects. L. 0. Howard, one of
the great pioneers in economic entomology, and the late W. M. Wheeler, of
Harvard University, the world's foremost authority on ants, were also re-
cipients of this honor. Mr. Snodgrass was elected because of his impor-
tant work on the morphology of insects.

FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Sublaboratory at Shreveport, La., discontinued.--The investigations
on obscure.scale and on pecan phylloxera in northwestern Louisiana having
been completed, the sublaboratory at Shreveport has been closed, effective
December 1. W. C. Pierce, who was in charge of this sublaboratory, has
been transferred to the Brownwood, Tex., laboratory for pecan-insect in-
vestigations.

Recoveries of Dioctes molestae Uch. indicate establishment.--G. J.
Haeussler, of the Moorestown, N. J., laboratory, reports that D. molestae,
an oriental fruit moth parasite imported from Japan, has been recovered
this season from several localities colonized in previous years, under
circumstances indicating successful overwintering and probable establish-
ment at several widely scattered points. The most important recoveries
occurred at West Webster and Pultneyville, N. Y., from liberations made
in 1935, At these points the parasite was more abundant in second-brood
collections than in th6se of the first brood, indicating an increase as
the second brood progressed. A recovery at Southington, Conn., was due,
either as the result of a liberation made on that property in 1935 or as
dispersion from colonies placed on other properties in the sane locality
in 1936. Recoveries at Pennsauken, N, J., and at Quincy, Pa., are of
interest in view of the fact that D. molestae has never been liberated
in these localities, the recoveries being due, therefore, to dispersion
from colonies released in neighboring localities in previous seasons. A
recovery.at Arendtsville, Pa., was due likewise to dispersion from
liberations made either in 1933 or 1935 on other properties in the same
locality. The recovery of a single male from first brood oriental fruit





-2-


moth at Lovingston, Va., indicated that D. molestae survived the second
winter there but failure to recover the species in subsequent collections
from the same and nearby properties later in the season suggests that the
survival nay not have been sufficient to maintain the species at that point.

Chemicals tested as baits for codling noth.--During 1937 E. R. Van
Leeuwen, of the Yakina, Wash., laboratory, tested separately nine acids
which have been reported as present in fermenting sugar baits. Only one,
glycine, proved to be attractive to the codling noth. Of 99 other chemi-
cals tested by adding then to the standard molasses bait, butyl phenol -
acetate increased the catch of noths 214 percent, dinalyl valerianate in-
creased it 252 percent, and pipernal increased it 186 percent. Several of
the chemicals, including iso-butyl anthranilate, cypress oil, lavender
oil, and sweet marjoram, were distinctly repellent.

Codlirng moth oviposits on or near fruit.--In connection with a study
of the relation of bait catches of the codling noth to its normal occur-
rence in the orchard, Mr. Van Leeuwen made a study in the spring of 1937
of the location of eggs deposited by spring-brood noths. Of 600 eggs, 56
percent were on the upper surfaces of large leaves, 21 percent were on the
upper surfaces. of the small leaves near apples, 16 percent were on the
apples, and the .renaining 7 percent were in various other locations. Of
the eggs on the large leaves, 90 percent were within 6 inches of an apple.
It is thus evident that the female codling noth is definitely attracted by
the apples.

Ethylene dichloride effective for peach borer control.--Comparative
experiments in New York, Illinois, and Georgia with ethylene dichloride
for control of the peach borer, using paradichlorobenzene crystals as the
standard of comparison, are reported by 0. I. Snapp as giving practically
complete. control in the three States. Ethylene dichloride proved to be
not only the most effective but also the safest naterial for young trees,
as well as being effective under soil temperature conditions too cold for
the paradichlorobenzene treatment.

Dichlorethyl ether dust fails to repel dried fruit beetle.--D. F.
Barnes and C. K. Fisher, of the Fresno, Calif., laboratory, applied di-
chlorethyl ether mixed with hydrated lime, at the rate of 1 gallon to 200
pounds, to freshly piled grape ponace. The dust was applied until the sur-
face of the piles was thoroughlywhitened, The haterial did not repel the
dried fruit beetle (Carpophilus hemipterus L.). At the beginning three
piles of pomace contained 2.4, 3.5, and 0.8 beetles per pound. After ex-
posure for 1 week in a field the piles were infested approximately as fol-
lows, per pound of ponace:


Pile No. tnd treatrment : Adults : Larvae
: Number : Number
1, Undusted control----------------: 70 694
2, Dusted after 30 minutes' exposure: 84 : 853
3, Dusted immediately--------------: 109 : 341








-3-


The figures given in the table refer only to findings in ponace at
or near the surface. At depths of a foot or so the heat of fermentation
prevents development.

Seasonal cycle of Japanese beetle in earliest infested region, as
shown by soil surveys over 11-year period.--Systematic soil surveys were
made in 1926, at two stations in the earliest infested area in central New
Jersey., The folloving year the number of stations was increased to eight
by adding two stations 'in New Jersey and four in eastern Pennsylvania.
Surveys'were continued at these eight points until 1935 when the nunber
was reduced to five by dropping two of the New Jersey stations and one in
Pennsylvania. These surveys were discontinued at the close of the 1936
season. Surveys were made in approximately the same locations each year
and all were made in permanent turf. Seven of the eight locations used
were in' the rou4ghs of golf courses, the eighth in a pasture. In making
surveys*, a sectibn of sod 1 foot square was removed and all beetle stages
in and beneath the .turf were found. and the number recorded. In the 11
years, 37,415. surveys were made and 371,492 individuals in the various
stages were recovered. The data have been compiled by.I. M. Hawley and
T. N. Dobbins, of the Moorestown, N. J., laboratory. In an attempt to de-
termine as nearly as possible what- a normal seasonal cycle would be, the
total numbersl of individuals found in all surveys during the 11-year
period hav6 been combined and from these data the percentage in each stage
has been computed and is given in the following table.






-4-


Normal percentage frequency distribution of the various soil stnges
of the Japan ese beetle in the Philadelphia area, based on the
total number of individuals recovered in successive 10-day
periods from 1926 to 1936 at the regular survey stations


:Number : Percentage of soil population as--
Period : of : :First :Second: Third :Pre- :
: surveys: Egg :instar:instar:instar :pupa :Pupa :Adult
Jan, and Feb----: 1,162 : -- : 01-: 79 : 92,1 : -- -- : --
March 1-10-----: 495 : -- : .-: 6.1 : 93,9 : -- : --
11-20-----: 609 : -- : .1-: 6,5 : 93,5 : -- :-- : --
21-31-----: 1,119 : --: ,1-: 7.5 : 92,5 : --: --:--
April 1-10-----: 1,079 : -- : ,1-: 6,3 : 93,7 : -- : --
11-20-----: 1,116 : -- : .1-: 6,1 : 93,9 --
21-30-----: 1,497 : -- 1- 6,8 : 93,2 : -- : --
May 1-10-----: 1,454 : ,1-: 5,8 : 94,2 : -- : -- : --
11-20-----: 1,569 : : .1-: 5,0 : 95.0 : .1- -- : --
21-31-----: 1,709 : -- : .1-: 3,5 : 95.0 : 1.2 0.2 :
June 1-10-----: 1,796 : -- : -- 0,8 : 71,6 :23,8 : 3,9 :
11-20-----: 1,677 : : : .1-: 31, :36,2 :30,8 : 1,7
21-30-----: 1,624 : 2.1 : : .1-: 16, :17.2 :48,6 :15,7
July l-10-----: 1,288 : 33,5 : 10 : : 7,3 : 5,0 :20,9 :324
11-20-----: 1,387 : 76,0 : 7,3 : ,1-: 2,5 : 1,3 : 4,1 : 8.7
21-31-----: 1,538 : 54.7 : 38.5 : 2.8 : 0.6 : 0.2 : 0.7 : 2.6
Aug. 1-10-----: 1,304 : 18.2 : 51.0 : 29,9 : 0,3 : .1-: .1-: 0.5
11-20-----: 1,225 : 3,2 ; 27,7 : 67,7 : 1,3 :-- : .1-: 0.1
21-31-----: 1,463 : 10 : ,0 : 69,6 : 16,4 -- -- ,1-
Sept. 1-10-----: 996 :0.2 : ,0 : 42,6 : 53,2 : -- : -- : --
11-20-----: 1,172 : .1-: 1.5 : 255 : 73,0 : -- : .1-
21-30-----: ,416 : -- : 04 : 11.4 : 88,2 : -- : -- --
Oct. 1-10-----: 1,524 : -- : ,1 : 7.8 : 92.1
11-20-----: 1,439 : -- : ,1 : 6.2 : 937 : -- : -- : --
21-31-----: 1,536 : -- : 6,1 : 938 : -- -- --
Nov. 1-10-----: 1,219 : -- : 1-: 55 : 94.5 -- --
11-20-----: 1,050 : -- : ,-: 6,9 : 93,1 -- : -- --
21-30-----: 1,069 : -- .1-: .84 : 91.6 : -- :-- :
December-------- 883 : -- : .1-: 5.8 : 94.2 -- : --

In this earliest infested area in the general vicinity of Phila-
delphia most larvae pass the winter in the third or final instar. By
averaging the number of individuals found between November 1 and March 31
of the following year, when all larvae are in a dormant condition, it was
shown that 93.1 percent were in the third instar and 6.9 percent in the
second instar. Although this is the normal condition for the years in-
volved, there has at times been considerable variation from this figure.
In the 1931-32 brood over 98 percent reached the third instar by the dor-
mant season, whereas in the 1935-36 brood only 78 percent reached this
stage. In the period from October 1 to the end of the following May, first
instars have occasionally been found, but during the 11-year period only
91 were found after October 1 and only 31 of these were found after January 1.





-5-


Relatively few surveys were made during the months of December, January,
and February and the data for these periods are given collectively rather
than by 10-day periods.

MEXICAN FRUIT FLY CONTROL

No Mexican fruitflies taken since July.--Fruit shipments this season
are slightly ahead of the same date last year. For the second consecutive
month the numbers of Anastrepha serpentina Wied. trapped in the lower Rio
Grande Valley increased greatly.. During Novombertraps took 527 individu-
als of this species. They were collected from all districts in the area
and were trapped both in-groves and in brushlands. Some other fruitflies
were also present in slightly increased numbers. No Anastrepha ludens
Loew, however, was taken this month nor has any been trapped in Texas
since July. The following table shows the numbers of the various species
of fruitflies identified during November,


Species : Texas : Mexico
Adults : Number : Number
A. ludens---------------------- : 0 2
Premises---------------------: 0 2

A. serpentina------------------: 527 9
Premises---------------------: 270 7

A. striata Schin---------------: 1 0
Premises------------------: 1 0

A. sp. "Y"---------------------: 12 1
Premises---------------------: 12 1

A. sp. "L"---------------------: 13 0
Premises---------------------: 13 0

A. pallens Coq----------------: 17 : 15
Premises---------------------: 106 2

Larvae
Rhagoletis sp------------------: 0 :387
Total------------------------: 731 : 414

*From market fruit.


CEREAL AIND FORAGE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Search for larvae of rare species of June beetles in southern Wis-
consin.--T. R. Chamberlin and J. A. Callenbach, Madison, Wis., report that
in a search for larvae of some of the less common species of June beetles,
which have not been found in cultivated fields in southern Wisconsin during








-6-


the last 3 years, reconnaissance diggings were made in various localities
during the month. These included diggings in woods around trees and
shrubs and in sod and crops adjoining woods, where adults of those rarer
species were known to occur. The digging was done in sandy hills near Lodi
and Poynette and in the silt loam soils east of Leeds. All grubs of
Phyllophaga found belonged to the common species, P. rugosa Melsh., P. fusca
Froel, P. hirticula Knoch, and P. tristis F. A few undetermined scarabaeid
grubs not belonging to the genus Phyllophaga and others apparently belong-
ing to the genus Serica were obtained. No grubs of Anomala ludiviciana
Schffr. or Strigoderma arboricola F. were taken. These last-named species
were fairly common in the sandy areas in.1935 and 1936. It is still puzzl-
ing where'. grubs of the rare species of Phyllopha,,a concentrate, although
the adult b etles dug included several P. drakei Kby., one P. fosteri Burm.,
and one P. prunina Lec., which are relatively scarce, and those must have
developed very near the places in the soil where they were found.

Grasshopper damage to hessian fly-resistance test plots.--E. T. Jones,
Manhattan, Kans., reports as follows: "Owing to the invasion by grass-
hoppers of our hessian fly-resistance test plots at Springfield, Mo., an
interesting situation has arisen, The first fall brood of the hessian fly
emerged over a period of 1 or 2 weeks. Eggs of the early flies were ovi-
posited and many larvae became established. Before emergence of the first
brood of fly was complete, grasshoppers migrating from fields of cut corn
invaded the plots and preventod further oviposition on the wheat by de-
stroyingi the leaves. As a result of the combined grasshopper and hessian
fly injury, a lar-je number of plants were killed. Material in several im-
portant experinents was impaired or completely destroyed; however, several
hundred strains of winter wheat and more than 300 strains of fall-planted
spring wheat in the tests have yielded acceptable data on the re-
action of plants, both of extreme resistance and extreme susceptibility to
infest-tion by flies of the first fall brood. Plants surviving the com-
bined Pttack of the grasshoppers and the first fall brood of fly produced
now leaves in time for oviposition by flies from this brood. A heavy
second fall brood of fly is now maturing on the surviving plants which, it
is expected, will enable us to obtain valuable information on the reaction
of those strains to separate infestations by both fall broods. So dis-
tinct a separation of the fall brcods has not been possible in previous
tests."

Ramona ;-heat shows low jointworm infestation.--W. B. Cartwright,
Sacramento, Calif., reports that the average infestation in early wheat
varieties at Birds Landing, Calif., was 46 percent in plant samplesof
1936, with Rasrmona showing an exceptional low of none. In 1937 the same
series of varieties was 66 percent infested, with Ramona 13 percent.
Initial crosses of varieties with Rarona are planned to determine whether
segregation of resistance will occur or contrasts of infestations con-
tinue, as are recorded in the field tests summarized below.





-7-



: Average infestation,
Variety : 1936-37
Ramona--------------: 10
Dixon--------------- 46
Reward--------------: 90
Oakley--------------: 64
Bunyip------------- 65
Quality-------------: 55
Poso------------: 74
Pusa No. 4----------: 80
Early Blackhull-----: 75
Java--------- -----: 41
Sunset--------------: 6
Indian-------------- 68
Escondido-----------: 40
Alberta Early------: 66
Progress------------. : 42

JAPANESE BEETLE CONTROL

Fall shipping of nursery stock at peak.--Mild vlear weather prevail-
ing most of the month enabled nurserymen to dig and prepare for inspection
large quantities df plant stock both for immediate shipment and placement
in lead arsenate-treated heeling-in areas in readiness for future shipping.
Inspections of soil-free plant material throughout Maryland were numerous
and included many bulk shipments. On checking records of classified
growers in the Virginia area, an inspector found that several establish-
ments had received uncertified stock which they had failed to report. Cer-
tification privileges were promptly revoked until reports were submitted
and the uncertified stock disposed of in a manner satisfactory to the in-
spector. Two establishments which could not obtain certification of the
unreported stock were deprived of their classified status. Inspected nur-
sery stock in the Philadelphia, Pa., district totaled over l! million
plants for the month. Below-freezing temperatures during the last week of
the month all but terminated the fall shipping season in most districts.
A regular biseasonal check-up of all classified establishments was in pro-
gress in all sections of the regulated area.

Treating activities varied.--A recently classified establishment in
Connecticut has treated several thousand plants with paradichlorobenzene
-and has also treated three hotframes for plunging of small pot plants.
This.was the first establishment in the New England area to make any treat-
ments under the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations.

Quarantine violators convicted at special session.--A special session
of the United States district court was scheduled at Rochester, N. Y., on
November 8, to try 10 truckers who transported farm products contrary to
the Japanese beetle quarantine regulations. These men were caught with un-
certified produce by an inspector stationed at the Rochester Public Market
from the middle of July until Labor Day. Each man had trucked uncertified


I IRRARY






-S-


frrm products from points within the regulated areas of New Jersey, Mary-
land, Delaware, or Virginia to Rochester, a point outside the regulated
zone. Nine of the ten violators pleaded guilty as charged and were ordered
by the Court to pay fines of $25 each. Trial of a tenth violator, who
pleaded not guilty, was deferred to the next session of the District Court
in Buffalo, N. Y. Prosecution of a number of truckers who are residents
of New Jersey is expected to take place. within a few weeks.

Road-station activities concluded.--A compilation of interceptions of
Japanese beetles at quarantine line stations for 1937, reveals that 2,838
adults and 123 grubs were recovered from road vehicles moving from the reg-
ulated area. Of the 16 stations that reported interceptions, 7 were in
Virginic, 4 in Ohio, 2 in West Virginia, 2 in Pennsylvania, and 1 was a
roving patrol. All road patrol activities were discontinued on November 20.

Late emergence of elm bark beetles.--Freshly emerged adults of Scolytus
multistriatus Marsh. were found in galleries examined in Warren -and Somer-
set Counties, N. J., late in November. October is usually the maximum date
for the pupal stage of this species. There were indications of recent
adult emergence frou the tree, with probable further emergence to occur dtr-
ing periods of warm neather. Observations will be continued to determine
whether the advanced innature stages succumb during the winter or succeed
in completing their development during periods of favorable temperatures.

Long-decaying tree finally develops Graphium.--A report was received
from the laboratory this ronth confirming a tree in Old Lyme, Conn., which
has been under almost continuous observation since the fall of 1934. No
discoloration was discoverable on any of the three sets of samples submitted
during the past scouting season fron this long-decaying and much-pruned
tree. After having been finally removed as a DT, samples of bark contain-
ing Hylurgopinus rufipes Eich. beetles and wood specimens were submitted to
the laboratory for culturing. Graphium has been obtained from the beetle
galleries in the bark and some of the wood sarples showed a small anount of
discoloration, but the material is still being held in culture since
Graphium has not as yet been isolated.

Sanitation crews remove old trees.--An elm of historical interest,
situated on Franklin turnpike near the center of Hohokus, Bergen County,
N. J., was tagged for removal late in the month. Washington and his gener-
als, it is said, were sheltered by this tree as they planned the Battle of
Hohokus. The historic scene is preserved in a mural in the Ridgewood, N. J.,
theater. One of the largest elms in Monrouth County, N. J., was also re-
moved in November. It was a field tree, 74 inches in dianeter-at breast
height and at least 200 years old, probably standing before the Battle of
Monmouth was fought. Removal of the slowly dying tree was necessary when
lack of care caused it to come within the DT class.

Pruning project completed at Old Lyme, Conn.--November 2 narked the
completion of the first major pruning project undertaken since systematic
foliar scouting was ended for the season. A total of 3,539 man-hours were
expended in pruning 1,034 trees in the once badly infected area at Old Lyme,
Conn. An average of 30 cuts were pruned from each tree. During the first






-9-


3 weeks of the month approximately 5,000 additional trees were pruned in
the major and- outlying areas of infection.

Graphium cultured from!: elm slash.--In clearing a right-of-way for
electric power lines through Green Townrship, Sussex County, N. J., work-
men left a nur.bor of cut elms and a quantity of elm slash. Samples ob-
tained from one such pile of -slash and submitted to the laborAtor werre
confirmed as infected with Dutch elm disease. Much of the material was
infested with beetl-es and constituted a probcble source of inoculum.

Another diseased tree reported from Indianapolis.--A tree al it 90
percent dead was eradicated at Indianapolis, Ind., the last week ._ Octo-
ber and samples were submitted at that time. Dead and dying part's of the
tree had been sampled last summer, although no typical wilting was ob-
served. Native elm bark beetles had emerged from the tree.

Stored nursery stock requires gypsy moth inspection.--Several nur-
series located in the generally infested gypsy moth area in western Massa-
chusetts make a practice of storing Daphne evergreen plants and deciduous
trees and shrubs in preparation for the spring shipping season. At one
nursery 25,994 trees, 138,790 shrubs, and 50,000 Daphne plants were in-
spected at the time of digging for placement in winter st'orage. One gypsy
moth egg cluster, was found on one of the plants inspected. At a smaller
nursery 12,280 Daphne plants were inspected for storage.

Seasonal inspection of Christmas greenery.--Inspection of carload
shipments of Christmas trees was in full swing during November. Absence
of cold spells and snow made ideal weather for this work. In western Mass-
achusetts and southern Vermont inspection of evergreen-bough lots was
practically completed by the end of November. To date, 19 egg clusters
have been removed from inspected bough lots. Reports from inspectors in-
dicate in excess of 150 carload shipments of evergreen plant material from
.Barre, Vt.

Intercepted laurel returned for inspection.--A truckload of uncerti-
fied laurel originating in the badly infested area at Westerly, R. I., was
intercepted by an inspector stationed at the New York City Florer Market.
The driver was ins-tructed to return to Westerly and have the material in-
spected and certified. At Westerly it was necessary to unload and unbale
the laurel to insure proper inspection.

FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Sawfly eggs numerous in unsprayed plantations.--J. V. Schaffner, Jr.,
of the New Haven, Conn., laboratory, reports that on November g and 9 sev-
eral red pine plantations were examined in Middlesex County, Mass., for
the presence of the sawfly Neodiprion sp. It was found that in some locali-
ties where no spraying had been done for this pest in 1937, the egg deposit
in the needles was rather heavy, indicating it as a potential menace to red
pine in these localities in 1938.






-10-


Introduced parasite of oriental fruit moth increases.--P, A. Berry,
New Haven, reports that observations were made in November to determine
the abundance of the oriental moth (Cnidocampa flavescens Walk.) and the
introdiced 'parasite Chaetexorista javana B, and B. The population of the
oriental moth has definitely increased over that of 1936 in 5 of the 17
observation points located at Boston, Mass., and nearby suburban towns.
The greatest increases noted were at Cambridge and Winthrop, and lesser
increases at Revere and two localities in Dorchester. At-the other points
the infestation was about the same as that of 1936. Heavy infestations,
as evidenced by abundance of cocoons on shade and fruit trees, are extremely
local, Nearly 2,000 cocoons were collected and the prepual larvae dis-
sected. The results of the dissections showed a decided increase in para-
sitization over that of 1936 by the introduced parasite .Q javana.

Emergence and distribution of Matsucoccus on pitch pine.--T. J. Parr,
New Haven, reports that inspection of the infestations at Madison and
Nashua, N. H., proves that the insects have emerged from the twigs in
these northern localities and are producing eggs under the loose-bark scales
on the large branches and main stems of the trees. Examination of material
received from Mont Alto, Pa., shows that nearly all of the insects have
left the twigs, although a few were still in the galls on November 8. In-
spection of pitch pine in Massachusetts shows a general, although somewhat
spotty, distribution over the eastern half of the State. Infestations were
also found to be rather general in pitch pine areas in Rhode Island, being
heaviest along the shore. Several infestations not.previously reported
have been picked up in eastern and central Connecticut and a very light in-
festation was found near Valatie, N. Y., on Route 9. This is believed to
be the first record for 1atsucoccus in New York.

Mountain pine beetle activity increasing in northern California.--Bu-
reau survey crews are finding that the charactor of the 1937 infestation of
lodgepole pine by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus monticolae Hopk.)
differs greatly from that of previous years, according to K. A. Salman, of
the Berkeley, Calif., laboratory. Although infested trees are not particu-
larly abundant in many areas, insect attacks are vigorous, broods are
healthy, and one season of attack is sufficient to kill trees. For the last
few years infestations have resulted in strip killing, broods have been
relatively unsuccessful, and it has often required several years of attack
to kill trees. This change is interpreted as a reversal of infestation
trends, with marked increase in infestation and damage possibly due to ap-
pear within a few years.

Temnochila virescens F. is more important of two predators of moun-
tain pine beetle,--Preliminary studies during the season of 1937 by G. R.
Struble,"of the Berkeley laboratory, dealing with the seasonal history and
habits of the two more important predators of the mountain pine beetle in
sugar pine, indicate that T, virescens is a more efficient predator than
Enoclerus sphegeus F.

Insecticides tested a..inst lodgepcle needleminer.--J. S. Yuill,
Berkeley, reports that investigations on the work of the lodgepole needle-
miner (Recurvaria milleri Busck) during the past field season has brought







-11-


out some .pertinent data on the control of this important pest of the
Yosemite forests. The eggs and newly hatched larvae are the most vul-
nerable points in the life cycle, as practically all of the larval feeding
takes place within the needle, where it is difficult for insecticides to
.penetrate. Attention was concentrated, therefore, on the period before
the young larvae enter the needles and start feeding. This occurs only in
July and August of each alternate year. Several different formulae includ-
ing oils, lead arsenate, nicotine, and organic compounds have been tested.
One of the greatest difficulties in applying a water spray is to find a
combination that will wet the new growth well without causing burning. The
most promising of the materials tested are (1) fast-b'reaking emulsions con-
taining highly refined oils and nicotine sulphate of thiocyanates, (2)
lead arsenate. wi.th ".dynamite" spreader, and (3) vaporized oils with 95 per-
cent nicotine. The reason for developing sprays for control of the needle-
miner is-to protect the trees in recreational areas.

Pine beetle survey shows improved forest conditions in Northwest.--
One of the most extensive western pine beetle surveys ever conducted in
the ponderosa pine region of the Pacific Northwest was brought to a close
at the end of October, according to F. P. Keen, of the Portland, Oreg.,
laboratory. The Forest Service, the Office of Indian Affairs, and the
C. C. C. combined forces under plans outlined by this Bureau and covered
with extensive scouting work approximately 8,00,000 acres, or 75 percent
of the total ponderesa pine acreage in Oregon and Washington. This survey
showed that conditions over the ponderosa pine region had greatly iiproved
during the last year, owing to control work and natural control factors.

Beetles active in Oregon's "Lost Forest."--One of the most interest-
ing and little-known forest areas in Oregon was recently visited by W. J.
Buckhorn, of the Portland laboratory, while making a survey of pine-bark-
beetle activities. This isolated forest tract, which is known locally as
the "Lost Forest" and is seldon frequented, even by'the natives, is lo-
cated in the high desert of southeastern Oregon about 40 uiles east of the
town of Silver Lake. The stand, composed of a ponderosa pine-juniper
type of site quality V, covers an area about 4 by 6 miles in size, and is
coqpletely isolated from other pine forests by about 30 miles of open
sagebrush and scattered juniper flats. The pine is scattered, although
several portions of the forest support stands of approximately 5,000 board
feet to the acre. Most of the pine is mature, with dianeters up to 50
inches., There are few immature trees and almost no reproduction in the
area, During the last few years the loss from the western pine beetle
(Dendroctopus brevicomis Lec.) has been exceedingly heavy. According to
Buckhorn, the loss along the south side of the forest will average about
80 percent of the stand, while on the north side about 30 percent of the
stand has been killed. .At present beetle activity is less acute, owing
p.qssibly to high larval mortality caused by the low teLperatures last
winter. It is interesting to speculate on the source of this infestation
and whether the beetles.will eventually succeed in exterminating this
isolated island of pine.






-12-


Carpenter ants in the Pacific Northwest.--Various control methods
suggested in the past as satisfactory for dealing with carpenter ants
have been tested recently to determine what methods can be recommended un-
der local conditions. Twenty-three chemicals and combinations were tried
on carpenter ant colonies in the woods. Results showed that carpenter ants
can be killed by a number of contact insecticides and fumigants,provided
the entire colony can be reached by the liquids or gases. Sodium fluoride,
a stomach poison, applied in runways gave fair results when used under dry
conditions. Several attempts 'at baiting proved unsuccessful. So far, none
of the previously recommended methods of control have proved satisfactory
under all conditions.

Weiser National Forest covered by insect survey.--J. C. Evenden re-
ports thrt a survey of the Weiser National Forest conducted under the super-
vision of the laboratory at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, was completed early in
November. The purpose of this survey was to obtain information relative to
the present status of the mountain pine beetle and Douglas fir beetle in-
festations. Though both of these insects have been responsible for consid-
erable damage during the last few years, the survey indicated that the in-
festations apparently have decreased to a point where they are not alarm-
ing. However, there are several situations that will need to be kept under
careful observation during t'hs next few seasons.

Douglas fir beetle in Yellowstone National Park.--During the winter
of 1934-35 Douglas fir trees around Mammoth, Yellowstone National Park,
were severely injured by unseasonal temperatures. Practically all of the
foliage on these trees and a large percentage of the terminal buds were
destroyed. Though a number of these trees died from this injury, many pro-
vided the foliage necessary for recovery through the production of adven-
titious buds which appeared during the past season. Mr. Evenden reports
that Douglas fir beetle attacks were found in a large number of the
weakened trees in 1937.

Windfalls produce abundant bark-beetle broods.-W. D. Bedard, Coeur
d'Alene, reports that windfalls are practically nonresistant to bark-beetle
attack, and serve as excellent host material. Owing to the moisture pro-
vided by one or two uninjured roots, these trees often remain in a condi-
tion suitable for bark-beetle attack for two seasons.

Bark-beetle attacks in elm logs produce Dutch elm disease.--C. W.
Collins, of the Morristobn, N. J., laboratory, reports that sm.ll living
elm trees were cut and transported to Oyster Bay, Long Island, N, Y., where
they were placed at two points in the immediate vicinity of which trees af-
fected with the Dutch elm disease had been removed in 1936. Two trees were
put at one point (A) and onE at the other point (B). After being exposed
for 5 weeks the trees were cat into sections and replaced by the same num-
ber of freshly cut trees. The sections were brought to Morristown where
they were peeled, the bark beetle galleries counted, and certain galleries
cut out and cultured to find out whether the Dutch elm disease fungus
(Ceratostonaella uli (Schwarz) Buisman) was present in them. Except for two






-13-


galleries of Hylurgopinus rufipes Eich, and one of Scolytus sulcatus Lee.,
all the bark-beetle galler.ies found in the trees were made by Scolytus
multistriatus Marsh. The number of galleries formed and the percentage
giving C. ulni were much higher in the last set of trees put out than in
the other sets. This is indicated ,in the following table.


Dates when trees:S. multistriatus:S. nmultistriatus:Galleries: Galleries
were cut and :galleries found : galleries : giving : giving
placed at point : in trees : cultured : C. ulmi : C. ulmi
Number : Number : Number : Percent
Point A : : :
;ay 17------ : : 0 : : 0 .: 0 0.
June 21---------: :58 58 : 0 : 0
July 26--------- 4.07 : 300 : 6 : 2.0
August 0-------: 1,1.92 : 00 .: 20 : 20.0
Point B
May 17 ------ 76 : 76 : 6 7.9
June 21----- : :65 : 65 : 0 0
July 26--------: 633 : 100 : 0 : 0
August 30-------: 1,828 : 50 8 16.0

Treating elm stumps with chemicals.--R. R. Whitten, Morristown, sub-
mits the following summary of experiments which he has conducted in co-
operation with T. W. Graham, of the Division of Forest Pathology of the
Bureau of Plant Industry, and with the Dutch elm disease eradication unit.
Between 600 and 700 stumps from recently cut elm trees were experimentally
treated with various chemicals to prevent sprouting and bark-beetle attacks.
The following chemicals were applied to the stumps: Copper sulphate, copper
sulphate with calcium chloride, sodium dichromate, anmonium bifluoride,
sodium chlorate, and sodium arsenite. Paradichlorobenzene and 'calcium
cyanide were applied to the soil under the stump. All treatments were made
during April 1937.. In November 1937 each treated stunp and 50 untreated
stumps were entirely debarked and examined for sprouting, live wood, and
bark beetle attacks. The results are included in the following table.


: Stump condit-ion- : Bark-
Chemical : Stu.ps:Entirely:Partly :Entirely: Strumps :beetle
:treated: dead : alive : alive :sprouting:gallel-ie's
:Nunber : Percent:Percent: Percent: Percent : Number
Copper sulphate---- : 100 : 29 : 71 0 : 30 : 0
Copper sulphate and : : : :
calcium chloride---: 99 : 28 73 0 : 27 : 0
Sodium dichronate----: 100 : 5 : 55 : 40 : 36 : 0
Ammonium bifluoride--: 100 : 27 : 73 : 0 : 34 : 0
Sodium chlorate------: 50 : 32 : 68 0 : 10 65
Sodium arsenite------: 50 18 80 : 2 : 50 : 0
Paradichlorobenzene--: 50 : 4 : 12 : 84 : 80 : 14
Calciur cyanide----- : 42 0 : 24 : 76 60 : 0
Checks---------------: 50 : : 100 : : 84 : 0









Chemical treatments to renove eln trees.--Mr. Whitten also reports
on the results of experiments, conducted by him and other members of the
Morristown laboratory during the past season, on the use of chemicals as
a moans of renoving undesirable elu trees, To be effective the tree must
be entirely killed and protected against any subsequent bark-beetle attack.
The .following table includes the results of a few of the most effective
chemicals and one of the least effective for comparison.


: Bark-beetle broods
Treatnent : Trees :Time of treatment: Trees :per tree
-:exanined:. : dead :S. nultistriatus:H.rufipe
: Nuiber : :Percent: Number : Number
NHgy.hf H0O- --: 12 :October 1936 : 100 0 : 0
NH4F.hf H20----: :May 1936 : 95 0 :
NaASO2 H20-------: 33 :May-Aust 1937 : 98 0 0O
CuS04 H20------- : 45 :May-August 1937 : 90 : 0.16 : 047
CuS04 -(dry salt)--: 27 :May-August 1937 : 79 :3.59 1.07


GYPSY MOTH AN D BROWN-TAIL L'OTH CONTROL

No brush accumulated from gypsy noth thinning tfork.--There has been
sufficient rainfall this autumn throughout the area where Federal W. P. A.
2Jypsy moth work is being carried on to prevent danage to the forests
through that source, and it has been possible to in ediately dispose of
most of the waste material resulting fron this type of work, either by
burning or by the use of the machine thrt-converts brush and forest debris
into sawdust.

Scouting work suspended in some swamps and highlands.--Gypsy noth
scouting work was terporarily discontinued in certain types of territory
in.various sections because of unfavorable climatic conditions.

Check-up by eperienced employees improves scouting.--Suporvisory em-
ployees directing Federal 7. P. A. gypsy moth work in Vermont, Massachu-
setts, mad Connecticut report noticeable improvenent in the work of the
W. P. A. scouts in their charge since a small force of agents paid fron
regular appropriation funds has been assineod to check their work.

Barbed-wire fence removal delayed.--Governmedt-owned barbed-wire
fences; erected last spring to exclude livestock fron sections that were
to be sprayed for the gypsy moth, have been removed in a few scattered lo-
calities. However, most of the fences cannot be renoved and returned to
storage until after the first general fall of snow forces the confinement
of cattle to barns and yards. The unseasonably warn weather prevalent in
New End'land and Pennsylvania has enabled the property owners to continue
grazing cattle in the pastures and many of the fences are still needed to
protect the livestock fron poisoned foliage.






-15-


Two gypsy moth colonies found in Princeton, Maine.--During the first
week in November the gypsy moth scouting crew assigned to duty in Washing-
ton County, Maine, discovered an infestation in the town of Princeton,
which is only one town removed from the border of the Province of New
Brunswick. The infestation, which consisted of 3 egg clusters, is located
approximately 1/2 mile from the site of the colony found in that town dur-
ing the fiscal year 1937. The tree growth in the immediate vicinity of
this infestation is composed chiefly of white and paper birch, poplar,
maple, spruce, and fir. Later, the crew found another colony of 25 egg
clusters. The second colony is located approximately 11 miles east of the
first infestation and -1 mile east of Princeton.

Steep slopes and debris from forest fires retard scouting.--Progress
of gypsy moth scouting work. in Kidder and Penn Forest Townships in Carbon
County, Pa., has been slow. A large percentage of the territory now being
scouted has been burned over repeatedly, leaving much debris on the
ground, which must be examined. Considerable additional time is required
to remove loose bark from trees damaged by the fires, as egg clusters fre-
quently deposited under such bark cannot otherwise be detected.

New gypsy moth infestation discovered by former employee.--For the
second time within a year, a former gypsy moth ermployee has discovered and
reported a new infestation in Pennsylvania. During the first week in No-
vember a man who had previously been employed on gypsy moth work observed
egg clusters while walking through a wooded section in Lehigh Township,
Lackawanna County, which is within the quarantined area. He reported his
discovery to the supervisor in charge of the district.

Strict regulations enforced while scouting powder works,--Gypsy moth
scouting work was begmn on the property of the Atlas Powder Company in
Pittston Township, Pa., early in November. Each Federal W. P. A. worker
scouting in this area is searched daily for matches, lighters, or other
dangerous articles before passing the fence, and is required to wear rubber-
soled footwear. A company guard accompanies the men while they are within
the fenced area. Gypsy moth infestations have been found in the locality
in previous years.

Unusual crew formation used in mountainous country.--Gypsy moth
scouting of a mountainous area several miles long and 1 mile wide in Barrett
Township, Monroe County, Pa., has progressed slowly, but completion is ex-
pected in the near future. This area is particularly hazardous because of
the loose stpnes and bowlders that cover the exceedingly steep slopes. It
has been necessary for the crews to cover this territory in reverse echelon
formation, so that the men on the lower end of the scout line would not be
in the path of stones dislodged by workers higher up on the cliffs. There
is an area of similar terrain approxicately 2- miles long and 1 mile wide
adjoining this area, but situated in Paradise Township, which probably can-
not be examined before next spring.

Severe infestations east of the barrier zone in Massachusetts.--Heavy
gypsy moth infestations near the eastern border of the barrier zone furnish
a source of supply from which small caterpillars are scattered by the wind.






-16-


C. C. C. enrollees.,have reduced the .intensity .of many of the more severe
infestations, thereby diminishing the danger of yearly reinfestation of
the barrier zone by windspread.

Selective thinning reduces infestation in heavily infested woodland
block.--Approximately 55,000 gypsy moth egg clusters have been destroyed
by C. C. C. enrolloos'in a 48-acre block of woodland in the town of Rocking-
ham, Windham County, Vt., which is'adjacent to the New Hampshire State line.

PLANT DISEASE CONTROL

Testing barberries for susceptibility to stem rust.--In the testing
of barberry species and varietie's for determination of resistance or sus-
ceptibility,' fall,,inoculations .in the greenhouse at St. Paul, Minn., are
proceeding rapidly. Most of the bushes leafed out at about the'same'time.
Barberries in the doubtful class with respect to susceptibility are being
tested and more data are being obtained on some varieties recently added
to the resistant class. Availability of good tclial material of Puccinia
graminis avenao has made it possible for the first time to make crosses be-
tween this variety of stem rust and other varietics on barberries. The cul-
tures obtained will be grown for physiologic-race determination and possible
hybridization. Results obtained thus far in hybridization experiments are
embodied in an abstract of a paper to be presented at the Indianapolis,
Ind., meetings, entitled, "Experiments in crossing varieties of Puccinia
graminis," by Ralph U. Cotter and Moses N. Levine.

Preliminary results of the 1937 stem rust survey.--Two additional ab-
stracts have been approved for presentation at Indianapolis: "The epidemi-
ology of stem rust of wheat in three successive contrasting years," by E. C.
Stakman et al., which describes and compares stem rust in 1935, 1936, and
1937; and "Tne increase and importance of race 56 of Puccinia graminis triti-
ci," by E. C. Stakman and R. C. Cassell. The physiologic-race survey of
P. graminis tritici for 1937 is uell along toward completion. To November 19,
identification had been completed of 1,120 tiolations made from 875 uredial
collections from the United States; of 70 isolations from 44 collections
made in northern Mexico; and of 48 aecial collections, comprising 76 isola-
tions. A total of 20 physiologic races was identified in uredial collec-
tions from the United-Statcs, 13 from Mexico, and 19 races from barberry ma-
terial. Thus, a different physiologic race was obtained from each 56 uredial
isolations in the United .States, or from each 44 collections. On the other
hand, a different race was found in every 4 aecial -isolations, or in each
2- collections. The five most prevalent races in the uredial collections
were as follows: 56, 1149, 49, 3, nd 17; and in the collections of aecia,
38, 56, 11, 49, 59. Observations on fall infection in the Mississippi Val-
ley have been made and attempt is being made to determine how long the
uredial sthge lives in theseinfection centers. Studies also are being made
of the dissemination of spores by the wind, particularly in Texas.

Progress of barberry survey in Michigan.--According to F. B. Powers,
in charge of barberry eradication in Michigan, a complete survey of Barry,
Eaton, and Washtenaw Counties has been accomplished since July 1 and some
work has been done in Arenac and Calhoun Counties. Work is now under way in






-17-


Bay, Branch, Hillsdale, Kent, Midland, Montealm, Saginaw, and Tuscola
Counties. Extensive areas of escapcd bushes hove been found in all except
Montcalm County. In Barry County a farm-to-farm survey was.made in 1923
and 1924, resultingi in the eradication of 2,393 bushes on 43 properties. A
detailed inspection of this entire county with emergency labor during 1936
and 1937 has resulted in the eradication of more than 15,000 bushes on 271
properties. All but about 300 of the bushes destroyed -ore found growing
wild in timbered areas scattered throughout the county.

Progress of barberry eradication in Dane County, Tis.--A recent rcnort
submitted by Vorn 0. Taylor, leader in charge of barberry eradication in
Wisconsin, sshows the progress that has been made to reduce the barberry pop-
ulation in Dane County, which is recognizod as one of the largest continuous
barberry infestations in the control area. On 46 properties comprising
about 54 sectirns of land, more than 1,164,900 bushes and seedlings had boon
destroyed prior to 1933. A surve'r nade in 1933 and 1934 with P. W. A. labor
in the sane area resulted in the eradication of about 4,600 bushes and seed-
lings. This area was covered again in 1937 when 6,200 bushes and seedlings
were destroyed. While the number found in 1937 exceeds the number destroyed
in 1933, the bushes were small and additional seedlings wore found only on
5,of. the 46 properties. Mr. Taylor explains that the sunner of 1935 wans
particularly favorable for seed ermination and seedling survival. He be-
lieves this may account for the increased number of small bushes found in
1937, as compared with 1933. The 1937 survey was also more intensive than
the work done in 1933, as'an attempt was made to get all bushes and seed-
lings, regardless of size. In view of the very small proportion of proper-
ties having seedlings this yoar, it is expected that very few bushes will be
found when future resurveys are made.

Spread of blister rust in the North Central States.--The past season
has been especially favor:ble for the spread of blister rust in the Middle
West. Scouting resulted in the finding of infection on cultivated black
currants in Lake, McHenry, Boone, Winnebago, and Kane Counties, Ill. No in-
fection was found in Indiana nor in southeastern Nebraska. In Iowa six in-
fected Ribes nigrum bushes were found on Soetcmber 17 at Emmetsburg, Palo
Alto County. In Michigan infection vas found on Ribes for t'he first time in
7Wayne, Livingston, Arenac, Gratiot, Washtenaw, Shiawasseo, and Ogemaw Coun-
ties. In Wisconsin the disease was found for the first time on Ribes in
Kenosha, Milwaukee, Racine, Walworth, and Waukesha Counties, the heaviest
infection occurring in Racine and Kenosha Counties adjoining Lake Michigan.
Most of these infections were on cultivated black currants. In addition,
infection was reported for the first time on both pine and Ribes in Trem-
pealeau County, 7Wis. In Ohio, the rust :ws found on Ribes in Lorain and
Fairfield Counties for the first time. No newly infected counties were
added to the list in Minnesota, but a new pine infection center was found in
St. Louis County, a short distance from the Canadian border. This is the
first time infection has been found in this part of St. Louis County and ex-
tends the known range of blister rust infection in Minnesota about 12 miles
farther north. About 0O percent of the trees in the small area examined
were infected with blister rust.

Control work in the Northeastern States.--In connection with the es-
tablishment and maintenance of blister rust control in this recion during






-18-


the period May to September 1937, a total of 655,521 acres was cleared of
16,936,650 wild Ribes and 17,554 cultivated bushes as a result of 211,850
man-days of work. Over 81 percent of this acreage was protected by labor
provided by the E. C. W. and W. P. A. programs.

Blister rust found adjacent to Yellowstone National Park.--This fall
infection on Ribes petiolare was found on the Gallatin National Forest in
Montana within 19 miles of the northwest corner of Yellowstone Park and 26
miles of the Montana-Wyoming line. This infection is one of 16 found during
the course of scouting southeast of the Inland Empire white pine belt in a
region that has a scattered but large acreage of whitebark and limber pine.
The 16 infections are distributed on the 4 national forests between the
western white pin'eregion and Wyoming as follows: Bitterroot, 11; Deerlodge,
1; Beaverhead, 3; and Gallatin, 1. The location of infection on the Beaver-
head and Gallatin forests marked the first discoveries of rust east of the
Continental Divide in the Northwest region. Because of heavy Ribes defolia-
tion and.leaf darkening from freezing temperatures and snow, it was neces-
sary to terminate the scouting in Yellowstone Park and the adjacent forests
in Montana after only a small portion of the area had been worked. It is
believed that the discovery of one infection by only a relatively small
amount of work on badly defoliated bushes indicates that there were probably
several undiscovered Ribes infections in and adjacent to Yellowstone Park.
Some of these will probably result in pine infection centers, since one or
both of these two species of five-needle pines occur throughout most of the
area, even in the predominant lodgepole pine type. Although R. petiolare,
which is generally plentiful throughout the region scouted, was used as the
chief scouting species, eight other species of Ribes, each of which is an
associate of the five-needle pines, were observed. Infection was found on
five species, namely, R. petiolare, R. inerme, R. viscosissimum, R. triste,
and R. irriguum.

Spread of blister rust in Southern Appalachian region.--This year
H. E. Yost, State blister rust leader in Maryland, located the rust on
Ribes in Baltimore County, Md., near Lutherville, a short distance north
of Baltimore, and noar Bengues, east of Baltimore. In Harford County a
plantation containing about 1,600 cultivated red currants was found to be
about 75 percent infected with blister rust, while in Carroll County a
light infection was found on cultivated red currants near Westminster. For-
tunately, there were no white pines very near these infected Ribes. The
rust was found for the first time in the State of Delaware at Hockcssin,
in New Castle County, on four R. nigrum bushes. In West Virginia light in-
fection on wild gooseberries was located in Greenbriar County. In Virginia
blister rust was discovered for the first time on wild Ribes in Alleghany
County. Pine and Ribes infection was found to be quite heavy from the top
of Shenandoah Mountain north of Briary Branch to Bother Knob, a distance of
4 miles. This area lies in Pendleton County, W. Va., and Rockingham County,
Va. In Augusta County, Va., pine and Ribes wore found infected in Braley'
Branch and infected pine were located on the Shiflett plantation.

Blister rust in the "fruiting" stage reported in Massachusetts in Novem-
ber.--C. C. Perry reports the finding of a young branch canker in the active






-19-


aecial stage at Belchertown, Mass., in November. While our records show
that the development of aecia at this time of y har has been noted before,
it is so rare Pas to be worthy of mention.

COTTON INSECT IINVESTIGATIONS

PQpulation studies of hemipterous insects attackincg cotton.--A survey
to obtain more information concerning the abdndance of various sprcion of
hemipterous insects, wild-host-plant relationships," soesonal distribution,-
and other similar factors in relation 0o dotton in the irrigated sections of
Arizona, New Mexico, California, and southwestern Texas was mad6 by Hor-ace
G. Johnston in July, August, and Septembef. Population counts were made by
sweeping and by examination oflplants in different localities. 'Fifty species
of hemipterous insects were collected in dotton fields, some for the first
time, and at least 15 of the species affect cotton production enough to be
considered important. For convenience the species of economic importnr.ce may
be divided into:'(l) The boll-feeding group, which include in the order of
their importance, tuschistus impictiventris Stal., Chlorochroa sayi Stal., C.
ligata Say, Thyanta custator Fab., Dysdercus mimulus Hussey, and Euryophthal-
mus succinctus Linn. These species are gregarious and are constantly moving
so the population is seldom uniform in a field and their relative importance
varies greatly in different localities. The two latter species were seldom
sufficiently numerous to be of much importrnce. (2) The squnro-feeding group
of mirids include Lygus hesperus Knight, Psallus seriatus Reut., Parthenicus
sp., Croontiades femoralis V. D., AdclTnhocorus superbus Uhl., and Rhinacloa
forticornis Reut. The first three species are now definitely known to also
feed on small bblls and to cause shedding. (3) The predatory group include
Geocoris sonoraensis V. D., Nabis forus Linn., Zelus socius Uhl., Zelus
renardi Kolo., and Orius insidiosus Say. But little is known of their feed-
ing habits in cotton fields. Chlorochroa sayi and LyMgs clisus were found
feeding on Russian-thistle (Salsola pestifer) across southern New Mexico and
into northwestern Texas, No C. sayi were found cst of Pyote, Tex., though
Russian-thistle was abundant farther east. Psallus seriatus, the cotton
flea hopper, and its most important wild host plant (Croton sp.) were not
found after a diligent search at Presidio, Tox., though both were found on
the north slope of the 'Chinati Mountains, which border the valley to the
north. Lygus elisus, L. hesperus, and Perthenicus sp. were found on cotton
in the Pahrump Valley near Las Vegas, Nov., where cotton ;was being grown
for the first time. The peculiar distribution and seasonal abundance of
some of the species cannot yet be explained, It is suspected that the popu-
lations, in part, at least, are due to long-distance migrations, as some of
the enormous populations found in cotton fields could not be explained on
the basis of local migrations fror alfalfa and other crops.

Pink bollworm population studies.--Records were again taken this season
by H. S. Cavitt and 0. T. Robertson to determine the percentage of bolls in-
fested, the number of larvae per boll, and the worm population per acre in
their studies of the factors influencing the seasonal abundance of the pink
bollworm in the Big Bend, Green bolls from 30 fields, selected as repre-
sentative of the area, were examined biweekly, the same fields being used in
1936 and 1937. Results for the 2 years are shown in the following table.






-20-




1: 93 b 1937
: Larvae :Green: : :Larvae :Green:
Period : per in-:bolls:Larvao : :per in-:bolls:Larvae
ending : Bolls : fested : per : per : Bolls :fested : per : per
:infested boll :-olant: acro :infested: boll :plant: acre
:Percent :No. No. : No.. :Percent : No. : No. : No,
Au:. 1-15----: 12.17 : 1.3-4 :. : 12,009: 27.93 : 2.19 : 7.7 : 43,069
Au:. 16-31---: 36.57 : 2.34 : 8.2 : 65,420: 73.27 : 4.90 : 6.5 :211,900
Sep. 1-15----: 74.20 : 4.45 .: 7.8 :177,803:. 97.30 : .70 : 3.1 :242,,588
Sep. 16-30---: 93.77 : 7.0 : 5.0 :212,014: 99.67 : 11.90 : 1. :188,322
Oct. 1-15----: 100.00 : 10.35 : 2.4 :160,132: 100.0 : 11.46 : 1.0 : 99,578
Oct. 15-31---: 100o00 : 11.36 : 1,4 :111,403: 100.00 : 9.11 : 0.9 : 70,921

The infestation and population per acre during the early part of 1937
was considerably higher than for.the same neriods last year. Although there
were more worms per acre at the height of the infestation, the peak popula-
tion (242,588 larvae per acre) was reached during the first half of Septem-
ber, 1937, or 2 weeks earlier than in 1936. There was.a decline in the num-
ber of worms per acre following the.ncaks in both years but by the end of
the year 1937 the po-uloation was considerably lower than in 1936. During
1936 there was a steady increase in the number of larvae in infested bolls
from August 1 to October 31, while in 1937.the greatest number of worms per
boll (11.9) were found durin. the last 2 weeks of Sentonber. The smaller
worm population durin, the latter part of this season as compared to last
year is attributed largely to.the early maturity.of.the crop. The oearlinss
of the crop is indic-tced by the peak production of green bolls per plant,
which occurred durin, the first half of Au;ust.in 1937, and during the latter
half of August in 1936. The decline in number, of bolls per plant was also
much more rapid than last year,.although the average yield per acre will be
ap-roximately the same. The earlier maturity of the 1937 crop with the re-
sulting late-season reduction in the number of bolls per pla'nt. and worm pop-
ulation per acre was due tothe more extensive use of eurly maturing varie-
ties with determinate growth habits, c .rlier planting, closer spacing of
plants in the row, and favorable season:-l conditions. The earlier crop will
also aid in reducing the carry-over of lon: cycle or hibernating- larvae by
permitting the crop to be picked and the fields cleaned.earlier in the fall.
The higher temperatures earlier in the season ,re more favorable for larvae
to complete development end emerge this fall than the lower temperatures
later in the season, and it is expected that n smaller percentage of the lar-
vac present will go into hibernation. The use of better varieties and im-
proved agronomic practices for growing cotton under pink bollworm conditions
are based on the results of experimental work by S. L. Calhoun, of the Pro-
sidio laboratory.

Longevity of the boll weevil.--G. L. Smith reports that 5 of the 76
boll weevils emerging from hibern-ation, 'ca.,s at Tallul!h) and kept under ob-
servation for lon.gevity studies were still alive on November 1 and were
placed in hibernation cages for the second winter. In 1934 two weevils lived
until November 1, but in 1935 and 1936 ~ll died before this date. This is




-21-


the largest number ever carried through the year until time for hibernation
installation the next year. There are no records of boll weevils living
through two winters.

PINK BOLLWORM AND THURBERIA VEEVIL CONTROL

Gin-trash inspection.--Gin-trash inspection has been completed in
the Texas Panhandle district and in southwestern Oklahoma. No indication
of infestation was found in Oklahoma. In the Texas Panhandle several
additional specimens were found in two counties where infestation had been
discovered the previous month. Intensive inspections just outside this dis-
trict continued to give negative results. In the Tucson section additional
specimens of the pink bollworm and also of the Thurberia weevil were found.
A light infestation of the -ink bollworm was also discovered near Feldman,
Ariz., in Final County, where a few-hundred acres are grown. Incidentally,
the Thurbcria woevil quarantine line goes through the middle of the ranch
on which the finding was made. After finding the light infestations in
the Tucson section and at Feldrman, it was considered advisable to give the
Salt River Valley of Arizona a rather thorough inspection. Consequently,
five machines were sent there about the middle of November, and on Novem-
ber 23, one specimen of the pink bollworm was found at Casa Grande, in
Pinal County. Intensive inspections have been continued there since the
finding, with negative results, as has also boon the case in the Salt River
Valley. In view of the favorable conditions for inspection, and the large
amount of trash inspected, it appears-that the infestation at Casa Grande
is extremely light. Stens are now being taken to add this new. section to
the regulated ar ea.

Destruction of stalks.--The destruction of cotton stalks in the lower
Rio Grande Valley of Texas has gone forward, with excellent cooperation
from farmers and others concerned. At the end of October over half of the
original stalks standing at the beginning of the month had been destroyed.
There has been very little rainfall in the valley the last few months and
this has made the destruction of stalks much more difficult. All fields in
which stub cotton came up were taken care of before it began fruiting.
There has recently been some cold weather which has halted the growth of
stub cotton. On the Mexican side of the river, where the same program is
being carried out, it was approximately 95 percent completed. All of the
acreage on which stalks are still standing is in the upper part of the dis-
trict, whore no infestation was found this season.

Road-traffic inspecticn.--At the Marfa, Tex., road station 20 confis-
cations of contraband material were made during the month, S of which wore
infested with the pink bollworm. The infested material consisted of small
lots of seed cotton, 52 living and 1 dead pink boll'orm larvae being in-
tercepted. One of these infested interceptions might have boon the means
of spreading infestation to another area, as 37 living: and 1 dead larvae
were found in 1 pound of seed cotton on November 2. This is the largiest
infested interception made this season.

Thurberia-plant eradication. --This activity has gone forward satis-
factorily throughout the month. Very good progress has been made, consid-
ering the fact that the camp was moved to a new site and apProximately 4






-22-


miles of trail had to be made so that equipment could be carried by the
pack train. It appcars that work can be carried on from this new site
for some time. During the month 1,840 acres iwere gone over and 19,417
Thurburia plants destroyed.

Wild cotton.--The cradication of wild cotton in southern Florida
made excellent progress throughout the month, as weather conditions wcre
favorable. Sono of the crews were handicappcd, somewhat, as rough water
caused a little delay in the boat work. It is of interest to note that
there is a reduction of fron 20 to 30 percent in the usual number of plants
encountered, and very few of them have contained mature bolls. By the end
of the month all of the Bradenton area had been rccleaned, and considerable
progress made in the Fort Myers, Florida Bay, and Mainland Key areas. A
camp was being set up at Cane Sable at the end of the month and work was to
get under way in that area shortly. Throughout the nonth 1,770 acres were
gone over, and aoproximately 57,000 seedling and 100 sprout plants were re-
moved. In addition, 355 acres were covered without finding any wild cotton.
Approximately 150 wild cotton bolls were inspected from Key Largo and
Lower Matocumbe and 2 pink bollworm larva.c were found.

TRUCK CROP AND GiRDEN INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Cryolite-dust mixtures and cornmeal-cryolite baits give promising re-
sults in control of tomato fruitworm.--Joseph Wilcox and M. W. Stone, of
the Alhambra, Calif., laboratory, report that the results obtained from 523
field plots of tomatoes treated for the control of Heliothis obsoleta F. in
southern California in 1937 disclosed that the most promising results were
obtained with a dust mixture consisting of equal parts of cryolite (either
natural or synthetic) and talc, and with a bait made of 25 pounds of corn-
meal to 1 pound of cryolite. Uusally three applications of each material
were made in t:iese tests, the first being applied when the plants were about
1 foot in diameter and the other applications were spaced at 2-wock intervals.
Since biological investig ations have disclosed that most of the tomato fruit-
worm eggs are deposited on the upper or lower surfaces of the tonato leaves
at the periphery of the plant, special attention was devoted to this por-
tion of the plrant when applying insecticides. The dust mixtures were ap-
plied with rotary hand dusters and the bait was broadcast by hand over the
leaves of the plant. Sprays were also tried in several fields and the most
promising were those conlaining; 4 pounds of cryolite to 100 gallons of water
or phenothiaziie '-t the rate of 3 pounds to 100 gallons of water. Prelim-
inary analyses of s:aples of tomatoes picked from the treated plots indi-
cated that w7hen a 3-week interval had elapsed between the time of the last
application and the time the sample was picked, no excess residue was found.
Additional investigations will be necessary, however, before definite con-
clusions can be reached on the insecticide-residue phase of the tomato fruit-
worm problem.

Negative results in attempt to control bulb nematode by high frequency
waves.--In preliminary tests performed at New Brunswick, N. J., by R. Latta
and F. S. Blanton, of the Babylon, N. Y., laboratory, in cooperation with
T. J. Headlee and D. Manley Jobins, of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment









Station, in an attempt to control the bulb nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci
(Kuhn) Filipjev) by high-frequency waves in the radio band, negative re-
sults were obtained, since no mortality to the bulb nematode resulted
after exposures of 30 minutes, using waves of 12.5 and 42 meters. It was
demonstrated th.it the rays were not absorbed to any great extent by bulb
tissue, which resulted in a slow rate of temperature increase and no lethal
effect on the nematodes. Infra-red rays were absorbed by the surface
layers of tissue.

Beet leafhopper population shows genor-al decrease in San Joaquin Val-
ley.--G. T. York, of the Modesto, Calif., laboratory, reports that, as a
result of surveys made in the weed areas of the San Joaquin Valley of Cali-
fornia during the fll of 1937, it has bron determined th-at in general the
population of Eutottix tenellus Bak. has decreased during the 4-car period
from 1934 to 1937, inclusive. The estimated population in 1934 was ap-
proximately 120,169 million; in 1935, 8,205 million; in 1936, 25,000 mil-
lion; and in 1937, 10,000 million.

Hot-water treatment controls cyclamon mite.--F. F. Smith, of the Belts-
ville, Md., laboratory, reports that the first applicat'.on of theohot-water
treatment to control.Tarsonemus pallidus Banks'on cyclamons under commercial
conditions wss made on approximately 4,000 plants at Alexandria, Va., in
October 1937. In the course-of these tests, the mite-infested plants wore
subjected to thd standard hot-water treatment of immersing the plants com-
pletely for 15 minutes in hot water maintained at a temperature of 110 F.
Approximately 90 percent of t.he plants subjected to this' treatment showed
severe injury by' the cyclamen mite, which would have rendered them valueless
had not some control been applied. As a result of the hot-water treatment,
the treated plants showed no evidence of injury and, compared with typical
untreated plants reserved as checks, showed considerable improvement in
growth and flower-bud development. At the end of November an examination
of the treated plants disclosed that they were apparently free from mites
and that they developed satisfactorily without any indication of injury
from the treatment.

Physical qualities of rotenone-tobacco dust mixture not improved by
adding clay.--Experiments and observations during the last several years
have indicated that finely ground and sterilized tobacco dust is the most
satisfactory diluent for cube or derris when applied to shade-grown tobacco
in combating the tobacco flea'beetle (Epitrix parvula Fab.). Some tobacco
growers, however, were of the opinion that treo physical qualities of this
dust mixture could be improved by the addition of finely ground Georgia clay.
As a result of experiments to test this theory, F. S. Chamberlin, of the
Qaincy, Fla., laboratory, roports that the addition of the clay to the cus-
tomary cube- or dorris-tobacco dust mixture used for combating the tobacco
flea beetle apparently did not improve its dusting qualities when applied
with rotary hand-operated dusters. It appeared that the use of a dust mix-
ture containing 1 percent rotenone, with 75 percent tobacco dust and 25 per-
cent finely ground Georgia clay as a diluent, on shade-grown tobacco under
favorable weather conditions at the rate of 6 pounds per acre did not leave
conspicuous residues on the cured tobacco leaves. Heavier applications of






-24-


this dust mixture, however, did leave conspicuous deposits on the cured
product. In general, these experiments demonstrated that the addition of
finely ground clay to .the derris- or cube-tobacco dust mixture did not
result in any apnreciable improvement in 'the finished dust mixture and may
cause a permanent white residue to remain on the treated leaves.

Pea weevil infestations in Palouse area of Idaho and Washington.--
T. A. Brindley and F. G. Hinman, of the Moscow, Idaho, laboratory, report
that on the basis of data collected by the pea grading service of the Bur-
eau of Aricultural Economics, cooperating vith the Department of Agronomy
of the University of Idaho, it appears that the pea weevil infestation in
the Palouse area showed a slight decrease in 1937, as compared to the pre-
ceding 3 years. These data are based oh collections of samples made in
56 locrtions in 7ashington and 13 loca.tions in Idaho. The pertinent data
from these examinations are shown in the following table.


:56 lactions in Washington : 13 locations in Idaho:
SInfestations : S: Infestations
Year Samples Samples
S: : : :Average for
::Average :Maximum : :Average :Maximum: territory
: umber :Percent :Percent : Number :Percent:Percent: Percent
1934--: 669 3.64 : 33.2 4.48 : 55.6 : 3.95
1935--: 599 2.77 27.2 : 652 4.41 : 41.5 : 3.35
1936--: 6gg 1.93 : 17.3 :43 : 4.1 : 35.1 2.69
1937--: 795 : 2.21 : 37.1 : 391 : 3.50 : 29.7 : 2.57

The samples from which the infestation data were taken were obtained
by taking small uniform samples from every fifth bag of each grower's lot
of peas as they were driven to the warehouses. Fron this composite samplo,
250 grams were examined to determine the percentage of weevil-infested
peas on a weight basis.

Bait of cornmeal, zinc phosphide, and yeast 'as control for mole
cricket,--As a result of recent laboratory tests, J. N. Tenhet, of the San-
ford, Fla., lboratory, reports that under the conditions of the experi-
ments, a bait consisting of a combination of cornmeal, zinc phosphide, and
yeast gave surprisingly superior results to any other combination bait
tested against mole crickets (Scapteriscus spp.). It was definitely shown
that a bait containing cornmeal was slightly superior to the other foods
tested; that both paris green and zinc phosphide were definitely more ef-
fective than derris and calcium arsenatc; that zinc phosphide was much
more highly significant in effectiveness than paris green; and that the
use of brewer's yeast did not increase the effectiveness of any bait to justi-
fy its use, except when tiis yeast was used in combination with cornmeal and
zinc phosphide. In view of the relatively high effectiveness of brits con-
taining zinc phosphide in controllin, mole crickets under laboratory condi-
tions, it seemed desirable to determine the effect of such a bait on the
foliage of celery seedlings, because celery seedbeeds arc frequently injured
by mole crickets in Florida. For this purpose a bait made up at the rate of
100 pounds of cornmeal, 5 pounds of zinc phosphide, and 2 pounds of brewer's






-25-


yeast was broadcast heavily on the foliage of small celery seedlings. No
foli.ge injury resulted.

INSECTS INFESTING MAN AID ANIMALS

Shapc of eggs determines species 'of certain Aedes nosquitoes.--H. H.
Stage and C. M. Gjullin, who are studying the biologies of some of the eco-
nomic species of mosquitoes of the Pacific Northwest, rc ort that in the
course of their work in separating eggs of Aedes vexans M eig. and Aedes al1-
richi Dyar and Knab from the soil it has become apparent that there is enough
difference in the shape of the eg;s of theose'two species to separate them by
that character alone. The eggs of A. vexans ar' lon; and slender as compared
to those of A.-aldrichi. Error in selecting, eggs according: to this character
has been reduced to approximately 1 percent.

Certain ants locate and destroy screrwworm pupae underground.--A. J.
Lindquist, of the Uvalde, Tex., laboratory, states: "The most interesting
finding during the month was that Eciton and Pheidolo ants locate and destroy
pupae of Cochliomyia americana C. and P. undcr, round. We have previously de-
termined that ants attack the larvae and evidence is now at hand that pupae
are also destroyed. Four tests were made in which C. americana larvae were
drooped in boxes with screen-wire bottoms. The boxes contained 3 inches of
ant-free soil and were buried 3 inches in the ground. By using these boxes
the soil could be removed and examined for the pupae. In one test, using 150
C. americana larvae, examination showed 33 percent of the pupae eaten into by
ants, 52 percent emerged, and 15 percent dead from an unknown cause. The
ants were apparently Pheidole. In another test in a different environment
all 150 pupae were eaten into by ants, apparently Eciton caecun."

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANITINS

Entomological interceptions of interest.--Six livin7 larvae of the
Mexican fruitfly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) were intercepted at Roma, Tex., on
September 16 in a quince in baggage from Mexico. Fifteen living larvae of
the melonfly (Daous cucurbitae Coq.) were taken at San Pedro, Calif., on
October 10 in two 'cucumbers in ship's stores from the Philinpines. Living
specimens of Anuraphis cynarae (Theo.) were intercepted at New York on April
9, Anril 29, and May 12 on g:lobe artichokes in ships' stores from Italy, Al-
geria, and France, respectively. Living specimens of Aptinothrips rufus var.
stylifera Tryb. were taken at Bost on on August 15 on an ornamental grass in
baggage from Ireland. A living. larva of the ;llechiid Golochia ericetolla
Kbn. was found at Philadelphia on August 4 among dry heather in the mail from
Scotland. A living larva of the weevil Cholus cattleyarum Barber was inter-
cepted at San Francisco on October 27 in an orchid (Cattloya sp.) in cargo
from Colombia. The coccid Formosaspis formosanus (Tak.) arrived at Seattle,
Wash., on May 28 on bamboo leaves used as packing for tea in cargo from China.
This scale insect was also taken at New York on June 18 en bamboo leaves in
cargo from China. The determinations by H. Morrison are from description
only. Living specimens of the thrips Frankliniella fortissima Pr. were taken
at the airport at Brownsville, Tex., on May 6 on orchids in cargo from Mexico.
Two livin: larv e of the bean pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer) were col-
lected on October 1 in string beans in the field at Cidra, P. R. Living






-26-


specimens of the cydnid Geotomus pygmaeus Dallas were intercepted at Hono-
lulu, Hawaii, on October 31, 1936, in the quarters of the Philippine Clipper
arriving from the Philippines via Guam, Wake, and Mid ay Islands. The scale
insects Adiscodiaspis tamaricola Mal. and Parlatoria chincnsis Marl. were
found .t Washington, D. C., on June 15, 1937, on tamarix cuttings in the
mail from India. H. Morrison reports as follows: "We.hrvc no previous
records for the occurrence of those coccids in India."

Fruitflies in old cloths,.--During the course of inspection of baggage
from Italr at Now York on October 7 a trunk was opened and flies were im-
mediately seen crawling over some of the bundles in the trunk. These proved
to be newly emerged adults of the olive fruitfly (Dacus oleae Gmol.). Living
larvae and pupae of this fruitfly were also found in olives contained in the
trunk. In addition to the olive fruitfly, living larvae and pupae of the
Meditcrranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) were picked out from among
the old clothes and from under the loose lining of the trunk. Besides olives,
the trunk contained quinces, oranges, pricklyprears, and pomegranates.

Pathological intercentions of interest.--Wh-t appeared to be Bacterium
lachrymans Sm. & Bryan was intercepted at Boltimore on November 20 on pumpkin
from Straits Settlements. Diplodia nr.t.lcnsis Ev. was found fruiting
abundantly on i grain of corn from Mexico on November 13 at Roma. Gloco-
sporium leguminum Cke. was intercepted. for the first time on July 1, 1936,
on mesquite pods from Mexico. A fun;,us determined as probably G. ulnicolum
Miles, though not previously reported on seed, was intercepted on elm seed
from Can.da on June 29 at Buffalo. Helminthosporium allii Campanile was
found on garlic from England on November 2 at Port Arthur, H. torulosun
(Syd.) Ashby, first interception, was found on a shipment of plantains from
Dominican Republic on November 11, 1935, at New York, Hetorosporium allii
Ellis & Mart. was found on leek tops fron England for the first time on
November 20 at Philadelphia. Macrophona hippo,:lossum Borl, & Vogl., first
interception, was found on Ruscus hypoglossum loaves from Italy on May 20
at New York. Marssonina juglandis (Libert) Magnus, first interception, was
found on walnut leaves fron Italy on October 14 at New York. Puccinia car-
linae Jacky was intercepted at New York on November 8, 1935, on Carlina vul-
garis from Germany. Pucciniastrun m:rtilli (Schum.) Arth. was intercepted
on June 26 .t Now York on azalco cutti'n.s from Switzerland. Puccinia oxali-
dis was found on November 11, 1935, at New York on Oxalis latifolia leaves
mixed with parsley from Venezuela, Ravcnelia sp. (cfr. R. talpa (Long) Arth.),
first interception of the ;cnus, was intercepted in the mail on Cracca
(Tcphrosia) at the Inspection House at Washington on January 13, 1936.
Sporonema strobilinum Dosm. was intercepted on June 29 at New York on a ship-
ment of Picea excelsa cones from Sweden. During; the Holland bulb-shipping
season, interceptions at the Inspection House at UWashin.ton included
Aphelenchus avonac Bastian on August 16 on Colchicum Autumn Queen (new host
genus for our intercontion files); Ditylenclius dipsaci (de Man) Filipjev on
Colchicum s;cciosum album and numerous interceptions on bulbous iris of
various kinds; Urocystis colchici (Schlocht) Rab. on several shipments of
Colchicum and Verticillium a lbo-atrum Reinke and Berth. on Eremurus sp. (new
host for the interccntion files).






-27-


Plant diseases in Guam.--The first set of plant disease specimens
collected in the field in Guam by R. G. Oakloy reached Wa7shington in excel-
lent condition and included Cercospora batatae Zimm. on sweotpotato; a leaf
spot determined as probably C. citrullina Ckc. on cantaloup; C. cucurbitac
E. & E. on cantaloup; Cercospora sp. on morning- lory; Phyllosticta colo-
casiophila Any G. W7eedon on taro; Phyllosticta dioscoreae Cooke on Dioscorea
sp. (D. aculeata or an allied species); and Physoderma zcae-maydis Shaw on
corn. The last-named fungus is one of those on which the corn-disease quar-
antine (No. 24) is based.

DOMESTIC PLANT Q ARANTINES

Corliss and Dopson assigned new field projects.--Effective January 1,
J. M. Corliss will be placed in charge of field supervision of the white-
fringed beetle project, with headquarters at Florala, Ala., and R. N. Dopson
will take charge of field supervision of transit inspection and enforcooont
of white pine blister rust quarantine activities, with headquarters at
Chicago. Mr. oGrliss' experience in organizing and supervising field con-
trol activities, in addition to his more recent responsibilities in super-
vising transit inspection, make him especially qualified, it is believed,
to organize the activities relating to the white-fringed beetle. Mr.- Dopson
is also experienced in transit inspection and has been successful in co-
operative control work on phony peach _and citrus canker diseases in the
Southern States.

White-frin'ed beetle population.--Adult specimens of white-fringed
beetles have been taken from time to time in November from knoun infested
areas at a temperature noer freezing. The finding of live beetles in ditches
indicates that. these insects are still migrating. Soil sampling during the
month disclosed large numbers of larvae. No pupae have been found since
August 1.

New shipload of animal bones inspected.--Sixty tons of animal bones
arrived at New Orleans from packing houses in Argentina and Uruguay on No-
vember 17 and the 4 tons of debris at the bottom of the hold were made
available for inspection for white-fringed beetles. The bones were found
to be free from animal matter and dirt, having been treated with heat at
origin and piled to await shipment. The inspectors sifted the debris in
the electric screening machine and examined it closely. No signs of the
White-fringed beetle were found. The five inspectors of the white-fringed
beetle project were assisted by one inspector from Louisiana and two from
the Division of Foreign Plant Qarantines. Inspection at the New Orleans
docks where skeletons of the beetles were found in September resulted in
findin, large numbers of larvao of this pest.

White-fringed beetle unimportant in Uruguay.--According to a recent
official statement from a government agricultural official of Uruguay,
Naupactus leucoloma Boh., although common in that country and observed to
feed in the larval stage on alfalfa roots and other cro)s, has not been con-
sidered of economic importance and has therefore not been thoroughly studied
in that country.





-28-.


Shaker-machine experiments for white-fringed beetle.--In order more
effectively to inspect cotton trash, peanut hay,-soil, Jcone trash, and-
other material for the presence of ad:lts'or larvae of the white-fringed
beetle, a shaker-machine has been devised which is operated by electricity
and fitted with a hopper of 1/2-inch mesh and with three trays of 1/3
inch, 1/8 inch, and 1/16 inch mesh, respectively. The experiments have
consisted in placing a certain number of live beetles or larvae in dif'-
fcrent types of clean trash from noninfested areas, running the machine at
275 r.p.m., and checking on the presence of those insects in the recovered'
material. The 1/8-inch tray was founi. effective in .scroening gin trash.'
Of the 25 beetles plced in the trash, 22 wore recovered and 3 wer'; found
clinging to the wire screen. The- mchine. also proved effective in screen-
ing bone debris, thc. 1/-inch tray attching insects the size of N. lrucoloma.

Activities re lating to the white-frincgd beetle,--Cooperative Federal-
Stact- inspection and "sceutin: for the 'w;bite-fringed beetle has been made
in ports, cities, and var'ous industrial points in 55 counties in 6 States.
Crop surveys have been made, of approximately 10,O00 acres of the irfested
area in Flori:a arnd Alabama, includinr 4,000 acres of cultivated l':d and
woodland. Many of the infested farms h.ve been previously surveyed .by the
A. A. A. and the data mole available by county a-onts. Insnectors arc pro-
paring dctailed pl ts showin: .. ech kind of crop produced as a basic for
control activities in the coming fi( Id season.

Sweetpotato weevil control rnd oradication.--Survc" work was con-
ducted in Novcmb..r in. -arts of Gor:ia, Mississi;pi, Alabrma, and Texas.
The freezinj- w'eather extenodian: to the Gulf.in certain localities has
greatl-' re luccd te host food suinrl of adult weevils. The fields are be-
ing renloiwed, however, r.nl all r:maining vines removed and burned in order
to eliminntc the nossibility of devclopment of spring volunteers. Federal
and Sta'e ins-.ectors crr concentratin, .their efforts on clean-up measures,
assisting gro:crs in selectin<: weevil-free tubers for storage, trarping
weevils in clraned seedbeds, supervising the harvesting and movemn:!t of
sweetpotat,:es to city markets for consumption, inspecting stores and com-
mission four.', .1 turning bark or destroying shipments moved fron one
propnrt:. to 4. t.r in violation of State au-rrntines. Numerous infesta-
tions now oeistin n--vo been traced directl- to toc-int movement of in-
fested ml.t ril from one pronrt-' to another. The insnection force in No-
v(mbor consisted of 17 Federal an.d 20 St.ate -mnployos. 'Weevils wore found
in C> necun County, Ala., and clan-up measures w re nrcmnotly instituted
and currcunding properties surveyeTd. Tranpings in old seedbods in Mobile
Cou-iny, Ala., resulted in taking, 1,6S4 weevils with 1,-95 tul7rs. In Bald-
win County 1,130 weevils were taken with 37S tubers. The activities for
the season through 'iovember are shown below.


State *: C u nt i s : Proner ti s
:Inscpct d: Infested : Inspected': Infe :t cr.
Alabsama-----: : 994 : 153
Georgi----: 16 : 4 : O1 : 23
Louisina---: 30 12 :22,959 : 2,037
Mississippi-: 13 6 2,491 : 223
Texas-------: 29 : 5 : 1,317 13
Total-----: 96 : 30 : 28,62 2449




-29-


Transit inspection. --Inspectors investig'!ing the ori:in of Cnristmas
gree.ns in the flo'er-m:.rkot section of New York City hrve founl on soveral
occasions that trucklcoans of such naterial had been brcu.-ht out of the
area infested. with the i-ypsy noth without havin been inspected. The
drivers wore accordingly required to return their loads to the point of
origin and report to the local moth inspector. Such quarantine enforcement
hEs been acconplished through the assignment of ypsy moth inspectors, three
of whom arc stationed at New York and two at Boston, to assist in transit
inspection. Shinments of such materials are also being inspected at rail-
way points in 13 other cities throughout the East, Middle West, and South.

Mormon cricket conference.--Representatives of six States and of the
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine in attendance at the Mormon
cricket conference at Pocatello, Idaho, on November 18 and 19 discussed pro-
posed cooperative control in 1938 and the administrative set-up for such a
project. A conservative estimate based on a defensive campaign placed the
areas to be treated at 454,500 acres in 10 States.

Citrus canker activities.--Citrus canker work conducted in Texas in
November by 7 inspectors and 29 relief laborers consisted principally of
eradication of orange and grapefruit seedlings from G-alveston and Brazoria
Counties and of reworking properties from which Citrus trifoliata has been
eradicated. Nearly all such trees h- c been cr.adicated fro: G.alveston County
and 75 percent of the property owners hrve given permission for the eradi-
cation of orange end grapefruit seedlings also. State inspection nws re-
sumed in Louisiana on November 16.

Phony peach dise.se greatly reduced in 1957.--Inspection in 1937 of
all pronorties found infec ,ed with the phony peach disease in 1936, and
those adjacent, in the lightly infected States of Arkansas, Illinoi%, Indi-
ana, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Car-
olina, Tennessee, and Texas, showed reduction of from 50 to 100 percent.
The intensive Federal-State inspection and scouting activities which have
been conducted throughout the known infected States and regions bordering
thereon, and extensive eradi-.tion of w-orthless peach trees escecially in
the outer rim of the infected region and the vicinity of nurseries, have
yielded effective results in the control of this disease. A reduction of
the disease in the generally infected States has also taken nlnoc, one
county in Georia snowing a..75-ercent reduction.

Phony peach end pech mosaic disease activiti ~s.--Tr oe-renval work
was carried on in Novemb r in Alabama, Arkansas, Cilifornia, Cclorado,
Georgia, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Texas, with an averg -e of 421 relief
and 25 nonreliof employees. In California the labor force was rocently in-
creased to 215 and the eradication work organized in San Diego and Los
Angelos Counties. It is also continued in San Bern-rdino and Riversido
Counties.






-30--


CONTROL INVESTIG AT IONS

Action of insecticides on insect tis-ues.--P. A. Woke, of the Belts-
ville, Md., loboratory, is investigating the action of insecticides on the
eoitnelial cells and muscle fibers of the alimentary canal of insects. He
rcncrts differences in action on the cells and tissues of the alimentary
canal of tnr southern armny-orm. As examples, the epithelirl colls of lar-
vr. killed 60 to 80 hours after in.esting rotenone or Phencthiazino present
no abncrmalitis definitely attributable to the action cf the poisons,
whereas the ersenicals cause mrrked disintegration of the coithelial cells
and barium fluosilicate causes the e-ithelial lay7er to be thrown into
characteristic folds, probably as a result of an action of barium on the
unstriated nuscle fibers.

Resistance of different snecis to or~anic compounds.--Testin, a
group of 100 or ganic conpoands for nossible toxicity, A. M. Phillios, of
the Sanford, Fla. laboratory, reocrts that only 15 caused a nortrlity of
50 percent of fourth-instar mosquito larvae at a concentration of 20 parts
per million. As a standard of coriparison, one p'rt per million of pheno-
thiazine will kill anproxina.tely bO ,rercent of the larvae. Testing the
same group of compounds, M. C. Swinzle aln Jo-ies B. Gahan renort tn:t 37
of the compounds will kill at least 90 Oercent of first-inster southern
armyworms and 24 of the compounds cause the same mortality of first-instar
cross-striped cabbage worms.. Furthermore, it was found that all compounds
toxic to mosquito larvae were toxic to the leaf-feeding species. Eithcr
the mosauito larvae are harder to kill than the leaf-feeding insects or the
habits and environment of the mosouito larvae decrease the effectiveness of
the comnounds in some way. With tnis groun of compounds, the southern army-
worm was the least resistant insect of the three.

INSE3CICIDE INVESTIATIGATI S

Newr copnor compounds as bunt fungicidcs.--0. A. Nelson, of this
Division, and P. 7 Leukel, of the Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases,
Burenu of Planr. Industry, nhve just published (U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 452)
the results of tests of certain coppcr compounds aa7in&t bunt, or stinking
smut, of w.het (Tilletia tritici (_~jork.) Wint. ,and T. lacvis Kuehn). Lab-
ora.bory, gro-enhousc, an, .field studies wore carridr on c or a period of 5
years. Basic cooper sulphate, hi:h-,rade conpr carbonate, copper sulphate-
aniline, and ocssibly conper chloridc-aniline, in gwnererl, wore found to be
superior to other copder compounds from the standpoint of cost, ;eneral ef-
fectiveness in bunt control, and freedom from certain objectionable charac-
teristics. Other co-er co tcrundss test:.d *:ere coprpr phcsrhate, coni-er
silicate, cu.ric oxide, cunrous oxide, cu-roas sulnhide, conper flucride,
coprer diazoaminobenenne conpound, and copper para,-a-ninobenzene compound.

Calcium arsenate studied.--Mr. ITelson has comnleted a study of the
three componnr. system calcium oxide-arsenic oxide-wator from the point of
view of the pha.e rule. The existence of the following compounds has been
determined: CaHAs04, CH2s0). C (CaA (AsO4( )2. 2CH20, cn A. 4CaO.As20 .xH20.






-31-


The evidence presented for the existence of these compounds includes,"in
addition to eouilibrium data, information ;gined from microscopic and X-
ray examinations. The existence of the compound 10Ca0.3As205.4H20 was not
verified. All the data obtained pointed instead to a region of solid solu-
tions between the conditions for tricalcium and totracalcium arsentte.
These results are published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society
(59:2216-2223), November 1)37.

BEE CULTURE

Bees clean colls of disease.--A. P. Sturtevant, Laramie, Wyo., reports
that each of five colonies, under observation to determine the behavior of
bees in the presence of American foulbrood, removed diseased remains,'al-
though some did this more rapidly and completely than did others. In gen-
eral, the most ramid removal takes place within the area where the queen is
laying, removal being slow and uncertain on the outside combs and outer
edges of the combs. Remains most frequently are removed before the scale
has become dry and hard. Many scales are removed completely within a 1- or
2-day period, whereas others are removed gradually or worked on intermittently,
the work being initiated at the outer or head end and proceeding slowly
toward the base of the cell. The portion of scale at the cell base seems to
be the nost difficult to remove and may remain for some time or be neglected
entirely. Infrequently the lower cell wall is torn down in removal of the
scale. Occasionally an egg is deposited in a cell before the last diseased
material is removed, but later these usually are removed; Numerous larvae
were found that at least reached the sealing stage in cells which were
"cleaned out" by the bees. While the further development of such larvae
without disease was observed, only a few such instances were recorded be-
cause of the seasonal restriction of brood rearing. Mr. Sturtevant further
states th.'t the temporary storage of diseased honey in brood cells, ppar-
ently does not contaminate them sufficiently to cause infection of brood
reared in them later.

Season's ~7ork gives some indication that resistance to American foul-
brood is horitable.--Of 16 line-bred queens reared this year from two bee
strains that showed signs of resistance during 1936 five, after being inoc-
ulated, showed no disease during the season of 1937, according to Mr.
Sturtevant. 'Of 17 cross-bred queens representing crosses between the 2
foregoing and 2 additional strains, all developed disease. Seven of these
were killed at the end of the season because of the high degree of infec-
tion. On the whole, the line-bred queens siowed to better advantage than
the cross-bred.

Sunersedure of package queens higher in socond ye.r than in first.--
C. L. Farrar, Larmaie, ,arlier reoorted that of 606 package queens observed
in the supersedure studies during 1936, and for which data were available,
practically 9 percent were lost by supersedure. He now reports th'-t, of the
best 1936 package queens still in colonies on M.y 1, 1937, approximately 50
percent were replaced during the summer and part of the survivors were of
poor quality by. the close of the season.




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
-32- II lll I Bllllll II ll ilII IIll 111 I11
3 1262 09243 4678
Two-queen colonies surpass single.-queen colonies.--John D. Hitchcock
and H. J. States, Jr., Laramie, report that eight two-queen experimental
colonies produced an average of 85.7 pounds more honey and had 80 percent
more pollen stores at the end-of the season than was true of nine single-
queen experimenial colonies.

Chomical anaylsis shows significant difference between worker and
queen.--Warren 7Whitcomb, Jr., Baton.Rougee, La,, in commenting on the chemi-
cal determinations made on queen and worker .by R. MA Melampy, also of the
Baton Rouge laboratory, sta'es that the most significant differonce between
the two forms lies in their respective nitrogen cohtent. He suggests that
the retarded development of the worker is due .in part either to a qualita-
tive or to a quantitative deficiency, or both, in the amino acids of the lar-
val diet. He also states that fat. is gynthosized and apparently utilized
during the period of organ formation, as the adult worker and queen contain
less fatty material than is present at that period.

IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INSECTS

Second record of a European moth found in United States.--A single male
moth reared from larvae boring in the bark of white pine at Hartsdale, N. Y.,
was received from George P. Engelhrdt., The moth was determined by Carl
Heinrich as Laspeyresia coniferana, Ratz. This is the second American speci- -
men of this European species to be received. The first specimen was recorded
in the News Letter for April 1935. Apparently the species is wll established
in Westchester County.

Acquisitinn of certain little-known Diptera.--Through a recent exchange.
with NM-than Banks, of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cmbridge, Mass.,
C. T, Greene obtained the larvae, pupae, and adults of Vermileo comstockii
Wheeler, V, vermileo Degeer, V. tibilis var. d)wi 1Whcler, and Lampromyia
canariensis Whoeler, all belonging; in the family Rhagionidae, The adults of:
V. tibialis var. dowi and the larvae and pupae of all the above forms are new
to the National Collection. The larvre form conolike pits in the dust in
which they ensnare their prey, much as the larvae of certain ant lions do.

An interesting ant interception.--T. S. Uyeda, of Honolulu, Hawaii,
recently found a queen and approximately a dozen workers of a Japaneseo ant,
determined by M. R. Smith as Euponera (Drachyponcra) solitaria (F. Smith), in
a shipment of flowering cherry, Prunus sp,, originating in Japan (F. P. Q.,
Honolulu No. 10418). The species, however, is already established in the
United States, having been found for the first time by H. T. Vandorford in 1932
in a number of localities in Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. It is
probable that the ant may have been introduced into these places by shipments
of flowering Prunus prior to the time of the csta blishr.ent of the foreign plant
quarantine inspection service.
AAnotner Europoean leafhopper in the United St-tes.--Specimens of a leafhop-
per collected in abundance in the Pacific Northiiest in 1935 have been identified
by P. W. Oman as a Europearn species, Athysanus;schenki Kirschbaum, not previously
reported from America. A study of r.aterial available in collections reveals the
following American records for the species; Ideaho: Moscow, Sept, 30, 1927 (Shull)
Moscow, Oct. 21, 1929 (Gillett); Moscow Mountain, Sept. 14, 1931 (Gillett); Coeur
d'Alenc, July 9, 1935 (Oman); Cataldo, July 9, 1935 (Oman). Washington: Ritz-
ville, July 8, 1935 (Oman); south of Spokane, July 9, 1935 (Oman). Oregon: Mt.
Hood (post office), July 3, 1935 (Oman).