News letter

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Title:
News letter
Alternate title:
Newsletter
Physical Description:
9 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
United States -- Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
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Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
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Frequency:
monthly

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Subjects / Keywords:
Entomology -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Beneficial insects -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Plant diseases -- Periodicals -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre:
serial   ( sobekcm )
federal government publication   ( marcgt )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1 (June 1934)-
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Ceased publication with v. 9, no. 4, (Feb. 1942).

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University of Florida
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 030367911
oclc - 86116125
lccn - 2012229622
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AA00023227:00038

Related Items

Preceded by:
News letter
Preceded by:
Monthly letter of the Bureau of Entomology
Preceded by:
Blister rust news

Full Text


uj\jjED -A) I LBRARY
STATE PLANT BOARD
DEPARTrJE\/JYNT OF AGcJCULJTURF









BUREAU OF

ENTOMOLOGY AND PLANT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER







VOLUME I
\. /
















Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013










http://archive.org/details/newsletter37no12









UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

BUREAU :OF ENTOMOLOGY 1.AND PLANJT QUARANTINE

NEWS LETTER

FOR OCTOBER 1937


Vol. IV, No. 12 ( ot for.publication) Decenber 1, 1937



TRANSFER OF MORMON CRICKET AND GRASSHOPPER CONTROL PROJECTS

During the past several years the administration of control work
in connecti-on with outbreaks of Miormon crickets and grasshoppers has
been under the supervision of .the Division of Cereal and Forage Insect
Investigations and was-directed by persons primarily assigned to investi-
gational and research work on these insects. This additional work has
materially interfered with the research programs, because the control
work is conducted during the season when progress in research work is
most .important.

In keeping with the organization of the Bureauts work, it seems
desirable to transfer the control activities to a division dealing exclu-
sively with control work; therefore, any Federal control projects dealing
with these insects undertaken during the spring and summer of 1938 will be
placed under the direction of the chief of the'Division of Dormestic Plant
Quarantines, B. M. Gaddis.

In making. this change it is, of course,. intended that the control
operations will be carried on. in close cooperation with the specialists
of the Bureau connected with investigational work on those insects and
the fullest utilization will be.,made of technical information developed
by them.



FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Limb bands v.s trunk bands for codling moth control.--M. A. Yothers,
of the Yakima, Wash., laboratory, has completed a test to determine the
relative efficiency of. placing beta naphthol- and oil-treated bands on the
limbs instead of on the trunks.of apple trees, and also of placing them
on both limbs and trunks. When limb bands were used instead of trunk
bands, 34 percent pore codling moth larvae were caught, and the number
caught by trunk bands was increased 60 percent by also using limb bands on
the same trees.. Limb bands require twice as much banding material as
trunk bands and correspondingly more labor.





-2-


Funigation of dried 'peaches.--H. C. Donohoe, of the Fresno, Calif.,
laborctory, carried out a series of tests to compare fumigation with shade-
cloth protection, previously 'found effective when used on ranches to cover
peaches while drying on stacked trays and during storage in picking boxes.
Chloropicrin was used at the rate 'of about 1 pound per ton. After drying
on stacked trays the experimental fruit was- infested by the raisin moth
(Ephestia figulilella Greg.) to the extent of 42 percent of the halves.
Storage without further treatment allowed this infestation to increase to
99 percent. Unprotected storage followed by fumigation resulted in reduc-
tion of established infestation to 18 percent. Sone of the sdne peackes
were fumigated at boxing, after drying, and samples taken imnediately after
the fumigation were 0.26 percent infested. After this fruit had been stored
without. shade-cloth protection it was 100 percent infested, but when it was
stored under cloth the average infestation was 12 percent. A portion of the
peaches that were 0.26 percent infested after furigation at boxing were
stored without protection and fumigated again after storage. These averaged
4.8 percent infestation. The figures given are averages of five lots in
each case. The periods of storage in boxes ranged from 12 to 18 days. The
samples were examined 45 to 51 days after collection.

Studies of the peach borer in Illinois and Indiana.--0. I. Snapp, of
the Fort Valley, Ga., laboratory, has been cooperating with State workers
in experiments in the control of the peach borer in western New York and
southern Illinois. Observations in New York indicated that more than 1 year
may be requirdd for the larval feeding period of some individuals in that
area, as a number of practically full-grown borers were found early in Octo-
ber which could not have attained that size from eggs hatched in the present
season.

Laboratory tests of insecticides for Japanese beetle.--W, E. Fleming,
of the Japanese beetle laboratory at Moorestown, N. J., reports on tests
carried on during the 1937 beetle season with various insecticidal materials
for the Japanese beetle. Among the materials tested as repellents were a
number of samples of derris impregnated with different codified materials by
the Division of Insecticide Investigations in order to inhibit the decompo-
sition of the derris by sunlight. The results were negative and indicated
that the impregnation of derris with these codified materials not only did
not increase the repellency of the derris but in some cases reduced the
initial repellency without inhibiting the decomposition of the derris. The
results also indicated that measuring the decomposition of rotenone by chem-
ical means may offer no clue as to the effectiveness of the material as a
Japanese beetle repellent. Oat flour, which has been reported as being of
value in inhibiting rancidity in oil and fat-containing foodstuffs, proved
to be of no value in inhibiting the decomposition of the repellent ingred-
ient in dorris. Amnoniacal copper sulphate when added to derris likewise
did not modify the repellent value of the derris. Further tests with the
derris-rosin residue emulsion combination now recommended for protecting
early ripening peaches and plums from beetle attack, showed that at least
three of the rosin oils can be substituted for the "rosin residue" in this
spray. Preliminary tests with finely ground derris (passing through 200-mesh
screen) indicate that the more finely ground material may be somewhat more ef-
fective as a repellent than are the coarser forms,







-3-


Chickens as probable agents in dissemination of diseases of Japanese
beetle larvae.--R. T. White and S. R. Dutky report on tests with chickens
fed on larvae infected with milky disease organisms and with others in-
jected with spore suspensions of the organisms. It was found that chickens
feeding on diseased lar.vae pass. out viable and infective spores in their
droppings, infection tests showing no reduction in the infectivity of such
spores as compared with those taken directly from diseased larvae. It was
also found that feeding dieseased larvae to chickens or inoculating chickens
with spores by intravenous injection produced no outward evidence of disease
and the growth rates of inoculated chickens are comparablo to those of un-
inoculated controls kept- under si:nilr .condi'tions. .The injected chickens re-
ceived a total of 3 billion spores in a series of four injections over a
period of 4 months. These experiments were conducted st the l)oorestown lab-
atory.
MEXICAN FRjUIT Y y CONTROL

A 3-year summary.--Throughout the last 3 years, ended June 30, 1937,
traps operated in Texas took 437 Anastrepha serpentina Wied. Sirce July 1,
1937, these same traps have taken 497 of this species and 349 were trapped
in October. Of this number, 197 were females. Only two of them, however,
showed any signs of egg development. In addition to the A. serpentina,
other flies not known to have hosts in the lower Rio Gr-ande Valley were
trapped as follows: A. acidusa Walk. group, 7; sp. '~Y", 2; A. striata, 1;
and one other specimen rarely taken in the valley traps, belonging in the
A. pallens Coq. grouip. No adult A. ludens Loew has been trapped in Texas
since July nor have .any larvae b-een found in this season's crop. The speci-
mens identified in October nere as follows:


S _Species : Texas : Mexico
Adults : Nuraber : Tumber
A. ludens------------------------ : 0 : 1
A. scrpentina --------------_----- : 349 8
A. acidusa Walk--- ----------------- 7 0
Anastrepha sp. "Y"------------------ 2 : 0
A. striata Schin------------------: 1 1
A. pllns-- ----------------------: 65 : 0
Pseudodacus sp-------------------: 1 0:
Total------------------------ 425 : 10
l/ Larvae
A. ludens- Y-- --------- 0 :122
A. serpentina" --------------------: : 56
A. striata ..------ --0 : 5
A. pallens. 0 : 4
A. palls-- -- ----------------- 0
Rhatgoletis sp-- ------------: : 110
Tctal-------------------------: 0 : 297
Grand total------------------: 25 : 07

i/From market fruit.








-4-


CEREAL AND FORAGE INSECT IESSTIGATIONS

Variation of infestation in fly-test nurseries.--E. T. Jones, Man-
hattan, Kans., reports: "On September 7 and 8 the most extensive hessian fly
resistance-test nursery we have yet attempted was sown at Springfield, Mo.
In addition to 1,800 8-foot rows, representing 1,180 selections and more
than 300 varieties of spring wheat, principally foreign plant introductions
hitherto untested for fly resistance, a similar nursery containing a dupli-
cation of the 1,180 selections was sown simultaneously at Manhattan by H. R.
Painter. In addition to these selections, consisting principally of F3
crosses and back crosses of winter wheats with selections carrying fly re-
sistance from Marquillo, several hundred F5 selectibns stabilized for fly
and rust resistance have been turned over to J. H. Parker for agronomic study,
improvement, and final disposition. Incident to tho extremely dry weather
of the past season, desiccation of larvae and consequent late erergence of
flies, little or no infestation can be found in*Manhattan and vicinity. Al-
though the plots viere cultured.for infestation, examinations continued to Oc-
tober 15 have shown no eggs on plants in the Manhattan tests. A similar con-
dition has'prevailed at Junction City, Kans. Tuirkey wheat from the borders
of our early sown test nursery there have a light infestation of eggs and
12 percent infestation of red larvae. Dissection of puparia from stubble
plowed under on-August 10 shows 62 percent desiccated larvae,, only 13 percent
total (but recent) emergence, and 100 percent living larvae of which 75 per-
cent have pupated, a very unusual condition. Representative- sanples of Mar-
quis plants fron Springfield borders show a plant infestation of 72 percent,
tiller infestation of 59 percent', and an average intensity of four puparia
per plant. Almost no white larvae are present but the plants carry a heavy
second fall-brood egg infestation of miorc than 218 eggs per plant. If the
larvae can.develop before severe frost, all susceptible plants and lines in
our Springfield tests will be annihilated by. infestation."

Bantam sweet corn tests for corn borer resistance.--M. Schlosberg and
R. Mathes, of the Toledo, Ohio, laboratory, report that of a group of 71
Bantam sweet corn strains tested in 1937 for resistance to the European corn
borer, comprising 29 inbred lines and 42 hybrid crosses, 2 of the inbred
lines gave evidence of resistance on the basis of the departure of their re-
sultant mean borer populations from their expected borer populations, based
on their relative conditions of development at the time of infestation of the
strains, using as a criterion of resistance a negative departure of approxi-
riately twice the standard error of estimate. The same strains were found
resistant on a similar basis in tests conducted with 61 Bantan strains in
1936. The inbred lines are 1828, obtained from the Michigan Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, and 26-34, obtained from the Minnesota Agricultural Exper-
iment Station. The inbred line 1828 was derived from a cross containing as
one parent an inbred line of Maize ALargo, a strain of field corn which, al-
though found to be agrononically undesirable, appeared resistant to corn
borer attack. None of the other strains showed a negative departure of actual
from expected borer population of at least twice the standard error of
estimate,








-5-


Grasshopper population reduced in coastal counties of Californi..--
C. C. Wilson, of the. Sacrahento, Calif., laboratory, reports that in a re-
cent survey of the coastal counties the number of grasshopper egg pods showed
a material reduction since the survey in 1936. On many egg beds, examinations
of sanples of soil showed fewer than 1 egg pod per square foot; whereas, at
the peak of the infestations in 1935, from 90 to 1,200 egg pods were recorded
in these same egg beds, Apparently only a little bait will be necessary in
this locality. However, if clinatic conditions Are favorable, hoppers may
migrate into cultivated crops from the wide expanses of rolling hills, which
are normally infested.

Egg predators take heavy toll of grasshopper eggs in California.--Mr.
Wilson also reports that an egg survey in San Luis Obispo County, where 440
square-foot samples from 43 egg beds were examined, indicated a material re-
duction in grassnopper egg deposition. There was a decrease of 43 perent in
the number of eggs deposited in 1937 over that of 1936 and an increase of 29
percent in the number of egg pods attacked by bee, fly, and blister beetle.
It is believed that these predators will constitute a material factor in the
reduction of the prospective grasshopper population in 1938. The folloving
table shovws a comparison of the egg pods deposited in 1936 with those de-
posited in 1937 and the percentage of egg pods attacked by predators.


Year : Total egg : Total : Egg pods attacked
: pods :predators: by predators
: Number : Kunber : Percent
1936----: 2,188 : 675 : 30.8
1937-----: 1,10 : 657 : 59.2__

Distribution of grasshoppor egg parasite throughout grasshopper area
in Iperial Vallcy.--Examination by Mr. 7ilson of alfalfa fields thrcughout
the major grasshopper area in the Imperial Valley, Calif., indicated that
the hynenopterous agg parasite Scolio n. sp., iA widespreadc throughout the
alfalfa-growing district. A secoand recovery was made 15 miles northeast of
the place where the parasite was first collected in' the spring of 1937. Pre-
liminary examinations, indicated that from 9 to 14 percent of the egg pods
were attacked,

Second generation of lesser migratory gra-sshopper danaging crops in
Iaperial Valley.--Mr. Wilson also reports that exapinations of the alfalfa
fields throughout the Inperial Valley, Calif., indicated that serious damage
nay be expected fror. the depredations of Melanoplus mexicanus Sauss. This
species was observed in stages ranging from second instar to adult, most
individuals being in the fourth and fifth instars. The population was esti-
mated to be 15 to 85 grasshoppers per square yard, on approxinately 50,000
acres. In a number of fields the egg pods averaged 18 per equare yard, and
these will probably hatch this fall, causing considerable loss, unless
measures are taken for control. Bait is being mixed and distributed by agri-
cultural commissioner B. A, Harrigan.







-6-


JAPANESE BEETLE CONTROL

Fall shipments of hursery stock increasing.--Very dry weather during
the early part of the month somewhat delayed the fall shipping season of
nursery stock; however, activities increased appreciably in most sections
by the middle of the month. In New Jersey over 250,000 plants intended for
shipment to points outside the regulated area were certified during the
month. Shipments were heaviest from South Jersey. Plant shipments from
the Philadelphia, Pa., sector were heaviest to.Southern States, over 143,000
plants being certified for shipment to Georgia and over 110,000 to Florida
in October. Nursery and greenhouse inspection work increased considerably
on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. One large establishment which specializes
in fruit.trees presented an inspection problem somewhat different from any
other in this section. Instead of the usual sandy loam predominant in this
territory, the soil in which'the trees were grown is heavy clay which sticks
to the roots and does n6t shake off readily nor wash off when dipped in the
usual manner. It was found necessary, although slower and more tedious, to
wash the roots of the trees with a pressure hose in, order to clean them sat-
isfactorily for inspection.

Inspectors supervise fumigations and tr.atments.--A total of 13 treat-
ments conducted at 9. different establishments, 7 with a classified status,
were supervised by inspectors in the New York City area. At one of the lar-
gest unclassified establishments on Long Island, 1 greenhouse was fumigated
and 32 azaleas were treated with paradichlorobenzene as a. demonstration.
Some supervision has been given the State men who are treating the infested
portion of the large nursery at Towson, id., with miscible carbon disulphide
emulsion. One quart of the emulsion, consisting of 1/2 part castor-oil soap,
1/2 part potash cocoanut-oil socp, 3 parts water, and 10 parts carbon disul-
phide, is being used to 50 gallons of water. Inspectors in northern New Jer-
sey treated over 14,000 plants at 1 nursery with paradichlorobenzene. They
likewise treated over 1,100 plants in the'field of another nursery with car-
bon disulphide.

Restrictions on the novement of cut flowers lifted.--Discontinuation of
the restrictions on the moverent of cut flowers after October 15 resulted in
the dismissal of several inspectors assigned to this work. In the Phil,.del-
phia, Pa., area, 109 beetles were rem.oved fron cut flowers during the in-
spection period. Beetles wvre found on cut flowers in this area as early as
June 15, the opening day of the season, and the last bectles, to be found were
removed on October 1. Inspection at the wholecalo cut flower houses in all
sections continued until the quarantine was lifted.

Slightly. fewer sand shipments fro: NYew Jersey.--Certification was granted
during the month on approximately 270 cars of sand in the New Jersey area,
somewhat under the amount certified durinn October last year.

Last beetles in the Philadelphia area.-The last outside find to'be re-
ported in this area was on October 15, when a beetle was picked from a canna
plant in Fairuount Park, Philadelphia.






-7-


Dutch elm disease sanitation activities.--Selective cutting and clear
cutting has ben started .in several areas where there is- an abundance of
diseased-trees or where it is difficult t. sqout thovo.ghly. These areas
are to be- extended beyond the infection limits to 4,atural boundaries, such
as.streans !and roads, so that they may be well -defired.: An area in Clifton,
N. J., having a localized concentration of diseased trees, writh probable
source of inoculun coning from a wood pile, was the first, to be clear cut
this fall. By the end of the month sinilar work was going on in nost of the
counties in the New Jersey, infectcd area. A change in sanitation net :ods
approved this month allows the stulps of removed trees to be 12 inches high,
except on lawns or along curbs and roadways. Previously, the procedure was
to cut stunps as low as possible. Trees.under 2 inches in diameter will be
grubbed out, whereas stumps of small treCs Lre- to be left fror 6 to 8 inches.
It is expected that this change will speed up the work and*allow. for a bet-
ter chenical treatment of the stunps.

Root grafts spread infection.--A diseased tree .eradiccted during the
last week of the month in New Castle, Westchester County, 1.. Y., almost es-
caped detection. No evidence of the disease was founi( in scmples collected
on August 25 and Sept.ember 16. Gr:phiur was finally isolated.from specimens
collected on October 21. Examination of the eraicated tree disclosed that
streaking was well distributed throu hout the larger limbs .of the crown, but
had not reached the tips of the branches where samples for laboratory diag-
nosis are usually cut. Research men of the New: York State Depajrtr.ent of .Agri-
culture and Markets were able to culture Graphiun fron samples taken in Aug-
ust from a few snall vwat.r sprouts. Entry of the disease apparently took
place through root grafts with anoth:r elm 11 feet away, whish.was previously
confirmed and removed.

Considerable decrease in confirmations fo.r several areas.--A comparison
of the nunber of diseased trees foutic in New Jersey in 1936 and up to October
16, 1937, reveals a general decrease for the entire State of 20 percent. Sev-
eral lightly infected counties in which nore extensive scouting had been per-
formed showed increases. Eight counties in the infected area had decreases
ranging fron 16 to 60 percent.. Staten Island, N. Y., shows a significant de-
cline in the numbers of diseased trees reported since 1933, as follows: 18 in
1933) 53.in 1934; 326 in 1935; 70 in 1936; and 31 in 1937 up to October 25.

Dutch -elm disease data.--Reparts were received frQn the Morristorn, N. J.,
laboratory during the month, confirning 37$ trees as having D.etch eln dis-
ease. Of these, 327 were in New Jersey, 47 in New York, and only 2 in Con-
necticut. The renaininng 2 cases were in Wileys Ford, W, Va., outside the gen-
eral disease area. A total of 27,915 trees have been confirned in all areas
to date. ,Total trees removed to date in clear-cut areas nun' er 1,216,094;
dead trees renoved number 2,231,146. The grand total of all trees removed to
date in clear cutting, eradication, and sanitation activities is 3,507,085.

New infection centers in Now Jer2ey.--Two new centers of infection have
recently been found in New Jersey--ne in Twksbury Township, in HunterCon Coun-
ty, and the other in Green Township, Sussex County. The latter infection may
be connected with the concentration in Allamuchy Township, Warren County. These
new finds are partially responsible for the laroge number of confirmations re-
ported early in the month for New Jersey.






-8-


Elm shipment certification refused.--Certification of four Chinese
elms, intended for movement from Albertson, N. Y., to the United States
Post Office Planting, Hamburg, N. Y., was refused by inspectors of the
New York City office. Although eligible for certification under the Japa-
nese beetle quarantine, certification could not be granted, as the ship-
mont was destined to a point outside the area regulated on account of the
Dutch elm disease.

Horses select elm trees for destruction.--An unusual condition has
been found in northern .Mrion County, Ind. Approximately 1,000 elms that
had been girdled by horses were discovered on a 500-acre farn which is used
as pasture by about 100 horses. A similar condition on a much smaller
scale was found on other farns. The horses apparently attack only elm,
primarily American elr.' but occasionally a slippery elm.

Further confirnations at Wileys Ford., W. Va.--Two additional trees
at Wileys Ford, W. Va., have been confirped as having Graphium, bringing
the total of 'diseased trees discovered in this area to five. .Both trees
were near previously confirned elms. All trees, in the immediate vicinity
of the infected elms are being sampled and pruned.

Scouting results in Pennsylvania negative.--All field. work was ter-
ninated in the Pennsylvania protective band on October 9. Approxinatoly
1,100 suspects were collected during the season but no cases of Dutch elm
disease have been reported.

European bark beetles discovered in new areas.--Infestations of
Scolytus multistriatus Marsh. in several new locations have been reported
by the Morristown, N. J., laboratory. This insect carrier of the Dutch
eln disease was located in Antietamn, Md., Bardane, W. Va., and several
points within 30 niles of the latter area.

Hardwood pulp moved in large quantities.--An unprecedented nunber of
requests for the inspection of h:-rdwood pulp, novin;: by freight and truck
from generally infested gypsy r.oth areas in northern Maine and New Hamp-
shire to a pulpnill at Gorharm, N. H., located in the lightly infested area,
overtaxed the usual inspection facilities available in that area. Eleven
additional men were assigned to inspect the shipments until other arrange-
mcnts wore devised. A recently perfected process whereby the pulp is
turned into a hardwood sulphide, used in the rlanufacture of paper, rayon,
and explosives, accounts for the sudden donand by the manufacturer. In-
vestigation disclosed. that the pulpmill, ignorant of the Cypsy moth regu-
lations, had contracted for 8,000 to 10,000 cords of hardwood pulp in the
generally infested area for shipment to their plant at Gorham, N. H. It
was rlso disclosed that a freight agent, in charge of several stations in
the' northern sections of Maine and New Hampshire, had authorized the move-
ment of approximately 40 cars of pulp from the generally to the lightly in-
fested area without previous inspection and certification. Gypsy moth in-
spectors, with the cooperation of the carrier, have located practically all
these cars, thoroughly cleaned them, and burned the refuse removed from
them. Under a special arrangement, all incoming shipments are now carefully
checked by an inspector at the mill, the pulp is milled immediately, the






-9-


bark burned, and the trucks and cars are thoroughly cleaned as unloaded.
These precautions make it possible to dispense with the inspectors first
added to handle the actual inspection work. Approximately 300 egg clus-
ters were removed from all:pulpwood shipments during October.

Seasonal movement of evergreen produc-ts under way.--Shipments.of
evergreen products, such as boughs, trees, and roping, began to move from
the regulated New England section during the, latter part of October. Sev-
eral gypsy moth inspectors. are now busily engaged in the inspection 'of
these products. During the 1936 season, 23 temporary inspectors were em-
ployed in the inspection of Christmas trees and other evergreen material
used for Christmas decoration.

FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Bark beetle control operations on the Cocur d'Alene.--J. C. Evenden,
of the Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, labort-ory, reports that the Forest Service,
under the technical advice of the laborr.tory, is conducting artificial
control on the Coeur d'Alene National Forest to eliminate five potentially
dangerous "hot spots" of mountain pine beetle infestation in twhite pine.
This project was instituted in October and will be co-pleted the latter
part of November, with approximately 4,000 trees being treated. These
five rather small areas of severe infestation were disclosed during a sur-
vey of the forest conducted by the laboratory in August a-nd September.

Bark thickness limits mountain pine beetle attack.--W, D. 3edard',
Coeur d'Alene, reports that it was found that bark thickness, rathner than
height or diameter of the tree, was the factor that governed the height
of insect attack. Regardless of the size of the tree, bark thickness at
the top of the infested length ranged only from 0.2 to 0.4 inch. Although
at any given height there was a v:ide variation in bark thickness within
any diameter or height class, the taper in bark thickness from the base
to the top of the tree was fairly constant. In other words, although bark
thickness varied considerably at any given height, the decrease in thick-
ness was fairly regular from the base to the top of the tree. With this
variation in bark th-ickness within height and diameter classes it is ap-
parent that there would be a wide range in infested length if it were
correlated with ei'ther of these two factors. On the ba`is of bark thick-
ness, the range in infested length is greatly diminished, and when the
correlation is made on both bark thickness and height of -tree, the range
is even more materially lessened.

Locust borer injury not so sevsre in southern part of the Central
States fogiin.--R. C. Hall, Columbus, Ohio, reports that the analysis of
data from 440 sample plots, established in the States of Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, Kentucky,, and Tennessee, indicates that locust borer d.aage is
much less severe in the southern part of the region than in the northern
part. For example, for an aver..:;e site index of 50 feet in Tennessee the
average injury index is 49 percent, whereas for northern Ohio the soame
site yields an average injury of 30 percent. There appears to be a def-
inite gradient in injury, progressing from high to low, from northern Ohio
to southern Tennessee. A summary table of this gradient follows:






-10-



Region : Site index : Injury index
Feet Percentl/
Northern Ohio---: 50 s
Southern Ohio---: 50 : 76
Indiana--------: 50 : 72'
Tennessee------: 50 49

-/Inijury index: 0, no injury; 1-23, light injury;
34-66, medium injury; 67-100, severe injury.

Ovipcsition responses of locust'borer.--W. L, Baker, Columbus, re-
ports that a preliminary analysis of data bearing upon oviposition re-
sponses of the locust borer,-as obtainedat Minerva, Ohio, this season, in-
dicates a strong positive reaction to relatively high temperatures ranging
up to 70 or 80 F. but a d&finit9 negative response as the temperature rises
into the 901s. Continuous observation of several ovipositing females on
coTparatively cool days (air temperatures ranging from the high 60's into
the iddle 70's) showed a verynmarked tendency of the fenmles to migrate
around the trees from east to west as.the day advanced,-thereby remaining
in an environient from 50 to 100 warmer than-that on the shaded sides of the
trunks. However, when the.air temperatures ranged from the low to the high
8O's the beetles showed the reverse reaction. At this time the bark tem-
peratures in the sun ranged from the low to the middle 90's, whereas on the
shaded sides they were as much as 160 lower. A series of records was taken
of light intensities at the point of deposition of each egg, a total of 462
separate instances of oviposition being observed. General observations in-
dicate less dependence of the females on light intensities than on tempera-
ture, inasnuch as during the coldest days and the morning hours of all days
involved, cases of oviposition were rare or absent, although the light was
as strong as during the days and hours of maximum oviposition.

Locust borer survival for the Cambridge, Ohio, experimental area.--
H. C. Sccrest, Columbus, reports that the partial analysis of activity
records for Cambridge, Ohio, for 1937 indicates that the survival of locust
borer larvae from early spring to the time of cutting of emergence holes
was about 20 percent. The survival of prepupac and pupae was about 57 per-
cent, makin; a total survival from early spring lo:rva.e to emergence of
adults of about 11 percent. The data are summarized as follows:


Survival of stages :Nunber :'Percent
Total larvan in spring---------------------- i : 2,449 : -4
Larvae cutting emergence holes---------------- 48 --
Survival of larvae based on emergence holes cut: -- 199
Adults emerging------------------------------ 276: -
Survival based on adults energing------------- -- : 11.3
Survival of pupae and prepupae------------- 56.6






-11-


New distribution records for smaller European elm bark beetle.--Scoly-
tus multistriatus Marsh. is considered the most important insect vector of
the Dutch elm disease ftngus in the United States. It was first found in
the vicinity of Boston, Mass., in 1909. Until 1936 the insect was known to
occur in only two distinct areas.' One covered parts of eastern Massachu-
setts and southeastern New Hampshire. The other included parts of western
Connecticut, southeastern New York, eastern Pennsylvania, northern Delaware,
and northern New Jersey. In 1936 scouts connected with the Bureau's Dutch
elm disease eradication unit found S. multistriatus at Parkersburg, TW. Va.
Since then -that unit and the Morristown, N. J., laboratory have cooperated
in getting additional information concerning the distribution of the species.
C. W. Collins, Morristown, reports as follows concerning the results of
this scouting: "S. Uultistriatus has been found to be well established in a
large con.tiguous territory including parts of Trest Virginia, Ohio, Indiana,
and Kentucky, bordering on the Ohio River from East Liverpool, Ohio, to
Evansville, Ind. The known infested area lies mostly in Ohio and West Vir-
ginia. At some points in Ohio it extends back from the Ohio River approxi-
mately 50 miles and at some points in West Virginia approximately 60 miles.
Two other infested areas have been found. One is about 225 square miles in
extent and lies just south of Pittsburgh, Pa. The other area includes six
localities where the beetle has been found in the vicinity of Martinsburg,
TW. Va. Five of these localities are in West Virginia and one is in Mary-
land."

Beech scale infestation increases in Maine.--R. C. Brown, of the New
Haven, Conn., laboratory, reports that an examination made by L. D. Casey
early in October of the permanent plots in Maine indicated a definite in-
crease in the beech scale infestation. In a great many instances the scale
infestation was from medium to heavy near the base of trees in 1936 but the
infestation now extends to a height of 25 to 50 feet from the ground. No
marked increase in mortality of trees over that recorded in 1936 was ob-
served. The predator Chilocorus bi vlnerus Muls. is apparently unable to
check the progress of the infestation in Maine. The .infestation in Scars-
dale, N, Y., remains very light. Judging by the large number of Chilocorus
in this area it appears that the infestation here is held in check by 'the
feeding of this predator.

European spruce sawfly in New Hampshire.--H. J. EMacAloney, New Haven,
reports that a survey of mature spruce stands on the White Mountain National
Forest in New Hampshire revealed that the European spruce sawfly was present
in extremely small numbers. The same condition prevailed in Coos County,
N. H., where large areas of spruce occur.

Light infestation of spruce bark beetle.--J. V. Schaffner, Jr., New
Haven, reports that a reconnaissance of mature spruce Otands on the Thite
Mountain National Foreet in New Hampshire was made early in October to de-
termine the status of Dendroctonus piceaperda Hopk. One infested tree was
found near Camp A of the Parker Young Cor.pany in the area of the east branch
of the Pemigewasset River. On the Bread Tray Ridge Trail and another trail
leading down toward the Waterville Valley Inn, a few infested and dead trees
were found. Based on the number of trees apparently killed by this post in
this area in the last 1 to 5 yehrs and the number of trees now containing
broods, the indications are that the infestation is not noticeabl increasing.
TAE PLBRARYNT
STATE PLANT BOARE





-12-


S Notes on the biology of Matsucoccus.--Thaddeus J. Parr, New Haven,
reports as follows on Matsucoccus sp. on pitch pine: "Early in the month
the scales, having completed the second molt, began emerging from the holes
in the bracts and traveled from the tips to the bases of the branches. The
emergence continued until the third week, when all except those that had
died from drowning.in pitch, or for some.reason were unable to push.up out
of the holes, had found shalter under the bark scales on the large branches
and trunk, in some instances even down.the main trunk to the ground. The
mature females crowd into anysmqll crack or crevice in the bark, where they
are protected from above, and begin egg laying. Typically, the eggs are
laid in a flat, elliptical pad behind the female. The pads of eggs are
covered with woolly wax and contain a relatively large number:of eggs. One
counted contained over 400, with a few mature eggs still remaining in the
body of the female. Egg laying continues at the present time and it is
thought that the insects will overwinter in the egg stage."

GYPSY MOTH ANT BROMW-TAIL MOTH CONTROL

Heavy winds improve scouting conditions.--Scouting conditions were
materially improved over the entire gypsy moth infested area during the
latter part of October. Two severe rainstorms, accompanied by winds that,'
sometimes reached gale force, stripped the foliage from most of the decidu-
ous growth in many areas.

Intensive scouting near Canadian border makes rarpid progress.--The
areas adjacent to gypsy moth infestations discovered during the last fiscal
year in the eastern section of Washington County, Maine', are now being
scouted intonsively by a special crew supervised by a pernanent a-gnt of
this activity. Examination of a large woodland area in the vicinity of the
Indian Tovwnship infestation was-completed during the first part of October.
Similar work was performed in the vicinity of the old infectations in Machias-
port, Trcscott, and Cooper, and the crew was working in Princcton at the end
of the month. All of these towns are near the border of the Province of New
Brunswick, where several small infestations were found 6uring the last fis-
cal year by employees of the Dominion of C'ncada. No g psy th infestations
were found in Washington County up to, the end of October.

Scouting work exp4edited in more perilous sections of Vermont.--Gypsy
moth scouting crews working in the more ru;ged sections of Vermont are mak-
ing an effort to complete work in the most dangerous localities while the
footing remains good. The work in so-me of the towns in the barrier-zone
section of Vernont has been completed and considerable scouting has already
been accomplished in several others, but no G'ypsy moth infestations have been
found in this section,

Small infestations in barrier zone attributed to spread byy ind.--Some
single-eg-cluster infestations of the gypsy uoth were discovered ir the
southeastern section of the Massachusetts portion of the barrier zone during
the fiscal year 1937 which were attributed to wind drift from infestations
outside of the eastern border of the barrier zone. Several small infestations
in the sane section but in localities not examined during the,fiscal year






-13-


1937, have been discovered .this year. The size of the infestations indi-
cates that they became established at the same .time as those found last
year and probably originated from the same source.

Ground work stressed in areas where most egg clusters were deposited
in low places.--Most of the gypsy moth egg clusters discovered in Canaan
and Salisbury, in the northwestern part of Connecticut, early in October,
were found .c-lose to the ground. As similar conditions were noted in other
parts of the area, field employees engaged in scouting and cleaning work
in Connecticit and Massachusetts are taking advantage of the prevailing
favorable weather to accomplish as much low work as possible before snow
falls. Scouting of the upper sections of the trunks and the branches of
the trees will be done after the ground work has been completed in these
sections, or after the lower egg clusters are hidden by snow,

New infestation in Connecticutf portion of barrier zone.--A gypsy moth
infestation was found the first week in October in the southeastern part
of the tovn of Sharon, on the -western edge of the State of Connecticut and
within the -barrier zone.

Cordwood inspected before removal from infested area.--A considerable
amount of cordwood, recently cut in the vicinity of a gypsy moth infesta,
tion in Cnnaan, Conn., has been trucked to the New Haven, Conn., area and
thence to market in New York State. A force of men has been detailed to
carefully examine this wood stick by stick before it is moved from the in-
fested area, as a precaution against the transportation of the gypsy moth
eggs to uninfested territory. All standing trees and shrubs in the im-
mediate vicinity of the cordwood were also carefully inspected.

Progress of work at isolated infestations in New York State.--Employees
of the New York conservation department and W. P. A. wGrkers under the super-
vision of this activity, who have been employed in scouting anJ thinning
work in the vicinity of the largc gypsy -moth infestation discovered last
year in Shavnungnk, Ulster County, had located no now egg clusters in that
town at the end of October, However, a single egg cluster infestation was
discovered in the adjoining town of Wawarsing. A suall number of new egg
clusters was found and treated by the C. C. C. carm force working in the
region of the large infesta.tion discovered last year in Putnm Valley, Put-
nam County. Both of these infestations are located in the southern section
of the State. The situation is different at the infestation discovered
last September on Trumbull Mo1untain in Hague, Warren County, which is situ-
ated much farther north, near the southern end of Lake Champlain. Very close
ground work is being done in the vicinity.of this infestation and additional
surrounding territory is being scouted by a force of over 60 W. P. A. em-
ployees working under. the supervision of the New York conservation depart-
ment. Nearly 7,000 .ypsy moth egg clusters had been creosoted by these men
at the end of October.

Two infestctions found on the banks of the Lackawanna River,--Scouting
along the banks of the Susquehanna and Lackawanna Rivers and in the adjacent
lowlands of the gypsy noth infested area in Pennsylvania was comnleted in
October, All trees and shrubs were carefully examined and much rubbish, such






-14-


as 'tin cans, boxes, barrels, driftwood of all types, and junk, deposited
by the floods during the latter part of August, was closely inspected. The
wcrk in some sections was complicated by heavy layers of mud which covered
the lower portions of the trees and much of the debris. More than 35 miles
of river banks,-extqnding through and beyond the area known or suspected..
to be infested by the gypsy no.th, and including parts of 11 different town-
ships, were inspected during this survey. All tree growth and debris on
approximately 4,600 acres. of open country and 190 acres of woodland were ex-
amined, and the work required more than 5,200 nan-hours of labor, Two
gypsy moth infestations were located, both in the boroughs of Taylor and
Old Forge, in Lackawanna County. The infestations were about 3/4 nile,
apart and extended along the river bank, many of the egg clusters being lo-
cated on debris close to the edge of the water. One infestation consisted
of 302 new eg;, clusters and the other of 28. Neither of the infestations
present serious control problems and should, be easily eradicated.

Assembling cages fail to reveal new infestation in Damascus, Pa.--A
gypsy moth infestction was discovered during the first week in October in
the west-central part of Daanscus Township near the village of West Damas-
cus, Wayne County, Pa. Da;mascus is outside the Pennsylvania quarantined
area and is on the border of New York State. This infestation is located
approximately 7 miles northeast of the colony discovered in Dyberry in-1937.
Twenty-five egg clusters were found in a small apple orchard adjacent to a
woodland area consisting of approximately 90 percent maple and a 10-percent
mixture of basswood, cherry, birch, hornbeam, and elm. Intensive scouting
and clean-up work had increased the number of new egg clusters to 60 by the
end of October. About the middle of July 150 assembling cages were set
out in Damascus, 1 of which was within the infestation, but all of the
cages failed to attract male gypsy moths. This, together with several
similar instances in the past, conclusively -demonstrates that assembling
cages are not entirely reliable in locating -ypsy moth infestations.

Clean-up work to eliminate spraying on shore of reservoir-.--Several
reservoirs, which are the principal source of water for thickly populated
cities and towns in the Wyoming Valley, are located in Spring Brook Town-
ship in Lackawanna County, Pa. Spring Brook is near the center of the
quarantined area and was.heavily infested by the gypsy moth. Very thorough
clean-up work is being done around the. shores of one of the largest reser-
voirs in order to stanp out the infestation so that spraying need not be
done next season within 100 feet of the water's edge.

Scouting was principal occupation of C. 0. C. gypsy moth enrollees in
October.--From the end of the burlapping season to the first of October,
C. C'. C. enrolles were principally employed in thinning and cleaning work
at known gypsy noth infestations. As the leaves began to thin out during
the first part of October, some of the men were trained, for scouting work.
More men were transferred to this type of control work as scouting condi-
tions became progressively better and during the latter part of the month
scouting became the major activity. Piles of forest debris and slash are
burned on days when there is no fire danger, so that accumulations of such
waste material may be kept at a minimum. .






-.15-


Efficient work by C, C. C. gypsy moth crew.--Large gypsy noth infes-
tations are usually easily founc, as' somc. of 'the' gg clusters are so situ-
ated that they can readily be seen, and intensive scouting in the vicinity
discloses the remainder. As. the size of the infestations becomes smaller
they are increasingly difficult to locate'. The work of the gypsy uoth crew
from the C. C.. ca.p at Plymouth, Vt., demonstrates the efficiency and
thoroughnes's necessary in regions where the infestations are small and
scattered. This crew discovered 12 single egg cluster infestations in the
town of Ludlow, 4 in Cavendlsh, "and'l In Mount Holly, several of which were
not clearly visible. This scattering of small infesteticns indicates that
they, like the scattered infestations in the Massachusetts section of the
barrier zone, originated from wind spread fron infestations to the east or
southeast, from which the simall caterpillars were apparently blown up a
valley in the direction of.Ruitland and the barrier zone.

PLANT DISEASE CONTROL

Progress of barberry eradication in NTrth Dekota.--Geor:ge C. Hayoue,
in charge of barberry eradication in North Dakota and Montana, reports
that during the period July to October an aver.age of 22 security wage
earners werl': e:.ploye.d in North Dakota in making a farn-to-farm survey in
Stutsman, La Moure, Richland, Ransom, Grand Forks, and Steele Counties,
where many bushes were found during the initial survey. There had also
been reports by school children and some severe' rvst outbreaks in recent
years, indicating that possibly sone radditional busnes reuained. This work
resulted in the eradication of 160 bushes and seedlings on 7 different
properties. In Montana control work in recent months has been confined
largely to timrbered areas in Flathead andC Lake Counties, where 855 bushes
and seedlings have been destroyed on 9 different properties. In Minnesota
since July 1 approximately 140 security wage earners have made a survey for
barberry bushes in an area ccnprising about 3,500 squer-. niles in the south-
western part of the State. Crews were located in Ni'collet, 1Mower, Watonwan,
Nobles, and Rock Counties. Iost of the bushes found were obviously escapes
from old plantings. In addition to the 'work in the western part of the
State, a coLulete survey of Houston County has resulted in the eradication
of m;any isolatec and large fruiting bushes. In view of th: topography,
vide distribution of barberries, and the fact that somre bushes were planted
in this county as early as 1850, a future reinspection of practically the
entire county will be necessary to destroy new bushes that develop from
seed. The following table sunnarizes the progress in eradication since
July 1.


Type : Properties : Total
of : having bushes: bushes : Sprouting : Seedlings
property: Planted:ZScaped: Planted : Escaped : bushes :
: NuJber : Number: Number : Number : rNu-iber : NTurber
Old------: 2 :: 27 : 3 : 157 : 13
New------ 24 : 53 : 134 : 1S0 : : 115
Total--: 26 : 80o 137 : 7 : 6!. : 128






-16-


According to L. W. Melander, bushes found in Minnesota during the
last few months have been widely scattered and many of then proved to be
sprouts fron planted bushes that farmers had unsuccessfully attempted to
eradicate several years ago. In one instance it was necessary to remove
barberries fron a buckthorn hedge that had been planted in place of bar-
berries voluntarily eradicated by the property owner. Mr, 1ielander con-
ments as follows regarding the use of line narkers: "In the October 1,
1937, Bureau News Letter (vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 21-22) there was discussion
of various nethods of marking lines for survey crews and mention was made
of a now type of canvas marker that had a fine screen for release of the
powdered lime. This marker has how been used for barberry survey in Min-
nesota over a period of several ionths and has proved very satisfactory
and efficient. Contrary to appearances, it is not the "swatter" type, but
is used nore on the order of a sponge to serve as a guide when working
anong trees and other objects. Where it is necessary to put line on foli-
age, it is a simple matter to shake the powdered lime on the object to be
marked. The supervisors who have been using these markers prefer them to
other nethods that have been used heretofore in Minnesota."

Scouting for blister rust in California.--The annual work of scout-
ing for white pine blister rust in California was begun about the first
of August. In 1936 five infections, one on sugar pine and Ribes ahd the
others on Ribes only, were found in northwestern California, a few niles
south of the Oregon boundary. These were the first discoveries of blister
rust in California. This year infection on Ribes nevadense was found dur-
ing the very first days of scouting on the Trinity National Forest, about
100 miles south of the discoveries of 1936. R. nevadense had never before
been found infected in its native halbitat. One bush, growing along a
small mountain Btrear: and scarcely eight feet from the water and at an ele-
vation of about 4,500 feet, carried the rust. It was in good association
with sugar pine, Notwithstanding a careful search of the vicinity, no more
diseased bushes could be found. However, within 2 weeks four more infec-
tions on R. nevadense and R. cruentun were located about 10 miles to the
south, and subsequently two infected R. sanguineun were found about 125
miles south of the Oregon-California line. A scoutini party operating in
the northern part of the Klanath forest found blister rust generally dis-
tributed in every drainage basin exanined and principally in basins where
no rust was observed last ye:ir. This indicates possible undiscovered pine
infection centers probably to the north in Oregon, and exceptionally fav-
orable conditions for the spread of the rust during the opring. Early in
September another scouting party was sent into the Lassen National Forest,
at the northern end of the Sierra Nevada. Shortly afterwards blister rust
was discovered there on R. roezli on iill Creek a few niles south of Lassen
Volcanic National Park, and about 120 niles south of the Oregon boundary.
This is the first known occurrence of blister rust in the Sierrae Nevada,
and affords the first.tangible proof of the threat to the fine stands of
sugar pine growing on its western slope. Thus the presence of white pine
blister rust has been established in both the Coast Range and Sierra Nevada
Mountains of northern California, at about equal distances south of the
Oregon-California border. It should be clearly understood that'many undis-
covered Ribes infections undroubtedly exist both within and outside the area






-17-


found infected this season. All scouting operations in the sugar pine
region were terminated the latter part of October because of inclement
weather and defoliation of the Ribes.

Camp reliefer carries on thriving laundry and cleaning establish-
ment.--The Cow Creek blister rust camp in California has one full-fledged
laundry and cleaning establishment in operation. Almost over night busi-
ness became so good that the proprietor, a camp reliefer, had to take a
partner. Ordinary service requires.2 days, but special 1-day service can
be obtained at no extra charge. The shop consists of two ironing boards,
gasoline iron, and a dry cleaning and tailoring tent. The operator does
this work entirely on his own time. He puts in his regular 120 .hours per
month on Ribes eradication and operates the laundry and cleaning establish-
ment on the side after hours. This work does not, in any way, interfere
with his regular duties.

Preeradication survey on National Parks.--At the request of and in
cooperation with the National Park Service, preeradication surveys. 1ave
been started in the Lassen Volcanic, Yosemite, and Sequoia National Parks.
The objedt.of this work is t'o gather essential information concerning the
abundance and distribution of Ribes and white pines as a basis for planning
control operations.

Pine-disease survey in the western white pine region.--During ,the
summer a pine-dissease survey has been carried on in the western white pine
region. The returns have now been tabulated from sample strips worked in
24 drainage's of the St. Joe 'orest area in Idaho. These drainages con-
tain 182,700 -acres 'of white pine land nd d 12,965 trees up to about 20
feet in height were examined in the stream and upland types. This work
resulted in the finding of 16,831 infected trees, or 13 p.ercent of those
examined. These trees had a total of 70,474 cankers, or an average of
54.6 cankers per 100 trees examined. Last year's survey showed an average
of about 4.4 percent infection in this region and the jump to an average
of 13 percent this year 'indicates the rapidity with which the disease is
attacking the white pine. Young trees, especially, are being severely
attacked and considerable losses in unprotected reproduction areas are in-
evitable.

COTTON INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Early versus late-planted cotton.--Observations were made by K. P.
Ewing and R.'L. McGarr on the damiage caused by several insects to early
and late-planted cotton in Calhoun County, Tex. In this a-rea cotton
planting began this year on March 22, and most of the early cotton was
planted by April 8; however, a considerable acreage of late cotton was
planted in June. The season was favorable for early maturity and the
early planted cotton had produced a good crop by the first of July. Flea
hopper damage was spotted and, on the whole,. comparatively light in the
early cotton. There was a heavy infestation of flea hoppers in the late
cotton during the latter part of June and until the middle of July. Boll
weevils were fairly abundant at the beginning of the season but they did
not have time to build up sufficiently to cause maximum damage, especially





-18-


in the open-prairie section, before the early planted crop natured. Many
of the fields, however, had considerable weevil damsage to the top crop
;nc the late fields were severely damaged. Damaging infestations of the
la'f f ecrs appeared at about the normal tire, though consid erably lat.r
than in 1936. The early cotton practically escaped leaf worm damage,
wh.ereas most of the late cotton required from four to six applications of
arsonicals to protect it from the weevils and leaf worms. The cotton boll-
worm was even more injurious to the late cotton and many farmers complained
the damage this year was the worst they ever experienced. The combined
attacks of the flea hopper, boll weevil, leaf worm, and bcll.orn reduced
the average yield on 6,000 acres of late cotton to about 150 rounds of seed
cotton per acre, and some of the fields produced so little cotton that it
was not worth picking. The early cotton escaped serious insect duamage and
produced the best crop in the last several years,. averaging about 865
pounds of seed cotton per acre on 19,000 acres.

Egg parasites of ccttonflea hopper.--Studies were continued this
season by H. J. Crawford, of Port Lavaca, Tex., on the biology and abund-
ance of the egg parasites of the cotton flea hopper. Eryt.helus n. sp.
was found to pass the winter in the.egg of its host in a stage not far
enou.:h advanced tc darken the host egg; Energence from overnintering eggs
was observed from March 31 to Mar 15. The stage in which the other para-
site, Anaphes anomocerus Gir., passes the winter was not learned. Eryth-
melus n. sp. oviposited in flea hopper eg,;s that were from 1 to 3 days old
and adults emergeC in from 10 to 12 days. Of the 30,3l0 flea hopper eggs
collected this year from several host plants.in 22 counties of Texas, 18.6
percent were parasitized by Erythmelus and 13.2 percent by A. anomocerus,
or an average of 31.8 percent parasitization. The latter species was more
abundant in flea hopper eggs deposited in horsemint in the spring and in
bitterweed in the fall. In all other cases Erythmelus was either more abun-
dant or the only species present.

Boll weevil resistant characters in cotton.--E. 7T, Dunnam and J. C.
Clark, Stoneville, Hliss., in their 1937 studies of the boll weevil resist-
ant characters of cotton found. the same trend in varietal characteristics
as in the last two seasons. The results were more erratic this year, be-
cause normal rains were favorable for producing more succulent bolls than
during the last two seasons. Six varieties of upland cotton with thin boll
walls, six varieties with thick boll walls, and one variety of Sea Island
cotton were coprared for boll size, boll-wall thickness, toughness of car-
pel lining, fruiting habits, leaf drop, and extent of second growth. Two
series of bolls were collected from each upland variety, one early and the
other late in the season. Each series consisted of samples of 10 bolls
ranging in age from 12 to 32 days, collected t 4-day intervals. In the
thin boll wall types the maximunm boll diameter averaged 3.5S cm in the early
series and 3.37 cm in the late, and was reached in bolls from 24 to 32 days
old in both series, The maximun toughness of the inner carpel liinig of the
bolls, as measured by a resistometer, was also found in bolls from 24 to 32
days old in both series. The average pressure required to puncture the
inner carpel lining was 1,021 grams per square millimeter in tne early, and
1,035 grams per square r,:illieter in the late series of bolls, The maximum
thickness of the boll walls was found in bolls from 16 to 20 days old and





-19-


averaged 2.3 millineters in the early series. In the late series the naxi-
mun thicknIess averaged 2.0 nillineters in bells from 16 to 32 day-s old. In
the varieties with thick boll walls the caxinum boll size occurred in
younger bolls. In the early series of bolls the range in a:e was from 16
to 32 cays and in the late series from 20 to 32 days. The bolls were also
larger in the thick-wall types, averaging 3.90 cm and 3.60 cm in diameter in
the early and late series, respectively. The raximun boll-wall thickness,
averaging 2.7 im, was found in bolls from; 16 to 28 days old in the early
series. In the late series the maxi:um thickness averaged 2.3 nm in bolls
from 16 to 32 days old. Ho-wever, the thick-boll walls were not so tough and
required only 927 sr .ls per square r.illimeter in the early series and 943
grams per square nillineter in the late series to puncture the inner lining.
In both types of cotton the average boll diameter and the thickness of the
boll wall decreased and the pressure required to puncture the inner lining
increased as the season advanced. In the one series of bolls of Sea Island
cotton the average maximum diameter was 2.95 cm in bolls 3b days old. The
maximum boll wall thickness averaged 2.0 mm and remained the same in bolls
from 12 to 52 days of age. The aver--e resistance to puncturing the inner
carpel lining was 564 g T-r squaremillimeter in bolls 52 days old, although
this was only slightly greater than in bolls 24 days old. The walls of the
Sea Island bolls were nea.rly as thick as the thin-wall upland varieties,
but they were much softer and less resistant to weevil puncture over a
longer period. Although the bolls on upland varieties grew larger early in
the season, more time was required between the setting of bolls on a given
fruiting branch. The time interval between the appearance of bolls early
and late in the season was 5.78 and 5.53 days in the thin-wall and 5.S7 and
5.37 days for the thick-wall varieties. The average percentage of leaves
that dropped when the first crop matured was 17.0 percent for the thin-wall
varieties, 5.8 percent for the thick-wall, and 5,0 percent for Sea Island.
The average increase in plant heights due to second growth was 5.6 and 6.7
inches, respectively, for the thin- and thick-wall varieties. The thin-wall
varieties produce smaller and tougher bolls at a faster rate, nature them
more quickly, drop a higher percentage of leaves, and produce less second
growth. All of these characters except the thin walls and small size of
bolls are desirable in varieties to be grown where cotton is in danger of
attack by boll weevil.

PINK 30LLWORI: AND TIUiBERIA NEEVIL CONTROL

Gin-trash inspection. --This work was completed in the Southeastern
States in October. A thorovuCh inspection was made of the domestic-cotton
area in north Florida and trash was obtained from a large number of the gins
in Alabama south of Montgomery, and in Georgia south of 1Macon. In South Car-
olina 2 weeks' inspection was carried on in the extrcme southern part of the
State. Results were negative in these four States. Gin-trash inspection in
Oklahoma was continued throughout October with 2 units in operation, the re-
sults being negative, In the Texas Panhandle pink bollworms were found in
the regulated counties of Terry, Gaines, Andrews, Cochran, Martin, and Dawson.
The area just outside this regulated sonie was covered intensively with a num-
ber of machines in operation, with negative results. Pink bollworn infesta-
tion in the Pecos Valley of Texas and New. exico.. as determined by gin-trash





-20-


inspection, was much heavier this season than at any time prior to 1937.
Cavs-al gin-trash inspection at a new -gin at CDoing, N. Mox., resulted in
the findiin' of a fairly heavy infestation of pink bollvcorm in an area al-
ready undr quarantine. Pink bollw~orms were readily found in gin.trash in
t:e Saffor, Ariz., area, although. the number appears no greater than
form:irly. Th Tucson, Ariz., area has apparcntly been free from pirnk boll-
**ora infeistaticn for several years. The pink bollworm appears to be present
this season in all of the crea from perhaps 10 miles north of 17ogales to a
fevw miles northwest of. Tucson. This area is all unmer regulation on account
of the Thurberia weevil,

Regilatory measoures.--The tremendous production of cotton in the Texas
Panhandle has taxed the facilities for ginning, cornprssion, hnd oil mills;
however, the facilities set up b-: this division for handling a nornal crop
of cotton under our reT2iations were capable of being emanded to take care
of this unprecedont:d situation and there has been no complaint that noovoment
of cotton products w:as delayed because of the pink bollworm regulations.

Destruction cf stalks.--At the close of October approximately 99.5 per-
cent of the original stand of cottonstalks had been destroyed in the lower
Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The renaining 0.5 percent was either on acreage
belonging to nonresidents cwho could not be located or on land in litigation.
Stalks on some of this land ;zer destroyed throug cooperative ro-orvent on
the part of nearby cotton 'ovTers. In fields ir whhich th; stalks were cut
early in the seas.on the stubs have sprouted rnd it is necessar; for the in-
specters to contiiue their contacts in order to ha.ve this stab cotton de-
stroyed. It is not believed that any appreciable ar.out of natrrial that
could serve as a food for the pink bollvorm has been alloved to form on the
plants.

Road-traffic inspcction --The Marfa, Tox., road station, which guards
the main road cut of toe ihavily infested Big Bend district, was in opera-
tion during Oatodber, and inspcctors attached to this station made a nur.iber of
intercieptions of cotton products infested by link bollorn,. Inspection re-
vealcd livixng pink collwvorns. One lot of this infested not rial, had it not
been intercepted, would have been carried to a noninfested section of Texas,
Many cotton pickers launder their cotton-picking sacks be-fore loavin,; the
heavily infested Big Be-ad district so as to bt, able to pass then thron.gh the
I.arfa road station. The i.e:ican fruit fly s;rvice took over the road-traffic
inspection station lediinr out of tie lower Rie Grande Valley in October
but s everal of the personnel, who were on this station -hile it was operated
as a pink bollworm station, continue in service. They and the others assist
in prev-ntinr cotton products from being illegally no'.ed out of the lower Rio
Srtande Valley,

Thur'beria-plant eraic.tion. --Fewer plants than nornal were found'in
th:e ara which was covered durin the nonth of October; however, a rather
lar:; territory was intensively covered and eli:in-.ted fron further consider-
ation.

7ild cotton.--Active eradication work was resumed. in southern Florida
during the last w6cek of October. By the close of the month approximately 200






-21-


acres had been recleaned and approximately 20,000 plants had been rsnoved.
Of this number there were only 11 plants on which bolls had set. This in-
dicates that the te;ritory was left in good condition when the work was
discontinued when the rairiy season began. The vild cotton eradication work
is being carried on with regular appropriation fluds.

TRUCK CROP. AND GARDEN INSECT INVESTIGATIONS

Control for red spiders' .and thrips on tomatoes and cucu.bern.--C. A.
Weigel and R. H. Nelson, of the Beltsville, Ed., laboratory, report that
experiments performed against Tetranychus telarius L. and Thrips tabaci Lind.
on greenhouse-grown tomato and cucu-mber plants, in which four sprays were
applied at 4-day intervals, gave the following results: A derris spray hav-
ing a rotenone content of 0.0056 percent was as effective as one with 0.0012
percent rotenone content; the derris sprays used were superior to cube
sprays of the same rotenone content, the difference being explainable on
the basis of the tothl extractives content, which was S8.6 percent for the
derris and 12.3 percent for the cube; the addition of pyrethrum extract
aided in killing thrips but did not improve the effectiveness of the sprays
against the red spider; with'sprays of the sane rotenone content, cohtain-
ing sulphonated castor oil as a spreader, the result was a better kill than
when either alkylphenylbenzenesulfonic acid, or rosin residue, was used;
a proprietary insecticide containing an aliphatic thiocyanate, diluted 1-300,
was as effective aghinst the red spider as the derris spray plus sulphonated
castor oil, and did not harm tomatoes, while a proprietary insecticide con-
taining lauryl thiocyanate diluted 1-00 burned the plants..severely after
only two spray applications. In a second series of e:xperinents, using the
same insecticides as in the first but applied four times at weekly intervals,
approximately the same results were obtained, except that on tomrtoes the
spray containing derris, pyrethrum, and alkylphenylbenzenesulfonic acid ap-
peared to be as effective as tihe sulphonated castor oil sprays. The spray
containing lauryl thiocyanate caused severe injury to both foliage and
fruit of tomatoes. None of'the other sprays caused any permanent injury to
either tomato or cucumber. Although sprays containing sulphonated castor
oil caused a noticeable spotting of the fruits, this condition was practi-
cally obliterated by fdllowing the normal practice of syringing the sprayed
plants with water within .48 hours after the insecticides were applied. On
the whole, a beneficial effect from the spraying was clearly demonstrated,
since on the sprayed plants the foliage remained greener and the plants con-
tinued to bear fruit much longer than did the comparable plants in un-
treated plots, and the average number of living red spiders on the treated
plots was so diminished as to permit healthy growth of tomatoes and cucum-
bers.

Sulphur as a repellent against green clover worm.--Recent experiments
by L. W. Brannon, of the Norfolk, Va., laboratory, designed to determine the
relative effectiveness of derris, derris-sulphur, cube, cube-sulphur,
pyrethrum-sulphur, and sulphur alone, applied as dusts or as sprays for the
control of the Mexican bean beetle in association with the green clover worm
infesting snap beans, showed that in general the dusts were more effective
than sprays for the control of the latter insect on beans. The dorris and
cube dust mixtures contained 0.5 percent rotenone, the derris and cube sprays






-22-


contained 0.015 percent rotenone, and the pyrethrun-sulphur dust mixture
cpntained 0.1 percent total pyrethrins. Wettable sulphur was used s as
spray at the rate of 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water. It was also rnted
that sulphur dust alone gave foliage protection against Plathyoena scabra
Fab. comparable with th-t obtained when sulphur was used in combination
;ith dcrris, cube, or pyrethrum, and that a derris-sulphur dust mixture
gave better protection than a derris-talc dust mixture. These results in-
Cicate that sulphur acts as a repellent against P. scabra and that in in-
stances where this pest occurs in association with 7a M1exican bean beetle
infestation, sulphur should, be used as a diluent for derris or cube for the
combined control of the twn insects.

Sparse stanrds of Ru_,sijan-thistle fravor breeodiLn of beet loafhopper. --In
an investigation to determine the relationship between density of stand of
Russian-thistle (Selsola postifer A. Nels.) and'its suitability for the de-
velopment of populatipons of the beet leafhopper, D. E. Fox, of the Twin
Falls, Idaho, laborateor:>, found that extrcoly dense stands of Russian-
thistle dried prcrmaturely and therefore were not suitable for the develop-
Lent of large populations of Sutettix tonellus zak., whereas in areas where
this favorite host plant of the insect was loss abundant the population of
Z. tenellus incrcased progressively until fall. In stands where the Russian-
thistle grew sparsely, the individual plants remained green and suitable
as a host plant throu:hout the entire szunmer and early fall.

Wind velocity affe cts efficiency of rotenone dust rmixtures against
tobacco flea boeetle.--The effectiveness of rotenone-containing dust mix-
tures against Epitri: parv-,la Fab. d;epends greatly on the wind velocity at
the time of application, rather than on the time of.day when such applica-
tions are made. This was demonstrated in a series of tests performed by
,1. A. Shands and his associates at the Oxford, i. C,, laboratory. A series
of applications of a dust mixture containing 1 percent rotenone was applied
to small field plots at 6 a.m., at noon, and at 6 p.m. Although there was
a slight indication that the raximum effectiveness was obtained when the
applications were made at 6 p.m., the general conclusion was reached that
this time of day coincided with the lowest wind velocity, and it appears
that an effective mortality of beetles can be obtained by the proper appli-
cation of the rotenone-containingi dust mixture at any time of the day when
the wind volocity does not exceed approximately 4 miles per hour.

Chemically pure isoariyl salicylate inferior to conrercial grade in
attractiveness to hornworm oth.--L. B. Scott, of the Clarksville, Tern.,
laboratory, reports that tests with five lots of commercial isonmyl sali-
cylate. nd one lot of this material which. was chemically pure, show that
the pure material was much less effective as an attractant to the moths of
the tobacco hornvworns Protoparce sexta Johan. and P. ouinquemaculata Haw.
than were any of the cor.iercial brands. The pure material attracted only
half as many mo.ths as did the coumercial material from which it was pre-
pared and approximately one-third as many uths as the most effective cor.-
mercial materials. Four of the five comm:ercial materials attracted the
moths in approximately equal numbers, whereas the fifth nmterial appeared
to be definitely superior to the other four. .iture work is planned to de-
termine the substance in the cor.ercial material which functions most ef-
fectively as an attractant for the hornrorm mdths.





-23-


Insect damiage to cigar tobaccos.--Accrcin- to t h reports of a sur-
vey perforned by F. S. Charobrlin, of- tlhe Quiney,: Fla., leboratcry, in the
Georgia-Florida shade-gromw district, in 1937, it appears that the average
loss on this type of tobacco attributable to hornworus (Protoparco spp.),
the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens Fab.), and the tobacco flea beetle
(Epitrix par-vla Fab.) was 0.2, 0.3, and 1.7 percent, respectively. Al-
though this survey was necessarily linited in scope, it is believed that it
gives a fairly rcliabl- .;index of the da-.age caused by the principal in-
sects attacking cigar-type tobaccos in the area 'involved. It appears that
in the absence of the prevnven e nd. direct control measures applied the
insects montiuned w:ould have 'seriously reduced the main part of the crop
grown for cigar wrappers.

Wild peppergrass principal asunu.rier host of.-beet leafhopper in Arizona
desert.--V. E. Rouney, of the Phoenix, Ariz., laboratory, reports that ex-
tensive field observetions during 1937 have corroborated. observation': in
1936 in demonstrating that one of the peppergrassos, Lopidiun thurberi
'Wooten, is the principal host plAnt for Zutattix tenellus Bak. that rein-
fests other wild Lost plants in the Arizona -deaert areas after the carly
sunmer dry season. Mr. Romney has dete.ruined tlat L. thurberi is abunrdnt
in southern and southeastern Arizona and is the only plant, with the possi-
ble exception of very limited areas of Russiaen-thistle (Salzola pestifer A.
Nels.), that sponsors E.. tcnellus during the early sumrner dry season. This
plant is lknown to extend along the Mexican border for approximately 175
miles. Its distribution in Mexico is not known.

Dichlorcethyl ether effective a.inst wireworns and nontoxic to cer-
tain host plants.--M. W. Stone, of the Alharbra, Calif., lboratory, re-
ports that a continuation of small-scale field plot tests with dichloroethyl
ether in aqueous solutions of o, 9, and 12 cc per gallon, applied at the
rates of 1, 2, and -4 quarts, respectively, per plsnt, gave a mortality
ranging fror 67 to 100.percent o'f the wireworms, principally the sugar beet
wireworu. (Liponius (Pheletes) californicus Mann.), which were infoeting to-
mato, corn, cabbage, and potato plants. NTo plant .injury occurred to any of
these enumerated crops, except in instances where the 12 cc dilution was
applied at a dosage of 1 gallon per plant.

INSECTS AFFECTING 1MiAIT.AID ANIiMALS

Young chickens favorable host for Gulf coast tick.--In biological
studies on the Gulf coast tick, H. E. Brundrettu, of the Valdosta, Ga.,
laboratory, has foundl that young chicks are fairly good laboratory hosts for
the tick larvae, except for the fact that the chicks die off rapiOdly even
when they are kept under good conditions and receive the closest attention.
Whether this nortality is due tc common poultry diseases or to some condi-
tion or disease induced by the ticks has not yet been determ.ined.

Eye gnats and "sore, eyes" in the Southeast. --Continuing an eyr gnat
survey in the Southeastern States, J. T. Bighan reports that in the area fron
Thomasville, Ga., east to Valdosta, north to Tifton, and west to Albany
through Canilla and Moultrie, and fro.. Valdosta south to Bartow, Fla., through
Gainesville, Ocala, and Orlando, eye gnats and .sore eyes associated w:ith then






-24-


were reported to be generally a serious problem. 'In southern Georgia and
northern Florida "gnat sore eyes" in the schools is confined almost entire-
ly to the early fall. In central Florida "sore eyes" is reported to be
prevalent during both the fall and spring. In many schools, a supply of
citronella oil is kept on hand to treat the eyes.-of the students for re-
pelling the gnats.

Wound-myiasis and the pH of wound secretions.--Studies on the pH of
wound secretions, by E. 7. Laake, of the Dallas, Tex., laboratory, has
yielded some important clues cn the factors inducing wound infestation by
screwworms. In guinea pigs it has been found that the mean pH value of the
fluid of a fresh wound is 7.05. The pH of a wound infested with larvae of
Cochliomyia anericana Cushing and Patton increases slowl- on the alkaline
side during the first and second days of myiasis, but fror .tihe second to
the third day thpre is a significant rise to a highof-7.31-; then there is
a rather uniform decrease to a value of 7.14 at the end of the myiotic
period. uring the' post-nyiotic period the mean values slowly drop but re-
main on the alkaline side of the scale for all pigs that die, whereas for
all those that survive the mean pH drops over rather sharply to and re-
mains well on the acid side. Jhen guinea pigs showing acid, neutral, and
alkaline wounds weor exposed to screwworn flies it was found that the alka-
line wounds were strikingly more attractive to the flies than were the
acid wounds. In wounds having a pH of b.1 to 3.3-.no eggs were laid on two
guinea pigs exposed, 5 eggs were laid on 5 wounds showing a pH of 6.5,
whereas on 17 wounds showing a pH of 7.5, 419 eggs were laid.

FOREIGN PLANT QUARANTINTES

Entonological interceptions of interest.--Living larvae of the Mexi-
can fruit fly (Anastreoha ludens LJ.) .ere intercepted at Laredo, Tex., on
September 15 'and 22 in apples in baggage from M&exico. Fifteen living lar-
vae of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Caratitis capitata Wied.) were inter-
cepted at New York on Septenbor 9 in two hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) 'fruits
in baggage fro.. Italy. Three living larvae and three living pupae of the
same fruit fly were found in the container. C. T. Greene reports as fol-
lows: "This record is interesting. It is my first record on hawthorn for
this fly." An adult of tl'e fruit fly Anastrepha mor;binpraeoptans Sein
(acidusa of authors) was. takn in a trap in the field at Rio Piedras, P. R.,
on October 19. An adult of the weevil Apion poonae F. arrived at Mobile,
Ala., on July 6 in vetch nixed with rye straw in cargo from Scotland, A
living specimen of the mirid Coratocaosus apicaiis Reut. was intercepted at
3rownsville, Tex. on Septe,.ber 25 on a ;ardenia in cargo from Mexico. Four
living larvae of the potato weevil (Epicaerus cognatus Sharp) were found
at Roma, Tex., o01 Septenbor 25 in three potatoos in baggage from Mexico.
Living specimens of the coreid Leptoglossus meubranaceus Fab. were collected
on July 7 on string beans in the field in Guam. This species is reported
as also feeding on watermelons, cucumnbers, cantaloups, and many.other hosts
in Guan. A living adult. of the weevil Aion, m.aculaalb. Suffr. arrived at
HTew Orleans on April 24 on a pineapple fruit in cargo fro:~ Cuba. Three liv-
ing larvae and a pupa. of the nai.g weevil (Sternochetus man:;iferae F.) were
intercepted at Seattle, "ash., on July 2S in three nango seeds in baggage
from Hawaii. Living larvae and pupae of the nordellidc Mordellistena cattleyana




-25-


Champ. were taken at Washingtcn, D. C. on June 9 in orchid (Cattly s.)
leaves in express from Brazil. The larva mines the parenchyma btvw nen
the leaf surfaces. It does not leave the orig'inal 1 :af, either to feed or
to pupate.

Weevils in the nail from Ireland.--Living; adult of i~Ion virons
Fost. --nd Barynotus obscurus F. were intercepted at Sen Francisco on
April 20, 1937, on primroses ii the mail from Ireland. The tiny primrose
plants wvere in soil. The weevils were probably accidental on the prim-
roses. .vircns Hbst. is reported in Europea-n literature as common on
red clover TTr if olin prtcnse). The shipment was refused entry end re-
turned to sender, because it moved in viola'tion of permit requirements,
with prchibited soil, and on account of the presence of the insects listed.

Pathological interceptions of interest.--Diplocia tubericela (E. &
E.) Taub. was found causing a rot of outer scales of a hyacinth b'lb from
the Netherlan.s intercepted at Boston October o. This is our first report
of the fungus on this host. A funeus determi.,ed by C. L. Shear as probably
Guingnardia v ccinii Shear was intercepted on August 25 at Washin;ton on
Vacciniun so. fron Ssskatchoean. In giving the distribution of this dis-
ease, the Department's technical Eulletien 5S lists ITovn Scotia only, in
Canad.a. Tvwo new hosts for Hcterodura narioni (Cornu) Good.oy were adc6ed to
our interception file recor's, Andi'onischus trigrns. instercepted at San
Fralncisco October 4 from Gera.uay and Pachyrhi zus ercss at 'tev! York on
October 22 from China, Leptosphaeria so. was intercepted on October 25 at
PhilFdelphia on rye straw -fro-: trance. 'Tect .lenchus, probably abulbosus,
was intercepted on October 27 at GIlveston in tur-nips from Wales. ITo
Brassica syecies arc listed as j1osts cf this nema in Goodeyts manual.
Phyllesticta sp, intercepted at I.evy York on January, on holly leeves from
Yugoslavia is said by the snecialist to be clearly different from the
species already named from this host. Puccii a angustata Peck was inter-
cepted for the first time on October 29 on Scirpus sp. from Spain, at
Phila delphia.

Tarcissus treatment supervisicn. -Dui-Ting t the season just past,
7,431 cases contailing approximntely 5,S10,C00 narcissus bulbs, were in-
ported subject to hot-water treat.ment on arrival as a ccn.dition ofY entry.
With the exceptio: of a few small lots, most of which were received by
mail, the treatments were applied, under the constant supervision of repre-
sentatives of this Bureau, at privately owned plants. The cases were
corded and sealed by the Bureau before delivery to the treating plants and
at the latter points the- were held intact until the inspectors culd be
preeent to break the seals and supervise the treatr.>ent. The treatments
were applied at 11 plants in Washington (1,734 cases); 3 plants in Ore;on
(553 cases);3 plants in California (113 daoes); 1 plant in Illinois (34
cases); 2 plants in Michi, a (55 cases); 1 plant n Massachse.tts (41
cases); 3 plants in New York (3,181 cases); 3 plants' iin lew Jersey (197
cases); 1 plant in Fe-nsylvania (24 cases); 1 plant in iaryla.d (4"
cases); 2 plant. in Virginia (434 cases); and 3 plants in North Carolina
(295 cases). In addition, arrang eents nade provided for the application
of treatments to appro;:imately 55 shipments, totaling approximet ly 3,200
bulbs, which were received by mail.






-26-


rOMSESTIC PLATT QUARANTINES

White-fringed beetle reported unimportant in South Ameri ca.--Although
the be-:tlic has a wide distribution in Argentina and is considered somelwhat
harmful to crops planted in hard grounds *and to crops in general, chiefly
cereals, the insect is considered of no economic importance, according to
a recent official statement by an Argentine Government entonologist. It is
not often that adult beetles appear simultaneously in large nunbers there,
and even more rarely do they constitute a serious ppest, he states. For
these reasons a thorough study of the insect has not been nmde in that coun-
try. The ;white-fringed beetle is also reported to occur, in other South
American countries.

White-fringed beetle population.--Adult beetles were found the week
ended October 30 niar Florala, Als., and Laurel Hill, 71F., and .numerous
beetles of Naupact'us spooies were found the week ended October 9 at Sancier,
kiss. At Pensacola, Fla., no beetles ;-were found the latter half of October.
Intensive house-to-house clean-up measures have been continued in this city,
with the cooperation of local health authorities and railway agents. Lar-
vae -and egg nasoes verr fcuncd near the last of October in fields and wood-
lands in areas previously .kown to be infested.

rhite-fringed beetle inspectio-n nd control.--In cooperation with post-
control officials f these States, 3 cities in Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
and Texas, principally along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, all outside the
known infested area, were recently scouted for thc wvite-fringod beetle,
the work covering ever 6,000 acres on more than 400 properties, Water fronts,
railroad yards, woodyards, fertilizer plants, and premises of grain eleva-
tors, gins, cottonseed mills, junk yards, and other places were scouted, and
data obtained on the routing of ships and the conrnoditics' received from
foreign countries or fromi the infested States. No beetles were found in any
of these cities. In the infested oreas, intensive reinspection, investiga-
tion of industrial practices, and clean-up work were continued. Inspectors
are placed at the one peanut-shelling plant and at cotton gins and cotton-
seed mills located in the infested areas or processing conriodities produced
in the infested arecs. Over 1,000 permits' had been issued through October
for the movement of produce, chiefly cotton. Throughout the infested areas
farms and woodlands are being surveyed and mopped as to acreage and kinds
of crops produced, as a basis for reconiending cropping and cultural prac-
tices and for other control action next spring.

Sweetpotato .weevil survey and c:ontrol.--During the Federal-State co-
operative surveys in S4 counties in 5 States throrg.h October 31, the
northern limits of s-'eetpotato weevil infestation have been'-defined in Ala-
bana, Misissisppi, Louisiana, and Texas. Outside of southern Louisiana,
where infestation is heavy, 304 properties have been found infested in these
States. Activities of county agents contributed largely to the excellent
cooperation of growers. Thirty-five persons wore erployed on the project
in October. Survey work was begun in Georgia on October 25, six State in-
spectors assisting. Inspection is now being made of sweetpotato tubers be-
fore they are banked or binned for hone use or seed, and educational work
is carried on with the growers urging them to select only clean tubers for






-27-


seed. Recent quarantines issued by Alab.mr d a lisrissippi r strict t-he
aroas where sw'eetpotat)es nmay be 1:lanted and the c,~aitions rx.d:r 'tich.
thely my be grown and require supervision at dieging.

"Trapping" swee:tptato w::eevils.--ThL trapping of weevils by placin
uninfested sweetnctatoe: in fields or seedbeds fro.; which caI fooC mnte-
rial has been remove. is found effective. On one f.r:n1 in Mobile Count~y,
Ala., 417 wevils were taken by State 7. P. A. workers from tra~,s set in
this manner. Before harvcs;t the growers are required under State reiu-
lations to cut and remoJe all vines from the row;s in order to prcvide a
host-free period. The removal of volunteers is stressed, as sev:rnl in-
festations have b en fovund where only one or two volunteers remained in
the field. After harvest the fields are tj:orouhly cl aned tf ll remain-
ing tubers by "ho ,int;" or plowing; them. Under the supervision of an in-
spector, several ;eevil-free tubers are then plcoed in the clean fields
at re- Tulr intervals to trap any remnaiin: woevils. After abcut 15 days
they are removed "nd burned. It seems probable that this method may ma-
terially reduce the teevil population.

Sweetpctate weevil infestation tr:ce. to labor transportation. --In
harvesting the Irish potate crop in southern Alabama it was recently
learned that truckerrs, in hauling labo-ers from a distance, have at sev-
eral different times taken swoetpotato vines and slips to relatives in
other parts of the county, end a recent infestation of sweetrotato weevils
was traced to such movement. SucL. p:racticne in the future will be pro-
vented through State -quar-ntine action and closer supervision of infested
areas.

Swe etpoteto w:e:vils found in Talthall County, Miss.--Three farms
were found infested with the sweetpotato weevil the week ended ioveubSr 6,
in Walthall County, Ihiss., borderin: on known infested counties in scuth-
ern Mississippi. These are said to be the first- infestaticns knol-;n to
exist in this county.

Sw-etpotrto incusotry in Texas.--:ent to vwheat, the sweotpot-to crop
is the lar- st food crop produced in Te:as, with a value of $3,i32,000 in
1936, accordina: to the State Agricultural Commiscioner. Cf the ten lead-
in: counties in svweetpotato pro.duction iln Temas, we vils ihavU b.:-en found
in two.

Prcgress in control of peach nmsaic ar.d phony peach disea-es.--In-
spcction for the phouy pach and peach :osric diseases has bj2n completed
in all States and field work is now concentrated on destroyine discnsed
tree ot removed. at the tire of inspection. Of the 335,OCC diseased peach
trees which have been destroyed this s' as,, 14,500 were infected with
phony peach, and 18,500 vith peach mosaic diseases. All known infected
trees hav-e been rmoved from Arkanses, Illinois, Kentucky, .iiss',uri, Utah,
and South Carolina. The eradic:tion of aaLndoned peach trees is grcin. for-
vwrd in nine other States. In -eeria, pho-ny peach inwpectirn was res-med.
on September 29, with ridht Federal and niie St'te inspectors. The third
survey in the -eoac" mosnaic infected ar-,a in ColoraSo tlis season r .ulted





-28-


in finding only 116 diseased trees. In El Paso County, Tex., and the
Rio Grande Valley in ITew fexico, cooperation in most instances is ;ood
and from 75 to g0 Ipercent of the Lrosaic-infected trees are being removed.

California quarantine on peach mosaic disease radiicall- changed.--
lUnder the psech mosaic disease quarantines of California, as revised in
October, an cmbaruo is pleced on th6 movement from the four infected coun-
ties in that State, and on the entry from infected counties of other States,
of possible carriers of the disease. To the host list of peach moscic
and mosaic diseases of other stcoit fruits, have been added apricot, al-
mcnd, prune, and plua trees and cuttings. One county in Oklahoma, in which
the peaclh rosaic Jisease has recently been reported, has been added to the
infected area asn vli as several counties in other States in which the
disease is mknown to ex:ist.

Peach mosaic in Mexico.--California pl.nt-pest-control officials re-
port that a recent limited inspection in hexico of that part adjoinirn:
the infected area in Sa7n Di-o County, Calif., showed that the disease was
present in the adjoinin:- 1eo:ican area.

J. EI. Corliss in charee of transit inspection.--J. M. Corliss, for-
merly responsible for supervision of transit-inspection stations through-
out the :Iiddle West, an'. the checkin- of whi.te-pine-growin; nurseries in
that region for corpliance v:ith the blister rust quarantine, was recently
placed in chnar>-: of these projects throuchrut the United States.

Transi t-insnection activi ty increased.--In addition to recent assign-
rients of transit inspecters at Alexandria, Va., .tm piis, Dallas, an(i At-
lanta, the transit inspection f,:rce is beiing incr<.ac:d at Cincinnati, St.
Paul, Indianapolis, and Detroit. Inspectors fron t.he Japanese beetle pro-
ject are be-n atssigned to the ?:ork at Doston, Buffalo, Syracuse, Albany.,
and Nev York for Christ .s-treo-shippin: iLpmection,

Citrus c"nker.--Isolated s,;anp laIns in the Galveston-Brazoria areas
in Tex:as, in v:.iclh citrus can.er has been -cun,1 in recent years, were
soudht out, inspected, nd a.bout -4,OOO abando.ned an. hed 'e tres destroyed,
It 'ras ne.cessary, tc open a road in or'er tc .:ke those ne:7i locations ac-
cessible to eradicaticn crc.s, Tventy-one relieaf laborers arc now employed.
No citrus canker was foun' i tn Cctober.

Quarantine revisions .--Areas regula.tied under Fed-ral qunrantines re-
latin._ to the pinki bollworn of cotton, the :.exican fruit fly, and the
Dutch elm dis'eae, were extended to include small adc itions under recente
revisions of the regu-lations. The Strtec of Pennsylvania placed a qu.aran-
tine, effective iTovember 1, prchibitin.:, tle planting; or growing of host
plants of t-e black ste:: rust of grains aniywhere in the State.

Ter.minial inspection.--evada City, C-lif., has b'sen adied to the list
of points viwhsre te'r:inal i:.pection 'rny beo :ade in that State.






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COITTROL INVESTIGATIOTS

Susceitibilitly off insects at different times of year to nicotine.--
- Further tests by H. ichardson and A. Casanges at 3eltsville, Hd.,
with the adllt co.li: noth confirmed the work o'f last" spring in showin
that insect to be very susceptible to nicotine gas, being similar to a-
phids in this respect. The dosages necessa.ry to kill the adult othl in a
3-minute exposure vere approxir.atly the, some as those found necessary
last spring, indicating th1at the susceptibility had not changed ruclh over
this p;eriod of time. Similar results-were obtaincd vith the grectnhouse
thrips (Heliothrips he.morr.ho ialis (Bc.uche)), the ren peach aphid (H :zu
persicee (SuIlz. )), and the beam aphid (Ar, is riunici L.), althouch the
susceptibility of the last-named insect wvs slightly less than focuid pre-
viously.

Species vary widely in reaction to insecticides.--The variation in
resistance of different species of insects to a ;7iven insecticide is
strikingly shown in laboratory tests repo.rted on by L. C. Swingle and Janes
B. Gahan, of the Sanford, Fla., laboratory. After testing several hundred
compoands on six species of laboratory-reared insects, it is al-iost im os-
sible to say that any one species is generally more resistant than another.
The irp7orted cabba[.e worn and t..e..cross-rtripe.d c,.bbaae wvorm are suscep-
tible to nore'of the co.pounids than are the southern armorn, the diamond-
back cabbage worn, the c:abbge looper, and the cabba,- e webwcrm. There
is a surmirisin ; variation amnon the last-nac.ed-species to different con-
pounds. A copround that will kill 100 percent of the arimyworn l-rv-e may
have no effect whatever on the cabbage w ebwcrm, for exaple. With another
compo-und this resistance m.ay be entirely reversed. A c)r.pound is more
*likely to be toxic to one or a few species and rarely is one found to be
generally toxic. The resistance of individuals in a species is also an
important iteu in insecticidal work. There is a difference in resistance
among individuals reared from the same fen;ale and under identical con-
ditions and this difference increases ;greatly when rearing ccndition.s are
varied or ar.ong, individuals from a nixed grcup of fe.rilus. The reaction
to different coppounds is a species characteristic rather than an indi-
vidual one.

INSECTICIDE INVSSTIGATIONS

Composition of paris greens :manufactured in 193G.--F. Dearborn,
of the Division of Insecticide Investigations has reported the results of
the chemical analysis of nine brands .of paris green manufactured in the
United States (Jouir. Scon, Ent., v. 30, no. 5, p. ,04, Oct. 1937). All
the s:amples were fairly uniforn in corpo;sition and were not fa-r from the
theoretical content of arsenic. The greatest variation was found in the
content of water-soluble arsenic, which ran ed from 0.47 to 2.12 percent.
The physical characteristics of these sauples such as density, p-rticle
size, and bulking value have been studied by L. D. Groodhue and E. L. Gooden
of this Division, and a rerort of their findings will shcrtly be published.

Levo-nornicotine foind in Nicotian sylvestris.'--C .Smith has re-
pcrted (Jour. Scon. 3nt., v. 30, no. 5, pp. 724-727, Oct. 1937) that the





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alkaloids from N. sylvestris consist of about 95 percent levo-nornicotine
end about 5 percent levo-nicotine. Anabasine could not be detected in
this species, but is the predominant alkaloid in N. glauca. Ordinary to-
bacco (N. tabacum) contains mostly levo-nicotine. The genus Nicotiana is
of interest in that different 'species belonging to it contain different
alkaloids, which, however, are closely related chemically, and all of
which have valuable insecticidal properties.

Errors encountered in analyzing apples for spray residues statistical-
ly studied.--An article entitled, "A Statistical Study of the Sampling and
Analytical Errors Encountered in Analyzing Apples for Lead Spray Residues",
by C. M. Smith and C. C. Cassil, has just been published in the Journal of
the Association of- Official Agric. ltural Chemists (v. 20, no. 4, pp. 617-
622, Nov. 1937). It gives the results obtained when each of 100 apples
from each of several lots was analyzed separately for lead residue, and
outlines the conclusions that can be drawn from a statistical consideration
of the data. A chart is given from which it is possible to find how many
apples per sample ;.re needed to give results of any desired accuracy, so
that conclusions'as-to difference in deposits resulting from different
spray schedules, or differences in residue'after washing by different pro-
cedures, may be soundly judged.

New insecticides patented.--D. L. Vivian and H. L. J. Haller have
recently been granted public service patents covering the use as insecti-
cides of a.considerable number of synthetic organic compounds. Those
patents are as follows: 20959~9, 2095940, 2095941, and 2096414. Among the
compounds covered by these patents are 4-(2,5-dichlorophenylazo)-phanol,
p-iodoazobenzene, 4-(p-bromophelnylazo)-m-cresol, and 4-(o-tolylazo)-o-
toluidine. This Division will be very glad to supply samples of the com-
pounds covered by these patents to entomologists who may be interested in
testing them against various insect pests.

Nicotine bentonite protected as an insecticide.--Claude R. Smith has
been granted U. S. Patent 209r566, which covers the use of nicotine bento-
nite as a stomaoh poison for insects. Although nicotine has been used with
bentonite by entomologists for some timc., Mr. Smith was the first to show
that the nicotine and bentonite combine to form a definite compound. Here-
tofore it has been assumed that the nicotine was adsorbed by the bentonite
just as it is adsorbed by fuller's earth. The reaction between bentonite
and nicotine is one of base exchange, similar to that which occurs when a
hard water ie passed through a zeolite water softener.

Perfume from pyrethrum flowers.--Mr. Haller and F. B. LaForge have
found that dihyd:-'oj~aione' may be m'de by the treatment of pyrethrum ex-
tract with hydrogen in the presence of platinum as a catalyst. Dihydro-
jasmone has a very pleasant ocor in low concentrations and can be used with
advantage as a perfume. A process of preparing this compound has been
patented in U. S. Patent 2096715 granted on October 26, 1937, to Messrs.
Haller and LaFor:-.

Thermroregultor.--L. D. Goodhue, of the Beltsville,. Md., laboratory,
has been granted 'U. Si Patent 2095738 which describes a new thermoregulator.






-31-


This device is of the typD that depends on the change in vapor pressure of
a volatile liquid with changer in temperature. Suitable volatile liquids
are ether, pentane, or carbon tetrachloride. This thermoregulator does
not require seclecd-in electrical leads and is made very sensitive by em-
ploying the principle of the differential manometer.

BEE CULTURE

Electric fences keep bars .from apiaries.--G. Vansell and F. E.
Todd, of the Pacific States Bee Culture L~boratory, Davis, Calif., who
have been working ini cooperation with Dr. T. I. Storer of the University
of California, on the problem of combating bears in apiaries, report that
electric fences can be successfully used for this purpose. Bears so dis-
like being shocked by electricity, that they react violently from such con-
tact by jumping backward, and then running away. One bear, who had stood
up and placed his front fe't on the top wire of an electric fence immedi-
ately fell backward upon receiving a shock. He th-n hurried off, and
climbed a tree about 75 yards fron the fence. Seventeen bears were ob-
served to remain away from an electric fence after receiving one shock.
Three different kinds'of fences were given field tests under simulated
apiary conditions duiing the summer of 1937 ii the Yosemite Vrlley thrcugh
the courtesy-of officials in the National Park Service. The results indi-
cate that any type of fence giving a strong shock and capable of operating
for a long period without undue attention is apparently satisfactory. As
a rule, battery devices will be necessory for operation of fences about
mountain apiaries because of their remote location away from power lines.
It was found that a sturdy fence with about four positively charged wires
carried on insulators is rcquired. Posts must be set firmly and spaced
not over 12 feet apart. The constru.ction of effective fences has been
studied in both noist and dry locations. Alternate "hot" (positive) and
ground (negative) wires were tried but are apparently not sufficient, as
the dense fur on the bear's body serves as an insulating medium. Best re-
sults are had when all the wires of the fence are connected to one side of
the high frequency output and the other side is grounded. Where the soil
becomes very dry, as in much of interior California during the sunner
months, a "ground" wire of netting completely around the outside of the
fence is necessary. Under conditions where the soil is moist this metal-
lic ground ray not be required. H7ot only hove properly designed fences
been effective, but the cost of installation and operation are relatively
low. The units tried out in these experiments, around commercial apiaries
in mountain localities cost from $10 to $40 for naterials. Installation
is relatively simple. The consumption of current is so low that in the ex-
perimental work a set of four dry cells gave satisfactory operation for
two months, making the cost about 3 cents a day. As bears are active mostly
at night, installation of a sun-operated theruostat would cutomatically
stop current flow during daylight hours, thus increasing the battery life.
In one set of experimental apiaries in the Sierra Nevadc, where very sub-
stantial feaces with netting gro-und were set up, trouble from bears practi-
cally ceased. In another instance the results were not so satisfactory, as
some bears passed through, but this was in an area where the soil was very
dry and no ground netting was used. Much good beekeeping territory in the




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 09243 4819


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mountains of the Pacific States has not been utilized for honey produc-
tion because of the menace of bears to apiaries.

Area can be overstocked in relation to available pollen.--Messrs.
Todd and Vansell also report that while the broodless apiaries in mid-
summer are unusual even in California, this condition was experienced in
a certain mountainous area this summer. sEamination of the colonies
showed that the pollen reserve had been depleted and not enough pollen
was being obtained in the field to maintain a broodnest. The area was
very well stocked with bees. Conditions were checked in -a nearby area
with a similar flora, but less well stocked, where brood rearing was
found to be normal. It was concluded that the first area was overstocked
in relation to the quantity of pollen available.

IDENTIITICATION AMD CLASSIFICATION OF INTSSCTS'

A possibly serious coleopterous pest of roses.--Some coleopterous
larvae boring in rose bushes recently submitted by R' K. Fletcher, of the
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, Tex., were deter-
mined by A. G. Boving as Chrysobothris sp.

European ant new to United Strates.--Several specimens of ants col-
lected by A. B. Gurney in a pile of sawdust near Ptiest Bridge oil the
Defense Highway about 13 miles from Annapolis, Md.4, were identified by
M. R. Smith as Ponera punctissima Roger, a European species hitherto not
recorded from the United States. It is the sixth species of the genus
Ponera recorded from America north of Mexico and is of special interest
in that it has an ergatandrous form among its various castes. Since the
genus is primitive in habit, P. punctissima is *not expected to be econom-
ically important.



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